Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... We adopted a sociocultural perspective whereby personal experiences and emotions are conceived of as an integral part of cognition and as semiotic events that can be redirected towards new meanings and transformed. We used the term secondarization to describe the process of turning personal experiences into conceptualized forms of thinking (Muller Mirza, 2016;Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder, & Nicollin, 2014;Valsiner, 2007;Vygotsky, 1986;Zittoun, 2006). ...
... As the details of our analysis and results have already been reported elsewhere (Muller Mirza, 2016;Muller Mirza et al., 2014), I will focus on three observations that informed our discussion about emotions. ...
... In some sequences, we were able to observe what we called an interplay between unicity and genericity, a discursive pattern that articulates personal experience with a more shared, collective one (Muller Mirza et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Developing a reflexive stance on personal emotions and experiences relating to otherness is one of the main goals of innovative pedagogical activities designed to combat racism. This novel socio-constructivist approach to cultural diversity in education seems an interesting alternative to essentialist approaches, as it involves the learner and uses reflexivity to foster change. However, little is yet known about the psychosocial effects of introducing emotions and personal experiences into the learning environment. In this paper, adopting a sociocultural theoretical framework, we describe two pedagogical settings in which students' emotions and personal experiences were addressed in a multicultural context. The results of our first study showed that, in some teacher-student interactions, students' verbalized emotions were articulated in a more generic discourse. Working with emotions can therefore lead to what we call a secondarization process, whereby personal experiences are related to collective and conceptualized knowledge. However, these pedagogical practices may also generate unexpected outcomes that hinder learning. The second study explored the structuring effect of (self-)narratives, viewed as psychological instruments. These findings are discussed with a view to informing the debate on the role of emotional aspects in education, and sociocultural research in psychology examining the complex interplay between individual and cultural dimensions in learning.
... The topics addressed in cultural diversity lessons, like other complex real-world issues, are intended to help students grow into accountable individuals and citizens (Åberg et al. 2010). The general goal of these lessons is to encourage students to reflect on their everyday experiences, opinions, or emotions, especially for topics related to cultures, migration and otherness, so that they consider them from various points of view, and to frame them in the light of collective experiences (Muller Mirza et al. 2014;Nicollin and Muller Mirza 2013). In our view, these new topics are useful precisely because they raise the question of the relationship between everyday life, subjectivity and education, which Vygotsky found of particular interest. ...
... The topics addressed in cultural diversity lessons, like other complex real-world issues, are intended to help students grow into accountable individuals and citizens (Åberg et al. 2010). The general goal of these lessons is to encourage students to reflect on their everyday experiences, opinions, or emotions, especially for topics related to cultures, migration and otherness, so that they consider them from various points of view, and to frame them in the light of collective experiences (Muller Mirza et al. 2014;Nicollin and Muller Mirza 2013). In our view, these new topics are useful precisely because they raise the question of the relationship between everyday life, subjectivity and education, which Vygotsky found of particular interest. ...
... Grossen). The aim of this project was to provide a better understanding of the educational and developmental issues surrounding the teaching of cultural diversity and related topics (Muller Mirza 2012;Muller Mirza et al. 2014). It was intended to shed light on the interactional processes by which students can transform their personal experiences and emotions into an object that can be considered from different viewpoints. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the school context, feelings and emotions are generally perceived as obstacles to learning. Today, however, the introduction of complex real-world issues in lessons of Geography, History or civic education, such as international migration or cultural diversity, blurs the classic boundaries between emotions and cognition when they prompt students' personal opinions and experiences. In the frame of a research on teaching and learning practices in education for cultural diversity, this paper examines how students' personal emotions were elicited in the lessons, and how they were semiotized, transformed in the course of social interactions. We analyze empirical data gathered in 12 Primary and Junior school classrooms in Switzerland. 12 teachers and 232 students (from 11 to 16 years old) participated. We adopt a cultural-historical perspective inspired by Vygotsky and his followers and show the interactional processes by which the emotions undergo semiotization and influence the unfolding of the students' psychological processes. In the sequences we analyze, using the Valsiner's schema (Human Development, 44, 84-97, 2001), we identify three different modalities of semiotization: 1) the students' feelings are simply verbalized and linked to the speaker's affective world; 2) the verbalized emotions are reframed and interwoven with factual information; 3) the verbalized emotions are linked to information and reframed with collective emotional experiences. These processes are described, illustrated and discussed. We shed light on the central role of the verbal interventions of the teacher (who supports but also hinders the processes sometimes) and of materiality, here photographs, which mediated the teacher-student interactions.
... The subjects they learn at school have social meanings within their family and their social environment, and take on personal meanings (Lawrence and Valsiner 2003;Zittoun 2017). This is especially so when they touch on real-world issues (e.g., migration or racism) that are close to the students' everyday experience and elicit various divergent discourses outside school, thus setting up dialogical tensions between what is taught within the school and what is experienced or heard outside school (Grossen and Muller Mirza, in press;Ligorio 2010;Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder and Nicollin 2014). Based on this premise, this article presents a study which was carried out in primary and lower secondary schools in Switzerland and focused on education for cultural diversity with the aim of understanding some obstacles that might be found in such teaching. ...
... As a basic consideration, it is worth emphasizing that introducing real-world issues into the classroom requires substantial work both to master the knowledge needed to tackle them and to design an educational setting that will elicit secondarisation. In this regard, our observations showed that provoking a lively, passionate or pleasant discussion does not in itself imply that the students will learn and transform these themes into scientific concepts or, put differently, that secondarisation will take place (de Diesbach-Dolder 2018;Muller Mirza 2016;Muller Mirza et al. 2014). Talking about cultural diversity in the school context requires students to understand that the task does not just consist of expressing personal representations, opinions or attitudes (whatever the term), or personal experiences and emotions. ...
... The subjects they learn at school have social meanings within their family and their social environment, and take on personal meanings (Lawrence and Valsiner 2003;Zittoun 2017). This is especially so when they touch on real-world issues (e.g., migration or racism) that are close to the students' everyday experience and elicit various divergent discourses outside school, thus setting up dialogical tensions between what is taught within the school and what is experienced or heard outside school (Grossen and Muller Mirza, in press;Ligorio 2010;Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder and Nicollin 2014). Based on this premise, this article presents a study which was carried out in primary and lower secondary schools in Switzerland and focused on education for cultural diversity with the aim of understanding some obstacles that might be found in such teaching. ...
... As a basic consideration, it is worth emphasizing that introducing real-world issues into the classroom requires substantial work both to master the knowledge needed to tackle them and to design an educational setting that will elicit secondarisation. In this regard, our observations showed that provoking a lively, passionate or pleasant discussion does not in itself imply that the students will learn and transform these themes into scientific concepts or, put differently, that secondarisation will take place (de Diesbach-Dolder 2018;Muller Mirza 2016;Muller Mirza et al. 2014). Talking about cultural diversity in the school context requires students to understand that the task does not just consist of expressing personal representations, opinions or attitudes (whatever the term), or personal experiences and emotions. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Switzerland, as elsewhere, issues dealing with cultural diversity raise major challenges in education. At present, little is known about how students make sense of these highly sensitive societal issues and relate them to their everyday experience. Drawing on a sociocultural and dialogical approach to learning, this study aimed at understanding how the students made sense of themes related to cultural diversity. More generally, it sought to examine whether secondarisation (i.e. a transformation of everyday experience into a more generic and scientific form) took place. In this study, ten focus groups were carried out: five in primary school (11- to 12-year-old students) and five in lower secondary school (13- to 14-year-old students) in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. The specificity of the research design consisted of setting up a situation that had both similarities and differences with lessons on cultural diversity that had previously been taught in the classroom. We assumed that this would create dialogical tensions and thereby shed light on the obstacles that may arise when themes related to cultural diversity are taught in school. Analysis of the discursive dynamics of the focus-group discussions showed that education for cultural diversity cannot be considered independently of the student’s other spheres of experiences. Personal, social and moral dimensions are part of the students’ effort to make sense of the themes under discussion. Talking about cultural diversity, even though with pleasure and involvement, cannot be equated with learning and transforming these themes into scientific concepts. Moreover, dialogical tensions can create unexpected effects and even bring about the very phenomena that education for cultural diversity is supposed to fight.
... For example, the "Teaching with Cultural Sensitivity and Tolerance" approach (Gorski 2009) suggests to give a multicultural frame to respect and celebrate diversity and to focus the teaching on sensitivity and selfreflection. In the field of intercultural education, other studies (Muller Mirza et al. 2014;Muller Mirza 2016) show that specific techniques as the secondarisation (turning personal experiences and emotions into conceptualized forms of thinking) or the self-narrative writing (constructing a collective or individual story) help the individual to take distance from ethnocentrism. By the secondarisation, teachers disentangle personal experiences and emotions from their original context and turn them into a collective experience that can be shared by and with others. ...
Article
This is an introductory paper to the special section “Multilingual learning and social inclusion of children: The development of educational programmes to connect school and family”.
... Desde esta perspectiva, podemos entender las emociones como una dimensión de construcción social sobre las cuales podemos reflexionar y construir como cultura de representaciones y ideales emocionales(Trommsdorff & Cole, 2011;Tsai, 2013).Es posible entonces observar que la interacción social propia de los sujetos de grupo social mediatiza, a través de estos escenarios paradigmáticos, aquellas emociones que forman parte de lo esperable. Consecuentemente podemos 'observar' la construcción de un significado cultural de las emociones en una historia individual(Muller, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder & Nicollin, 2014).Los escenarios paradigmáticos y guiones emocionales son construidos en interacción directa con la familia y actores sociales que socializan la emoción con los niños.1 Trad. del autor. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this theoretical article we reflect on the challenge of checking the frameworks related to the emotional education that need to recognize and identify the variations of the social and cultural problems associated with the mapuche family education as core of the own emotional formation. We start with a reconsideration of the emotional dimension of the school, accompanied by investigations that aim to the improvement of certain emotional skills in students as well as in professors. This recognition is associated with an ideal of emotional competencies or an emotional ideal in the classroom. Previously, however, in this ideal of emotional education, the emotional knowledge of the student who belongs to the culture of minority groups has not longer been considered, especially when the emotional ideal built on the framework of the family education may be far from the predominant one in the schools. When social and cultural diversity is ignored or misinterpreted in school and in education in indigenous contexts, cultural clashes emerge creating processes of discrimination and inequity. This problem can be addressed with a proper emotional epistemology, allowing for recognition of the emotional education and the mapuche cultural identity by using an intercultural educational approach.
... A second assumption, which is also in line with a pragmatic and interactionist approach to the human mind, is that learning is not limited to cognitive operations, but is rooted in a set of practices that take place in a certain context, have social meanings, take on a personal sense for the learners, and result from their active orchestration of personal and social resources. In this perspective, learning practices are experiences; they are embodied, they go together with feelings, emotions, representations (Muller Mirza et al., 2014;Vadeboncoeur & Collie, 2013); they can also be experienced, watched or talked about by other people, thus creating sharedness, controversies and social links. Applied to the study of learning and development in older people, this assumption advocates for a better knowledge of older people's actual practices and experience in various social situations. ...
Article
This article introduces the special issue "Learning and Developing over the Life-Course: A So-ciocultural Approach", which collects six papers stemming from the project "Ages for Learning and Growth: Sociocultural Perspectives" (AGILE), supported by the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. Considering that sociocultural psychology has mainly focused on development and learning in children, adolescents or (young) adults, AGILE aims at exploring learning and development in older people's lives. To do so, theoretical concepts and methodological tools used in research on other developmental periods had to be reconfigured and enlarged. The article first presents the main theoretical and methodological assumptions underlying sociocultural psychology, and shows the challenges of applying them to older people. Each of the six papers (by Aleksander Baucal, Michèle Grossen, Pernille Hviid, Kyoko Murakami, Roger Säljö, Fabienne Tarrago Salamin, Isabelle Tournier and Tania Zittoun) is then briefly introduced. In conclusion, the article emphasises the importance of accounting for the situatedness of older persons' activities, the meaning they give to these, and their experience of ageing. Methodologies that recognise the expertise of the persons participating in a study, and include them as active participants, are also called for.
... We looked at how the relationship between the actor and her environment was portrayed, whether the actor was presented as an agent who acted intentionally or whether she was acted upon by others and by events. We were also interested in the use of a "genericity" modality of describing the events ("it is", "one does", etc.), that indicates an absence of the narrator from the events being recounted (Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder, & Nicollin, 2014). We identified a further indicator of agency: the way the narrators commented on and made reflexive remarks about their own discourse. ...
... Le champ de l'interculturel est d'une formidable complexité et la notion d'interculturalité d'une polysémie extrême (Lavanchy, Gajardo & Dervin, 2011). D'un côté, des recherches de multiples disciplines portent sur l'« interculturel » : psychologie (Leanza & Gajardo, 2011), anthropologie (Lavanchy, Gajardo & Dervin, 2011, Hall 1978, sciences de la communication (Dahl, 2006), sociologie (Demorgon, 2002(Demorgon, et 2010, sciences de l'éducation (Dasen & Perregaux 2002, Ogay 2006, Ogay & Edelmann 2011, 2016, psychologie sociale (Gremion, 2006), psychologie (Muller Mirza, 2016 ;Muller Mirza et Grossen, 2017 ;Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder et Nicollin, 2014)... D'un autre côté, la notion « interculturalité » ou son substantif « interculturel » est de plus en plus invoquée dans divers domaines : la santé, l'enseignement, l'éducation, le travail social, la communication... où elle est en particulier utilisée pour établir des normes professionnelles et pour préciser des compétences professionnelles. Elle donne lieu à une pédagogie, puis à une éducation interculturelle (Abdallah-Pretceille, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Comment enseigner l'interculturel ? Propositions d'enseignements pour déconstruire les stéréotypes. Revue des HEP et institutions assimilées de Suisse Romande et du Tessin, 23, 2018, 177-193.
... Emotions can become learnables, too. We draw on this assumption by referring to what Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder, and Nicollin (2014) have called 'secondarisation', that is, a process transforming personal experience and emotions into thinking forms. Focusing on cultural diversity education, these authors have argued that when school subjects are particularly close to personal experience, and therefore emotionally salient, a transformation of these emotions into something learnable and knowledgeable is crucial for learning, development and identity (Grossen, 2010;Gillespie & Zittoun, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This is a theoretical article on creative meaning making in classroom interaction, with a focus on the unfolding of cognitive, relational, and emotional aspects of teaching and learning, often tied to one another. To accomplish this goal, we integrate studies from two theoretical backgrounds, i.e., the historical cultural theory and the developmental system theory principles. We have focused on several fields of research. First, we have summarized works on micromoments of creativity. Second, we have considered studies that have taken a process view on emergent opportunities for creativity. Third, we have focused on creativity in original thinking and the transformation of a relevant object of learning into a learnable. Finally, we have considered research on the rise of learning collective emotional side, conceptualized in terms of class mood and flow. We have concluded by stressing that, beyond the methodological challenges, this literature offers striking indications for a deeper understanding of classroom processes and learning opportunities.
... In the UK, as in many other countries around the world, cultural, social and linguistic diversity presents an ongoing to challenge to everyday practices within schools. Not least, education systems have needed to adapt their curriculum to address 'sensitive' or 'real-world' issues that take into account diversity, racism, migration and linguistic and social change (Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder, & Nicollin, 2014). On the whole, these kinds of discussions do not have a long history or legitimacy embedded within the standard curriculum, and diversity can be integrated into a number of subject disciplines. ...
Research
Full-text available
In the UK, as in many other countries around the world, cultural, social and linguistic diversity presents an ongoing to challenge to everyday practices within schools. Not least, education systems have needed to adapt their curriculum to address ‘sensitive’ or ‘real-world’ issues that take into account diversity, racism, migration and linguistic and social change (Muller Mirza, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder, & Nicollin, 2014). On the whole, these kinds of discussions do not have a long history or legitimacy embedded within the standard curriculum, and diversity can be integrated into a number of subject disciplines. Most importantly, sensitive discussions about diversity can have deep emotional resonance for students and teachers (as well as parents) and therefore, can be heated and contentious. This report focuses on a specific mechanism within the UK curriculum for engaging in discussions about diversity; Personal Social Health education (PSHE), recently renamed Personal Social Health and Citizenship Education (PSHCE). This is a school subject through which “pupils develop the knowledge, skills and attributes they need to keep themselves healthy and safe, and prepare for life and work in modern Britain” (PSHE Association website). More specifically, our remit was to explore the use of popular culture for the teaching of cultural awareness, and in essence, use this information for looking at the role of the teacher and teacher competencies in a diverse school. Popular culture has long been used as a pedagogical tool, and media is deeply embedded in our everyday worlds. As Tisdell and Thompson (2007) state, popular culture often unconsciously teaches us about ‘others’. As such, popular culture is a potential resource for use in classrooms to teach about topical or sensitive issues around diversity. This small case study took place in a secondary school in a medium-sized town in the East of England. The school was situated on the edge of a highly diverse estate in the town. Data were collected from the Deputy Headteacher and the Head of PSHCE via one-to-one interviews. A focus group was conducted with a group of young people, aged between 12-18 years, who make up the student council. It is worth noting at this juncture that those we spoke to, used the terms PSHCE and PSHE and citizenship interchangeably. Also, within the school this form of teaching was conducted through, what the school called, Essential Life Skills (ELS).
... Desde esta perspectiva, podemos entender las emociones como una dimensión de construcción social sobre las cuales podemos reflexionar y construir como cultura de representaciones y ideales emocionales(Trommsdorff & Cole, 2011;Tsai, 2013).Es posible entonces observar que la interacción social propia de los sujetos de grupo social mediatiza, a través de estos escenarios paradigmáticos, aquellas emociones que forman parte de lo esperable. Consecuentemente podemos 'observar' la construcción de un significado cultural de las emociones en una historia individual(Muller, Grossen, de Diesbach-Dolder & Nicollin, 2014).Los escenarios paradigmáticos y guiones emocionales son construidos en interacción directa con la familia y actores sociales que socializan la emoción con los niños.1 Trad. del autor. ...
Article
In this theoretical article we reflect on the challenge of checking the frameworks related to the emotional education that need to recognize and identify the variations of the social and cultural problems associated with the mapuche family education as core of the own emotional formation. We start with a reconsideration of the emotional dimension of the school, accompanied by investigations that aim to the improvement of certain emotional skills in students as well as in professors. This recognition is associated with an ideal of emotional competencies or an emotional ideal in the classroom. Previously, however, in this ideal of emotional education, the emotional knowledge of the student who belongs to the culture of minority groups has not longer been considered, especially when the emotional ideal built on the framework of the family education may be far from the predominant one in the schools. When social and cultural diversity is ignored or misinterpreted in school and in education in indigenous contexts, cultural clashes emerge creating processes of discrimination and inequity. This problem can be addressed with a proper emotional epistemology, allowing for recognition of the emotional education and the mapuche cultural identity by using an intercultural educational approach.
Article
Internalization, the process by which culture becomes mind, is a core concept in cultural psychology. However, since the 1990s it has also been the source of debate. Critiques have focused on the underlying metaphor of internal-external as problematic. It has been proposed that appropriation provides a better conceptualization, a term that focuses attention more on behavior and less on psychological processes. The present article reviews the debate and introduces the recent concepts of position exchange and symbolic resources. Position exchange focuses on the societal side of culture, on the way in which social situations shape people’s experiences. Symbolic resources focus on culture in terms of specific elements, such as books, films, and so on, which also shape people’s experiences. The key idea common to both position exchange and symbolic resources is that people move through culture, both physically and psychologically. Moving through culture shapes a series of experiences across the lifecourse, and these experiences “layer up” within individuals, forming a complex sedimentation of culture within individuals. In so far as culture is heterogeneous and fragmented, so the sedimented layers of experience will also be heterogeneous and fragmented, thus creating the tensions that underlie the dynamics of mind.
Chapter
Drawing on the frontier metaphor, this chapter aims to show that sociocultural psychology in its dialogical turn offers a possible path to achieving a holistic approach in psychology. After a basic introduction to sociocultural psychology and dialogism as defined by Bakhtin, two empirical examples are discussed under the light of a dialogical analysis. The first example concerns a learning situation dealing with cultural diversity, and shows the various voices that penetrate this situation and create dialogical tensions. The second example discusses a widespread institutional practice: assessing intelligence through an IQ test, and shows that it involves a complex network of dialogical tensions between various ideological discourses, policies, representations and practices. In conclusion, we discuss the theoretical, methodological and ethical consequences raised by a sociocultural and dialogical stance, and point to the responsibility of the researchers, as citizens who contribute to the production and reproduction of society, and its power relations.
Chapter
Throughout her distinguished academic career Michele Grossen has been making inspiring contributions to the study of dialogical interactions in diverse fields of psychology, such as child development
Chapter
At this time of digital, social, technological, and economic transformation driven by increasing diversity and inequality in the world, it is worthwhile to question from new theoretical discussion the individual and collective relationship that we have with the technological world around us, going to the roots of our interactions with technology. This chapter questions our capacity to perform individual and collective agentic learning relationship as in an increasingly technological society. Research questions in this chapter are: How do we deal with augmented and emerging interactions with increasingly complex material and virtual objects? What are the learning implications of a posthumanism deeply embedded with technology?
Article
Full-text available
Far from following a linear process from its conception to its implementation, an educational design often involves discrepancies between what its promoters intended and what the participants actually do. In this paper, drawing from a sociocultural perspective to learning, we focus our attention precisely on some of the discrepancies observed during the implementation of a training program. We consider these discrepancies not as mistakes or misunderstandings, but rather as indicators of the communicative dimension of any intervention and as “windows” on the processes of change and on learning. The program we have studied here was set up in Madagascar and was sustained by a Swiss cooperation agency addressed to farmers in the field of forestry. In this research, we adopted an actor-oriented perspective in order to understand the promoters’ and the beneficiaries’ interpretation of the design and the way they developed innovative strategies to resolve the difficulties they faced. We chose some “critical incidents” from the data gathered through ethnographical research and show how the whole process of the conception and the implementation of the program was deeply affected by both the power dynamic embedded in the history of the relationship between the Swiss and the Malagasy groups and by their own cultural and institutional constraints. In conclusion, we discuss the significance of an actor-oriented perspective that contributes to a better understanding of the social and cultural dimensions of learning and allows us to relate the here and now micro-phenomena to the larger anthropological, social, and political scenery.
Book
Full-text available
What do young people do with the novels they read, the films they see, the music they hear and sing? How do these cultural products act as 'symbolic resources' in the process of development? And what can we, as researchers, learn by studying people's uses of fiction? This monograph approaches development through the study of transitions and the processes of exploration that follow ruptures in people's lives. Specifically, it examines young people's symbolic responsibility as they have to choose among the wide range of cultural products societies exposes them to. The book thus examines the books, films and music that young people mobilize when they need to redefine their identity, learn informal know-how, or have to confer meaning to what happens to them in transitions. The book has a theoretical scope. It draws on cultural psychology and psychoanalysis to formulate the importance of semiotic mediation in thinking, feeling and acting. Its main contribution is to propose a model for analyzing uses of symbolic resources, such as books and films, in everyday life. It thus shows how uses of symbolic resources can enable new forms of experiences and conduct. It finally highlights social and personal conditions that might facilitate or hinder developmental uses of symbolic resources. The book, based on in-depth case studies, is addressed to scholars, professional and students in the fields of youth, culture and the media, cultural and developmental psychology, and life-long education.
Article
Full-text available
Starting with an overview of theoretical approaches to emotion from an activity-oriented stance, this article applies Vygotsky's three general principles of development, sign mediation, and internalization to the development of emotional expressions as a culturally evolved sign system. The possible twofold function of expression signs as a means of interpersonal regulation and intrapersonal regulation predestines them to be a mediator between sociocultural and psychological processes in the domain of emotions. The proposed internalization theory of emotional development transfers Vygotsky's theory of the development of speech and thinking to the development of expression and feeling. Three stages of emotional development are described and underpinned by empirical studies: (a) the emergence of enculturated expression signs and related emotions from precursor emotions of newborns in the interpersonal regulation between caregivers and children during early childhood, (b) the emergence of intrapersonal regulation of emotions out of their interpersonal regulation by using expression signs as internal mediators that starts from preschool age onward, and (c) the internalization of emotional expression signs and the emergence of a mental plane of emotional processing.
Article
Full-text available
In contemporary democratic societies that deal with cultural and linguistic diversity, education faces new challenges such as how to promote a shared knowledge and competence framework about “citizenship,” how to prepare the young generation to enter a complex world, and how to help immigrant students to integrate into the school system. Some of the European recommendations focus on the importance of promoting “intercultural education”. However, so far little is known about concrete practices and their outcomes. This paper aims at documenting and providing elements of reflections about the difficulties and contradictions faced by both teachers and students involved in pedagogical intercultural activities in Switzerland. From the results of a qualitative research based on a sociocultural perspective, identity and institutional issues of addressing “otherness” in school are discussed. It stresses the importance of a frame in order to allow elaboration and transformation of personal and emotional experiences into thinking and reflexive processes.
Article
Full-text available
Cet article présente les conceptions, les cadres théoriques et les méthodes de recherche des travaux du réseau RESEIDA qui portent sur les processus à l'oeuvre dans la production des inégalités d'apprentissage des élèves, inégalités elles-mêmes partie prenante de la différenciation socio-scolaire des élèves. Les résultats convergents des travaux antérieurs de différentes équipes du réseau permettent de penser la production des inégalités en matière d'apprentissage et d'accès au savoir comme la résultante de la confrontation entre, d'une part, les dispositions socio-langagières et socio-cognitives des élèves et, d'autre part, l'opacité et le caractère implicite des réquisits scolaires. Cette hypothèse relationnelle conduit ainsi à mettre l'accent sur des phénomènes spécifiques des apprentissages et savoirs scolaires ainsi que sur les difficultés qu'ils présentent pour certains élèves dans les domaines de l'identification des visées cognitives et du caractère "second" des tâches comme des objets de savoirs proposés ; la méconnaissance, la non-prise en charge de ces difficultés, mais aussi certains modes de faire et certains modes d'ajustement des pratiques enseignantes aux différences perçues entre élèves peuvent avoir pour effet d'accroître ces difficultés et de renforcer différenciation et inégalités. Here are presented the conception, the theoretical frames and the methods of research of the works of the RESEIDA network, which deal with the processes at work in the production of learning inequalities among students ; these inequalities prove to play an active part in the sociological differentiation at school. The converging results from previous works done by several teams belonging to the RESEIDA network made it possible to conclude that the production of inequalities as far as learning and access to knowledge are concerned results from a confrontation of the socio language and of the socio cognitive dispositions of the students on the one hanaand from the obscurity and from the implicit character of school requisites on the other hand. Consequently this relational hypothesis tends to draw attention onto phenomena specific to school learning and to school knowledge as well as onto the difficulties that have to be overcome by some students in the field of identification, that is identification of the cognitive aims, of the "secondary" character of some tasks, of the objects of Knowledge at stake. The refusal to take these difficulties into consideration, the failure to take charge of them plus the existence of specific ways of operating as well as of modes of adjustment to discrepancies among students in teachers practices may result in increasing the abovementioned difficulties and in reinforcing differentiations and inequalities.
Article
Full-text available
I argue that an activity theory—which regards emotions as interdependent and interpenetrating with other cultural phenomena—is central for the cultural psychology of emotions. Activity theory maintains that the cultural characteristics, development and functions of psychological phenomena are shaped by social activities and cultural concepts. I present evidence that activity theory is central for the cultural psychology of emotions. I also explain the relation of biological to cultural factors in shaping the characteristics and development of emotions. Evidence is presented which shows that biological processes—hormones, neurotransmitters, autonomic reactions— underlie (mediate) but do not determine emotional qualities and expressions. Particular qualities and expressions are determined by cultural processes and factors.
Article
Full-text available
The idea that culture comprises resources that are used has become a popular means to re-conceptualize the culture—agency antinomy. However, the theorization of using resources is fragmented. The present article reviews several attempts to theorize resources, arguing that there has been too much focus upon the resources themselves, while the notion of use has been neglected. Focusing upon mode of use, as opposed to the resources used, the article underscores the importance of distinguishing between tools, which are used to act upon the world, and signs, which are used to act upon the mind. The article also argues for a distinction between non-reflective use, or mediation, and reflective use of resources. Future research should focus upon the transformation of tools into signs and the transformation of mediation into reflective use. The article concludes by discussing problematic issues that remain in conceptualizing the use of resources.
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to offer an alternative approach to the study of prejudice than that based upon the notion of categorization which is currently influential in cognitive social psychology. It is argued that the categorization approach assumes the inevitability of prejudice and ignores the issue of tolerance. The assumptions of the categorization approach are criticized, and it is suggested that, by focusing on categorization as a cognitive process, it has overlooked an opposing process—that of particularization. The result has been a rather mechanical and bureaucratic model of cognition. A less mechanical view is possible if the relations between the two processes of categorization and particularization are considered from a rhetorical perspective, which examines the argumentative nature of thought. For theoretical and empirical reasons, this perspective does not equate prejudiced thinking with rigid categorization; instead a rhetorical approach permits a distinction between prejudice and tolerance on the basis of content, rather than form, and thereby avoids assuming the inevitability of prejudice.
Article
Full-text available
Interaction analysis is not a prerogative of any discipline in social sciences. It has its own history within each disciplinary field and is related to specific research objects. From the standpoint of psychology, this article first draws upon a distinction between factorial and dialogical conceptions of interaction. It then briefly presents the basis of a dialogical approach in psychology and focuses upon four basic assumptions. Each of them is examined on a theoretical and on a methodological level with a leading question: to what extent is it possible to develop analytical tools that are fully coherent with dialogical assumptions? The conclusion stresses the difficulty of developing methodological tools that are fully consistent with dialogical assumptions and argues that there is an unavoidable tension between accounting for the complexity of an interaction and using methodological tools which necessarily "monologise" this complexity.
Book
During the last decade, argumentation has attracted growing attention as a means to elicit processes (linguistic, logical, dialogical, psychological, etc.) that can sustain or provoke reasoning and learning. Constituting an important dimension of daily life and of professional activities, argumentation plays a special role in democracies and is at the heart of philosophical reasoning and scientific inquiry. Argumentation, as such, requires specific intellectual and social skills. Hence, argumentation will have an increasing importance in education, both because it is an important competence that has to be learned, and because argumentation can be used to foster learning in philosophy, history, sciences and in many other domains. However, learning argumentation and learning by arguing, at school, still raise theoretical and methodological questions such as: How do learning processes develop in argumentation? How to design effective argumentative activities? How can the argumentative efforts of pupils can be sustained? What are the psychological issues involved when arguing with others? How to evaluate and analyze the learners’ productions? Argumentation and Education answers these and other questions by providing both theoretical backgrounds, in psychology, education and theory of argumentation, and concrete examples of experiments and results in school contexts in a range of domains. It reports on existing innovative practices in education settings at various levels.
Book
Cet ouvrage est issu des travaux du réseau RESEIDA, qui vise à mieux décrire et analyser les processus de production des inégalités scolaires en matière d’apprentissage et d’accès au savoir et à la culture écrite. Croisant les regards et les questionnements didactiques et sociologiques, pénétrant au cœur des pratiques et des dispositifs d’enseignement, ses auteurs montrent en quoi la production des inégalités s’alimente à plusieurs sources : les situations et processus dans lesquels sont présupposés chez tous les élèves des dispositions et modes de faire que seuls les élèves familiers de l’univers scolaire sont à même de mettre en œuvre ; mais aussi les modes d’aide et d’adaptation aux caractéristiques (réelles ou supposées) des élèves qui, loin de contribuer à réduire les difficultés et inégalités scolaires, peuvent au contraire les entériner et les renforcer. Les modalités de « cadrage » s’avèrent particulièrement pénalisantes pour les élèves de milieux populaires. Les processus de production des inégalités scolaires apparaissent dès lors tissés de logiques hétérogènes tenant aux enjeux de savoir, aux usages du langage, à l’élaboration et au choix des tâches et supports de travail et aux conceptions que les enseignants se font de ce qu’il est possible et souhaitable d’enseigner à leurs élèves. La récurrence des constats et la convergence des analyses opérées dans des classes et des contextes sociogéographiques différents conduisent à aller au-delà de l’analyse de pratiques enseignantes, pour interroger les évolutions actuelles de la forme scolaire, des dispositifs, des genres discursifs et des formats d’interaction dont elle est aujourd’hui tramée. Ces évolutions semblent épouser, voire renforcer, le caractère implicite et socialement inégalitaire du fonctionnement de l’institution scolaire.
Article
In contemporary democratic societies that deal with cultural and linguistic diversity, education faces new challenges such as how to promote a shared knowledge and competence framework about “citizenship,” how to prepare the young generation to enter a complex world, and how to help immigrant students to integrate into the school system. Some of the European recommendations focus on the importance of promoting “intercultural education”. However, so far little is known about concrete practices and their outcomes. This paper aims at documenting and providing elements of reflections about the difficulties and contradictions faced by both teachers and students involved in pedagogical intercultural activities in Switzerland. From the results of a qualitative research based on a sociocultural perspective, identity and institutional issues of addressing “otherness” in school are discussed. It stresses the importance of a frame in order to allow elaboration and transformation of personal and emotional experiences into thinking and reflexive processes.
Article
The emotions are not “a state within a state.” They cannot be understood outside the dynamic of human life. It is within this context that the emotional processes acquire their meaning and sense. That teaching is emotionally charged work is hardly news to those who face its rigors and rewards on a daily basis. At its best, teaching offers exhilaration – the high of watching a class come alive, a reluctant student suddenly motivated, of generating fresh strategies with a group of trusted colleagues. But frustration and sorrow can be constant companions as well – the stress of too much work, too little relational and material support, students who present ever-larger challenges. These more negative emotions have tended to become increasingly prevalent of late, as a wave of top-down school reform has carried the dispiriting implication that something is wrong with teachers' efforts that calls for external fixes and vigilant monitoring (Hargreaves, 1998, 2000). Now more than ever, recruiting and retaining sufficient numbers of able teachers demand attention to the affective aspects of their jobs. Borrowing from the language of best-selling books, we might say that educators must continually find the passion, energy, and courage to sustain their work (Fried, 1995; Graves, 2001; Palmer, 1998).
Article
Here are presented the conception, the theoretical frames and the methods of research of the works of the RESEIDA network, which deal with the processes at work in the production of learning inequalities among students; these inequalities prove to play an active part in the sociological differentiation at school. The converging results from previous works done by several teams belonging to the RESEIDA network made it possible to conclude that the production of inequalities as far as learning and access to knowledge are concerned results from a confrontation of the socio language ana of the socio cognitive dispositions of the students on the one handand from the obscurity and from the implicit character of school requisites on the other hand. Consequently this relational hypothesis tends to draw attention onto phenomena specific to school learning and to school knowledge as well as onto the difficulties that have to be overcome by some students in the field of identification, that is identification of the cognitive aims, of the "secondary" character of some tasks, of the objects of knowledge at stake. The refusal to take these difficulties into consideration, the failure to take charge of them plus the existence of specific ways of operating as well as of modes of adjustment to discrepancies among students in teachers practices may result in increasing the above-mentioned difficulties and in reinforcing differentiations and inequalities.
Article
This chapter highlights three important dimensions of Yrjö Engeström's work. It then examines some objections that have been recently addressed to him. Finally, the chapter presents an original French approach that is not sufficiently well known internationally, although some publications in languages other than French have recently appeared (Béguin & Clot, 2004; Clot, Fernandez, & Carles, 2002; Clot & Scheller, 2006). Engeström has, in his own way, allowed the “French-speaking school” of analysis of activity to come into contact and enter into discussions with the Anglo-Saxon world. In France this discussion was recently relaunched with the symposium “Situated Action and Activity Theory” (ARTCO) in Lyon, where researchers from different countries met to debate their conceptions of “action, ” “activity, ” and “collective” (Clot, 2005a; Engeström, 2006b). TRANSFORMING FOR UNDERSTANDING The position given by Engeström to transformative action in the workplace brings him very close to the French-speaking school of analysis of work and activity. Whereas international ergonomics focused on the engineering of task and artifacts, French-speaking ergonomics was organized around activity and health with the intention of preserving and developing the operators' power to act in the workplace. Vygotsky's work is indeed inseparable from this perspective on action. When Vygotsky analyzed the crisis of psychology, he pointed to practice as a means to overcome the crisis. He even presented practice as a real alternative to the blind empiricism that can paralyze psychology (Vygotsky, 1997a), as is still the case today.
Article
Drawing on a dialogical approach inspired by Bakhtin, we start from the assumption that a concrete discussion is an intermingling between dialogue in praesentia and dialogue in absentia, and we refer to the notion of ‘enunciative positioning’ to account for the various relations that a speaker may express towards the voices that he or she invokes. Our data are based on a first therapeutic interview between a therapist, a mother and a child in a counseling center for children and adolescents. We identify the various voices invoked in this interview and show that three levels of discursive process were involved: (a) the speakers invoked absent speakers; (b) at the same time they developed their own discourse on the basis of their interlocutors’ discourse which (c) itself drew on absent speakers or voices. We highlight the various discursive processes through which the speakers integrate their own voice into absent voices, or integrate a distant voice so that it loses its property of being a distant (and borrowed) voice. As a theoretical and methodological contribution to dialogism, our results show that absent voices and their specific intermingling with hic et nunc exchanges were a major resource for therapeutic changes.
Chapter
Teaching cultural elements, such as literary texts, pieces of music, films, sculptures, and other similar artefacts, is one of the educational aims of a school. As part of our past and present society, cultural elements are considered to be fundamental. At a social level, they belong to shared bodies of knowledge which might foster social cohesion; at the level of individuals, they are expected to play a fundamental role in the students- intellectual and emotional development and in their capacity to act as future citizens. In the present state-of-The-Art, however, more research is needed into the way in which the cultural elements taught at school are used by students as resources for emotional elaboration and developmental processes.
Article
Within the broad field of research on learning, culture and social interaction, sociocultural theory is now commonly used as an explanatory conceptual framework. In this article we begin by setting out the essential elements of this theory as it applies to a specific area of enquiry in which we have been involved, which is aimed at understanding the educational functions of classroom talk. In doing so, we will discuss some key concepts generated by the theory. We then review empirical research on talk and learning which has been inspired and informed by a sociocultural perspective, and go on to consider the educational implications of its findings. Finally, we consider how research on the educational functions of classroom talk might be developed, both theoretically and empirically, by using a sociocultural framework to link it with other lines of enquiry into learning and cognitive development.
Article
This paper presents an account of basic internalization/externalization processes as the vehicle by which socio-cultural meanings are turned into personal sense systems. Such systems guide persons’ actions in respect to their environments. Social and personal worlds constantly mutually constrain each other in ways that lead to transformations in both. Internalization and reciprocal externalization occur as the person takes in and transforms social messages and other signs in self-talk (dialogues with oneself and imagined others). The theoretical account is accompanied by the specifications of empirical criteria for observing personal dialogues, and an empirical example is provided and analyzed in terms of the unfolding of the personal sense system in a task environment. The data of dialogues between police officers and a computer program about adolescent shoplifting reveal how these respondents transformed the computer input through their internalizing/externalizing operations, by interpolating specialized knowledge and personal beliefs, taking up prior expressions, and going beyond the social material that was given in the task. This account of internalization/externalization extends sociogenetic approaches to explain how the human mind functions as both a social and a personal organized system.
Article
In this article, I develop a perspective on learning as multilayered phenomena. I take a socio-genetic approach in order to understand human activity and to show how categories are a fundamental part of learning in a specific type of institutional practice. In the empirical section, student dialogue is analysed in relation to a set of categories taken from scientific discourse. The analysis illustrates how categories in the progressive inquiry model could guide students towards a more systematic orientation to problem solving.
Article
This book will be of interest to psychologists, educators and philosophers. It highlights the child's increasing insight into the complexity and subtlety of our mental life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Since it was introduced to the English-speaking world in 1962, Lev Vygotsky's Thought and Language has become recognized as a classic foundational work of cognitive science. Its 1962 English translation must certainly be considered one of the most important and influential books ever published by the MIT Press. In this highly original exploration of human mental development, Vygotsky analyzes the relationship between words and consciousness, arguing that speech is social in its origins and that only as children develop does it become internalized verbal thought. In 1986, the MIT Press published a new edition of the original translation by Eugenia Hanfmann and Gertrude Vakar, edited by Vygotsky scholar Alex Kozulin, that restored the work's complete text and added materials to help readers better understand Vygotsky's thought. Kozulin also contributed an introductory essay that offered new insight into Vygotsky's life, intellectual milieu, and research methods. This expanded edition offers Vygotsky's text, Kozulin's essay, a subject index, and a new foreword by Kozulin that maps the ever-growing influence of Vygotsky's ideas.
On the problem of the psychology of the actor's creative work
  • L S Vygotky
Vygotky, L. S. (1932). On the problem of the psychology of the actor's creative work. In the collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Vol. 6, (Retrieved from http://www. marxists.org/archive/vygotsky/works/1932/actors-creativity).
Lecture 4: Emotions and their development in childhood (N. Minick, Trans.) The collected works of L
  • L Vygotsky
Vygotsky, L. (1987). Lecture 4: Emotions and their development in childhood (N. Minick, Trans.). In R. Rieber & A. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky, Vol. 1. (pp. 325–358). New York: Plenum Press.
L'ethnicisation de la France [The ethnicisation of France Speech genre and other late essays Note de synthèse: Pratiques langagières et scolarisation [Note of synthesis: discursive practices an {Salazar Orvig
  • J L M Amselle
Amselle, J. L. (2011). L'ethnicisation de la France [The ethnicisation of France]. Fécamp: Nouvelles Editions Lignes. Bakhtin, M. (1986). Speech genre and other late essays. Austin: University of Texas Press. Bautier, E. (2001). Note de synthèse: Pratiques langagières et scolarisation [Note of synthesis: discursive practices an {Salazar Orvig, 1999 #20480}d socialisation]. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 137, 117–161.
Vygotski, la conscience comme liaison
  • Y Clot
Clot, Y. (2003). Vygotski, la conscience comme liaison [Vygotsky, consciousness as link].
Travail des mots, travail de la culture et migration des émotions: les activités de français comme techniques sociales du sentiment [Work of words, work of culture and migration of emotions: Activities in French as social technics of feeling A cultural-psychological analysis of emotions
  • E Nonnon
Nonnon, E. (2008). Travail des mots, travail de la culture et migration des émotions: les activités de français comme techniques sociales du sentiment [Work of words, work of culture and migration of emotions: Activities in French as social technics of feeling]. In M. Brossard & J. Fijalkow (Eds.), Vygotski et les Ratner, C. (2000). A cultural-psychological analysis of emotions. Culture and Psychology, 6, 5–39.
Cultural elements as means of constructing the continuity of the self across various spheres of experience Charlotte (N.C.): Information Age Transforming personal experience and emotions through secondarisation in education for cultural
  • T Zittoun
  • M Grossen
Zittoun, T., & Grossen, M. (2012). Cultural elements as means of constructing the continuity of the self across various spheres of experience. In B. Ligorio & M. Cesar (Eds.), Interplays between dialogical learning and dialogical self (pp. 1–29). Charlotte (N.C.): Information Age. 11 N. Muller Mirza et al. / Learning, Culture and Social Interaction xxx (2014) xxx–xxx Please cite this article as: Muller Mirza, N., et al., Transforming personal experience and emotions through secondarisation in education for cultural..., Learning, Culture and Social Interaction (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2014.02.004
Introduction: Learning across sites. New tools, infrastructures and practices
  • S Ludvigsen
  • A Lund
  • I Rasmussen
  • R Säljo
Ludvigsen, S., Lund, A., Rasmussen, I., & Säljo, R. (2011). Introduction: Learning across sites. New tools, infrastructures and practices. In S. Ludvigsen, A. Lund, I. Rasmussen, & R. Säljö (Eds.), Learning across sites (pp. 1-13). Abingdon: Routledge.
Déclaration relative aux finalités et objectifs de l'Ecole publique du 30 janvier 2003. [Declaration concerning the purposes and aims of the public school
  • Cambridge
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Conférence intercantonale de l'Instruction Publique de la Suisse romande et du Tessin (CIIP) (2003, January). Déclaration relative aux finalités et objectifs de l'Ecole publique du 30 janvier 2003. [Declaration concerning the purposes and aims of the public school. 30 January 2003]. (CIIP).
Pour une formation des enseignantes et enseignants aux approches interculturelles. Principaux domaines de formation.-Propositions pour un curriculum de formation Dossier 60) [For a teacher training to intercultural approaches. Main training fields. Proposals for a training curriculum
  • A Lanfranchi
  • C Perregaux
  • B Thommen
Lanfranchi, A., Perregaux, C., & Thommen, B. (2000). Pour une formation des enseignantes et enseignants aux approches interculturelles. Principaux domaines de formation.-Propositions pour un curriculum de formation. Indications bibliographiques (Vol. Dossier 60) [For a teacher training to intercultural approaches. Main training fields. Proposals for a training curriculum. Bibliographical indications]. Bern: Conférence Suisse des Directeurs cantonaux de l'Instruction Publique (CDIP).
Secondarisation des émotions et apprentissage dans des activités " interculturelles " en classe [Secondarisation of emotions and learning in " intercultural " activities at school]
  • Muller Mirza
Muller Mirza, N. (2014). Secondarisation des émotions et apprentissage dans des activités " interculturelles " en classe [Secondarisation of emotions and learning in " intercultural " activities at school]. In C. Moro & N. Muller Mirza (Eds.), Psychologie du développement, sémiotique et culture Developmental psychology, semiotics and culture. Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion.
Les mouvements du discours
  • A Salazar Orvig
Salazar Orvig, A. (1999). Les mouvements du discours. Paris: L'Harmattan.
L'ethnicisation de la France
  • J L Amselle
Amselle, J. L. (2011). L'ethnicisation de la France [The ethnicisation of France]. Fécamp: Nouvelles Editions Lignes.
Approches interculturelles en éducation. Etude comparative internationale
  • O Meunier
Meunier, O. (2007). Approches interculturelles en éducation. Etude comparative internationale [Intercultural approaches in education]. Paris: Institut National de, Recherche Pédagogique (INRP).
Formes et activités scolaires, secondarisation, reconfiguration, différenciation sociale [School forms and activities, secondarisation, reconfiguration, social differentiation
  • E Bautier
Bautier, E. (2005). Formes et activités scolaires, secondarisation, reconfiguration, différenciation sociale [School forms and activities, secondarisation, reconfiguration, social differentiation].
Dossier 60) [For a teacher training to intercultural approaches. Main training fields. Proposals for a training curriculum
  • A Lanfranchi
  • C Perregaux
  • B Thommen
Lanfranchi, A., Perregaux, C., & Thommen, B. (2000). Pour une formation des enseignantes et enseignants aux approches interculturelles. Principaux domaines de formation.-Propositions pour un curriculum de formation. Indications bibliographiques (Vol. Dossier 60) [For a teacher training to intercultural approaches. Main training fields. Proposals for a training curriculum. Bibliographical indications]. Bern: Conférence Suisse des Directeurs cantonaux de l'Instruction Publique (CDIP).
Secondarisation des émotions et apprentissage dans des activités "interculturelles" en classe [Secondarisation of emotions and learning in
  • N Muller Mirza
Muller Mirza, N. (2014). Secondarisation des émotions et apprentissage dans des activités "interculturelles" en classe [Secondarisation of emotions and learning in "intercultural" activities at school].