Article

It Tastes As Good As It Looks! The Effect of Food Presentation on Liking for the Flavor of Food.

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Abstract

Diners in a restaurant were served the same meal (composed of a sautéed chicken breast with a fines herbes sauce, brown rice pilaf, and sautéed green beans with toasted almonds served on a round white china plate). The same food was presented in two different arrangements on two different nights. Although the two presentations were judged as equally "neat", one was judged as more attractive. Subjects reported liking the food on the plate (when all items were judged together) more when it was presented in the more attractive than the less attractive manner. When food items were judged separately, subjects reported liking the chicken and the sauce significantly more when presented in the more attractive manner. Subjects also reported more positive responses to the brown rice pilaf when presented in the more attractive plating style. How attractively food is plated can affect liking for the flavor of the food and could be used to increase acceptance of "healthy" foods.

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... Previous studies on food esthetics have focused on the visual composition of food on the plate and its effect on consumption experience (e.g., Reisfelt, Gabrielsen, Aaslyng, Møller, & Møller, 2009;Zellner, Lankford, Ambrose, & Locher, 2010;Laan, De Ridder, Viergever, & Smeets, 2011;Zampollo, Kniffin, Wansink, & Shimizu, 2012a;Zampollo, Wansink, Kniffin, Shimuzu, & Omori, 2012b;Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014;Wadhera & Capaldi-Phillips, 2014;Valasco, Michel, & Woods, 2016). The initial starting point in these studies relies more on the notion, stated "You Eat with Your Eyes First" (Delwiche, J, 2012). ...
... A clue on the visual of foods has a significant impact on individuals' senses. According to Zellner et al. (2014), "we see the food before tasting it", and "the first sense of taste is taken with eyes." Therefore, physical appearance is a pivotal factor that affects food appreciation (Lyman, 1989). ...
... The attractiveness of the plate presentation of food could also impact individuals in terms of liking the taste of specific foods or enhancing healthy foods' acceptance (Zellner et al., 2014). Young (2012) states that a shaped and exhibited presentation gives an idea to the individuals about foods' taste, aroma, and texture, and that is why creating a dish that looks amazing is an art. ...
Article
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This study aims to ascertain and understand the art of plating dimensions from the perspective of master chefs. A semi-structured interview method was conducted with sixteen master chefs in Turkey to address this research purpose. The gathered data was analyzed via content analysis. As a result, four interrelated dimensions were identified; design principles, target audience, the character of the chef, and characteristics of the food. The findings contribute to the research agenda on the plating phenomenon to better understand the main framework of the art of plating. Further, many practical implications were also offered for relevant practitioners of the restaurant industry. The study is one of the first attempts to explore the dimensions of the art of plating from the perspective of master chefs in the restaurant-marketing context.
... Several researchers have concluded that although many people think that the taste of food is the main factor that influences food intake, the first sensory contact with the food is through the eyes, and therefore the physical appearance is also a factor that greatly determines food intake and satisfaction (27,28). There are many visual factors that are interrelated with food appearance, such as the colour, variety, portion size, and volume, which influence food acceptance and consumption (25,27]. ...
... Several researchers have concluded that although many people think that the taste of food is the main factor that influences food intake, the first sensory contact with the food is through the eyes, and therefore the physical appearance is also a factor that greatly determines food intake and satisfaction (27,28). There are many visual factors that are interrelated with food appearance, such as the colour, variety, portion size, and volume, which influence food acceptance and consumption (25,27]. The correct temperature of food also has a significant effect on patient satisfaction [13,29,30]. ...
Article
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In private healthcare services, patient satisfaction is of special importance to service providers, and the quality of food can influence a patient"s satisfaction with the total hospital experience. The quality of foodservice is strongly associated with patient satisfaction in hospitals, and most hospital foodservice organisations are changing their focus to patient care in order to boost patient satisfaction. Also, hospital foodservice standards are important in gaining the market share edge in a highly competitive healthcare industry. This study investigates the level of satisfaction with foodservice amongst patients in private hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A quantitative research approach was used for the study, and the data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire that was targeted at patients admitted to various wards at three private hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal. A total of 275 patients completed the survey. Overall, the study concluded that patients were generally satisfied with the foodservice in the private hospitals, especially with the food equipment and the food serving staff. However, reduced levels of satisfaction was noted with cultural considerations in menu choices and meal serving times. The study offers several recommendations to improve the quality of foodservice in hospitals.
... Both the appearance of food and its presentation are important factors that can influence the diners' reaction. For example, if the food arrangement is more attractive, the diners will have a more favorable evaluation in terms of liking the dish and they will be willing to pay more (Zellner et al., 2010;Zellner et al., 2011;Zellner et al., 2014;Michel et al., 2014;Michel et al., 2015). Multisensory cues from cutlery also influences the eating experience. ...
... The sense of sight plays a major role in determining what consumers find attractive (Schifferstein et al., 2020). For instance, when food is presented in a more pleasant way, people enjoy the food on the plate more (Zellner et al., 2014). Zellner et al. (2011) have also shown that neatly served foods are preferred over foods that are served less neatly. ...
Book
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Eating and drinking are undoubtedly amongst life’s most multisensory experiences. Take, for instance, the enjoyment of flavor, which is one of the most important elements of such experiences, resulting from the integration of gustatory, (retronasal) olfactory, and possibly also trigeminal/oral-somatosensory cues. Nevertheless, researchers have suggested that all our senses can influence the way in which we perceive flavor, not to mention our eating and drinking experiences. For instance, the color and shape of the food, the background sonic/noise cues in our eating environments, and/or the sounds associated with mastication can all influence our perception and enjoyment of our eating and drinking experiences. Human-Food Interaction (HFI) research has been growing steadily in recent years. Research into multisensory interactions designed to create, modify, and/or enhance our food-related experiences is one of the core areas of HFI (Multisensory HFI or MHFI). The aim being to further our understanding of the principles that govern the systematic connections between the senses in the context of HFI. In this Research Topic, we called for investigations and applications of systems that create new, or enhance already existing, multisensory eating and drinking experiences (what can be considered the “hacking” of food experiences) in the context of HFI. Moreover, we were also interested in those works that focus on or are based on the principles governing the systematic connections that exist between the senses. HFI also involves the experiencing of food interactions digitally in remote locations. Therefore, we were also interested in sensing and actuation interfaces, new communication mediums, and persisting and retrieving technologies for human food interactions. Enhancing social interactions to augment the eating experience is another issue we wanted to see addressed here, what has been referred to as “digital commensality”.
... Supporting this textual information with images is vitally important because design and aesthetics are among the most valued attributes when choosing a consumer product [5], such as a meal. The relevance for consumers of a food's attractiveness and appetite has led some researchers to study its influence on decision-making [6]. Some studies have analysed the forms of food, the design of menus, and the behaviour of consumers when faced with different stimuli [2,7,8]. ...
... In this case, when processing the information, the active regions will be linked to rewards, pleasure, and congruence, derived from a satisfactory resolution of the conflict. Congruent stimuli are often described as more enjoyable or rewarding, especially in the context of food products [6]. The description of the dish on display at any given time may anticipate the reward that will be obtained from tasting the dish; the prediction of rewards on different time scales has been studied previously [43]. ...
Article
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The main objective of this research was to analyse the active regions when processing dishes with a pleasant (vs. unpleasant) design and the effect of the previously read rational (vs. emotional) description when visualising the dish. The functional magnetic resonance image technique was used for the study. The results showed that participants who visualised pleasant vs. unpleasant dishes became active in several domains (e.g., attention, cognition and reward). On the other side, visualisation of unpleasant dishes activated stronger regions linked to inhibition, rejection, and related ambiguity. We found that subjects who read rational descriptions when visualising pleasant dishes activated regions related to congruence integration, while subjects who visualised emotional descriptions showed an increased neuronal response to pleasant dishes in the regions related to memory, emotion and congruence.
... An important contributor to food waste is consumers' preferences for highly aesthetic products (beauty-is-good bias). As the saying goes "the first taste is always with the eyes", consumers are known to use aesthetic cues to make inferences about freshness, flavor, and food quality (Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014). ...
Article
Consumers use aesthetics bias to judge the risk of their food intake, having an important impact on food waste of less appealing food (i.e., aesthetically imperfect foods). In six studies, this research adds to past work by revealing that when the aesthetics bias is applied to food targets, consumers make risk inferences for imperfect (vs. perfect) food products, thus reducing their purchase intention. In addition, the findings suggest that con-strual level moderates food aesthetics bias, reducing perceived risk and increasing purchase intention of aesthetically imperfect foods in abstract (vs. concrete) construal. This research uncovers the importance of abstract thinking in order to revoke the food aesthetics bias. The findings have critical implications for researchers, managers, and public policy makers on how to mitigate food aesthetics biases, which can contribute to reducing food waste.
... However, in previous studies on food and tableware, most evaluations were based on the appearance of the food at a single point in time without participants actually tasting it [5]. Only a few studies examined the changes in assessments before and after eating a meal [29][30][31][32]. In addition, in previous research when tasting the food, there was only one type of food (including beverages) or one plate provided, and the assessment of the food tended to be based on only a few basic variables such as taste, liking, palatability, and healthiness [1,29,30,33]. ...
Article
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In Japan, as in other countries, the externalization of food preparation is increasing. Japanese people are interested in the combination of food and tableware and they are concerned about transferring ready-made meals from plastic containers to natural tableware. This study aimed to examine the varying evaluations of meals due to differences in tableware. In this study, we investigated the effect of tableware on meal satisfaction, which is emphasized in Japanese culture. We studied the difference in the evaluation of ready-made meals (a rice ball, salad, croquette, and corn soup) before, during, and after a meal under two conditions: plastic tableware and natural wooden tableware. The results showed that there was no difference in the perceptual evaluation of taste and texture during the meal, except for the color of the salad and the temperature of the soup. On the other hand, meals served on natural wooden tableware were rated more positively than those served on plastic tableware before and after meals. These results suggest that, in Japan, the use of tableware, even for ready-made meals, increases the level of meal satisfaction. These findings have implications for both the providers and consumers of ready-made meals as well as the food industry.
... Because the first taste starts in the eye before the mouth ( Van der Laan et al., 2011, p. 296). Especially in the context of the dining experience, the sensory properties of food and the environment are of great interest to consumers (Zellner et al., 2010;Zellner et al., 2014;Stroebele & De Castro, 2006). So that the effect of the visual appearance of food and its context on the dining experience is one of the topics that have been researched for decades (Bayyari et al., 2001;Chen et al., 2018). ...
... Principles of visual aesthetics (or beauty), including balance, order, symmetry, and pattern repetition, influence the visual appeal of foods (see Hagen, 2021;Spence, 2021a). For example, the neat, or artistic (e. g., contemporary), presentation of foods has often been shown to increase people's preferences when compared to standard, or messy, presentations (e.g., Michel, Velasco, Gatti, & Spence, 2014;Reimann, Zaichkowsky, Neuhaus, Bender, & Weber, 2010;Van Doorn, Colonna-Dashwood, Hudd-Baillie, & Spence, 2015;Zampollo, Kniffin, Wansink, & Shimizu, 2012a;Zellner et al., 2011;Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014). Similarly, people generally prefer a balanced visual presentation of the elements on the plate to an unbalanced one (Velasco, Michel, Woods, & Spence, 2016; see also Schifferstein, Kudrowitz, & Breuer, 2020;Zellner et al., 2010), even though the asymmetric presentation of food is associated with the perception of increased culinary creativity (see Roque, Guastavino, Lafraire, & Fernandez, 2018a;Szocs & Lefebvre, 2015). ...
Article
In recent years, a growing number of academic researchers, as well as many marketing and design practitioners, have uncovered a variety of factors that would appear to enhance the visual attractiveness, or deliciousness, of food images to the typical consumer. This review, which contains both narrative and systematic elements, critically evaluates the literature concerning the various factors influencing the eye appeal of food images, no matter whether there is an edible food stimulus physically present in front of the viewer or not. We start by summarizing the evidence concerning the human brain’s ability to rapidly determine energy-density in a visual scene and pay attention accordingly. Next, we focus on the importance of embodied mental simulation when it comes to enhancing visual deliciousness. Thereafter, we review the literature on the importance of visual aesthetic features in eye-appeal. The wide range of visual attributes that help to enhance food attractiveness include symmetry, shape, freshness, glossiness, dynamic-presentation, etc. The review concludes with sections on the importance of background/ambient lighting/colour, and the tricks used by those who digitally manipulate images. Taken together, therefore, many different factors ultimately influence the visual deliciousness of food images.
... Here, it is interesting to note how subsequent gastrophysics research has highlighted the ubiquity of the ascending to the right preference bias (at least when compared to a dominant element on the plate ascending to the left; see also Spence, 2019). At the same time, however, it is also important to note how chefs may sometimes also want to challenge the conventions (e.g., of plating; though see also Carbon and Pastukhov, 2018) in order, perhaps, to emphasize their innovative approach (see Roque et al., 2018; see also Zellner et al., 2014). ...
Article
The Náttúra dining concept developed by Kitchen Theory ran from September to December 2014 in London. It was inspired by the New Nordic Cuisine Manifesto which has influenced not only cuisine in the Nordic countries but international gastronomy more broadly for a number of years now. This multisensory dining concept incorporated dishes that have subsequently appeared in peer-reviewed academic research, including in this journal, thus highlighting the potential of practice-led gastrophysics research (as in research that was designed to optimize the eye-appeal of the plating of one of the dishes served on the menu). By incorporating different nature/natural sounds with each pair of courses (namely the sounds of the earth, wind, fire, and water), this multisensory dining concept bridges the contemporary interest in ‘sonic seasoning’ and the increasingly common approach of incorporating atmospheric soundscapes into gastronomic dining experiences. At the same time, nature videos projected onto the wall of the dining room, together with the use of atmospheric ambient aromas incorporated into several of the dishes further helped to transport guests to a range of different immersive multisensory environments, all loosely connected by an Icelandic theme.
... Likewise, Spence et al. [8] suggested that visual appearance promotes unplanned or impulse buying food items, whereas sensory properties prioritize food quality. Previous studies [9,10] investigated the impact of color and color combinations on visual attractiveness in food. These investigations showed evidence that he visual attractiveness of food affects its acceptance. ...
Article
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Sandwiches are the most common “casual-food” consumed by all age groups in Spain. Due to the importance of visual appearance to promote unplanned or impulse buying, foodservice and hospitality companies focus on improving the visual impression of their food menus to create an expectation that satisfies both sensory and hedonic consumer experiences. To provide a list of attributes about the visual appearance of sandwiches, 25 students were recruited from a university and were invited to participate in two nominal group technique (NGT) sessions. To understand whether a sandwiches’ appearance can influence the expectation of consumers, 259 participants completed an online survey specially designed from the results of the NGT sessions. Data were analyzed using conjoint, internal preference mapping and cluster analysis; the interaction effect by gender was also studied. The conjoint results indicate that visual perception about the filling (vegetal or pork based) plays the most key role overall in consumer expectation. When consumers choose vegetables as the filling, the consumers’ perceived sandwiches as healthier, but the pork filling was perceived as more attractive and satiating. Interaction effect by gender was observed in filling when females perceived pork filling as less healthy than vegetable. By acceptance, consumers were segmented into three groups. The first cluster (n = 80) selected the pork filling. The smaller group (cluster 3, n = 36) prioritized the vegetal filling, and the most numerous cluster 2 (n = 140) liked sandwiches with multigrain bread. These results may help companies to build tailor-made marketing strategies to satisfy consumer segments.
... In another study Zellner et al. (2014) compared two different plates, both judged neat in the presentation but different in attractiveness: the more attractive version was deemed to be tastier (this was true for all the plates except for string beans). ...
Conference Paper
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In this study we analyze how the visual impact influences consumers, in particular considering the way a food is presented, exploring in this way how food marketing is also a question of food appearance. Do we eat firstly with our eyes? And if yes, which are the consequences of this process on food marketing strategies? Literature highlights that the way food is presented produces effects from a celebral and a physiological point of view, but also how it affects taste. In the first part of this research literature has been explored, paying attention in particular on hunger as a process which begins from eyes and, secondly,on how neatness makes food more desiderable. The second part of the study shows our experiment on consumers. Specifically 71 subjects were involeved, divided into four groups, that had to observe and evaluate some plates of fruit and bresaola, once arranged neatly, once disorderly. Data have been gathered and analyzed, in particular highlighting consumers' expectation about the tastiness of the food and how much they would have spent to eat that food. Finally we discuss about the findings, in....
... The observed drop in revenue in the current study may in part be due to the fixed menu and product list that were required for the study. If implemented in practice, cafeterias could respond to lower sales by altering which products are sold and via additional strategies to make healthier food options more appealing [27]. Such additional changes were not permitted in the current study to ensure the accuracy of the energy content across products and to minimise the reprogramming of till buttons mid-study. ...
Article
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Background Overconsumption of energy from food is a major contributor to the high rates of overweight and obesity in many populations. There is growing evidence that interventions that target the food environment may be effective at reducing energy intake. The current study aimed to estimate the effect of decreasing the proportion of higher energy (kcal) foods, with and without reducing portion size, on energy purchased in worksite cafeterias. Methods and findings This stepped-wedge randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluated 2 interventions: (i) availability: replacing higher energy products with lower energy products; and (ii) size: reducing the portion size of higher energy products. A total of 19 cafeterias were randomised to the order in which they introduced the 2 interventions. Availability was implemented first and maintained. Size was added to the availability intervention. Intervention categories included main meals, sides, cold drinks, snacks, and desserts. The study setting was worksite cafeterias located in distribution centres for a major United Kingdom supermarket and lasted for 25 weeks (May to November 2019). These cafeterias were used by 20,327 employees, mainly (96%) in manual occupations. The primary outcome was total energy (kcal) purchased from intervention categories per day. The secondary outcomes were energy (kcal) purchased from nonintervention categories per day, total energy purchased per day, and revenue. Regression models showed an overall reduction in energy purchased from intervention categories of −4.8% (95% CI −7.0% to −2.7%), p < 0.001 during the availability intervention period and a reduction of −11.5% (95% CI −13.7% to −9.3%), p < 0.001 during the availability plus size intervention period, relative to the baseline. There was a reduction in energy purchased of −6.6% (95% CI −7.9% to −5.4%), p < 0.001 during the availability plus size period, relative to availability alone. Study limitations include using energy purchased as the primary outcome (and not energy consumed) and the availability only of transaction-level sales data per site (and not individual-level data). Conclusions Decreasing the proportion of higher energy foods in cafeterias reduced the energy purchased. Decreasing portion sizes reduced this further. These interventions, particularly in combination, may be effective as part of broader strategies to reduce overconsumption of energy from food in out-of-home settings. Trial registration ISRCTN registry ISRCTN87225572 .
... Research shows that the color and presentation of foods can enhance the enjoyment of eating by increasing the aesthetic value of the food (Hoyer and Stokburger-Sauer 2012;Zellner et al. 2014). Humanizing old and imperfect produce-for example, presenting an aging cucumber as a smiling face-can enhance consumers' evaluations of the product by generating feelings of compassion and warmth toward the aging process (Koo et al. 2019). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we integrate scientific knowledge on consumers’ responses to food experiences from diverse theoretical perspectives into a food experience design framework. The goal is to provide guidance on how to design food experiences that will help consumers make healthier choices that will also make them happier. We propose that food experiences enhanced by ambiance and food design promote emotional responses that can facilitate healthy eating choices. The framework outlines which aspects of food experience can be designed or changed to generate the ideal emotional setting in the context of healthy choices. It is our hope that this will outline a way for food experience design to not only motivate consumers to eat more healthily but also enjoy their healthy choices more.
... This is in line with the research of other authors. Zellner et al. [73] and Zellner et al. [74] provided scientific evidence that foods presented in a less neat manner are less liked. Similar to our findings, results of studies with novel salad dressings [75,76] and with other novel foods [77] indicated a higher mean of expected acceptability in a group of neophiliacs than neophobics. ...
Article
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Modern cuisine served at top-end restaurants attempts to attract customers, who increasingly demand new flavor, pleasure and fun. The materials were six dishes prepared using lemon or tomatoes and made in the traditional (classical), molecular and Note by Note (NbN) versions. The study explores sensory characteristics, consumer liking of key attributes, their declared sensations and emotions, as well as consumers’ facial expressions responding to the dishes. These objectives were investigated by descriptive quantitative analysis and consumer tests. Tests included a 9-point hedonic scale for degree of liking a dish, Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) for declared sensations and FaceReader for facial expressions. The influence of factors associated with consumer attitudes toward new food and willingness to try the dishes in the future were also determined. It was stated that the product profiles represent different sensory characteristics due to the technology of food production and the ingredients used. The food neophobia and consumer innovativeness had a significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on liking. The odor-, flavor-, texture- and overall-liking of the NbN dishes were lower than that of traditional versions but did not vary from scores for molecular samples. The expected liking of NbN dishes was higher than experienced-liking. Traditional and modern products differed in CATA terms. Classical dishes were perceived by consumers as more tasty, traditional and typical while modern cuisine dishes were perceived as more surprising, intriguing, innovative and trendy. Mimic expressions assessment by FaceReader showed similar trends in some emotions in both classical dishes and separate temporal patterns in modern products.
... Visual attributes of food, such as colour, shape and physical form are very important indicators of the quality of food and influences consumer decisions on whether or not to purchase and eat a product (Normann et al., 2019;Wendin et al., 2019). Besides conveying information about the state of the food, the visual attributes of food also evoke attitudes and emotions, which affects consumers' expectations and experience of that particular food item (Thomson & Crocker, 2013;Zellner et al., 2014). Anchored in previous studies on attitudes and emotions, this paper investigates the impact of different visual attributes of apples on expected and actual liking. ...
Thesis
A vast amount of food is being wasted across the globe and the entire supply chain. There are multiple reasons for this, but when it comes to our part as consumers, the amount of food wasted is mostly due to our unwillingness to accept food that deviates from the norm, which is called sub-optimal food. This thesis is a compilation of four papers that study consumer attitudes and choices related to sub-optimal food. The data used in this thesis is primary data, collected through both online (Paper I, III and IV) and laboratory studies (Paper II) conducted in Sweden (Paper I and II) and the US (Paper III and IV). As a whole, the four papers depict a multi-dimensional approach to food choices, offer practical insights for reducing consumer food waste and provide detailed guidance on the use of approaches and methodologies applied. In Paper I, we apply a dual-process model to study consumer food choices. We measure attitudes towards sub-optimal food using implicit and explicit methods, and we investigate the predictive validity of these two measures. In Paper II, we apply a serial mediation model to study the relationship between the visual characteristics of apples and expected liking and to investigate the role of attitudes and emotions as mediators of this relationship. Finally, in Papers III and IV we study the role of information framing in increasing consumers’ acceptance of sub-optimal food choices increased acceptability of suboptimal food on consumer choices. We also study the implications of consumers’ values (Paper III) and goal-setting for purchasing sub-optimal food (Paper IV). We use personal values and goals to identify sub-groups of consumers with similar preferences for sub-optimal within each group.
... Both the appearance of food and its presentation are important factors that can influence the diners' reaction. For example, if the food arrangement is more attractive, the diners will have a more favorable evaluation in terms of liking the dish and they will be willing to pay more (Zellner et al., 2010;Zellner et al., 2011;Zellner et al., 2014;Michel et al., 2014;Michel et al., 2015). Multisensory cues from cutlery also influences the eating experience. ...
Article
The appearance of food affects its taste. Many studies have examined how to improve the taste of foods by manipulating their appearance. Most of those studies have focused on static appearances, such as color and texture; however, the impact of the dynamic appearance has not been explored. In this study, the perceptions (sweetness, sourness, saltiness, spiciness, temperature, deliciousness) and value judgments (the price of food, appetite) perceived from food before and after tasting with a projection-based dynamic boiling texture were investigated. The results revealed that the dynamic texture influences expectations for saltiness, spiciness, temperature, deliciousness, price, and appetite before eating the meal and perceived saltiness, spiciness, and appetite when eating. In addition, its influence on the consumers’ behavior was also investigated through an empirical user study in a restaurant. The results indicated that the consumers had a greater tendency to order the meal when they saw it with the projection-based boiling effect. From these, this study demonstrates the effect of projection mapping of a boiling effect on food expectation, perception and consumer behavior.
... The sense of sight plays a major role in determining what consumers nd attractive (Schifferstein et al, 2020). For instance, when the food is presented in a more pleasant way, people enjoy the food on the plate more (Zellner et al., 2014). Zellner et al. (2011) have also shown that neatly served foods are preferred over foods that are served less neatly. ...
Preprint
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Among the senses of food, our sense of taste is significantly influenced by our perception. In appetite science, previous research reported that when we make estimate the quality in daily life, we rely considerably on visual information (Carlos et al., 2012). In this study, we focused on the multimodal mental imagery (Nanay, 2018) evoked by the visual information of food served on a plate and examined the effect of the peripheral visual information: garnish, on the sensory impression of the main dish. We conducted a sensory evaluation experiment to evaluate the impressions of food photographs and structured the sensory values using multivariate analysis. We found that the appearance of the garnish placed on the plates close to the main meal contributes to appetite arousal. Here we show that color, moisture, and taste (sourness and spices) play a major role in the decision. In order to arouse one’s appetite, it is important to make the main dish appear warmer. Our results can be used to modulate eating experience and appetite arousal. Applying these results for meals can contribute toward making the dining experience more attractive by superimposing visual information on it with XR technology, or by presenting real appropriate garnishes.
... They also improved food presentation: usually meal distribution was made in old irontrails by kitchen employees. Zellner et al. (2014) have established the importance of the food presentation for customers' satisfaction. Furthermore, customers reported a positive impact of COVID-19 measures on food hygiene, on variety in food items, and to a lesser extent on sensory quality. ...
... This strategy aimed to reduce the appetizing appearance of food by turning food into non-food or less desired food. Several studies have shown that the perceived palatability of a given food determines what and how much individuals consume (Delwiche, 2012) and that food presented nicely enhances food liking (Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014). Based on these studies, repeatedly imagining a food being crushed or destroyed could be expected to result in reduced perceived palatability and liking, leading to reduced consumption (Delwiche, 2012). ...
Article
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Visual food cues automatically capture our attention. Moreover, food cue exposure is associated with an increased desire to eat (craving) and food consumption. We attempted to reduce the attentional bias to images depicting a specific food (M&Ms), craving, and consumption through mental imagery in a sample of 98 females (mean age = 23.82 years). The participants either listened to a guided imagery script that described the crushing of M&Ms to reduce the appetitive value of the chocolates, or they envisioned the sorting of M&Ms, or marbles (as control conditions). Afterward, participants were presented with images of M&Ms (not crushed) and marbles while their electroencephalogram, craving ratings, and M&M consumption were measured. The visualization of crushing M&Ms was associated with increased early (P200) and late positivity (P300, early LPP) to M&M pictures, which indicate automatic (P200/P300) and deliberate attention (LPP). M&M sorting increased craving but did not influence M&M consumption. Our findings show that imaginary M&M crushing cannot reduce attention to M&M images and even has the opposite of the intended effect.
... The appearance and flavor of food and beverage (Baiomy & Jones, 2016;Clemes et al., 2013;Ouyang, Behnke, Almanza, & Ghiselli, 2017;Rozin & Rozin, 1981;Shepherd, 2011;Spence, 2017;Yüksel, 2007;Zhang et al., 2018) and interviews Plating (Velasco et al., 2016;Woods et al., 2016;Wu & Liang, 2009;Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014;Debra A.;Zellner et al., 2011) and interviews The items and design of menu (Baiomy & Jones, 2016;Hou et al., 2015) and interviews Tableware (Clemes et al., 2013;Ryu & Jang, 2008;Spence, 2017; Tuzunkan & Albayrak, 2016) Performance and activity Interviews Employees' expressions (Berry & Parasuraman, 2004;Chun;Hanks & Line, 2018;Kang & Hyun, 2012;Tsaur et al., 2015;Chun Wang et al., 2016) and interviews and interviews Employees' physical movement and gesture (Chun Wang et al., 2016;Kang & Hyun, 2012) and interviews Employees' introduction, communication, and storytelling (Chen et al., 2016;Chun;Kang & Hyun, 2012;Chun Wang et al., 2016) and interviews Nickson et al., 2003;Ryu & Jang, 2008;Tsaur et al., 2015;Yüksel & Yüksel, 2002) and interviews Employee's Voice (Nickson et al., 2003) and interviews Employee's Body smell (Yüksel, 2007) and interviews Other customer's aesthetic traits ...
Article
For chasing a harmonic condition among all elements and customers' positive emotion-pleasure in a restaurant, this study constructs a holistic aesthetic experience model within the context of a restaurant through the consensus opinions of experts who have aesthetics-related experience and work in the restaurant relevant organizations. This study adopted a mixed study, multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach for forming a solid and practical model. Four dimensions—physical environment, product and service, employee's aesthetic traits, and other customer's aesthetic traits —and twenty-three with an influential network relation map (INRM) for finding the roots of influence and influential weights for the further practitioners' decision making. The study contributes to the aesthetic theory and practical implementation in the hospitality industry.
... People are attracted to beauty, and the same goes for the arrangement of food. Therefore, guests who receive food on a plate in style tend to claim that their food was tastier compared to guests who received the same food that was not very attractive on the plate [4]. Our eyes are connected through the brain to our mouths, and this fact is supported by the assumption that, if we like what we see, it is also tastier to us and we evaluate it better [5]. ...
Article
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The appearance of food provides certain expectations regarding the harmonization of taste, delicacy, and overall quality, which subsequently affects not only the intake itself but also many other features of the behavior of customers of catering facilities. The main goal of this article is to find out what effect the visual design of food (waffles) prepared from the same ingredients and served in three different ways—a stone plate, street food style, and a white classic plate—has on the consumer’s preferences. In addition to the classic tablet assistance personal interview (TAPI) tools, biometric methods such as eye tracking and face reading were used in order to obtain unconscious feedback. During testing, air quality in the room by means of the Extech device and the influence of the visual design of food on the perception of its smell were checked. At the end of the paper, we point out the importance of using classical feedback collection techniques (TAPI) and their extension in measuring subconscious reactions based on monitoring the eye movements and facial expressions of the respondents, which provides a whole new perspective on the perception of visual design and serving food as well as more effective targeting and use of corporate resources.
... The sense of sight plays a major role in determining what consumers find attractive (Schifferstein et al., 2020). For instance, when food is presented in a more pleasant way, people enjoy the food on the plate more (Zellner et al., 2014). Zellner et al. (2011) have also shown that neatly served foods are preferred over foods that are served less neatly. ...
Article
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Among the senses of food, our subjective sense of taste is significantly influenced by our visual perception. In appetite science, previous research has reported that when we estimate quality in daily life, we rely considerably on visual information. This study focused on the multimodal mental imagery evoked by the visual information of food served on a plate and examined the effect of the peripheral visual information of garnish on the sensory impression of the main dish. A sensory evaluation experiment was conducted to evaluate the impressions of food photographs, and multivariate analysis was used to structure sensory values. It was found that the appearance of the garnish placed on the plates close to the main dish contributes to visual appetite stimulants. It is evident that color, moisture, and taste (sourness and spiciness) play a major role in the acceptability of food. To stimulate one’s appetite, it is important to make the main dish appear warm. These results can be used to modulate the eating experience and stimulate appetite. Applying these results to meals can improve the dining experience by superimposing visual information with augmented reality technology or by presenting real appropriate garnishes.
... Previous studies have suggested that consumers respond positively to a high esthetic value appearance [18] and prefer products with enhanced esthetics [14]. People have a high preference for taste when food is visually more attractive [19]. When food is plated as more attractive, consumers also prefer to eat and pay more money [20]. ...
Article
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Background Emotional eaters eat to relieve their emotions. However, food also contains esthetic information. People generally perceive ugly food as unhealthy and unpalatable. Does the esthetic information of food influence an emotional eater’s desire for food in a negative emotional state? In particular, do they have the same lower eating intentions for low esthetic food as non-emotional eaters? Objective/Design/Measures Based on these questions, the present study examined whether the esthetic value of food influences emotional eaters’ desires for food. The experiment used a 2 (eating type: emotional eating vs. non-emotional eating) × 2 (food style: high esthetic vs. low esthetic) mixed experimental design. We measured the emotional and non-emotional eaters’ eating intentions for different esthetic foods when experiencing negative emotions. Results The results showed that emotional eaters have higher intention to eat high esthetic foods. However, they did not have a high eating intention for all foods, and their eating intention did not differ from that of non-emotional eaters when faced with low esthetic food. Conclusion In conclusion, food esthetic value can affect individual eating intentions. Even for emotional eaters who are in a negative mood, they also did not have a higher eating intention for low esthetic food compared with no-emotional eater. Level of evidence Level II: controlled trial without randomization.
... Edebiyatta kompozisyon nasıl ki giriş, gelişme ve sonuç kısımlarından oluşuyor ise nicelik ve nitelik bakımından birbirinden farklı içerik, boyut, renk, doku ve dengenin uyumlu bir şekilde bir araya gelerek sunulması ise tabak kompozisyonunu oluşturmaktadır. Zellner (2014)'e göre tabak sunumu, tüketime hazır olan bir yiyecek ve görünüşü hakkında tüketicilere olumlu veya olumsuz düşünceler verebilir. Zellner bu konuda "Yemeğin ilk tadı her zaman gözlerle alınır" diyerek, bir yiyeceğin sunumundaki rengin, dokunun yeme deneyimimizi etkilediğini vurgulamıştır. ...
... Edebiyatta kompozisyon nasıl ki giriş, gelişme ve sonuç kısımlarından oluşuyor ise nicelik ve nitelik bakımından birbirinden farklı içerik, boyut, renk, doku ve dengenin uyumlu bir şekilde bir araya gelerek sunulması ise tabak kompozisyonunu oluşturmaktadır. Zellner (2014)'e göre tabak sunumu, tüketime hazır olan bir yiyecek ve görünüşü hakkında tüketicilere olumlu veya olumsuz düşünceler verebilir. Zellner bu konuda "Yemeğin ilk tadı her zaman gözlerle alınır" diyerek, bir yiyeceğin sunumundaki rengin, dokunun yeme deneyimimizi etkilediğini vurgulamıştır. ...
... An important contributor to food waste levels is consumers' preferences for high aesthetics products (beauty-is-good bias). As the saying goes, "the first taste is always with the eyes", consumers are known to use aesthetics cues to make inferences such as freshness, flavor, and food quality (Zellner et al., 2014). ...
... In addition, with asymmetrical dishes the way in which a dish is placed in front of the eater may be important, as diners may prefer specific plate orientations (Spence, Youssef, Michel, & Woods, 2019;Youssef et al., 2015). When the food is presented in a more attractive way, people also tend to like the food on the plate more (Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014). Schifferstein, Howell, and Pont (2017) investigated the effects of background colors on the perception and attractiveness of different vegetables. ...
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This systematic overview tries to link scientific knowledge on human perception and appreciation mechanisms to culinary practices. We discuss the roles of the human senses during eating, starting out with basic mechanisms of taste and smell perception, up to principles of aesthetics. These insights are related to how foods are experienced, how ingredients are combined, the use of flavor bases in cuisines, the creation of a full course meal, the choice of a beverage with a dish, and how people learn to appreciate new foods.
... We also examined three compound judgments of tastiness, healthiness, and price estimation. These three dependent variables have been the focus of attention in previous studies in the literature [4,5,36,37], because they are more representative of the overall consumer experience of food. Regarding healthiness, we followed Hagen's [32] definition of perceived healthiness as comprising a complex of high-benefit, high-nutrition, and lowcalorie concepts, which is consistent with the current dietary guidelines for understanding health. ...
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Interest has been growing in the role of subjective aesthetics in the field of food. This study explored the mechanisms by which the aesthetic appeal of plate patterns influences consumers’ perceptions of food. Three experiments were conducted to compare whether different levels of beauty and types of plate pattern aesthetics (classical versus expressive) affected the perceptions of tastiness and healthiness of the food offered. Experiment 1 was carried out with 30 participants, and the results showed that participants perceived the food presented on more beautiful plates as tastier and healthier than the food on less beautiful plates. Experiment 2 was carried out with 128 participants; the results showed that, for expressively aesthetic plates, the participants experienced more positive emotions for very beautiful plates and more negative emotions for less beautiful plates. However, for classical aesthetic plates, participants’ emotions were not affected by the beauty of the plate. Experiment 3 was carried out with 149 participants, and the results showed that, for classically aesthetic plates, participants perceived the food placed in the middle to be tastier than food placed at the edge; however, for expressively aesthetic plates, food placement did not affect participants’ perceptions of food. These results demonstrate the importance of the subjective beauty of plate patterns in influencing consumers’ food perceptions, although this influence varies depending on the type of aesthetic design of the plate pattern.
... A familiar aphorism states that 'you eat with your eyes first.' This notion is supported by the fact that taste perception is closely linked with the visual presentation of food, which in turn influences a person's liking for food (e.g., Michel et al. 2014;Zellner et al. 2014). In such, this study is interested in how different design principles can enhance visual appeal of food products in advertising and increase taste perceptions. ...
Article
Grounded in the knowledge of visual design and photography, this study examines the effects on viewers’ purchase intention of two visual design techniques used with food items in food advertising – repetition and alignment. We propose cross-modal correspondences between visual appeal and taste perception as a psychological mechanism in viewers’ visual information processing. Three studies were conducted to test the effects of the visual design principles and the proposed mediation of cross-modal correspondences. The findings of Study 1 and Study 2 reveal that repetition of food items enhanced viewers’ likelihood of purchasing the presented food through cross-modal responses between vision and taste. The findings of Study 3 show that triangular alignment of repeated food items generated a higher level of aesthetic experience and influences purchase intention through serial mediating effects of visual appeal and taste perception. Overall, the results of the three studies confirm the proposed mediation of cross-modal correspondences between vision and taste when individuals process a food image. Theoretical and practical implications for food styling in marketing communication are discussed.
... An important contributor to food waste is consumers' preferences for highly aesthetic products (beauty-is-good bias). As the saying goes "the first taste is always with the eyes", consumers are known to use aesthetic cues to make inferences about freshness, flavor, and food quality (Zellner, Loss, Zearfoss, & Remolina, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Concerning food products that have a direct relationship with health, the instinct to search for the perfect appearance is dominant. Consumers use food aesthetics bias to judge the risk of their food intake, having an important impact on food waste of less appealing food. In six studies, we explore consumers’ food waste decisions by analyzing and reverting two types of food aesthetics biases, namely: beauty-is-good and the ugly-is-risky. This research adds to past work by revealing that construal level moderates food aesthetics bias, reducing perceived risk and increasing purchase intentions in abstract (vs. concrete) construal.
... Our data show that the willingness to eat other consumers' plate leftovers is associated with the appearance of these leftovers: "presumably the Bänderer will also select and not touch disgusting looking leftovers from unappealing looking people" (554). This can be compared to studies that have shown that liking of a meal increases when the meal is presented attractively and neatly [84,85]. ...
Article
A considerable amount of food is discarded in canteens every day. This waste has created a countermovement, where groups of mainly students purposefully choose to eat other consumers’ plate leftovers instead of buying fresh meals. This phenomenon highlights two opposing narratives: leftovers as food waste versus leftovers as edible food resources. Using a thematic analysis, we investigated 1579 comments from German news sites and their corresponding Facebook sites related to this countermovement. Thereby, we aim to better understand what consumers associate with the consumption of other consumers’ plate leftovers. Our study demonstrates that the consumption of plate leftovers is shaped by the regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive system. Furthermore, associations with the consumption of plate leftovers depend on whether this food decision is perceived as a collective or individual consumer decision. From a consumer movement perspective, food leftover consumption is associated with a sense of community and food waste reduction for idealistic or environmental and social reasons. From an individual consumer behavior perspective, food leftover consumption is associated with satisfying hunger but considered a threat to health and social order. Our findings can inspire food service organizations to develop targeted interventions for plate leftover reduction.
... Despite increasing interest around food presentation and aesthetics strategies in the restaurant context (Hagen, 2021;Hagtvedt & Patrick, 2008;F. Wu et al., 2017;Zellner et al., 2014), little research has shed light on the marketing effectiveness of expressive aesthetics for organic versus conventional food. Restaurants have recently begun to label food "organic" on menus to cater to consumers' growing desire for such food (Poulston & Yiu, 2011;Shin & Mattila, 2019). ...
Article
Many restaurants believe that an aesthetically pleasing food presentation can help attract customers and elevate their evaluations. Yet the effectiveness of expressive aesthetics and the psychological processes associated with its use are not well understood in hospitality research. This study adopts a consumer behavior lens to explore how expressive aesthetics affects consumers’ decision making about organic versus conventional food in the restaurant setting. Findings reveal that the expressive aesthetics strategy is effective when marketing conventional, non-organic food; however, such a strategy decreases consumers’ purchase intentions when the food is described as organic. Furthermore, an investigation of the underlying psychological mechanism indicates that anticipated pleasure and food temptation serially mediate the impacts of expressive aesthetics and food type on purchase intention.
... Research has shown taste perceptions to be influenced by a wide range of factors not directly related to chemosensory properties. For instance, consumer taste perception may be altered with product packaging, which in turn affects willingness to pay (Lefebvre and Orlowski, 2019), and the perceived attractiveness of a meal has a positive effect on taste ratings (Zellner et al., 2014). Atmospherics have also been shown to influence taste perceptions (Bschaden et al., 2020;Stafford et al., 2013;Stroebele and De Castro, 2004;van der Heijden et al., 2021). ...
Atmospheric factors within a retail environment provide efficient and effective methods for influencing customer behavior. Drawing on the concept of sensory compensation, this research investigates how ambient lighting influences taste perceptions. Three studies demonstrate that dim lighting enhances taste perceptions. The results of Studies 1a and 1b provide support that low lighting positively influences consumers' perceived taste of single taste dimension foods (e.g., sweet). Study 2 shows the number of taste dimensions (e.g., sweet vs. sweet and salty) stimulated serves as a boundary condition, attenuating the significant effect of dim lighting on taste perceptions.
... Not having a pattern in food plating may be one of the reasons for the increased consumption of palatable foods observed in individuals born SGA. The relevance of food arrangement has been previously demonstrated, indicating that individuals "eat first with their eyes", being willing to pay more, to increase their liking, or to increase their intent to eat more when foods are presented in a visually more appealing manner (Cavazza et al., 2015;Zellner et al., 2011Zellner et al., , 2014. Meal layout planning also helps to decide on the kind and quantity of food to be eaten, and is an adequate dietary intervention to reduce metabolic risk, including the glycemic index (Camelon et al., 1998;Jayawardena et al., 2017;Raidl et al., 2007). ...
Article
While classically linked to memory, the hippocampus is also a feeding behavior modulator due to its multiple interconnected pathways with other brain regions and expression of receptor for metabolic hormones. Here we tested whether variations in insulin sensitivity would be correlated with differential brain activation following exposure to palatable food cues, as well as with variations in implicit food memory in a cohort of healthy adolescents, some of whom were born small for gestational age (SGA). Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was positively correlated with activation in the cuneus, and negatively correlated with activation in the middle frontal lobe, superior frontal gyrus and precuneus when presented with palatable food images versus non-food images in healthy adolescents. Additionally, HOMA-IR and insulinemia were higher in participants with impaired food memory. SGA individuals had higher snack caloric density and greater chance for impaired food memory. There was also an interaction between the HOMA-IR and birth weight ratio influencing external eating behavior. We suggest that diminished insulin sensitivity correlates with activation in visual attention areas and inactivation in inhibitory control areas in healthy adolescents. Insulin resistance also associated with less consistency in implicit memory for a consumed meal, which may suggest lower ability to establish a dietary pattern, and can contribute to obesity. Differences in feeding behavior in SGA individuals were associated with insulin sensitivity and hippocampal alterations, suggesting that cognition and hormonal regulation are important components involved in food intake modifications throughout life.
... The results showed that the liking of the product appearance was high for products which had product-specific colours and shapes, for example the strawberry and chocolate drinks received high scores for their colour, and the bread for its shape. Other studies had similarly shown the impact of colour on liking, but also on perception of flavours (33), where it was seen that colours may trigger the perception of flavours (34). ...
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Background: An adequate dietary intake, especially of protein and energy, is important for maintaining health among elderly people, especially those in care homes. One strategy to ensure nutritional intake is to customise attractive products through enrichment to match the needs of elderly people in care homes. Objective: To evaluate liking and practical aspects of protein and energy enriched in-between meals designed for elderly people in care homes through the use of quantitative and qualitative assessments. Design: A broad range of energy and protein enriched in-between meals, including both savoury and sweet products, were included. The products were evaluated by a consumer test and a focus group discussion with elderly respondents. The products were also evaluated by a second focus group discussion with care staff. Results: The most liked products were ice cream and cheesecake. All products achieved high scores for appearance, taste/flavour and texture. No product included in the study was extremely disliked. However, the least liked product was tomato soup, which scored above the middle of the scale except for texture. It was clear from the focus group discussions that a colourful appearance, small portion size and texture were of primary importance. The temperature had an impact on liking and swallowability. Discussion: Most products were perceived by the elderly participants as appealing and tasting good, and possible to include in a daily diet. It was clear that the colours of the foods were of primary importance. In line with other studies, it was found that highly liked in-between meals were frozen, cold and sweet. These products were also easy to swallow. Conclusions: It is possible to produce highly liked energy and protein enriched in-between meal products designed for elderly people. The temperature had a great impact on the liking of texture, taste and flavour. In-between meals should preferably be colourful and have a small portion size.
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The visual presentation of food plays an important role in shaping the food choices that consumers make. In the current research, we explore the impact that one's eating manner, and by extension, how messy or neat food becomes as a result, can have on enjoyment and consumption over the course of an eating episode. In a series of five studies, we find that eating in a messy manner, which degrades the visual appeal of one's food, can accelerate the rate of satiation and decrease consumption, a phenomenon we term the messy satiation effect. This effect occurs because the disgust response induced by the visual degradation of a food's presentation decreases tastiness perceptions. Accordingly, we position the messy satiation effect as a simple intervention that can be used in some circumstances to combat overconsumption and therefore increase healthier eating patterns through reducing intake, thus providing contributions to both theory and practice.
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The study purpose was to examine faculty and staff perspectives of healthy eating opportunities on a rural, southern university campus using qualitative research methods informed by the Social Ecological Model. Eight focus group discussions with faculty and staff were conducted and analyzed using an inductive and deductive thematic analysis approach. Enablers to healthy eating on campus included an intrinsic desire to make healthy choices, food presentation, and campus wellness programming. Barriers included inconvenience, poor food availability, lackluster presentation, inaccurate menu/portion sizes, cost, and unawareness of options. Participants suggested providing more healthy and fresh foods, offering ‘grab-and-go’ options, and expanding campus nutrition education. Future efforts should incorporate specific solutions provided by participants in this study. Investment in marketing to faculty/staff about nutrition resources available and how to effectively encourage the selection of healthy foods from campus dining venues would also be warranted.
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Previous research has suggested that people prefer balanced over unbalanced plating compositions. Importantly, though, the question remains as to whether plating balance influences consumers’ associations of plating with approach and avoidance motivation. In the present research, we study how plating balance influence people’s aesthetic evaluations and approach and avoidance associations. In addition, based on the idea that context can influence aesthetic evaluations, we manipulate whether the different plates are presented in regular dining or high-end restaurant scenarios. Throughout two experiments we extend previous findings suggesting that plating balance influences aesthetic pleasure. We find that balanced plates are considered more aesthetically pleasing than unbalanced plates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that people associate balanced plates more (less) strongly with approach (avoidance) words relative to unbalanced plates. Notably, our analysis failed to reveal an effect of plating context on either aesthetic pleasure or approach and avoidance ratings. This suggests that balance may be a robust feature in aesthetic plating when it comes to its influence on these variables.
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Chapter
Microalgae are gaining increased importance in the context of European bioeconomy. Despite the huge range of nutritional, technological, and bioactive benefits that microalgae offer, microalgae biomass is not yet a common food ingredient. Some of the main disadvantages of microalgae biomass for food applications are their strong (generally) green color and their “fishy” taste and odor. Over the last decade a relatively large number of foods containing microalgae have been launched into the market and are currently being successfully commercialized. Green-colored foods as well as functional foods, which are those that have a potentially positive effect on health beyond basic nutrition, are two of the top current trends in the food industry. Microalgae and microalgae-derived compounds show potential for being used in the development of novel functional foods with nutritional and health benefits. Therefore the aim of this chapter is to discuss the main factors affecting acceptance or rejection of food and to identify which are the key aspects to consider when developing innovative microalgae-containing foods.
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To tackle obesity, upgrading the image of healthy food is increasingly relevant. Rather than focusing on long-term benefits, an effective way to promote healthy food consumption through visual advertising is to increase its pleasure perception. We investigate whether implied motion, a popular trend in food pictures, affects food perceptions through anticipated consumption pleasure. Prior research shows that motion affects food perceptions, but these studies focused on limited food categories, using experiments with a single food stimulus, and mainly showing unhealthy food effects. Therefore, we aim to (1) replicate prior findings on the effects of food in motion on appeal, tastiness, healthiness, and freshness perceptions; (2) examine whether these effects differ for healthy and unhealthy food; and (3) investigate whether anticipated pleasure of consumption drives the effects of implied motion on food perceptions. Three between-subjects experiments (N = 626) reveal no evidence for the effectiveness of motion (vs. no motion) across a large variety of food products. We further show no differential effects for healthy versus unhealthy foods. Moreover, implied motion does not increase appeal or taste perceptions through anticipated pleasure. Considering the current replication crisis, these findings provide more nuanced insights into the effectiveness of motion in visual food advertising.
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Ortaya nasıl çıktığı bilinmeyen ve geçmişi insanlık tarihi ile aynı olan sanatın, insanların ve toplumların sosyo kültürel gelişiminde oldukça etkili olduğu söylenebilir. Sanatın bu yönünün, toplumun kendi içerisinde oluşturduğu bir başka kültürel değer olan beslenme biçimini ve beklentilerini de etkilediği düşünülmektedir. İnsanın beslenme biçimindeki evrimini etkileyen en önemli unsurlardan bir tanesi de tat almanın öncelikle görme duyusu ile gerçekleştirildiği gerçeğidir. Bir ürünü tüketip tüketmeme konusunda ki kararı etkileyen en önemli unsurun, tüketilmesi beklenen ürünün görüntüsü olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada gastronominin sanatsal yönü irdelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışma da nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden tarama modeli uygulanarak literatür taraması yapılmış ve gastronomi ve sanat arasındaki ilişkiye ilişkin veriler ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu bağlamda gastronominin sanat dalları ile olan gizil bağları ortaya çıkarılmaya ve gastronominin sanatsal çalışmalarına ilişkin bir öngörü oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. Yapılan çalışma ile gastronominin uygulama alanının ortaya koyduğu ürünlere sanatsal yaklaşımlar ile ışık tutulmaya çalışılmıştır.
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Bu çalışma, görünümü sebebiyle tüketimi tercih edilmeyen yemeklerin estetik değeri bulunan sunumlar yoluyla kabulünün artırılmasını ele almaktadır. Bu kapsamda kötü görünümlü yemekleri temsilen şırdan dolması, yenilikçi sunum teknikleri kullanılarak 5 farklı şekilde sunulmuştur. Sunumların değerlendirilmesi amacıyla hazırlanan anket formu, Türk tüketicilere çevrimiçi olarak iletilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında hazırlanan 5 sunum özelinde renk, görsel doku, şekil ve genel sunum (komposizyon) parametreleri belirlenerek beğeni testi uygulanmıştır. Şırdan dolmasını görsel özelliklerinden dolayı tüketmek istemediğini ifade eden 215 katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler sonucunda, şırdan dolmasının bütün halde sunulmasının beğeni puanını olumsuz etkilediği ve şırdandan alınan kesitlerin yatay sunumunun tüm parametreler bazında daha fazla beğeni puanı aldığı tespit edilmiştir. Bunun yanı sıra şırdan dolmasına yönelik en fazla beğeni toplayan tabakların sunumları incelendiğinde, renk çeşitliliği ve canlı renk kullanımı, sos veya baharat kullanımı, şırdan dolması miktarı, tabak doluluk oranı ve tabağın odak noktasının şırdan dolması olmaması gibi unsurların etkili olduğu dikkat çekmiştir. Araştırma bulgularından hareketle, şırdan dolması ve temsil ettiği yiyeceklerin yenilikçi sunum teknikleriyle tüketici nezdinde kabul görme oranının artırılabileceğine ve görsel manipülasyonun tüketici tercihlerinde sahip olduğu etkiye yönelik önemli sonuçlara ulaşılmıştır.
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The gastronomy sector has witnessed significant changes since the emergence of the first restaurants aiming to meet the physical needs by providing food and beverage services. The changes and developments experienced have resulted in restaurants gaining importance as places that meet the social needs of consumers from all classes as well as their physical needs (Maviş, 2005; Morgan, 2006). The importance of plate presentation, which expresses the visual dimension of the food served for out-of-home consumption, has also increased with the new culinary trend reaching a scope that shapes the gastronomy sector (Lane, 2011). Emphasizing the importance of visuality in modern gastronomy, eating and drinking, along with other practices in daily life, is increasingly associated with aesthetic approaches (Miele & Murdoch, 2015). The presentation of a food includes an arrangement for exposing that food to the visual sense. These regulations also ensure that food is preferred (Cornell et al., 1989). In this context, in this study şırdan, which is generally accepted as a bad-looking dish in Turkish society, is discussed. An application was carried out that aims to reveal the effects of visual manipulative arrangements on şırdan and the change in the acceptance situation in the society. Within the scope of the study, 5 modern şırdan presentations were created. Each presentation is photographed at right angles on the same white plate and red background. After the traditional presentation of şırdan was shown to the participants, “Do you know şırdan?” question was posed. Then, “Do you eat şırdan?” were asked to answer the question. The participants in the study sample answered the question “Do you eat şırdan?” were determined as those who answered “no” to the question. Then, 5 presentations photographed within the scope of the research were projected onto the screen in order, and the participants were asked to score between 1 (I didn't like it too much) and 9 (I liked it too much) according to the parameters of color, shape, visual texture and general presentation (composition). As a result of the data obtained, it can be stated that the reasons such as the presentation of the traditional stuffed şırdan as a whole, the visual texture and the taste that the participants stated in the other option, the dislike of offal, the absence of the product in the region they live in, or the fact that it is made from the stomach of an animal have a negative impact on the decision to consume şırdan. In the color, shape, visual texture and general presentation (composition) scoring of the 5 presentations prepared within the scope of the research, the most liked plate presentation was 2 for each parameter. It is thought that the elements such as the composition, presentation of the şırdan horizontally so that the inner rice is visible, the use of vivid colors in the sauces, the round form of the sauces and the stuffing, affect the views of the participants positively and make it the most popular dish. As a result of the research, the dish presentation 3 was not liked, remaining below 5 points in all parameter values. Elements such as the pastel colors used in presentation 3, the asymmetrical and aesthetic distribution of the sauces on the plate, the color harmonies created by the edible flowers could not manipulate the effect of presenting the dish as a whole. When we look at the shapes of şırdan in the presentations, the fact that all compositions except presentation 3 have a value above 5 proves the predicted thesis about the negative effect of presenting şırdan as a whole. When the average scores of the parameters between the presentations were compared, it was concluded that the vivid colors should be positioned to soften the color of the filling and the color variety used in the plate should be more. In addition, it has been determined that the şırdan is cut and presented, making the dish accepted by the participants. In addition, it has been observed that the features such as the presence of sauces and spices on the plate and the fact that the only focal note of the plate is not şırdan have an effect on increasing the appreciation score in the parameters measured in the presentation. Considering the presentations 2 and 4, which have the highest scores in the visual texture parameter, the use of sauces in a round form and sections from the şırdan draw attention as common features. Based on this data, it is seen that the round form touch gives positive results in the presentation of şırdan. In the general presentation parameter, it has been determined that the elements such as taking sections from the şırdan, using edible flowers and filling the empty spaces on the plate with spices or sauces, giving color and texture to the plate, positively affect the taste of the plate. The data obtained in the study showed positive results that the view of a dish that can be termed as bad-looking can be changed with a few presentation techniques. The results of the study are considered valuable in terms of emphasizing the severity of the effect of visuality on taste perception and consumption motivation. Similar researches should be done on different dishes and products and alternative presentation suggestions should be developed. Developed presentations should be presented to the consumer's taste, especially in Turkish cuisine restaurants visited by large numbers of local and foreign tourists. Dishes that are exposed to visual prejudices throughout the society should be promoted by sharing them in TV programs, publication channels such as magazines and newspapers, social media accounts in the field of gastronomy, and various gastronomy festivals, and people should be provided with the opportunity to experience different tastes. The results obtained are considered important in terms of developing a solution proposal for the preservation, transfer to future generations and promotion of dishes such as şırdan and similar, which are a valuable part of Turkish culture. Adoption of a food is related to people's belonging to food culture elements. Societies that aim to come to the fore in the field of gastronomy should promote and keep their local dishes alive in the national and then international arenas before condemning them to the limits of cultural consumption of small masses without exposing them to various labels.
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We investigated the effect that the parameters of luminance distribution in fresh food have on our visual perception of its freshness. We took pictures of the degradation over 32 h in freshness of a cabbage. We used original images, which were patches of the pictures taken at different sampling hours, and artificially generated pictures, called "matched images," created by fitting the luminance histogram shape of the original image (taken at the 1st hour) to those at various freshness stages using a luminance histogram-matching algorithm. Nine participants rated the perceived freshness of the original and the matched images on a scale of degradation. As a result, we found that the participants could quantitatively estimate the degradation in freshness of the cabbage simply by looking at the presented images. Some parameters of the luminance histograms monotonically change with decreasing freshness, indicating that the freshness of cabbage can be estimated using these parameters. However, the freshness ratings for the matched images after the 8th hour of degradation had lower modification than those for the respective original images. These results suggest that the luminance distribution in the vegetable texture partly contributes to visual freshness perception but other variables, such as spatial patterns, might also be important for estimating visual freshness.
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The effects of color on odor identification were tested under color appropriate, inappropriate, and blindfolded conditions. Subjects made fewer errors in identifying solutions that were colored appropriately (e.g., red-cherry) than in either the blindfolded condition, where there were no color cues, or the inappropriate color condition (e.g., red-lemon). Identification accuracy was greatest for typical odor-color combinations (e.g., red-cherry) compared with appropriate but nontypical odor-color combinations (e.g., red-watermelon). Response latencies were fastest for odors in the appropriately colored solutions. Subjects also rated appropriate color-odor combinations as most pleasant. However, this effect is probably due to the increase in identification accuracy of the appropriately colored solutions. In all three conditions, correctly identified odors were liked more than odors that were not correctly identified. Thus, color is an important perceptual variable in odor identification because it biases subjects toward a color category that facilitates identification if the color is "correct". This ability to identify an odor in turn influences the affective response to the odor.
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In two independent demonstrations, pre-prepared food was served in different environments: first, identical prepared meals were served in both a training restaurant and in a student cafeteria; second, a prepared main dish was served in a food science laboratory class, and as part of an entire meal in two student cafeterias and in a training restaurant. In the training restaurants and in the student cafeterias, people selected and paid for their meals. The acceptability ratings of the food served varied across the three different environments in the following order: restaurant>laboratory>cafeteria. Differences in acceptance were attributed to contextual effects and the expectations they produce, actual product differences, and a number of possible covariates. Ratings of sensory attributes tended to mirror the acceptability effects. The difficulty of comparing contexts within actual food service systems is discussed.
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The interaction between the vision of colors and odor determination is investigated through lexical analysis of experts' wine tasting comments. The analysis shows that the odors of a wine are, for the most part, represented by objects that have the color of the wine. The assumption of the existence of a perceptual illusion between odor and color is confirmed by a psychophysical experiment. A white wine artificially colored red with an odorless dye was olfactory described as a red wine by a panel of 54 tasters. Hence, because of the visual information, the tasters discounted the olfactory information. Together with recent psychophysical and neuroimaging data, our results suggest that the above perceptual illusion occurs during the verbalization phase of odor determination.
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In studies of hedonic ratings, contrast is the usual result when expectations about test stimuli are produced through the presentation of context stimuli, whereas assimilation is the usual result when expectations about test stimuli are produced through labeling, advertising, or the relaying of information to the subject about the test stimuli. Both procedures produce expectations that are subsequently violated, but the outcomes are different. The present studies demonstrate that both assimilation and contrast can occur even when expectations are produced by verbal labels and the degree of violation of the expectation is held constant. One factor determining whether assimilation or contrast occurs appears to be the certainty of the expectation. Expectations that convey certainty are produced by methods that lead to social influence on subjects' ratings, producing assimilation. When social influence is not a factor and subjects give judgments influenced only by the perceived hedonic value of the stimulus, contrast is the result.
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