Article

Sulphur-containing compounds of durian activate the thermogenesis-inducing receptors TRPA1 and TRPV1

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Abstract

Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is classified as a body-warming food in Indian herbalism, and its hyperthermic effect is empirically known in Southeast Asia. To investigate the mechanism underlying this effect, we focused on the thermogenesis-inducing receptors, TRPA1 and TRPV1. Durian contains sulphides similar to the TRPA1 and TRPV1 agonists of garlic. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the thermogenic effect of durian is driven by sulphide-induced TRP channel activation. To investigate our hypothesis, we measured the TRPA1 and TRPV1 activity of the sulphur-containing components of durian and quantified their content in durian pulp. These sulphur-containing components had a stronger effect on TRPA1 than TRPV1. Furthermore, sulphide content in the durian pulp was sufficient to evoke TRP channel activation and the main agonist was diethyl disulphide. From these results, we consider that the body-warming effect of durian is elicited by TRPA1 activation with its sulphides, as can be seen in spices.

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... Ajoene, an allicin derivative, does not activate the TRPA1 channel but enhances the activation by other electrophilic compounds including AITC and allicin. Diethyl disulfide, an allicin related compound, found in Durian fruit also activates TRPA1 channel to mediate the hyper thermic effects (Terada et al., 2014). ...
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Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is a calcium permeable, non-selective cation channel, expressed in the sensory neurons and non-neuronal cells of different tissues. Initially studied for its role in pain and inflammation, TRPA1 has now functionally involved in multiple other physiological functions. TRPA1 channel has been extensively studied for modulation by pungent compounds present in the spices and herbs. In the last decade, the role of TRPA1 agonism in body weight reduction, secretion of hunger and satiety hormones, insulin secretion and thermogenesis, has unveiled the potential of the TRPA1 channel to be used as a preventive target to tackle obesity and associated comorbidities including insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. In this review, we summarized the recent findings of TRPA1 based dietary/non-dietary modulation for its role in obesity prevention and therapeutics.
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The physicochemical (pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, sugars and organic acids), flavour and sensory properties of five Malaysian durian cultivars (D2, D24, MDUR78, D101 and Chuk) were studied. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the five cultivars in terms of all physicochemical characteristics tested with the exception for D2 and MDUR 78, which had similar physicochemical characteristics. Twenty two esters, 14 sulphur compounds, 7 alcohols, 3 aldehydes and 1 ketone were detected in the durian pulp of the five different cultivars using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Diethyl disulphide, ethyl-n-propyl disulphide, diethyl trisulphide and ethanethiol were the predominant sulphur-containing compounds in all the cultivars. The major esters present in durian were either ethyl propanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, or propyl-2-methylbutanoate and their levels varied within cultivars. Principal component analysis applied to the data differentiated all cultivars based on 29 volatile flavour compounds exhibiting significant differences (P < 0.05) between cultivars. Principal components 1 and 2 explained 89% of the total variance. A strong correlation was observed between sensory properties with flavour compound and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit.
Article
We searched in this study for novel agonists of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) in pepper, focusing attention on 19 compounds contained in black pepper. Almost all the compounds in HEK cells heterogeneously expressed TRPV1 or TRPA1, increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a concentration-dependent manner. Among these, piperine, isopiperine, isochavicine, piperanine, pipernonaline, dehydropipernonaline, retrofractamide C, piperolein A, and piperolein B relatively strongly activated TRPV1. The EC(50) values of these compounds for TRPV1 were 0.6-128 microM. Piperine, isopiperine, isochavicine, piperanine, piperolein A, piperolein B, and N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-tetradeca-2,4-diamide also relatively strongly activated TRPA1, the EC(50) values of these compounds for TRPA1 were 7.8-148 microM. The Ca(2+) responses of these compounds for TRPV1 and TRPA1 were significantly suppressed by co-applying each antagonist. We identified in this study new transient receptor potential (TRP) agonists present in black pepper and found that piperine, isopiperine, isochavicine, piperanine, piperolein A, and piperolein B activated both TRPV1 and TRPA1.
Article
The main aim of this study was to elucidate whether thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (thermoTRPs) play a role in controlling autonomic thermoregulation. We investigated whether the activation of certain thermoTRPs, TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1, would induce autonomic thermoregulation by administering chemical agonists derived from spices and aroma chemicals of these channels to anesthetized mice. We discovered the following: Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, enhanced thermogenesis and heat diffusion; thymol and ethyl vanillin, TRPV3 agonists, did not have any effect on thermogenesis or heat diffusion; menthol and 1,8-cineole, TRPM8 agonists, enhanced thermogenesis; and allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, TRPA1 agonists, enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited heat diffusion. These results suggest that these thermoTRP agonists derived from spices and aroma chemicals modulate autonomic thermoregulation, except for TRPV3 agonists. Our findings suggest the possibility that each thermoTRP is a key sensor inducing reasonable autonomic thermoregulation according to its own activated temperature range.
Article
Most of the terpenoids with an alpha,beta-unsaturated 1,4-dialdehyde moiety, which are found in plants, fungi, and insects, have a pungent taste. However, the neural receptors responsible for the pungency of these terpenoids have not been identified yet. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), which are expressed in the nociceptive neurons, induce a sensation of heat on activation by some pungent ingredients in food. In this study, we selected miogadial (MD), miogatrial (MT), and polygodial (PG) from the terpenoids with an alpha,beta-unsaturated 1,4-dialdehyde moiety and examined the effects of these 3 terpenoids on TRPA1 or TRPV1. TRPV1 and TRPA1 activity by 3 terpenoids were evaluated using Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp methods in mammalian cells that express TRP heterologously and mouse sensory neurons. The 3 terpenoids activated TRPA1 that was heterologously expressed in HEK293 or CHO cells. The potencies of activation by the 3 terpenoids were equal and almost 10 times stronger than that of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is known as the most potent TRPA1 agonist among all natural products. Moreover, these 3 terpenoids exhibited increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in mouse sensory neuron cells compared to AITC. High concentrations of the 3 terpenoids also activated TRPV1 that was heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. These results indicated that MD, MT, and PG were more potent in activating TRPA1 than TRPV1, and suggested that they primarily activate TRPA1 to induce pungency.
Article
We searched for novel agonists of TRP receptors especially for TRPA1 and TRPV1 in foods. We focused attention on garlic compounds, diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In TRPA1 or TRPV1 heterogeneously expressed CHO cells, all of those compounds increased [Ca(2+)](i) in concentration-dependent manner. The EC(50) values of DADS and DATS were similar to that of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and that of DAS was 170-fold larger than that of AITC. Maximum responses of these sulfides were equal to that of AITC. The EC(50) values of these compounds for TRPV1 were around 100 microM against that of capsaicin (CAP), 25.6 nM and maximum responses of garlic compounds were half to that of CAP. The Ca(2+) responses were significantly suppressed by co-application of antagonist. We conclude that DAS, DADS, and DATS are agonist of both TRPA1 and TRPV1 but with high affinity for TRPA1.
Article
Extraction of dry cured ham volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was optimized. Different fiber coatings (carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB)), times of extraction (15, 30, 60min) and sample preparation (ground samples and homogenates with NaCl saturated solution) were assayed. CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber coatings extracted more than 100 volatile compounds and showed the highest area counts for most volatile compounds. CAR/PDMS coating extracted better those compounds whose Kovats index (KI) was lower than 980 (on average) and DVB/CAR/PDMS those with higher KI. Fifteen minutes of extraction provided a volatile compound profile with lower area counts for most compounds and qualitatively different to that obtained with 30 and 60min of extraction. Homogenates gave a different profile compared to ground samples, with lower total counts for most compounds but higher proportion of aldehydes, and presence of several compounds not found in ground samples.
Article
Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, especially TRPV1 and TRPA1, are activated by the pungent compounds present in spices. TRPV1 activation by the intake of capsaicin, the irritant in hot pepper, induces adrenaline secretion and increases energy consumption. TRPV1 is mainly expressed in the sensory neurons and coexpressed with TRPA1 at a high frequency. However, the mechanism underlying adrenaline secretion by TRPA1 agonists such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and cinnamaldehyde (CNA), the pungent ingredients in mustard and cinnamon, is not known. We examined whether AITC and CNA could induce adrenaline secretion in anesthetized rats. An intravenous injection of AITC or CNA (10 mg/kg) increased adrenaline secretion. These responses disappeared completely in capsaicin-treated rats with an impaired sensory nerve function. Moreover, pretreatment with cholinergic blockers (hexamethonium and atropine) attenuated the AITC- or CNA-induced adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that TRPA1 agonists activate the sensory nerves and induce adrenaline secretion via the central nervous system.
Article
Since the time of Lavoisier it has been known that the ingestion of food in animals and man produces an increase in oxygen consumption. This increase in metabolic rate was originally called 'specific dynamic action' (SDA) and is now widely referred to as the thermic effect (TE) of food or diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (Rothwell & Stock, 1981). Much of the early work on the thermic effect was confined to the type and amount of food, notably the macronutrients--proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Later, it was shown that certain minor constituents of the diet such as caffeine and associated methylxanthines (Zahorska-Markrewicz, 1980; Jung et al., 1981) in tea and coffee could also have a profound effect on metabolic rate. The consumption of alcohol was also shown to increase metabolic rate (Rosenberg & Durnin, 1978). The work described in this paper reports the effect of another minor constituent of food, spices, on metabolic rate. Although the use of spices in our food has steadily increased with time little information exists on their effect on the metabolic rate. It has been estimated that approximately 40 different spices are used in our diet today. This communication reports the effect of chilli (red pepper, capsicum annuum) and mustard (Brassica juncea).
Article
Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in 'hot' chilli peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. We have used an expression cloning strategy based on calcium influx to isolate a functional cDNA encoding a capsaicin receptor from sensory neurons. This receptor is a non-selective cation channel that is structurally related to members of the TRP family of ion channels. The cloned capsaicin receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo.
Article
Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in "hot" chili peppers, elicits buming pain by activating specific (vanilloid) receptors on sensory nerve endings. The cloned vanilloid receptor (VR1) is a cation channel that is also activated by noxious heat. Here, analysis of heat-evoked single channel currents in excised membrane patches suggests that heat gates VR1 directly. We also show that protons decrease the temperature threshold for VR1 activation such that even moderately acidic conditions (pH < or = 5.9) activate VR1 at room temperature. VR1 can therefore be viewed as a molecular integrator of chemical and physical stimuli that elicit pain. Immunocytochemical analysis indicates that the receptor is located in a neurochemically heterogeneous population of small diameter primary afferent fibers. A role for VR1 in injury-induced hypersensitivity at the level of the sensory neuron is presented.
Article
The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.
Article
We investigated the effect of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on body temperature and oxygen consumption in humans. CH-19 Sweet was given to 11 healthy volunteers, and core body temperature, body surface temperature and oxygen consumption were measured. The control group ingested California-Wandar, which contained neither capsaicin nor capsiate. The core body temperature in the CH-19 Sweet group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). The forehead temperature measured by infrared thermography in the CH-19 Sweet group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The body surface temperature was increased for about 20 min after consumption of CH-19 Sweet intake, and the neck temperature was significantly higher (P<0.001) than when the subjects consumed California-Wandar. We also measured respiratory gas by indirect calorimetry while subjects wore a face mask. A significant difference was detected in oxygen consumption between the two groups, and the value was significantly higher in the CH-19 Sweet group (P<0.03). These results suggest that CH-19 Sweet increased thermogenesis and energy consumption.
Article
Mammals detect temperature with specialized neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Four TRPV-class channels have been implicated in sensing heat, and one TRPM-class channel in sensing cold. The combined range of temperatures that activate these channels covers a majority of the relevant physiological spectrum sensed by most mammals, with a significant gap in the noxious cold range. Here, we describe the characterization of ANKTM1, a cold-activated channel with a lower activation temperature compared to the cold and menthol receptor, TRPM8. ANKTM1 is a distant family member of TRP channels with very little amino acid similarity to TRPM8. It is found in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it is coexpressed with TRPV1/VR1 (the capsaicin/heat receptor) but not TRPM8. Consistent with the expression of ANKTM1, we identify noxious cold-sensitive sensory neurons that also respond to capsaicin but not to menthol.
Article
Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors.
Article
Six members of the mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels respond to varied temperature thresholds. The natural compounds capsaicin and menthol activate noxious heat-sensitive TRPV1 and cold-sensitive TRPM8, respectively. The burning and cooling perception of capsaicin and menthol demonstrate that these ion channels mediate thermosensation. We show that, in addition to noxious cold, pungent natural compounds present in cinnamon oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, mustard oil, and ginger all activate TRPA1 (ANKTM1). Bradykinin, an inflammatory peptide acting through its G protein-coupled receptor, also activates TRPA1. We further show that phospholipase C is an important signaling component for TRPA1 activation. Cinnamaldehyde, the most specific TRPA1 activator, excites a subset of sensory neurons highly enriched in cold-sensitive neurons and elicits nociceptive behavior in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that TRPA1 activation elicits a painful sensation and provide a potential molecular model for why noxious cold can paradoxically be perceived as burning pain.
Article
1. We have characterised the effects of piperine, a pungent alkaloid found in black pepper, on the human vanilloid receptor TRPV1 using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. 2. Piperine produced a clear agonist activity at the human TRPV1 receptor yielding rapidly activating whole-cell currents that were antagonised by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and the non-competitive TRPV1 blocker ruthenium red. 3. The current-voltage relationship of piperine-activated currents showed pronounced outward rectification (25+/-4-fold between -70 and +70 mV) and a reversal potential of 0.0+/-0.4 mV, which was indistinguishable from that of the prototypical TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. 4. Although piperine was a less potent agonist (EC50=37.9+/-1.9 microM) than capsaicin (EC50=0.29+/-0.05 microM), it demonstrated a much greater efficacy (approximately two-fold) at TRPV1. 5. This difference in efficacy did not appear to be related to the proton-mediated regulation of the receptor since a similar degree of potentiation was observed for responses evoked by piperine (230+/-20%, n=11) or capsaicin (284+/-32%, n=8) upon acidification to pH 6.5. 6. The effects of piperine upon receptor desensitisation were also unable to explain this effect since piperine resulted in more pronounced macroscopic desensitisation (t(1/2)=9.9+/-0.7 s) than capsaicin (t(1/2)>20 s) and also caused greater tachyphylaxis in response to repetitive agonist applications. 7. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of piperine at human TRPV1 are similar to those of capsaicin except for its propensity to induce greater receptor desensitisation and, rather remarkably, exhibit a greater efficacy than capsaicin itself. These results may provide insight into the TRPV1-mediated effects of piperine on gastrointestinal function.
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the analysis of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cheddar cheese. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was employed to extract VSCs from the cheese matrix using a CAR-PDMS fiber. This extraction method was combined with gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) to achieve high sensitivity for sulfur compounds. The impact of extraction parameters, including time, temperature and sample size, was evaluated to determine the best conditions to analyze sulfur compounds in Cheddar cheese. Hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide were found to constitute the majority of the overall sulfur profile while dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were present in lesser amounts. Artifact formation of volatile sulfur compounds was found to be minimal. Two commercial cheese samples were analyzed and differences in sulfur content were observed. Overall, SPME-GC-PFPD was found to be a highly sensitive technique for the analysis of sulfur compounds in Cheddar cheese.
Article
Specific dynamic action (SDA) is the term used to refer to the increased metabolic expenditure that occurs in postprandial animals. Postprandial increases in metabolism were first documented in animals over two hundred years ago, and have since been observed in every species thus far examined. Ironically, the ubiquity of this physiological response to feeding understates its complex nature. This review is designed to summarize both classical and modern hypotheses regarding the causality of SDA as well as to review important findings from the past century of scientific research into SDA. A secondary aim of this work is to emphasize the importance of carefully designed experiments and systematic hypothesis testing to make more rapid progress in understanding the physiological processes that contribute to SDA. I also identify three areas in SDA research that deserve more detailed investigation. The first area is identification of the causality of SDA in 'model' organisms. The second area is characterization of SDA responses in novel species. The third area is exploration of the ecological and potential evolutionary significance of SDA in energy budgets of animals.
Article
The abilities to sense environmental and internal temperatures are required for survival, both for maintenance of homeostasis and for avoidance of tissue-damaging noxious temperatures. Vertebrates can sense external physical stimuli via specialized classes of neurons in the peripheral nervous system that project to the skin. Temperature-sensitive neurons can be divided into two classes: innocuous thermosensors (warm or cool) and noxious thermonociceptors (hot or cold). ThermoTRPs, a subset of the transient receptor potential family of ion channels, which are expressed in sensory nerve endings and in skin, respond to distinct thermal thresholds. In this review, we examine the extent to which thermoTRPs are responsible for providing a molecular basis for thermal sensation.
Article
Allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent principle of wasabi and other mustard oils, produces pain by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on sensory nerve endings. Isothiocyanates are membrane-permeable electrophiles that form adducts with thiols and primary amines, suggesting that covalent modification, rather than classical lock-and-key binding, accounts for their agonist properties. Indeed, we show that thiol reactive compounds of diverse structure activate TRPA1 in a manner that relies on covalent modification of cysteine residues within the cytoplasmic N terminus of the channel. These findings suggest an unusual paradigm whereby natural products activate a receptor through direct, reversible, and covalent protein modification.
Article
We investigated the components of ginger that are involved in increasing body temperature. Gingerols ([6,8,10]-gingerols) and shogaols ([6,8,10]-shogaols) having different alkyl carbon chain lengths were targeted. All the gingerols and shogaols increased intracellular calcium concentration in rat transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1)-expressing HEK293 cells via TRPV1. In this regard, the shogaols were more potent than the gingerols. Aversive responses were induced by [6]-, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol (5 mmol/l) in rats when these compounds were applied to the eye; however, no response was observed in response to [10]-shogaol (5 and 10 mmol/l). [10]-Shogaol induced nociceptive responses via TRPV1 in rats following its subcutaneous injection into the hindpaw; the pungent compound capsaicin (CAP) and [6]-shogaol were observed to have similar effects. Moreover, adrenal catecholamine secretion, which influences energy consumption, was promoted in rats in response to [6]- and [10]-gingerols and [6]- and [10]-shogaols (1.6 micromol/kg, i.v.). [10]-Shogaol-induced adrenaline secretion was inhibited by administration of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. In conclusion, gingerols and shogaols activated TRPV1 and increased adrenaline secretion. Interestingly, [10]-shogaol is the only nonpungent compound among the gingerols and shogaols, suggesting its usefulness as a functional ingredient in food.
Article
Taste the seasoning. Sensing of the pungent principles of mustard and horseradish is caused by a covalent protein modification that activates the ion-channel receptor involved rather than a direct lock-and-key mechanism.
Article
Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is known as capsaicin (CAP) receptor and activated by CAP. Activation of TRPV1 by CAP increases energy expenditure and thermogenesis in rodents or human. Therefore, TRPV1 may be target for energy expenditure enhancement and thermogenesis. To search for novel TRPV1 agonist, we screened 19 types of foods by using TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells. TRPV1 was activated by hexane extract of wheat flour, and its functional compounds were 1-monoacylglycerols containing oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids. Their potencies (EC50) were about 50 times larger than that of CAP and their efficacies (maximal response) were about half of that of CAP. TRPV1 was activated by 1-monoacylglycerols (MGs) having C18 and C20 unsaturated and C8-C12 saturated fatty acid (FA). Moreover, 2-MGs having C18 and C20 unsaturated FA acted on TRPV1 with the same potency. On the other hand, no activation of TRPV1 was induced by MGs having C16 and C18 saturated FA, di- or triacylglycerols of C18:1 FA. Pain-relating aversive responses were induced when TRPV1-activating 1-monoacylglycerols (50 mM) was administered subcutaneously into rat hind paw. These effects were inhibited by the co-injection of capsazepine (10 mM) which is a TRPV1 competitive antagonist. These results suggested that these 1-monoacylglycerols activate TRPV1 in vitro and in vivo.
Cultivation of neglected tropial fruits with promise
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  • F W Martin
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Traditional Chinese cooking and medicinal science
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Fruit-trees of Southeast Asia
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Analysis of volatile compounds from Malaysian durians
  • S T Chin
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  • Y B Rahman
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Chin, S. T., Nazimah, S. A. H., Quek, S. Y., Che Men, Y. B., Abdul Rahman, R., & Mat Hashim, D. (2007). Analysis of volatile compounds from Malaysian durians (Durio zibethinus) using headspace SPME coupled to fast GC–MS.
Unpublished results (Master's thesis
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Science and Education Administration
  • D C Washington
Washington, D. C.: Science and Education Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture.