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Antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of lycopene in watermelon

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This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of watermelon lycopene. The antioxidant activities of watermelon were measured using various assays including the evaluation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, superoxide anion scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, compared with those of tomato lycopene and Trolox as a positive control. Watermelon lycopene showed significantly higher antioxidant activities than those of tomato lycopene and comparable superoxide anion scavenging activity to that of Trolox. Furthermore, the protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HaCaT cells were investigated by Western blotting and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Watermelon lycopene dose dependently inhibited the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA levels and their proteins, suggesting that watermelon lycopene has strong anti-inflammatory activity. Consequently, the watermelon lycopene was proved as a good source of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

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... They are coloring agents that can have also antioxidative and antibacterial properties (lycopene) (Ranjbar and Ranjbar, 2016). Thus, there is increasing considerations to study their role in human health (Agarwal and Rao, 2000;Allison and Simmons, 2017;Barros et al., 2017;Bramley, 2000;Gao et al., 2016;Ha et al., 2015;Jiang et al., 2015;Karppi et al., 2013;Kim et al., 2014). Among carotenoids, lycopene has three roles; it is a natural potential deep-red pigment which has anti-oxidative, (twice as b -carotene), antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory ( Kim et al., 2014;Ozkan et al., 2012;Pereira Soares et al., 2014;Rafi et al., 2007;Sachdeva and Chopra, 2015) properties and is mostly found in tomato, watermelon and papaya. ...
... Thus, there is increasing considerations to study their role in human health (Agarwal and Rao, 2000;Allison and Simmons, 2017;Barros et al., 2017;Bramley, 2000;Gao et al., 2016;Ha et al., 2015;Jiang et al., 2015;Karppi et al., 2013;Kim et al., 2014). Among carotenoids, lycopene has three roles; it is a natural potential deep-red pigment which has anti-oxidative, (twice as b -carotene), antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory ( Kim et al., 2014;Ozkan et al., 2012;Pereira Soares et al., 2014;Rafi et al., 2007;Sachdeva and Chopra, 2015) properties and is mostly found in tomato, watermelon and papaya. Although lycopene has no pro-vitamin A activity, it is a natural scavenger capable of quenching free radicals and oxygen (Abdul- Hamid and Salah, 2013). ...
... It is absorbed and accumulated in different parts of human body (Sies and Stahl, 1998), and its levels in serum and tissue have a reverse relation to the cancer incidence (Agarwal and Rao, 2000). Lycopene and its metabolic products can play a healthy role in human body (Erdman et al., 2009) (tomato and watermelon in amount of 10 m M) ( Kim et al., 2014)). Studies revealed that it can inhibit lipopolysaccharide LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production (40 per cent compared with the control) and iNOS proteins and mRNA expressions in mouse macrophage cell lines (Rafi et al., 2007) (Table I). ...
... [6] Watermelon utilization Consumption of raw watermelon fruit on hot summer days is a common practice which has been observed across the world; however, to increase utilization and availability throughout the year, watermelon is processed into variety of commercial products. [4,15] In addition, Kim et al. [21] and Jumde et al. [22] stated that the lycopene-rich nature and health benefits of the watermelon juice make it an excellent choice for preparing additional functional foods in order to increase utilization. It has been used in the production of a variety of products like juice, smoothies, jams, sweets, and sauces. ...
... [45] Watermelon contains substantial quantities of β-carotene. [35] Kim et al. [21] reported β-carotene content of fresh watermelon flesh to be 4.82 mg/g. As with other phytochemicals, the amount of β-carotene varies according to cultivar type and environmental factors. ...
... [27] The antioxidant potential of β-carotene has been widely investigated and some positive results have been reported. [2,9,21] Among other important effects on human health, β-carotene intensifies platelet aggregation increasing the growth factor expression, which leads to the reconstruction of blood vessel walls. [27] Among other functions, it has been shown to be important for the maintenance of the immune system; it supports cell growth and differentiation playing a role in the formation and maintenance of the heart, kidney, and other organs. ...
... [6] Watermelon utilization Consumption of raw watermelon fruit on hot summer days is a common practice which has been observed across the world; however, to increase utilization and availability throughout the year, watermelon is processed into variety of commercial products. [4,15] In addition, Kim et al. [21] and Jumde et al. [22] stated that the lycopene-rich nature and health benefits of the watermelon juice make it an excellent choice for preparing additional functional foods in order to increase utilization. It has been used in the production of a variety of products like juice, smoothies, jams, sweets, and sauces. ...
... [45] Watermelon contains substantial quantities of β-carotene. [35] Kim et al. [21] reported β-carotene content of fresh watermelon flesh to be 4.82 mg/g. As with other phytochemicals, the amount of β-carotene varies according to cultivar type and environmental factors. ...
... [27] The antioxidant potential of β-carotene has been widely investigated and some positive results have been reported. [2,9,21] Among other important effects on human health, β-carotene intensifies platelet aggregation increasing the growth factor expression, which leads to the reconstruction of blood vessel walls. [27] Among other functions, it has been shown to be important for the maintenance of the immune system; it supports cell growth and differentiation playing a role in the formation and maintenance of the heart, kidney, and other organs. ...
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With the rapid increase in cardiovascular diseases, health-conscious consumers are increasingly showing more interest in foods that provide health benefits beyond the provision of essential nutrients. Watermelon contains phytochemicals such as lycopene, vitamin C, β-carotene, and Total polyphenolic content that possess anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Dietary intake of these products with antioxidants properties is important in maintaining human health and well-being. These reduces incidence of chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and some coronary heart diseases, through inhibiting formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The presence of these phytochemicals enhances its potential use as a functional ingredient in food application. This paper aims to characterize the phytochemicals found in watermelon, and emphasis is directed toward the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the risk of chronic diseases to discourage the use of synthetic antioxidants. Moreover, another focus is on seeking the recognition of watermelon as a potential snack and to support its traditional consumption. Abbreviations: WJC: Watermelon juice concentrate; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; CVD: Cardiovascular diseases; BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole; BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene; WHO: World Health Organization; SVCT: Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters; LDL: Low-density lipoprotein; HDL: High-density lipoprotein; HPPPEF: High-pressure processing and pulse electric field; TS: thermosonication
... Studies show that lycopene, or fractions rich in lycopene, has an important anti-inflammatory behaviour Kim, Park, Kim, & Cho, 2014;Li, Deng, Liu, Loewen, & Tsao, 2014). Lycopene is a carotenoid composed by an acyclic chain with 11 Food Research International xxx (2017) xxx-xxx conjugated double bonds, especially found in the all-trans configuration, but also present in a wide variety of cis isomers (Bramley, 2000;Srivastava & Srivastava, 2015). ...
... These data indicate that lycopene purified from red guava performs a redox-protective action during acute inflammation. Indeed, previous studies have showed that lycopene, or fractions rich in lycopene, antiinflammatory effect is related to its antioxidant properties (Yaping, Wenli, Weili, & Ying, 2003;Bignotto et al., 2009;Kim et al., 2014;Guo, Liu, & Wang, 2015). ...
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This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract (LEG) and purified (LPG) lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava L.), as well as some mechanisms possibly involved in this effect. The anti-inflammatory activity was initially assessed using paw edema induced by Carrageenan, Dextran, Compound 48/80, Histamine and Prostaglandin E2 in Swiss mice. A peritonitis model was used to evaluate neutrophil migration, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration; while the effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB, was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Results showed that oral and intraperitoneal administration of LEG and LPG inhibited inflammation caused by carrageenan. LPG (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited the edema formation induced by different phlogistic agents and immunostaining for iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB. Leukocytes migration in paw tissue and peritoneal cavity was reduced, as well as MPO concentration, whereas GSH levels increased. Thus, lycopene-rich extract from red guava has beneficial effect on acute inflammation, offering protection against the consequences of oxidative stress by downregulating inflammatory mediators and inhibiting gene expression involved in inflammation.
... In the case of watermelon, however, it has been reported to be directly available after ingestion, and no thermal or chemical treatment is required as it can be easily released from the cell walls (Naz, Butt, Sultan, Qayyum, & Niaz, 2014;Perkins-Veazie et al., 2002). Numerous studies have focused on the determination of lycopene and phenolic contents, as well as antioxidant capacity, of several watermelon varieties (Dia et al., 2016;Kim, Park, Kim, & Cho, 2014;Nagal et al., 2012;Tlili et al., 2011) and have demonstrated the capability of watermelon lycopene as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent even more powerful than tomato's lycopene. Differences between varieties, localization, irrigation, production yields, and, especially harvesting period, all are known to affect lycopene accumulation in watermelons (Soteriou, Kyriacou, Siomos, & Gerasopoulos, 2014). ...
... Several compounds often present and studied in fruits such as tomato, pomegranate, or khaki showed interesting anti-inflammatory or anticancer properties. Concretely, lycopene (present in watermelon and tomato) can isomerize to its -trans form after light, thermal, or chemical processes, and is potentially capable to prevent numerous chronic diseases like diabetes, osteoporosis, or oncogenesis, as well as acting as an anti-inflammatory agent (Kim et al., 2014). ...
... On the other hand, Nyam et al. (2016) [49] ; Chong et al. (2018) [75] in their research determined kenaf seed oil in water Nano emulsion's potential to scavenge radicals free in the body of human and reduce the risk of developing peptic ulcer illness. Phenolic chemicals have been shown to limit nitric oxide activity, which enhances pathological and physiological responses for example chronic irritation (Joseph et al., 2009;Kim et al., 2014) [76,38] . Phenolic chemicals have antithrombotic effect via inhibiting platelet aggregation and platelet-leukocyte interaction. ...
... On the other hand, Nyam et al. (2016) [49] ; Chong et al. (2018) [75] in their research determined kenaf seed oil in water Nano emulsion's potential to scavenge radicals free in the body of human and reduce the risk of developing peptic ulcer illness. Phenolic chemicals have been shown to limit nitric oxide activity, which enhances pathological and physiological responses for example chronic irritation (Joseph et al., 2009;Kim et al., 2014) [76,38] . Phenolic chemicals have antithrombotic effect via inhibiting platelet aggregation and platelet-leukocyte interaction. ...
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Kenaf plant is a valuable industrial crop from Malvaceae family. It's considered as dual purpose crop, in which its best and core fibers used in paper, pulp industry and livestock feed. Recently, kenaf seeds and leaves used in medicine because of their beneficial chemical composition that include phenolic compounds, antioxidants, phytosterols, fatty acids, steroid, flavonoid and kaempferol which have many health benefits. Therefore, this review aims in determining possible medicinal uses of kenaf seeds and leaves. The oil of kenaf seeds were reported by several studies which used as anti-oxidant activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic activity and anti-hyper-cholesterolemic activity. As well as, kenaf leaves can be used as freshly or dried leaves as tea for treating blood, bilious, coughs, diabetes, throat problems and lowering blood pressure. Kenaf leave extract can also be used in cosmetic as lotion for skin as anti-aging, dryness of skin, pigmentation, skin whitening and hair damage. Kenaf seeds and leaves have other uses including biofuel, lubricants, edible oil, making breads, cakes, etc. There are few researches on kenaf leaves furthermore studies is required for examining kenaf leaves health impacts. Introduction Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a seasonal herbaceous plant, which belongs to the family Malvaceae. Cultivated broadly in Asia and Africa, that mostly cultivates in tropical and temperate regions (Zhao et al., 2014) [73]. Ramesh (2016) [56] who reported that in the United States agriculture department determined kenaf as a high potential crop for use as a source of fiber in pulp and paper industry. Ayadi et al. (2017) [9] defined kenaf as a substitute crop which might be a sustainable cellulose supply, and environmentally friendly and economically practical. Therefore, kenaf plant is sowed for its fiber, but its leaves and seeds that have been used in traditional medicine in Africa and India for a variety of diseases. As well as, kenaf is a major ligno-cellulosic feedstock for production of bioenergy. Chu et al. (2021) [18] who declared that derivatives of kenaf such as leaves and seeds were institute to exhibit high bio-active chemicals and prospective effect of skin whitening, indicating its potential for cosmetic submissions. Kenaf seeds and leaves might be situated as promising source of bio-active chemicals and phytonutrient. Since, a study conducted by Sim and Nyam (2019) [61] reported about the phrase "return to nature" have been widely employed in cosmetic industry, utilization of botanical extracts resulted in consumer acceptability. KLE (kenaf leaves extract) showed promising anti-oxidant and anti-tyrosinase capabilities, and it has the potential to be exploited as an added value to component in creation products for cosmetic. It's critical to produce safe and stable formulation incorporating KLE, since it includes a high concentration of polyphenol chemicals that have been shown to have skin whitening and anti-aging characteristics (Garbossa and Maia, 2016) [24]. In addition, (WHO) World health organization (2019) [69] reports according to one study approximately 80 % of the people in the world populations utilizes herbal plants to treat human illnesses. Ryu et al. (2017) [58] indicated that kenaf is an active plant biologically, were its seeds and leaves had extensive pharmacological submissions for example anti-oxidant and anti-infammatory activities. Earlier, extracted cellulose from kenaf was used to produce AgNPs, the sucrose were utilized as a dropping agent and NPs showed strong anti-bacterial properties against E. coli (Reddy and Kim, 2016)
... These compounds are an abundant group of lipid antioxidants. β-carotene is the source of vitamin A (Yoo et al., 2012;Kim et al., 2014). ...
... Sugars are the significant components of watermelon fruit quality; they form soluble solids and sweetness of the watermelon is intrinsic to its sugar composition. Fructose, followed by glucose, and sucrose, is present in the largest amounts in watermelon (Kim et al., 2014). ...
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This study has been conducted to determine the fruit quality parameters such as sugar and carotenoid content as well as plant and fruit characteristics of 11 local watermelon genotypes from watermelon genetic resources collection of Cukurova University, Department of Horticulture. First and 50% male and female flowering period, main stem length, main stem diameter, number of nodes on main stem, total yield, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit rind thickness, total soluble solids (TSS), sugar and carotenoid contents were examined. Although there is no significant difference for main stem diameter and number of nodes on the main stem, significant differences were obtained for total yield, sugar and carotenoid composition of the genotypes. Carotenoid and sugar analysis were performed with a high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC coupled with refractive index detector (RID), respectively. In all studied genotypes, cis-13-lycopene and β-carotene were the most abundant compounds. As expected for watermelon genotypes, the main sugar found in all studied genotypes was fructose. According to PCA analyses, genotypes were characterized by physical and chemical composition. Overall evaluation of results revealed that Kar 147 had better potential with carotenoid, sugar contents and fruit characteristics.
... Tomato phytochemicals include a large amount of lycopene (80-90%) as well as β-carotene (7-10%) and small amounts of α-carotene, c-carotene, ζ-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, neoxanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, phytoene, phytofluene, cyclolycopene, and other beneficial molecules, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and flavonoids [17,18]. Lycopene exhibits strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, protecting the cells against inflammation and oxidative damage caused by ROS [19,20]. Many studies have shown that phytochemicals, including lycopene, offer numerous health benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and reduction in body weight, blood pressure, serum glucose and lipids, immunity enhancement, and increased life span [1,3,21,22]. ...
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Purpose: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of tomato powder (TP) on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress and the NF-κB, mTOR, and Nrf2 pathways during the aging process in healthy rats. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups as follows: (i) Control group 1 (n=15, 3-week old): rats were fed standard diet for 7 weeks; (ii) TP group 1 (n=15, 3-week old): rats were fed standard diet supplemented with TP for 7 weeks; (iii) Control group 2 (n=15, 8-week old): rats were fed standard diet for 69 weeks; and (iv) TP group 2 (8-week old): rats were fed standard diet supplemented with TP for 69 weeks. TP supplementation significantly reduced the hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia and improved liver function and kidney function in 77-week old rats compared with the control animals (P < 0.05). In addition, TP significantly decreased the serum and liver MDA levels (P < 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively) while increasing the activities of liver SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.008), and GPx (P < 0.01) compared with the control groups in both 10-week-old and 77-week-old rats (P < 0.05). Age-related increases in phosphorylation of NF-κBp65, mTOR, 4E-BP1, and P70S6K were observed in livers of 77-week-old rats compared to those of 10-week-old rats (P < 0.001). TP supplementation decreased the expression of NF-κBp65 and activation of mTOR, 4E-BP1, and P70S6K in livers of 77-week-old rats compared to the control animals. Moreover, TP supplementation significantly elevated Nrf2 expression in livers of both 10-week-old and 77-week-old rats (P < 0.05). Conclusion: TP ameliorates age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress through the inhibition of NF-κBp65, mTOR pathways, and Nrf2 activation may explain the observed improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism as well as the improved liver and kidney functions.
... They are coloring agents that can have also antioxidative and antibacterial properties (lycopene) (Ranjbar and Ranjbar, 2016). Thus, there is increasing considerations to study their role in human health (Agarwal and Rao, 2000;Allison and Simmons, 2017;Barros et al., 2017;Bramley, 2000;Gao et al., 2016;Ha et al., 2015;Jiang et al., 2015;Karppi et al., 2013;Kim et al., 2014). Among carotenoids, lycopene has three roles; it is a natural potential deep-red pigment which has anti-oxidative, (twice as b -carotene), antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory Ozkan et al., 2012;Pereira Soares et al., 2014;Rafi et al., 2007;Sachdeva and Chopra, 2015) properties and is mostly found in tomato, watermelon and papaya. ...
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Purpose Human health is strongly affected by diet. By the increased use of food industries products, public knowledge about health factors and side effects of chemical additives, the concepts of human health founded an important aspect during past years, and application of natural-based ingredients such as coloring, flavoring, texturizing and anti-oxidative agents was increased. Design/methodology/approach The aim of the present paper is to review the published scientific research studies about lycopene health benefits in different human disease or disorders and bold the necessity of study the health effects of lycopene after its formulation in food industrial products. About 190 papers were searched in Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science databases and 72 relevant papers were used. It was found that in medical studies, the lycopene oleoresin or powder is used directly to the subjects. However, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of lycopene in diet food products. Findings According to the literature, it has beneficial effects on cancers, glands, reproductive system, bone, gastric system, liver and fat reduction in the body. Also, it was concluded from the literature that lycopene oxidative cleavages make also its chemo protective effects which is a lost key element to study different food processing on lycopene products or its isomers in final food products and on human health. Originality/value Many ingredients in food formulations are substituted by natural products. Lycopene is a colorant but also, according to the literature, has a strong antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect to reduce the risk of most important human disease and disorders. Future research in food science can emphasize the effect of different unit operations or formulations on lycopene effects on human health.
... Watermelon is one of the most important sources of lycopene for humans, along with tomato. In fact, watermelon lycopene has been found to have considerably higher antioxidant activity compared to tomato lycopene [40]. In our case, different light wavelengths did not influence the biosynthesis and accumulation of lycopene, thus maintaining fruit quality. ...
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In many countries of Europe and Eastern Asia, watermelon production is mainly based on the use of grafted seedlings. Upon grafting, seedlings undergo a period of healing where artificial lighting is provided by light-emitting diodes in controlled chambers in order to accelerate and improve the healing process. The objective of our study was to test the effect of light quality on the final product (i.e., seedlings ready for transplanting) in the nursery, as well as to evaluate the possible implications on fruit quality after field cultivation. Narrow-band blue (B) and red (R) wavelengths, 64–36% R-B (36B), 76–24% R-B (24B), 88–12% R-B (12B), and 83–12% R-B plus 5% far-red (12B+FR) wavelengths were tested. 12B+FR enhanced the root dry weight, root architecture, and maximum photosynthetic rate, while RB combinations generally showed better root system development with increased blue portion. R light induced inferior root dry weight and quality indices (root/shoot and shoot–dry–weight/length ratios), lower gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll content, but high shoot length and leaf area. B light led to inferior root architecture, lower stem diameter, leaf area, and maximum photosynthetic rate. Both R and B wavelengths showed decreased concentration of macronutrients and trace elements. After field cultivation, fruit quality (i.e., morphology and color), and valuable nutritive characteristics (i.e., phenolics, carotenoids, lycopene, antioxidants) maintained high quality irrespective of light treatments. Overall, 12B+FR performed well in almost all qualitative parameters including the morphology, the root development, and photosynthesis, while also maintaining high fruit quality.
... Lycopene, a carotenoid, is an unsaturated lipophilic isoprenoid pigment, which imparts red color to some vegetables and fruits such as tomato, watermelon, pink guava and pink grapefruit [1][2][3]. It has gained great interest due to its biological properties in the antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory, cancer prevention and cardiovascular protection [4][5][6][7][8][9]. Lycopene was widely applied in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries [10,11]. ...
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In this study, the inclusion complexes of lycopene with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared by the precipitation method. Then the inclusion complexes were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), microscopic observation, liquid chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase-solubility study. Moreover, the stability and antioxidant activity were tested. The results showed that lycopene was embedded into the cavity of β-CD with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Moreover, the thermal and irradiant stabilities of lycopene were all significantly increased by the formation of lycopene/β-CD inclusion complexes. Antioxidant properties of lycopene and its inclusion complexes were evaluated on the basis of measuring the scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. The results showed that the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals was obviously increased by the formation of the inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 5–30 μg/mL, however, some significant positive effects on the scavenging activity of hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals were not observed and the reasons are worth further study.
... It helps in exhibition of pro-oxidants and antioxidants(Knight et al. 2010)and have capability to inactive ROS, HDL and LDL(Lum et al. 2019). Many practical results have been estimated about antioxidant activity of β-carotene(Kim et al. 2014). ...
... Inhibition of NO production and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was observed in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells over treatment with β-carotene in a dose-dependent manner this anti-inflammatory activity was due to the inhibition of redox-based NF-κB activation (24). In an LPS stimulated HaCaT cells, the expression of iNOS was inhibited by lycopene extracted from a watermelon in a dosedependent manner, thereby preventing the inflammation (25). ...
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Introduction and Aim: Periphyton is the aggregation of micro-floral communities on the surface of submerged objects in the aquatic system. It is an excellent source of nutrients, including functional food carotenoids. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of carotenoids obtained from sustainable aquatic resource periphyton. Materials and Methods: Periphytons were grown on PVC pipes and subjected to carotenoid extraction. β-carotene and neoxanthin were identified through UPLC analysis. The carotenoid extract was tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced inflamed zebrafish and was later treated with the carotenoid extract. Inflammatory markers like total protein (TP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitric oxide (NO) in both control and test group animals were measured. Results: Inflammatory markers like TP, MPO, and NO in both control and test group animals were varied significantly (P<0.01) between the experimental animal group at subsequent time intervals and treatment with the carotenoid extract. Conclusion: The results are indicative of the anti-inflammatory nature of periphytic carotenoids and their nutritional significance in managing inflammatory conditions in humans. Further studies are required to decipher the specific mechanism of periphytic carotenoid action to understand its therapeutic potential in a broader perspective. © 2020, Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists. All rights reserved.
... Enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) have been implicated in disturbance of redox hemostasis by ROS production in TNF-a, IL-1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or 4-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulated cells (Palozza et al., 2010). Lycopene has been reported to counteract the effects of iNOS and COX-2 by inhibiting nitric oxide production and/or by downregulating NF-kB, signal transducer and activator of transcription-1-a (STAT-1-a), and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) at protein and mRNA levels (Kim et al., 2014). Lycopene inhibits iNOS levels stimulated by LPS induction in mouse macrophage cell (Rafi et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
Lycopene is one of the important members of the carotenoid family which is structurally a tetraterpene of eight isoprene units found abundantly in tomato and its derivative products. Lycopene is a non-pro-vitamin A carotenoid associated with high antioxidant activity. It has also been demonstrated to have wide variety of beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, skin and bone ailments, neurological disorders, etc. In this chapter we have summarized the knowledge about this miracle compound, its structure, function, biochemical role, and possible mechanisms whereby it serves as miracle nutrient against various diseases.
... The values obtained signify that pawpaw and watermelon fruits are rich sources of vitamin A. The amount of β-carotene (vitamin A precursor) varies according to cultivar type and environmental factors [28]. Olayinka and Etejere [11] reported 2.81 mg/100g for watermelon pulp while Kim et al. [29] reported βcarotene content of fresh watermelon flesh to be 4.82 mg/g. Vitamin A has the ability to exhibit both antioxidant activity and pro-oxidant properties [30]. ...
Article
The study evaluated the environmental effects on physico-chemical compositions, microbial load and heavy metal content of cut fruits retailed in Nsukka main market. Whole fruits were procured from fruit vendors in the market. They were washed, peeled (except watermelon) and divided into three portions each and designated as PA0, PA4, PA8; PP0, PP4, PP8 and WM0, WM4, WM8 for pineapple, pawpaw and watermelon collected at 0,4,8 hours respectively. A portion from each fruit was picked at three different times (8 am, 12 noon and 4 pm designated as 0, 4, 8 hour) and were analyzed for physicochemical (proximate, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix value, vitamin content) properties, microbial (total viable, mold and coliform count) load and heavy metal (lead, cadmium and nickel) content. The proximate analysis showed that all the fruit collected at 8 am had the highest moisture content (78.83% - 93.29 %) and gradually decreased at 12 noon and 4 pm. There were significant (p<0.05) differences only in carbohydrate 25023.content and energy value for proximate parameters. The pH, brix and vitamins all showed significant differences in all fruits and at different collection time. The pH for pawpaw and watermelon increased with increase in exposure time while °Brix value and vitamins significantly (p<0.05) decreased. Microbial analysis indicated the presence of microbes in all fruits with total viable count range of 0.83× 103 – 2.9 × 103 CFU/g. The result of cadmium and nickel detected ranged from 0.015 – 0.08 mg/kg and 0.103 – 0.82 mg/kg respectively. This study showed that cutting and exposing of fruits affected their proximate, pH, °Brix value, vitamins, microbial load and heavy metal accumulation.
... Besides this, phenolic compounds will also influence the metabolism of arachidonic acid, alter signal transduction route, and control the pro-inflammatory gene expression that gives anti-inflammatory activity (Miguel 2010). Phenolic compounds showed to inhibit the activity of nitric oxide that stimulates the physiological and pathological response as chronic inflammation (Joseph et al. 2009;Kim et al. 2014). ...
Chapter
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) has received attention worldwide for its commercial value as fiber applications. Kenaf seeds, a by-product from kenaf plant yield kenaf seed oil with no toxicity and primarily contributed by triacylglycerols (99.81%) followed by free fatty acids, diacylglycerols, and monoacylglycerols. Extensive research has related to the processing and applications of kenaf seed oil, which highlighted its potential to use as functional edible oil that advantageous in the food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industry. A chemical refining process with different parameters in each stage has been studied to produce refined kenaf seed oil with removed gums, hydroperoxides, and free fatty acid, as well as no 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol ester detected. Oleic acid (omega-9) and linoleic acid (omega-6) make up the majority of kenaf seed oil’s fatty acid composition, which is associated with cholesterol-lowering ability. Kenaf seed oil possesses significant health benefits and pharmacological activities such as antioxidant activity, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anti-thrombotic due to the presence of bioactive compounds (tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, and phenolics). Nanoencapsulation and microencapsulation have been applied to the kenaf seed oil to improve its bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract. Oxidative stability of kenaf seed oil has been extended through microencapsulation techniques (spray drying and co-extrusion) and suitable to apply in the functional product development. The chemistry and functionality of kenaf seed oil are reviewed in this chapter to stimulate future research and impending applications.
... Watermelon consumption has also been associated with lower oxidative stress and increased antioxidant status in experimental animals [18][19][20]. These results may be partially explained by increased plasma concentrations of lycopene and other carotenoid antioxidants [50,51]. Watermelon's L-citrulline content may also reduce oxidative stress by serving as a substrate for endogenous nitric oxide production [17]. ...
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Although some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of watermelon supplementation on metabolic diseases, no study has explored the potential mechanism by which watermelon consumption improves body weight management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fresh watermelon consumption on satiety, postprandial glucose and insulin response, and adiposity and body weight change after 4 weeks of intervention in overweight and obese adults. In a crossover design, 33 overweight or obese subjects consumed watermelon (2 cups) or isocaloric low-fat cookies daily for 4 weeks. Relative to cookies, watermelon elicited more (p < 0.05) robust satiety responses (lower hunger, prospective food consumption and desire to eat and greater fullness). Watermelon consumption significantly decreased body weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio (p ≤ 0.05). Cookie consumption significantly increased blood pressure and body fat (p < 0.05). Oxidative stress was lower at four week of watermelon intervention compared to cookie intervention (p = 0.034). Total antioxidant capacity increased with watermelon consumption (p = 0.003) in blood. This study shows that reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure can be achieved through daily consumption of watermelon, which also improves some factors associated with overweight and obesity (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03380221).
... The antioxidant capability of the purified recombinant C. glutamicum carotenoid extracts has been evaluated by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) radical scavenging assay [15,16]. In this study, we used ascorbic acid as a positive control. ...
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Novel synthetic isoprenoids have been synthesized in engineered microbial hosts by evolving terpene synthase or expressing heterologous terpene synthases. Recently, the native operon, crtNaNcM derived from Planococcus sp. PAMC 21323, has isolated for potential industrial applications of C35 carotenoids. For the first time, novel C35 carotenoids (sesquarterpene) were synthesized in Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing the crtNaNcM genes. The recombinant strains accumulate various sesquarterpene including 4-apolycopene (red color), 4-aponeurosporene (yellow color), and no pigmentation, depending on the expression of the genetic elements of the crtNaNcM genes. Subsequently, the carotenoid extract from the cells harboring pCES-H36-CrtNaNcM was analyzed, resulting in significantly higher antioxidant activity than those of other strains harboring pCES-H36-CrtNcM and pCES-H36-CrtNaNc, respectively. This study will promote further engineering of C. glutamicum to increase sesquarterpene productions.
... The decrease in radical scavenging activity of extracted lycopene might be due to oxidation occurred during drying, enzymatic treatment and also tri-solvent based recovery and extraction steps. The findings were in agreement with Kamil et al. (2011), Floegel et al. (2011 and Kim et al. (2014). ...
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In the present work, optimization of pectinase-assisted and tri-solvent-mediated extraction of lycopene from waste tomato peels was carried out. The optimized parameters for enzymatic pre-treatment were 2% pectinase concentration, pH 5.5, 4-h incubation, 45 °C and 150 rpm. Maximum recovery of lycopene from tomato peels using optimized tri-solvent extraction was achieved at 45 °C, 120-min incubation and 200 rpm. The extracted lycopene was confirmed through functional and characteristic peaks in UV–Vis and FTIR spectra and with retention time in HPLC. The radical scavenging activity was 72.30 ± 2.70 and 43.40 ± 2.01 µg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/ml for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, respectively. The optimized method resulted in 7.38, 4.65 and 1.59 times enhancement in lycopene extraction and recovery in correlation with single solvent, enzyme-treated and tri-solvent extraction methods, respectively.
... Total flavonoids have a beneficial effect on humans, so the determination of the nature of total flavonoid content in the material has a great effect on the future of the food industry (Perez and Fraga, 2018); the method for the determination of total flavonoids in watermelon by spectrophotometry is relatively simple, the reagents are easy to obtain, the requirements for environmental factors are low, and it is widely used in experiments (Wei et al., 2019). In agreement with Kim et al. (2014b), they found values of 14.1 mg 100 g -1 in flavonoid content in watermelon juice and 5.4 mg 100 g -1 in lycopene extracts; these results are similar to those obtained in this study with values of 1.0 -1.5 mg g -1 in traditional extracts and by ultrasonication, respectively. It should also be noted that studies have been developed in which the flavonoid content is low compared to other published results such as those found in the experiment conducted by Ogbuji et al. (2012) where the values in these compounds vary between 171.7 -905.7 μg g -1 where they conclude that the values so different from each other is given by the variety of watermelon analyzed. ...
... This fruit is also rich in carotenoid such as lycopene and β-carotene. Watermelon lycopene extracts also have the capability to scavenge free radicals, acting as a natural antioxidant [133]. Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that tomato lycopene could help to lower the risk of developing the incidence of some cancers [134]. ...
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L-Arginine (Arg) has been widely used due to its functional properties as a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, L-citrulline (CIT), whose main natural source is watermelon, is a non-essential amino acid but which has important health potential. This review provides a comprehensive approach to different studies of the endogenous synthesis of CIT, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics as well as its ergogenic effect in exercise performance. The novel aspect of this paper focuses on the different effects of CIT, citrulline malate and CIT from natural sources such as watermelon on several topics, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, cancer, and exercise performance. CIT from watermelon could be a natural food-sourced substitute for pharmacological products and therefore the consumption of this fruit is promoted.
... This compound is found in high concentration in tomatoes and tomato products (Jacques et al., 2013), pink grapefruit (Sadler et al., 1990) and watermelon (Edwards et al., 2003). Kim et al. (2014) recently showed that lycopene from watermelon had significantly higher antioxidant activity than from tomato. ...
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Lycopene exhibits strong antioxidant activity due to its unsaturated molecular bonds, which also contributes to its susceptibility for degradation. Encapsulation techniques can reduce lycopene degradation, increasing its potential applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. The objective of this study was to optimise the encapsulation of lycopene from watermelon in alginate microparticles using the inverse gelation method. Box-Behnken design was used for the optimisation of three variables: concentrations of alginate (w/v %) and CaCl2 (g L-1), and gelation time (min). Two types of alginate were investigated (low viscosity and high viscosity) and optimised separately using encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity as responses. Results indicated that the models had a good fit to the experimental data and the optimal conditions varied depending on the type of alginate. In general, particles prepared with low-viscosity alginate exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity and could be used for further research. International Journal of Food Science and Technology
... It helps in exhibition of pro-oxidants and antioxidants(Knight et al. 2010)and have capability to inactive ROS, HDL and LDL(Lum et al. 2019). Many practical results have been estimated about antioxidant activity of β-carotene(Kim et al. 2014). ...
Research
Watermelon (Citrullus lantanas) is a nourishing and popular fruit in the world. Watermelon is grown in favourable climates from tropical to temperate regions worldwide belong to the family Cucurbitaceae. Watermelon contains phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoids, stilbenes/ lignans, and is rich source of carotenoids, lycopene. Watermelon contains cucurbitacin E which is anti-inflammatory phytonutrient and amino acids such as L-arginine and citrulline. It is the major source of vitamin C and vitamin A. In the nutritional composition of watermelon includes carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fibres. Moreover, is contains good amount of potassium and magnesium. Watermelon by-products which can be produced such as juice, smoothies, dips, seed oils, medicines, ethanol etc., consumption of watermelons imparts various health benefits such as chemical components of watermelon enhance its capacity to scavenge the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in a cell membrane. A plethora of evidence shows that it can be effective for weight loss. Several epidemiological studies showed it has phytochemicals that can reduce risk of Cardio Vascular Disease (CVD) aging related ailments, obesity, diabetes, ulcers, and various types of cancers. Watermelon pomace is reported to be a concentrated source of lycopene as compared to the juice. This review shows up to date information on nutritional and Phytochemical constituents of watermelon, its wastage and by products and different methods used for dehydration, extraction and analysis of its chemical constituents.
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The effect of processing on functional ingredients and their in vitro bioaccessibility should be investigated to develop better food products. Tomato pulp was added as a functional ingredient to extrudates. The effects of extrusion on the functional properties of the extrudates and the in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene were investigated. Two different temperature sets were applied during extrusion: 80 °C, 90 °C, 100 °C and 130 °C and 80 °C, 100 °C, 130 °C and 160 °C. Screw speed and feed rate were kept constant at 225 rpm and 36 ± 1 g min(-1), respectively. The feed moisture content was adjusted to 30 ± 1% by mixing the tomato pulp to the corn grit. Antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content decreased after the extrusion process. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the lycopene content decreased after the extrusion process when feed and extrudates were compared. In vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene for the extruded samples with 160 °C last zone treatment temperature was higher than the feed and extruded samples with 130 °C last zone treatment temperature. The results indicate that extrusion affects the food matrix and the release of functional components.
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Diets high in fruits and vegetables may help prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). Watermelon consumption may reduce CRC risk due to its concentration of l-citrulline and its role in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Research suggests that increased NO levels have tumoricidal effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder supplementation on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, precancerous lesions, and expression of genes associated with colon carcinogenesis. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into three groups: control, 0.36% l-arginine, or 0.5% watermelon powder and injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight). Both l-arginine and watermelon powder groups exhibited lower total numbers of ACF and high multiplicity ACF (P < 0.01). The watermelon powder group exhibited higher NO levels and lower 8-hydroxyguanosine DNA damage (P < 0.05). Watermelon powder and l-arginine downregulated 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase gene expression and upregulated O⁶-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene expression (P < 0.05). Cyclooxgenase-2 gene expression was lower for rats fed with watermelon powder (P < 0.05). These results suggest that watermelon powder or l-arginine supplementation may reduce the risk of colon cancer by suppressing ACF formation through lowering oxidative DNA damage and inflammation, modulating DNA repair enzyme expression, and/or enhancing NO production.
Chapter
Inflammageing underlies ageing- and age-related chronic diseases, while age-related chronic diseases also underpin inflammageing and ageing. The featured inflammageing mechanisms are the inflammasome; DNA damage including telomere shortening; accumulated cellular senescence; immunosenesence; increased synthesis of proinflammatory miRNAs through activation of pathways such as NF-κB, mTOR, and sirtuins; dysbiosis of the gut microbiota; and meta-inflammation. It is observed that fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish oil, whole grains, legumes, nuts, flavonoid-rich green tea, carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, fibre, and pre- and pro-biotics can inhibit these mechanisms and promote the prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases that underpin inflammageing and ageing. However, the studies are mostly in vitro and in vivo animal model studies. Thus, there is a need for more prospective and clinical studies on anti-inflammatory foods in ageing and longevity. Moreover, it is important to consider that explaining the relation between diet, low-grade chronic inflammation, and ageing not only depends on a single food component in the concept of anti-inflammatory food, but also dietary pattern. Even though there are scarce human studies on benefits of these potential anti-inflammatory effects in ageing and longevity, adopting a Mediterranean dietary pattern and recommended consumption amounts can be suggested.
Chapter
Worldwide watermelon has been considered by tradition to be a sweet but nonnutritional fruit. Nowadays, watermelon is considered as “functional food” and a popular fruit endowed with important nutritional and bioactive compounds providing several health benefits. Watermelon contributes substantially to the antioxidant activity level of human diets. Both watermelon seeds and rind are edible and rich in nutrient and bioactive compounds, providing also considerable medicinal, health, and economic benefits. Watermelon fruit quality depends on the interaction of genetic, climatic, growing, and postharvest factors. Available information from numerous studies have illuminated the therapeutic role of watermelon against life-threatening metabolic syndromes, particularly chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. Recently, the beneficial effects of watermelon on health in the human model are being proved. Still there is a need for further studies to explore other attractive properties of watermelon.
Chapter
Watermelon is an excellent refreshing and thirst-quenching fruit. In addition to its juicy, crisp and sweet delicacy in taste, it is also a well renowned source of various phytochemicals having antioxidant and other health beneficial potential. Not only the flesh and juice of watermelon fruit, but also its other parts, such as seed, rind and pomace, are being reported to have appreciable antioxidant and disease preventing potential. This chapter reviews the phytochemicals (antioxidant), their characteristics, biological activity and other potential health beneficial properties of watermelon fruit and its by-products. The chapter tabulates the antioxidant compounds, their antioxidant activity and disease prevention as reported by various studies. The watermelon fruit, its by-products and extract have been reported to exhibit various therapeutic and medicinal health attributes and could be proved beneficial if consumed with regular diet in a proper amount
Chapter
Carotenoids possess strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions in addition to a plethora of other properties. These actions of carotenoids are primarily due to their structure which dictate their functions. Because of their protective potential in disease states, carotenoids are associated with prevention and/or treatment of various neurological diseases. In this chapter, the role(s) of carotenoids in various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, mild cognitive impairment, neurological trauma, brain tumor, schizophrenia, depression, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis, have been reviewed. A number of studies report associations of low levels of carotenoids with higher likelihood of neurological diseases. Other investigations describe beneficial and protective effects of pharmacological or dietary interventions which lead to enhancement of carotenoids levels in the body. However, further validation of these beneficial actions is required both in clinical and animal studies. Development of good animal models of neurological diseases will help.
Chapter
Carotenoids comprise more than 700 naturally occurring pigments principally produced by plants, animals, and microbes for fulfilling their vital physiological actions. Carotenoids have been regarded to be the essential for restoring good health and their absence may lead to chronic health problems. Carotenoids exhibit promising antioxidant activity due to their triplet energy levels and electron-enriched polyene chains. Astaxanthin possesses the highest antioxidant potential among the carotenoid members. However, other members, such as β-carotene, zeaxanthin, fucoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, lutein, violaxanthin, bixin etc. can also exhibit significant antioxidant activity. In addition, carotenoids have been regarded to suppress the risk of development and progression of several ailments, such as cancer, skin problems, eye problems, diabetes, and coronary artery disease via antioxidant mechanism. This chapter emphasizes the detail insight of redox defence mechanism of carotenoids along with their prophylactic roles against disease-provoked oxidative stress.
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Watermelon flesh is widely consumed for its appealing flavor and refreshing properties, though the rind of the fruit also has traits of interest, especially its nutritional benefits. This study aimed to determine if watermelon flesh blended with 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% w/w rind could appeal to consumers, and the effect of rind on the refreshing perception was investigated. Consumers (n = 102) evaluated the liking and intensity levels of overall flavor, sweet, sour, green, watermelon flavor, and refreshing quality along with questions regarding the texture, off flavors, and aftertaste of the samples. The addition of rind was acceptable up to the 20% rind level, which was given an overall rating above the midpoint of the scale, while the 10% and 0% rind samples did not differ significantly (P < 0.001). Overall liking most strongly correlated with sweet liking (r = 0.78, P < 0.001) and watermelon flavor liking (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). Refreshing liking most strongly correlated with watermelon flavor liking (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) and decreased with addition of rind in the samples (P < 0.001). The excessive green notes, off flavors, and undesirable texture of rind decreased the hedonic and refreshing ratings of samples with 20% and 30% rind, respectively. This research demonstrated the acceptability of using up to 20% rind to supplement watermelon juice blends and results suggested that watermelon flavor drives the refreshing perception. Practical Application These findings exhibit the diversity in consumer preferences for watermelon flesh blended with rind using a consumer test. The refreshing properties of watermelon flesh as related to sweetness and watermelon flavor, along with the flavor and mouthfeel attributes contributed by watermelon rind, are highlighted. Manufacturers of fruit‐based beverages can apply this research to inform development of refreshing products, watermelon flavored products, or products that utilize rind waste.
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Background Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) represents the largest cultivated member of the Cucurbitaceae family, showing great relevance from the economic point of view and largely consumed throughout the Mediterranean basin. It is characterized by several bioactive compounds, showing different chemical structures, such as carotenoids, xanthophylls, phenolic compounds, citrulline, and unsaturated fatty acids. These compounds have been widely studied in the last years as capable to modulate several metabolic processes, thus providing beneficial effects as related to human health. Scope and approach In the last decades, this great interest towards natural bioactive compounds led many researchers to study watermelon as natural source of bioactive compounds, mainly when considering some biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, inhibition or induction of enzymes, inhibition of receptor activities, together with induction/inhibition of gene expression. However, the most of scientific literature on this topic was based on in vitro assays, thus limiting the comprehensive understanding of the real health-promoting outcomes. Key findings and conclusions Therefore, the aim of this review was to present the up-to-date research carried out on watermelon phytochemicals, showing the most important biological activities reported from both in vitro and in vivo trials. Besides, the potential exploitation of watermelon by-products in the green circular economy and food-waste valorization has been discussed
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The increasing consumer demand for higher quality fruit juices has encouraged the use of non-thermal processing to extend the shelf life of perishable juice, watermelon juice. Ozone with its high oxidizing effect serve as an effective non-thermal processing treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ozone treatment on the physico-chemical, bioactive compounds, pectin methylesterase (PME) activity and microbiological properties of unclarified and clarified watermelon juice. The ozone gas was pumped into watermelon juice for up to 25 min in a closed chamber. The microorganism inactivation in unclarified and clarified watermelon juices improved across the increasing processing time. Among these juices, the microorganism inactivation efficiency of ozone was found higher on clarified juice (3.466 log) than unclarified juice (3.150 log). It was found that °Brix value and PME activity were not altered by ozone treatment. The other physico-chemical properties (titratable acidity, pH, total colour difference, non-enzymatic browning, cloudiness) and bioactive compounds reduced across processing time. This study demonstrated that ozone treatment is an effective non-thermal processing technique to reduce the microorganism in watermelon juice. Further study is required to optimise the processing parameters of ozone treatment to maintain the overall quality of the watermelon juice.
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The objective of this study was to examine the effects of watermelon powder supplementation on colonic cell proliferation, aberrant crypt foci, and gene expression of cell cycle regulators. Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned to one of the following isocaloric diets: 0.5% watermelon powder, 0.36% l-arginine, and control for 9 weeks. All animals were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight s.c.). Both watermelon powder and l-arginine groups exhibited lower numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in all proximal, middle, and distal regions of the colon (P < 0.01). Both groups also showed lower proliferation index and proliferative zone (P < 0.05). In addition, watermelon powder and l-arginine supplementation upregulated p21Waf1/Cip1 gene expression (P = 0.048). These results suggest that watermelon or l-arginine supplementation may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer as they reduced proliferation by upregulating a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and inhibited ACF formation in all anatomical regions of the colon.
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In the current project, indigenously grown promising watermelon variety (Sugar baby) was characterized for its antioxidant potential. The watermelon juice and lycopene extract were quantified by HPLC that depicted 4.53±0.05 and 6.27±0.06 mg/100mL of lycopene, respectively. Furthermore, the watermelon juice and lycopene extract showed Total Phenolic Contents (TPC), beta-carotene assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) as 23.63±1.09 and 97.15±5.01 mg/100g GAE, 49±3.10 and 73±3.20%, 29.11±1.91 and 57±3.22% and 21.67±1.21 and 37.60±1.12 mM FRAP/g, respectively. Consequently, the watermelon proved as a good source of antioxidant with special reference to lycopene.
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Lycopene is a phytochemical that belongs to a group of pigments known as carotenoids. It is red, lipophilic and naturally occurring in many fruits and vegetables, with tomatoes and tomato-based products containing the highest concentrations of bioavailable lycopene. Several epidemiological studies have linked increased lycopene consumption with decreased prostate cancer risk. These findings are supported by in vitro and in vivo experiments showing that lycopene not only enhances the antioxidant response of prostate cells, but that it is even able to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and decrease the metastatic capacity of prostate cancer cells. However, there is still no clearly proven clinical evidence supporting the use of lycopene in the prevention or treatment of prostate cancer, due to the only limited number of published randomized clinical trials and the varying quality of existing studies. The scope of this article is to discuss the potential impact of lycopene on prostate cancer by giving an overview about its molecular mechanisms and clinical effects.
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Red flesh watermelon is one of the main food sources with lycopene as the most abundant carotenoid and has been associated with a lowered risk of prostate cancer. In order to assess health benefits of Portuguese watermelon, five acessions from the Portuguese Bank of Germplasm were were chosen for antioxidant quantification and total solids content. Two of the acessions were further characterized for lycopene content. Due to its lycopene and antioxidant contents, accession 6185 may be considered a valuable germplasm for breeding programmes. The intake of one to three wedges of 6185 watermelon accession would provide between 6 to 18 mg of lycopene and 0.18 to 0.54 mmol TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), which might protect from prostate cancer and other oxidative stress related diseases.
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This investigation reports the variability of antioxidant components and antioxidant activities of six watermelon cultivars (cvs) (four commercial cvs Aramis, Crimson Sweet, Dumara, Giza, and two new selections P503 and P403 produced by the National Agricultural Research Institute of Tunisia) as influenced by sampling area. All cvs were simultaneously grown in an open-field and subjected to identical horticultural practices in order to minimize the effects of environmental conditions and maximize those related to genotype. Significant differences were found between watermelon cvs for lycopene, phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AsA), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and total vitamin C (AsA + DHA) contents, as well as in the antioxidant activity of their hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. P503 cv showed the highest lycopene and flavonoid contents. Crimson Sweet and Giza cvs showed the highest HAA and LAA when TEAC was used as assay method, while the highest HAA and LAA were detected in Giza and Dumara cvs and in P503 cv, respectively, when FRAP assay was used. This study demonstrates that the amount of each specific antioxidant, as well as the HAA and LAA, were both influenced by genotype and sampling area, emphasizing the need to evaluate watermelon biodiversity in order to improve its nutritional value.
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Two different species of hawthorn, Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge var. typica Schneider (CBS) and Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge (CB) are traditional medicinal plants, which belong to the Crataegus genus of the Rosaceae family. In this study, the antioxidant, anti-α-glucosidase, and anti-inflammatory activities of CBS and CB methanolic extracts were measured. The CB extract showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than CBS extract by several antioxidants properties. Anti-diabetes activity was expressed as α-glucosidase inhibits activity, both extracts showed very low anti-diabetes activity. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production and pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 mRNA levels were measured. The CBS extract exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory activity than CB extract. Compared the present findings of 2 kinds of Crataegus species, the CB is more suitable for further anti-oxidative research. However, the CBS can potentially be developed into products for the prevention of inflammatory related diseases. Keywordsantioxidant activity-anti-α-glucosidase-anti-inflammatory activity-DNA damage- Crataegus species
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The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Diyarbakır watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Sürme) juice on lipid peroxidation states in rat liver, kidney and brain. In vivo administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) once a week for 28 days caused a significant elevation of serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB) and decrease in albumin when compared to the control group. However, administration of carbon tetrachloride along with watermelon juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Increased lipid peroxide (LPO) level was observed in the liver, kidney and brain tissues after CCl(4) administration. However, watermelon juice and UDCA treatment prevented the increase in LPO. The results indicated that watermelon juice protects the liver, kidney and brain tissues from experimental CCl(4) toxicity in rats and that the protective effect of watermelon juice may be due to its antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxide formation. In conclusion, present study reveals biological evidence that supports the use of watermelon juice in the treatment of chemical-induced hepatotoxicity.
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A radical is any molecule that contains one or more unpaired electrons. Radicals are normally generated in many metabolic pathways. Some of these radicals can exist in a free form and subsequently interact with various tissue components resulting in dysfunction. The potential role of oxygen- or xenobiotic-derived free radicals in the pathology of several human diseases has stimulated extensive research linking the toxicity of numerous xenobiotics and disease processes to a free radical mechanism. However, because free radical-mediated changes are pervasive and often poorly understood, the question of whether such species are a major cause of tissue injury and human disease remains equivocal. This review discusses cellular sources of various radical species and their reactions with vital cellular constituents. Examples of purported free radical-mediated disorders are discussed in detail to provide insights into the controversy over whether free radicals are important mediators of tissue injury.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn was studied by using in-vitro model i.e. DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl picrylhyrazyl) method. DPPH free radical scavenging method was studied by taking various concentrations of test compound (10-100 μg/ml) in the methanol and 1 ml of each concentration was added to 1ml of 0.1mM solution of DPPH and after 30 mins its absorbance was taken at 517 nm. Acute oral toxicity was studied at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight (OECD-425), so this dose was considered as a therapeutic dose. The anti-inflammatory activity was done by in-vivo model i.e. the carrageenan induced rat paw edema model, this extract reduced carrageenan induced rat paw edema in a dose dependent manner, achieving high degree of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity using standard ascorbic acid and Indomethacin. The study shows that Parthenium hysterophorus Linn shows a significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg. It shows potent inhibition in inflammation after 30 min of dosing in rats as compared to control group, and standard group, further increase in dose i.e. 400 mg/kg it shows ulcerogenic responses.
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The scavenging effects of twenty-five tannins including low-molecular polyphenols on the superoxide anion radical (O2-) generated in the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of the adducts formed by 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and the radical. The scavenging effects of tannins and related polyphenols having ortho-trihydroxyl (pyrogallol) structure [galloyl, hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) groups in hydrolyzable tannins, galloyl group in acylated proanthocyanidins, and the B-ring of some flavan-3-ols] were stronger than the effects of unacylated proanthocyanidins. The effects of tannins and related polyphenols on the superoxide anion radical were also compared with those on the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Each tannin in an ethanol solution of DPPH radical reduced the intensity of the signal of the DPPH radical, and gave a weak signal assignable to a radical derived from that tannin, in a similar way to the appearance of the signal of dl-α-tocopherol radical, accompanied with reduction of the signal of DPPH radical, in a mixture of dl-α-tocopherol and the DPPH radical. In contrast to the case of the superoxide anion radical, the effects of unacylated proanthocyanidins on DPPH radical were comparable with those of the other types of tannins. The scavenging effects of all of the tannins and related polyphenols tested in the experiments on DPPH radical were stronger than that of dl-α-tocopherol.
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In order to increase the storage stability of watermelon stalk, storage environments such as temperature and other treatments such as vaseline, mixture of soybean oil and wheat flour, and coated paper label were tested separately after harvesting. At different storage temperatures (7, 18 and ) shelf-life of stalk was inversely proportional to temperature. The results showed that during storage at they were completely wilted in 7 days, at in 15 days and at in 19 days. Our data also showed that stability of watermelon stalk depending on temperature was very closely correlated with water content of watermelon stalk; during storage at the water content of watermelon stalk was decreased to 21.1 % in 7 days, whereas at the water content was decreased gradually to 71.2 % for 19 days of storage. In order to reduce the physiological changes in watermelon stalk at , following treatments such as vaseline, mixture of soybean oil and wheat flour, and coated paper label were tested. As a result, watermelon stalk without any treatment was completely wilted in 9 days, while stalks treated with vaseline and mixture of soybean oil with wheat flour were wilted in 15 and 12 days, respectively. The wilt delay was noted in the watermelon stalk for days during both treatments but the outward quality was found detracted, whereas when treated with coated paper label, the wilt of stalk was delayed for 3 days along with the improvement in the outward quality. Therefore this data indicate that the treatment of coated paper label during storage at can be considered as a potent method for maintaining the physiology of watermelon stalk.
Article
Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of β-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutri-ent with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of carotenes and xanthophylls measured by various methods, compared to α-tocopherol, BHA and BHT. Four assays were selected to achieve a wide range of technical principles. Besides αTEAC, which uses ABTS+ radical cation, ferric reducing activity (measured by using FRAP assay), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay were used. In addition, a luminol-chemiluminescence based peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (LPSC) assay, was used. Most of the compounds showed significant differences in their activity of scavenging radicals depending on the assay used. Of the 22 compounds tested, only a few such as lutein, zeaxanthin and capsanthin gave comparable results in the various assays. Surprisingly, in contrast to α-tocopherol, BHA and BHT, carotenoids did not show any DPPH scavenging activity. To standardise the relative contribution of the assays used, weighted means of the values obtained in αTEAC, FRAP, DPPH and LPSC assay were calculated. This strategy was used to assess the antioxidant capacity of several juices and oil samples. The highest lipophilic antioxidant capacity in all assays was observed for sea buckthorn berry juice, followed by tomato juice, carrot juice and orange juice. Within the oil samples, the order of antioxidant capacity depended on the assay used.
Article
The effect of cellulolytic (Viscozyme) and pectolytic (Pectinex) enzyme treatments on extraction of total polyphenol and antioxidant activity of extract from apple peel have been examined. Extraction was carried out with a dosage of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% (v/v) of Viscozyme, Pectinex and Viscozyme+Pectinex at 30~50°C for 12~24 hours. Total polyphenol contents (mg/mL) of extracts obtained with 2% of Viscozyme, Pectinex or Viscozyme+Pectinex treatment for 12 hours were 0.30±0.02, 0.16±0.01, and 0.33±0.02 at 30°C, 0.34±0.01, 0.19±0.01, and 0.35±0.02 at 40°C and 0.34±0.01, 0.22±0.01, and 0.38±0.02 at 50°C respectively. The result shows that Viscozyme was more effective than Pectinex at all experimental temperatures, and Viscozyme+Pectinex resulted in the highest phenolic content at 50°C. Antioxidant activities determined by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays were increased with concentrations of extracts produced by 2% of Viscozyme+Pectinex treatment, which ranged from 0.10 to 0.40 vit. C eq mM for 5~25 mg of dried matters, from 0.09 to 0.28 vit. C eq mM for 1~5 mg of dried matters, and from 0.06 to 1.85 FeSO4 eq mM for 1~5 mg of dried matters, respectively.
Article
Free radical scavenging and antibacterial activities were determined for several red wines from different grape varieties from the southern Serbia wine region. The amount of polyphenols and anthocyanins in selected wines was investigated and the potential antibacterial activity of the wines against pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was also determined. The free radical scavenging and antibacterial activity of the wines was correlated with polyphenolic and anthocyanin content. The significant differences in the antioxidant and antibacterial activities between the wines from grape cultivars (Cabernet Sauvingon and Pinot Noir) and the indigenous varieties (Vranac and Prokupac) were not confirmed. The hypothesis of a protective effect of red wine is supported by our results that show that the red wines with higher amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins had higher antioxidant and antibacterial properties.
Article
A new method to extract lycopene from tomato juice using supercritical CO2 as solvent and without the need to dry the raw material is presented. To conduct the extraction, the tomato juice was subjected to cycles of centrifugation followed by rinsing with absolute ethanol to partially remove the water present in the solid part of the juice. The influence of the temperature and pressure on the extraction efficiency and on the extract antioxidant activity was studied using a factorial experimental design. The extraction efficiency varied from 7.7% to 76.7% and only extraction temperature had a statically significant effect on the process. The reversed phase HPLC analysis showed that lycopene is the major compound of the extract. The extract that presented higher antioxidant activity was obtained at 40°C and 350bar with 12.7mmolL−1 Trolox/g of extract using the DPPH radical scavenging method and 61.3mmolL−1 Trolox/g of extract using the rubrene singlet oxygen quenching method.
Article
The comparison of lycopene content and lipophilic antioxidant capacity was explored among pink guava fruit and by-products of its puree production industry namely refiner, siever and decanter. Lycopene content was measured using both UV-vis spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (APCI-LC-MS) was applied in confirming the studied compound. Two assays were employed to determine the lipophilic antioxidant capacities namely lycopene equivalent antioxidant capacity (LEAC) and β-carotene bleaching assays. Lycopene content and antioxidant capacity were in the order of fruits > decanter > siever > refiner. Decanter exhibited the highest lycopene content and antioxidant among the studied by-products. It also gave a significant higher (p < 0.05) lycopene content than pink guava fruit based on the wet basis. There was a significant correlation between lycopene content and LEAC. All samples had a good antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay but negatively correlated to lycopene content. Decanter was found to be the highest in lycopene content (17 mg/100 g dry basis) and antioxidant capacity (22 μmol LE/100 g dry basis) among the by-products. This by-product of pink guava puree industry can be a potential source of lycopene and antioxidant compounds. © 2010 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
a b s t r a c t Tomato foods contain bioactive compounds, such as lycopene, ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol, which are assumed to show synergistic effects. The aim of the study was to investigate this presumed synergy. The effect on lipid peroxidation and inflammation was assessed. Lipid peroxidation was effectively inhibited by combinations of the compounds compared to the single compounds. Synergy between the combina-tion of ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol was confirmed. Lycopene on its own effectively reduced inflamma-tion by inhibiting the release of TNF-a and stimulating IL-10 production. The combination of lycopene, ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol tended to display a synergistic interaction on IL-10 production. Our obser-vations highlight that lycopene mitigates inflammation, whereas ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol effi-ciently protect against lipid peroxidation. Both activities are complementary since they diminish the process of inflammation differently on different levels. In relation to health, this is an added value of fruit and vegetables such as tomato products that contain complementary bio-active compounds.
Article
The antioxidative properties and total phenolic contents of methanol, ethanol and water extracts from Ocimum basilicum, Apium graveolens and Lepidium sativum seeds were investigated and the results were compared with standards. The methanol extracts of the seeds had significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide radical scavenging activity with the concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) value of 98.73 µg/mL for O. basilicum, 121.57 µg/mL for A. graveolens and 166.16 µg/mL for L. sativum. The results indicated that all the seed extracts showed excellent H2O2 scavenging activities. IC50 values for H2O2 scavenging activity by methanol extract of O. basilicum, A. graveolens, L. sativum and butylated hydroxyanisole were found to be as 49.9, 52.3, 65.2 and 49.6 µg/mL, respectively. O. basilicum methanol extract had significantly (P < 0.05) higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging effect than the other two seeds. The methanol extracts of three seeds were better in Fe+2 chelating activity, reducing power and higher in the content of total phenol as compared with ethanol and water extracts. Recent epidemiological studies have strongly suggested that consumption of certain plant materials such as seeds, leaves, fruits and roots may reduce the risk of chronic diseases related to oxidative stress on account of their antioxidant activity and promote general health benefits. In this study, all seeds extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity (78.3–96.9%) at concentration 500 µg/mL. Total phenolic content in the seed extracts ranged from 51 to 92 mg GAE/100 g extract. In addition, there was a statistically significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9058, P < 0.05) in all the seed extracts. Therefore, O. basilicum, A. greveolens and L. sativum seed extracts have the potential to be developed into dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.
Article
Lycopene, a carotenoid, has antioxidant properties that may reduce the incidence of certain cancers. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum & Nakai) is a natural source of lycopene, with a reported average content of 48.7 µg g−1 fresh weight based on samples taken from retail produce. This study demonstrated the variability of lycopene content in 11 red-fleshed watermelon cultivars grown at one location, representing seedless, open-pollinated and hybrid types, and in commercially shipped hybrid and seedless melons, representing seasonal production periods. Tristimulus colorimeter a* and chroma values were positively correlated with lycopene values, but linear or quadratic regressions of colorimeter data against lycopene values were not significant. Tristimulus colorimeter readings from cut melons were compared to amounts of lycopene extracted from the same melons. Lycopene content varied widely among cultivars, with four cultivars having mean values greater than 65.0 µg g−1 fresh weight. Seedless types sampled tended to have higher amounts of lycopene (>50.0 µg g−1 fresh weight) than seeded types. Watermelon lycopene content changed for some cultivars with production season. Published in 2001 for SCI by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Article
Thiamine (vitamin B1), folic acid (vitamin B9), pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine (vitamin B6) were studied for their antioxidant activity using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay with ABTS+ radical cation and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. All vitamins tested were able to scavenge ABTS+ radical cation although they reacted with it relatively slowly. The reaction could be described by pseudo-first order kinetics. The highest free radical scavenging activity was found for thiamine, followed by folic acid and vitamin B6 forms. In the FRAP assay, only folic acid showed ability to reduce Fe3+ although its activity was found to be very low. The study constitutes a starting point for more detailed study of the antioxidant activity of water-soluble vitamins and their analogues, especially in view of the use of vitamins for food fortification and as nutritional supplements.
Article
Watermelon juice was subjected to high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). The effects of process parameters including electric field strength (30–35 kV/cm), pulse frequency (50–250 Hz), treatment time (50–2050 μs), pulse width (1–7 μs) and pulse polarity (monopolar/bipolar) on lycopene, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity were studied using a response surface methodology. Lycopene content was measured spectrophotometrically, vitamin C was determined by HPLC and antioxidant capacity through the inhibition of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical. Watermelon juice exhibited high retention of lycopene and antioxidant capacity when high electric field strengths, frequencies and pulse widths were applied. However, severe HIPEF treatments reduced vitamin C content. Maximal relative lycopene content (113%), vitamin C (72%) and antioxidant capacity retention (100%) were obtained when HIPEF treatments were set up at 35 kV/cm for 50 μs using 7 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz.
Article
The physical qualities and antioxidant components of ‘Jewel’ strawberry fruit stored in 75, 85 or 95% relative humidity (RH) at 0.5, 10 and 20 °C for 4 days were studied. Overall fruit quality declined more rapidly at 20 °C, especially at 95% RH. Weight loss of fruit was negligible for 2 days at all temperatures but it increased at 10 °C in the lowest RH and increased rapidly from day 3 at 20 °C especially with lower RH. Firmness was maintained, or even increased, at 0.5 or 10 °C, while soluble solids concentrations (SSC) decreased at higher storage temperatures. Red color, assessed using chroma, hue and lightness, and anthocyanin concentrations were relatively unchanged at 0.5 or 10 °C but increased rapidly at 20 °C as fruit ripened. Firmness, SSC and color were not affected by RH. Total phenolic compounds were slightly higher at 20 °C than at other temperatures at all RHs. Total ascorbic acid concentrations of the fruit remained similar for the first 2 days of storage, then declined in fruit stored at 0.5 and 20 °C, but remained unchanged at 10 °C at all RHs. Total flavonoid content of fruit did not change over time at all temperatures. The total antioxidant activity of fruit was higher at 10 °C than at 0.5 and 20 °C on day 3, and no effect of RH was detected. In conclusion, while the best temperature for long-term storage is 0.5 °C, quality could be maintained at 10 °C for acceptable periods of time for marketing and may be associated with better nutritional quality.
Article
Lycopene is a carotenoid present in human blood (approximately 0.5 micromol/liter plasma), and the tissue levels vary from 1 nmol/g wet wt in adipose tissue to up to 20 nmol/g wet wt in adrenals and testes. Its biological activities include antioxidant activity (singlet oxygen quenching and peroxyl radical scavenging), induction of cell-cell communication, and growth control, but no provitamin A activity. Epidemiological studies suggest protective effects of lycopene on some types of cancer, e.g., prostate cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies on growth of tumor cells support this conclusion. The major sources of lycopene for the human are tomatoes and tomato products, and bioavailability from different food items varies considerably. Lycopene oxidation products have recently been identified in human serum. Suggested health effects of lycopene require further investigation.
Article
Tomatoes have been estimated as the second most important source of vitamin C, after oranges, in an Italian population. We have therefore considered the relationship between tomato intake and the risk of digestive tract cancers using data from a series of case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1992, and including 317 histologically confirmed, incident cases of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, 85 of the esophagus, 723 of the stomach, 955 of the colon, and 629 of the rectum, and a total of 2879 controls admitted for acute, non-neoplastic conditions, unrelated to long-term modifications of diet. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for subsequent quartiles of intake of tomatoes were derived, after allowance for age, sex, study center, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and total calorie intake. There was a consistent pattern of protection for all sites. The ORs for the highest consumption quartile were 0.65 (95% CI 0.4-1.0) for oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus, 0.43 (95% CI 0.3-0.6) for stomach, 0.39 (95% CI 0.3-0.5) for colon, and 0.42 (95% CI 0.3-0.6) for rectum. Another study of colorectal cancer, based on 1,953 cases and 4,154 controls, conducted between 1992 and 1996 and using a more detailed food frequency questionnaire, confirmed that tomato intake was significantly protective on colorectal cancer risk, even after allowance for several potential confounding factors, including measures of body mass index, calorie intake, and physical activity. The ORs for the highest consumption quintile were 0.79 (95% CI 0.6-0.9) for colon, and 0.71 (95% CI 0.5-0.9) for rectal cancer. The beneficial effect of tomatoes observed in these epidemiological studies may be due to the fact that they constitute one of the most specific features of the Mediterranean diet. This has both a scientific and a public health relevance.
Article
Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid present in human blood and tissues. The major dietary sources of lycopene for the human are tomatoes and tomato products. Protective effects of a lycopene-rich diet on some types of cancer were suggested on the basis of epidemiological studies. There are several biochemical mechanisms potentially underlying the protective effects of lycopene. These include antioxidant activity such as the quenching of singlet oxygen and the scavenging of peroxyl radicals, induction of cell-cell communication, and growth control. In vitro and in vivo studies support this assumption. Dietary lycopene is absorbed and distributed in the human organism, but its bioavailability depends on various factors such as food processing or coingestion of fat. Little is known about the metabolism of lycopene. Potentially biologically active oxidation products of lycopene have been identified in human plasma.
Article
The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.
Article
The antioxidative effect of intact cells and intracellular cell-free extracts of intestinal lactic acid bacteria B. longum (ATCC 15708) and L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356) was investigated. Both intact cells and intracellular cell-free extracts of 10(9)cells of B. longum and L. acidophilus demonstrated antioxidative activity, inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation by 28-48%. This indicated that these two strains demonstrated excellent antioxidative activity. B. longum and L. acidophilus also showed the ability to scavenge alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, scavenging 21-52%. The intact cells of these two intestinal bacteria demonstrated a high inhibitory effect on the cytotoxicity of 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO). Cytotoxicity of 4NQO was reduced by L. acidophilus by approximately half and by almost 90% by B. longum. Nevertheless, no inhibition of cytoxicity observed for intracellular cell-free extracts of 10(9) cells of B. longum and L. acidophilus. The effect of B. longum and L. acidophilus on inhibiting plasma lipid peroxidation was also evaluated. The results showed that both intestinal strains were able to protect plasma lipid from oxidation at different degrees. The inhibition rates on plasma lipid peroxidation ranged from 11 to 29% for 10(9) cells of B. longum and L. acidophilus. Generally speaking, B. longum demonstrated better antioxidative ability than L. acidophilus in this study.
Article
Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all-trans isomers can be observed in the dehydrated tomato samples using the different dehydration methods. Frozen foods and heat-sterilized foods exhibit excellent lycopene stability throughout their normal temperature storage shelf life. Lycopene bioavailability (absorption) can be influenced by many factors. The bioavailability of cis-isomers in food is higher than that of all-trans isomers. Lycopene bioavailability in processed tomato products is higher than in unprocessed fresh tomatoes. The composition and structure of the food also have an impact on the bioavailability of lycopene and may affect the release of lycopene from the tomato tissue matrix. Food processing may improve lycopene bioavailability by breaking down cell walls, which weakens the bonding forces between lycopene and tissue matrix, thus making lycopene more accessible and enhancing the cis-isomerization. More information on lycopene bioavailability, however, is needed. The pharmacokinetic properties of lycopene remain particularly poorly understood. Further research on the bioavalability, pharmacology, biochemistry, and physiology must be done to reveal the mechanism of lycopene in human diet, and the in vivo metabolism of lycopene. Consumer demand for healthy food products provides an opportunity to develop lycopene-rich food as new functional foods, as well as food-grade and pharmaceutical-grade lycopene as new nutraceutical products. An industrial scale, environmentally friendly lycopene extraction and purification procedure with minimal loss of bioactivities is highly desirable for the foods, feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. High-quality lycopene products that meet food safety regulations will offer potential benefits to the food industry.
Article
Several epidemiological studies suggest a lower incidence of prostate cancer in men who routinely consume tomato products. Tomatoes are the primary dietary source of lycopene, which is among the most potent antioxidants of the carotenoids. Men with clinical stage T1 or T2 prostate adenocarcinoma were recruited (n = 32) and consumed tomato sauce based pasta dishes for 3 weeks (equivalent to 30 mg of lycopene per day) before radical prostectomy. Prostate tissue from needle biopsy just before intervention and prostectomy after supplementation from a subset of 11 subjects was evaluated for both total lycopene and lycopene geometrical isomer ratios. A gradient HPLC system using a C(18) column with UV-vis absorbance detection was used to measure total lycopene. Because the absorbance detector was insufficiently sensitive, HPLC with a C(30) column and positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric (LC-MS) detection was developed as a new assay to measure the ratio of lycopene cis/trans isomers in these samples. The limit of detection of the LC-MS method was determined to be 0.93 pmol of lycopene on-column, and a linear response was obtained over 3 orders of magnitude. Total lycopene in serum increased 2.0-fold from 35.6 to 69.9 microg/dL (from 0.664 to 1.30 microM) as a result of dietary supplementation with tomato sauce, whereas total lycopene in prostate tissue increased 3.0-fold from 0.196 to 0.582 ng/mg of tissue (from 0.365 to 1.09 pmol/mg). all-trans-Lycopene and at least 14 cis-isomer peaks were detected in prostate tissue and serum. The mean proportion of all-trans-lycopene in prostate tissue was approximately 12.4% of total lycopene before supplementation but increased to 22.7% after dietary intervention with tomato sauce. In serum there was only a 2.8% but statistically significant increase in the proportion of all-trans-lycopene after intervention. These results indicate that short-term supplementation with tomato sauce containing primarily all-trans-lycopene (83% of total lycopene) results in substantial increases in total lycopene in serum and prostate and a substantial increase in all-trans-lycopene in prostate but relatively less in serum.
Article
To further the goal of developing a probiotic dietary adjunct using soymilk, soymilk is fermented with lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus CCRC 14079 or Streptococcus thermophilus CCRC 14085) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis CCRC 14633 or Bifidobacterium longum B6) individually, and in conjunction. We investigate several antioxidative activities including the inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation, the scavenging effect of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide, and the reducing activity exerted by different varieties of fermented soymilks. In addition, the effect of spray-drying and freeze-drying on changes in antioxidative activity is examined. We find that in fermented soymilk both the inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation, and the reducing activity and scavenging effect of superoxide anion radicals varied with the starters used, but nevertheless are significantly higher than those found in unfermented soymilk. In general, antioxidative activity in soymilk fermented with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria simultaneously is significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that fermented with either individually. Moreover, antioxidative activity increases as the fermentation period is extended. However, unfermented soymilk shows an H2O2-scavenging effect, while there is no scavenging effect except for the accumulation of H2O2 in fermented soymilk. Finally, we find that freeze-drying causes a significantly lesser (P < 0.05) reduction in the antioxidative activity of soymilk than does spray-drying. Irrespective of the drying method and the starters used for fermentation. The antioxidative activity of fermented soymilk reduces after drying yet remains higher than that of dried unfermented soymilk.
Article
The study of the antioxidant capacity of foodstuffs requires the use of diverse determination methods to gain a wider picture of their multiple effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the "antioxidant profile" of red wines applying TAC (total antioxidant capacity) methods: 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methods such as lipid peroxidation inhibition and inhibition of damage to DNA. Furthermore, levels of total polyphenols (TPP) of wines were also evaluated. Three bottles of 107 different Spanish red wines (total samples 321), made from different grape varieties, aging processes, and vintages, were analyzed. The validation of TAC methods, the first step in this work, provided a good linearity, proportionality, and low detection limits. Among these methods, the ABTS was the most satisfactory for its rapidity, cost, and precision. All wines showed an important capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and were capable of blocking superoxide radicals but with 10 times lower intensity. Wines also showed important protective action on biomarkers of oxidative stress; they were much more active to inhibit lipid peroxidation than DNA oxidation. Few statistically significant correlations among levels of TPP and antioxidant properties of wines were detected. Furthermore, values of these correlations were very low.
Article
Lycopene is a fat-soluble red-orange carotenoid found primarily in tomatoes and tomato-derived products, including tomato sauce, tomato paste, and ketchup, and other dietary sources, including dried apricots, guava, watermelon, papaya, and pink grapefruit. In this study, we have demonstrated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Treatment with lycopene (10 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production (40% compared with the control). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that lycopene treatment decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. These results suggest that lycopene has anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting iNOS proteins and mRNA expressions in mouse macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression were not affected by treatment with lycopene.
Extraction/recovery and water solubilization of watermelon lycopene by microemulsion 9 14 Sungnam
  • H J Oh
Oh, H.J. (2008). Extraction/recovery and water solubilization of watermelon lycopene by microemulsion. Pp. 9–14. Sungnam, Korea: Dankook University (Master degree thesis).
Distribution of free sugars in the various portions of watermelon and musk-melon
  • J Y Sohn
  • S C Ban
  • J S Shin
  • S H Hong
Sohn, J.Y., Ban, S.C., Shin, J.S. & Hong, S.H. (1996). Distribution of free sugars in the various portions of watermelon and musk-melon. Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, 36, 200–205.
Antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavonoid levels of watermelon rinds subjected to Saccharomyces cerevisiae solid media fermentation
  • Erukainure
Distribution of free sugars in the various portions of watermelon and muskmelon
  • Sohn