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Early Stage Design Decisions: The Way to Achieve Sustainable Buildings at Lower Costs


Abstract and Figures

The construction industry attempts to produce buildings with as lower environmental impact as possible. However, construction activities still greatly affect environment; therefore, it is necessary to consider a sustainable project approach based on its performance. Sustainability is an important issue to consider in design, not only due to environmental concerns but also due to economic and social matters, promoting architectural quality and economic advantages. This paper aims to identify the phases through which a design project should be developed, emphasising the importance and ability of earlier stages to influence sustainability, performance, and life cycle cost. Then, a selection of sustainability key indicators, able to be used at the design conceptual phase and able to start predicting environmental sustainability performance of buildings is presented. The output of this paper aimed to enable designers to compare and evaluate the consequences of different design solutions, based on preliminary data, and facilitate the collaboration between stakeholders and clients and eventually yield a sustainable and high performance building throughout its life cycle.
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Research Article
Early Stage Design Decisions: The Way to Achieve Sustainable
Buildings at Lower Costs
Luís Bragança, Susana M. Vieira, and Joana B. Andrade
Building Physics & Construction Technology Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes, Portugal
Correspondence should be addressed to Lu´
ıs Braganc¸a;
Received  August ; Accepted  October ; Published  January 
Academic Editors: H. Cui and J. Lu
Copyright ©  Lu´
ıs Braganc¸a et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
e construction industry attempts to produce buildings with as lower environmental impact as possible. However, construction
activities still greatly aect environment; therefore, it is necessary to consider a sustainable project approach based on its
performance. Sustainability is an important issue to consider in design, not only due to environmental concerns but also due to
economic and social matters, promoting architectural quality and economic advantages. is paper aims to identify the phases
through which a design project should be developed, emphasising the importance and ability of earlier stages to inuence
sustainability, performance, and life cycle cost. en, a selection of sustainability key indicators, able to be used at the design
conceptual phase and able to start predicting environmental sustainability performance of buildings is presented. e output of
this paper aimed to enable designers to compare and evaluate the consequences of dierent design solutions, based on preliminary
data, and facilitate the collaboration between stakeholders and clients and eventually yield a sustainable and high performance
building throughout its life cycle.
1. Introduction
“Instead of trying to “force t” sustainable princi-
ples into an existing and oen unreceptive manu-
facturing system, it may be useful to approach the
subject from the opposite direction, and consider
how functional objects might be designed and
manufactured to be compatible with principles of
sustainable development” [1].
Sustainability is an important issue to consider in design,
not only due to the environmental concerns but also due to
economic and social issues, as they promote architectural
quality and have economic advantages []. Sustainable design
besides contributing to more comfortable and pleasant spaces
for living allows economic savings through ecient design
while the buildings’ environmental footprint is reduced.
e importance of considering sustainability in design
stage meets the need for nding long-term solutions that
warrant well-being and minimize the needs for natural
resources as land use, biodiversity, water, air, and energy. If a
project is well planned and sustainable criteria are included
in its early approach, the possibility to reduce negative
impacts is greater and the cost of criteria implementation is
greatly reduced, as illustrated in Figure .Improvementofthe
building’s sustainability performance must begin already in
the design stage, as the potential of optimisation in project
building and the construction costs are lower.
A building’s project obeys general criteria that allow its
development on later stages; usually, main criteria respond to
functional, economic, social, and time requirements. How-
ever, those are not enough to create a consistent base to
achieve optimal results for the building. New criteria and
approach, that are usually not considered, can bring advan-
tages to the project, favouring improvement of its perfor-
mance and reducing its nal cost []. e sooner the project
goals are dened and the new criteria are integrated, the more
sustainable the building will be.
For the building analysis and sustainability performance
prediction in early stage phases of design, several indictors
need to be identied and selected. e analysis of the work
that has been carried out and published by the research
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
e Scientific World Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 365364, 8 pages
e Scientic World Journal
Possibility to inuence impacts
and costs
Impacts and costs of
Impacts and costs of
Cumulated impacts and
Impacts and costs during use phase
Planning Construction Use phase and maintenance
Environmental impacts and costs
F : Inuence of design decisions on life cycle impacts and costs [].
team of the Building Physics and Construction Technology of
University of Minho since  []corroboratesthisneed.
Braganc¸a and Mateus publications [,]presentprevious
work from the authors’ research team and are in line with
the new CEN standards for sustainable construction [],
the European energy directive [],andalsomajorEuropean
research projects as perfection [], SuPerBuildings [], and
Open House []. Furthermore, a new set of indicators for
early stage design can also be useful for later assessment
with the new generation of building sustainability assessment
Two types of indicators can be proposed: core indicators
and additional indicators. Core indicators can be used in the
conceptual stage, whereas additional indicators can only be
used in the next phase, the predesign stage, as illustrated
in Figure . Core indicators showed to be the best solution
for the conceptual stage. e functional unit (square, cubic
meter, etc.) to quantify them should be independent from the
whole building dimensions, as these later are not available
at early design. Moreover, core indicators may be used as
a simple and faster assessment, while using both types of
indicators—core and additional indicators—gives a more
complete and exact evaluation, ensuring sustainability at all
fronts of action.
e aim of this paper is to identify the phases through
which the design project should go along, emphasising the
importance and ability of earlier stages to inuence the level
of sustainability, performance, and life cycle cost over the
project. Aerwards, there is the need to select a set of sus-
tainability indicators and to check its adaptability to the early
design. e framework of this paper is divided into two steps:
(i) identication and description of project design phases,
recognizing the main tasks of each one, and (ii) an analysis of
the adequacy and usability of the building sustainability indi-
cators, taking into account the scarce information available at
the early design stages. Only core indicators will be described
F : Core indicators and additional indicators.
as the scope of this paper focuses on the very beginning of
buildings’ design—conceptual phase. Additional indicators
will be explained in another publication.
e output of this paper aimed to enable designers to
compare and predict environmental sustainability perfor-
mance of dierent design solutions, based on preliminary
data, and facilitate the collaboration between stakeholders.
e object of the assessment is the building; it does not
include the characteristics of the building site nor its neigh-
bourhood. e scope of the analysis encompasses all stages
from material production stage to end-of-life stage.
e Scientic World Journal
Solar shading
Photovoltaic panel
F : Examples of schematic drawings resulting from the conceptual design phase; (a) spaces rst idea/local implementation; (b) rst
attempt to integrate desired sustainability measures/exterior appearance.
2. Design Phases
A sustainable design needs an integrated design process
and a more involved approach than a conventional design
process. Ensuring the high quality of design is to ensure an
interdisciplinary project team working through an integrated
planning and preparing a project to its best performance.
us, the design process is crucial because most decisions that
will determine building performance in use will be made at
this stage.
A building project is developed by a sequence of phases.
e concept of design phases is related to a set of consecutive
actions that guides the development process. ese actions
are grouped in stages by their level of priority, shaping each
phase of the project. It is important to consider the value
of each action/goal/objective, predicting its importance on
buildings performance and its inuence on the projects nal
cost in order to implement each one at the adequate moment.
Huovila []showedthataperformanceapproachisessential
to manage life cycle requirements of a building during its
Although dierent names are given by dierent authors,
the phases of a building project and its goals are generally the
with the moment where the client meets the project team
and exposes the goals for the building. During this initial
phase, clients and design team share information seeking to
develop the building’s concept. e architectural program-
ming is required to dene key requirements and constraints
towards project quality. Type of architecture and formal
and functional aspects must be discussed as well as indoor
and outdoor quality desired by the client. Information of
construction, elsewhere should be suggested; subjects as
room and building functional, environmental, and spatial
performance, comfort practices, energy requirements, and so
forth should be addressed, as well as concerns on building
use, heating, cooling, lighting, ventilation, water, waste, site
works, and materials. Additionally, it is at this stage that
procurement method, project and sustainability procedures,
building design life time, organisational structure, mainte-
nance, project cost, and timescale are dealt with.
e following project step is the implementation of
the earlier dened objectives []. Several publications
emphasise the importance of this phase to the performance
of the building in its operational phase []. However,
decision making tools are rare [,]. At this phase, all
clients’ interests and design team members such as architects,
engineers, and all needed specialists are involved. is initial
phase puts into practice the clients’ instructions and exposes
the project team proposal; decisions at this early stage are of
the utmost importance while project is provisional and open
to change.
To the scope of this paper, the aforementioned tasks will
be grouped into one single design stage—the conceptual
stage. Hence, it is hereby understood as the preliminary
design phase of the building, in which the overall system con-
guration is dened, and schematic drawings and layouts will
provide an early project conguration, as seen in Figure .
At this stage, the availability of data is very poor and any
assessment has to be based mainly on assumptions. At this
stage of design, there are no drawings or any other details
about the building. e only information about the building
shape is the area of construction and the height of the
building. From these elements, all other data need to be
aspects need to be fullled in this stage: the selection of the
e Scientic World Journal
Appr aisal
Detailed project
and action
Tend e r
Conceptual phase
Basic project
More data
More accurate results
F : Design stages of a building [].
for the structure (estimation); a bill of materials for the
envelope (e.g., areas of external and internal walls, area of
oors, area of roof, etc.) (estimation).
e next stage of the project begins aer the approval of
sketch studies; the design team commences the implemen-
tation of the working drawings for the construction of the
project. Once again dierent designations are given to this
phase—development phase, preproject, basic project [], and
design development [,]. It is also split into two moments,
the preliminary project or predesign and the basic project.
At this moment, the general shape of the building is
developed through plans, sections, and elevations; the pro-
visional information addressed in earlier phases is conrmed
or modied. e actual/chosen solution must be compatible
with initial requirements and within the various applicable
regulations; the functional relationships between dierent
elements, spaces, and volumes must be examined, as well as
the base programming, according to any amendments agreed
between the client and the design team.
Type of construction is generally dened and the materi-
als are proposed during the meetings with the clients. Aspects
like exterior and interior wall nishing, ooring, plumbing
xtures, hardware design, type of masonry, roong materials,
and so forth shall be decided in this stage. Building equipment
as types of windows and doors and their manufacturer, the
elevator type and manufacturer, the mechanical system, and
electrical xtures are also to be identied in this phase.
is kind of information, when taken together, facilitates an
estimate of construction cost. Still, work of every technical
specialist must be coordinated; the public authorities must be
consulted and initial investigations of comfort and environ-
ment should be conrmed.
According to the scope of this work, this phase will be
called as predesign phase.
e data available at this stage enables a better denition
of the structural system. In this stage, it is expected to have
information (drawings) about the plans and elevations of
the building. e detail level of the building enables a much
more accurate denition of the bill of materials. Based on the
available input data, the following aspects need to be fullled
in this stage: a complete bill of materials for the structure and
envelope and the denition of the building orientation.
Figure  summarizes the sequence of the phases,
moments, and data improvement of a building project that,
from now on, will be used in this work.
Each phase is characterized by a set of key tasks that lead
to gathering information needed and to the development of
the building architecture and features.
In a conventional design process, these steps can be
understood as a linear process, but sequential work routines
may be unable to support any adequate design optimization
eorts during individual decoupled phases, which of course
lead to higher expenditure. In this approach, the architect
and the client agree on a design concept, consisting of
a general massing schema, orientation, fenestration, and
(usually) the general exterior appearance, in addition to basic
materials. e structural, building physics, mechanical, and
electrical engineers are then asked to implement the design
and to suggest appropriate systems. Although this is vastly
oversimplied, this kind of process is the one that is followed
by the overwhelming majority of general purpose design
On the other hand, a sustainable design needs an inte-
grated design process; it requires the involvement of the
whole design team and the iteration between phases. e
throughout the design process and must work well together
the attitude of the design team is critical and their members
must be able to establish a collaborative framework for the
Although conceptual and predesign phases have been
dened, in this paper, only conceptual phase will be consid-
ered for the inclusion of sustainable concerns. It is considered
to be the most crucial phase, as less data is available and the
possibilities to design and innovate are greater.
3. Selection of Indicators
As mentioned previously in this paper, core indicators aim to
predict the building’s sustainability performance at concep-
impacts, energy, and life cycle costs related indicators were
considered to be those which have a major inuence on sus-
tainability and are able to be assessed at conceptual design
3.1. Environmental Impacts. Environmental impacts category
is composed of one single indicator—aggregated value of envi-
ronmental impact—which in turn gathers the seven subindi-
cators proposed in EN -:, listed in Table .ese
e Scientic World Journal
T : Subindicators describing environmental impact indicator.
Indicator Unit
Global warming potential, GWP kg COequiv
Depletion potential of the stratospheric ozone layer, ODP kg CFC  equiv
Acidication potential of land and water; AP kg SOequiv
Eutrophication potential, EP kg (PO)equiv
Formation potential of tropospheric ozone photochemical oxidants, POCP kg ethene equiv
Abiotic resource depletion potential for elements; ADP elements kg Sb equiv
Abiotic resource depletion potential of fossil fuels ADP fossil fuels MJ
T : Indicators describing energy impacts.
Indicator Unit
Total primary energy demands and share of
renewable and nonrenewable primary energy
resources (in operation phase)
sub-indicators are evaluated based on characterization fac-
tors and input ows.
Normal life cycle impact estimator soware (as SimaPro
or GaBi) can be used to estimate these values. As in the
project conceptual stage the exact amount or construction
technology to be used is under determination, and a database
of the buildings’ envelope elements and its environmental
life cycle impact is needed. A database with this purpose
has already been published by Braganc¸a and Mateus [].
It presents environmental life cycle data impact for several
building elements and materials, aiming to support design
decision making towards greater environmental performance
of their buildings. Based on a comparison, the designers will
be able to determine the solutions with less environmental
impact or resource use.
3.2. Energy. Total primary energy demand describes the
energy consumption predicted to the operational phase,
summarized in Tab l e  . Guidelines for energy consumption
impose the improvement of energy eciency and the reduc-
tion of consumption [,]. For that reason, the total
demand for primary energy should be minimized and the
share of renewable energy should be maximized while reduc-
ing the share of nonrenewable energy during the building’s
life cycle. is indicator accounts for estimation of (i) energy
use for space heating, (ii) energy use for space cooling, (iii)
energy use for domestic hot water production, and (iv) other
energy uses. To assess energy performance, an algorithm to
compute operational energy at early design stage needs to be
used. National, regional, or local codes of practice for ther-
mal behaviour and energy eciency are most oen simple
calculation procedures that can be easily used to estimate the
energy consumption at the operational phase.
3.3. Life Cycle Cost. e indicators describing life cycle cost
arelistedinTable . Construction costs are all the costs
related to each process needed to build the building. is
indicator includes (i) the cost of material acquisition and
transportation, (ii) the cost of construction equipment, and
T : Indicators describing life cycle costs.
Indicator Unit
Construction costs C/m
Operation costs C/m
End-of-life costs C/m
(iii) the cost of manpower. Most of these costs are usually
provided in the project. ese costs usually occur in the rst
or second years of the building life cycle. However, due to
the long time period of analysis, it may be assumed that they
occur in the rst year, the base year, of the building life cycle.
Maintenance costs include all costs occurring over the
service life of the building, in order to keep it according to
the required functional conditions. End-of-life costs refer to
the end-of-life activities such as the total or partial demolition
of the building and the removal of the demolition waste to
its nal destination. ese costs may be estimated based on
scenarios and best practices.
us, the authors will take advantage of their team
previous work [,] and the work done by Fuller and
Petersen [] and use their approach to implement costs
3.4. Summary of Selected Core Indicators. In order to ease
understanding, Table  summarizesthecoreindicatorspro-
posed. As seen above, eleven indicators to be included in the
initial phases of design were selected. e rst seven regard
environmental impact categories, such as global warming
or abiotic resource depletion, which can be easily estimated
through a database or a catalogue of buildings’ elements LCA.
e eighth indicator considers primary energy demand.
Although it may look dicult to assess this indicator at an
early design stage, the use of codes of practice for thermal
behaviour and energy eciency allows simple assessments.
At last, three cost related indicators were considered. All
three represent an estimation of the buildings life cycle costs,
which represent a major aspect to take into account since
early stages. Typically, stakeholders only consider initial costs
neglecting all the other attitudes that may lead to more costly
buildings when looking to its entire life.
4. Conclusions
e aim of this paper is to determine which sustainable indi-
cators can be assessed in the initial phases of a design project.
e Scientic World Journal
T : List of selected indicators for conceptual phase.
Environmental indicators
Environmental impact
() Global warming potential
() Depletion potential of the stratospheric ozone layer
() Acidication potential of land and water
() Eutrophication potential
() Formation potential of tropospheric ozone photochemical oxidants
() Abiotic resource depletion potential for elements
() Abiotic resource depletion potential of fossil fuels
Energy () Total primary energy demand
Economic indicators
Life cycle costs
() Construction costs
() Operation costs
() End-of-life costs
For that, an initial study was carried out to clarify the
contents of the early stages of design of a building. It was
concluded that, although dierent names are given, most of
the available literature identies the same stages. From the
several designations and stages, the following were analysed
in this work:
(i) conceptual phase: it begins when the client meets
the design team and the objectives of the project are
dened. It represents a preliminary design phase of
the building, in which the overall system congura-
tion is dened and schematic drawings and layouts
will provide an early project conguration, type of
architecture, and formal and functional aspects. It
lacks specic data;
(ii) predesign phase: it starts with the implementation of
the working drawings; the general shape of the build-
ing is developed through plans, sections, and eleva-
tions; the provisional information addressed in the
conceptual phase is conrmed or modied.
Several methodologies, standards, and research projects
were analysed to determine the nal set of key indicators
that should be considered in this methodology, supporting
assessing and management of project process during early
design phases.
e conceptual phase deals with fuzzy data and oen
lacks information, which makes it impossible to address sev-
eral indicators, especially the ones related to the social and
functional aspects of the building.
Taking this into consideration, two groups of indicators
were settled: (i) core indicators and (ii) additional indicators.
Core indicators can be used in the conceptual stage, whereas
additional indicators can only be used in the latter stages
e core indicators regard the aspects that can be
addressed under the little information available at the con-
ceptual phase. On the other hand, additional indicators
compile all the other indicators. In this sense, core indicators
consist in environmental impacts, energy consumption, and
costs, whose data can be obtained from databases of build-
ings’ elements, simple estimation of the operational energy
demands, and databases of construction solutions costs.
In conclusion, from this study, it is essential to consider
sustainability concerns since the rst stages of design project
so as to assure greater performances. Environmental impacts
and life cycle costs are most likely to be easily considered dur-
ing conceptual stage, as they require less information from
specications of the in order to be quantied.
Conflict of Interests
e authors declare that there is no conict of interests
regarding the publication of this paper.
is research work has received partial funding from the
European Community’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel
(RFCS) under Grant Agreement no. RFSR-CT--.
FCT Fellowship SFRH/BD//.
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... It transforms ideas and requirements into plans, drawings, and specifications that are appraised by the owners. Bennet (Bennett, 2003) displayed the main tasks and documents followed by stakeholders during this phase. For example, architects deal with accomplishing preliminary designs, and engineers worry about how various systems may fit into the whole project. ...
... Sustainable social aspects have not yet touched on in the preliminary design phase (Andrade et al., 2012, Bragança et al., 2014; notwithstanding, it does not imply that these aspects are abandoned because it is still a part of sustainability. To put it another way, they specified that environmental and economic aspects could be evaluated in a more facile manner compared to the social aspect, as they require less information for this phase than the social one. ...
Full-text available
Construction projects consume a massive amount of renewable and non-renewable resources and negatively affect sustainable development. The selection of materials is necessary to meet the demands of sustainability. The preliminary design phase is essential within construction project phases because the main requirements, budget, and master drawings are planned here. Also, the selection of primary materials is considered in this phase. However, the integration of material selection and sustainability in the preliminary design phase has been underestimated. This paper reviewed sustainability in the preliminary design phase and the importance of material selection in accordance with sustainability in this phase. By using current literature and tools like Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), the paper establishes a conceptual framework including sub-aspects that relate to sustainable aspects (economy, environment, and society). The proposed sub-aspects, such as total cost, cost efficiency, budget management, and water efficiency, define the relevant activities that help select the most sustainable materials. The results can be applied as a guide to decision-makers and promote sustainability right from the preliminary design phase. Future studies may provide methods for each criterion and establish a detailed plan to apply this framework in practice.
... Finally, final designs are created by combining all of the architectural, mechanical, and electrical models. This technique is used by the majority of the construction industry since it is simple to understand and execute [115].However this conventional process results in little interaction with project members and leads to work in segregated environment, so non-optimal solutions are provided by designers and engineers to provide appropriate system [116]. BEM is not completely involved in this approach due to certain limitations, meanwhile, some engineers recommend using simulation tools and a high-performance system later in the design process to avoid defects caused by poor planning in the early stages. ...
... Buildings are classified green when they meet the minimum certification criteria. Bragança et al. (2014) noted that a building does not necessarily need certification to be green. This statement corroborates the report of some buildings that were green compliant even though they were not subject to any form of green certification (Langdon, 2007). ...
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Green buildings are healthier, more economical, and energy-efficient with a lesser environmental footprint than conventional buildings. The study assessed the compliance level of Tertiary Educational Institution Buildings (TEIBS) in South-Western Nigeria with green building requirements. The study covered Forty-seven (47) Tertiary Education Trust Fund building projects executed from 2011- 2017 using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design scoring system. The compliance index with the requirements was established by collating the scores for the different LEED categories. The findings revealed a higher compliance index for some LEED requirements than others. The result also shows a significant variation in compliance among the Institutions. The Man-Whitney U-test showed no difference in the compliance level between University and Polytechnic buildings. Results of the study suggest that individual institutions should leverage the compliance level to improve the quality of education in Nigeria. by implication, the variation in the compliance level is due to a lack of policy direction for developing green TEIBS in Nigeria. The study recommended that the Federal government, through the Tertiary Education Trust Fund, should formulate policies to enhance compliance with green building principles in the development of TEIBS.
Türk inşaat sektörü, özellikle 1980’li yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren ekonomik büyümenin lokomotifi olmuş, yaşanan ekonomik kriz dönemlerinde bile bu konumunu sürdürmeyi başarmıştır. 2018 yılından itibaren kendini göstermeye başlayan finansal krizin, bu durumu değiştirmemekle birlikte, inşaat sektörünü hiç beklemediği bir şekilde konut fazlası sorunu ile karşı karşıya bıraktığı hususu son birkaç yılda Türkiye kamuoyu gündemini meşgul eden ana başlıklardan biri haline gelmiştir. Konut fazlası veya konut stoku gibi anahtar kelimeler kullanılarak internette bir arama yapıldığında sadece birkaç saniye içinde konuya ilişkin çok sayıda bilgi ve yoruma ulaşılabilmektedir. Üretilen konutların önemli bir bölümünün planlanan takvime uygun şekilde satılamadığına, dolayısıyla da konut stoklarının arttığına ilişkin tespit ve değerlendirmeler ile bu durumun ortaya çıkardığı başarısızlık hikâyeleri bu bilgi ve yorumlardan bazılarıdır. Söz konusu başarısızlığın ortadan kaldırılabilmesi için konut kredisi faizlerinde indirim, peşinat düşürme, taksitleri uzun vadelere yayma, ödemeleri erteleme ve maliyetine satış gibi çeşitli yollara başvurulmuş ve bunlara ilaveten daha neler yapılabileceği konuşulmaya başlanmıştır. Böyle bir ortamda gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmada; sorunun kaynağını oluşturabilecek nedenler tartışılarak gelecekteki geliştirmelere katkı sağlanabilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla öncelikle Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu (TÜİK)’nun yapı ruhsatı, yapı kullanma izin ve ilk satış konut istatistikleri yardımıyla, bahsi geçen sorunun varlığı değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar 2000-2019 döneminde ruhsata bağlanarak yapımına başlanılan toplam 12.543.047 bağımsız bölümün %16,96’sına karşılık gelen 2.127.086 adedin tamamlanamadığını, 2012-2020 döneminde yapı kullanma izni almış olan toplam 6.614.059 konutun %23,57’sini oluşturan 1.558.808 adedin ise 2021 yılı sonu itibariyle satılamamış olduğunu göstermiştir. Sonrasında, konut geliştirmenin tamamlanamama ve pazarlanamama başarısızlıkları olarak da nitelendirilebilecek bu durumun neden ve sonuçları üzerine odaklanılmıştır. Genelde gayrimenkul geliştirmenin, özelde konut geliştirmenin temel özellikleri, riskleri ve süreçlerine ilişkin literatür bilgileri temel alınarak, geliştirmede başarı için anahtar olabilecek unsurlar ile bu unsurların gerektiği gibi dikkate alınmamasından doğabilecek sonuçların vurgulanmasına çalışılmıştır. Yapılan değerlendirmeler, konut sektöründe üretim-arz-talep dengesinin kurulabilmesi için proje geliştirme yaklaşımlarının yeniden gözden geçirilmesi gerektiğini göstermiştir. Gelecekteki konut geliştirmelerde; risklerin en önemli kaynağını oluşturan geliştirmenin temel özelliklerine ve risk yönetimi yapılanmasına daha fazla dikkat edilmesi zorunluluğu vurgulanmıştır. Karar vermede en önemli noktayı teşkil eden uygulanabilirlik analizlerine ve bu analizler içerisinde programlamaya, geçmişte olduğundan çok daha fazla önem verilmesi ve bu yönde hareket edilmesi gerektiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
The construction industry is one of the fastest-growing sectors and is gaining the huge attention of policymakers. The main reason for this attention is the rapid increase in energy demands due to urbanization and increasing salaries. It is consuming approximately 40% of the global energy, at the cost of equivalent carbon emissions. These consumptions are unavoidable and are growing significantly, thus posing higher risks for climate change. However, timely taken preventive measures can reduce these risks and the energy requirement substantially. Sustainable development is one of the projected solutions which involve meeting both energy and environmental demands without impacting the needs of the future generation. However, it involves a number of parameters like improved indoor air quality, adequate daylight, selection of material, etc. Monitoring such a complex system requires an efficient delivery process. The present manuscript is an attempt to review the integrated modeling approach for developing sustainable buildings. The focus of the study is on discussing the strategies for improving dwelling conditions with minimal ramifications on energy requirements. The study intends to bring light to the various complications faced by stakeholders in selecting an appropriate technique.KeywordsIntegrated modelingSustainabilityEnergyComfortable dwelling
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p>The digitalization of civil projects is accelerating. The amount of data is increasing, requirements from clients are more precise; and time is always of the essence. To analyse and compare different production methods, innovative designs and sustainability are essential keys. A promising approach is to combine automated design methods and tools supported by artificial intelligence (AI). The purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge gaps in this field, i.e., what method development is necessary and what can be done with the support of AI. A series of interviews were performed with experienced personnel from the construction business. The focus was to establish where best practice lies today, regarding evaluation of alternatives and finding opportunities in today’s tender process and early phases of a project. Furthermore, a literature review was performed to determine the possibilities with analysis with AI from a wide set of requirements, together with changing input variables. The focus was to establish what possible opportunities that comes with comparison analysis with AI and point out new demands that might arise from this process. Furthermore, the state-of-the-art of today’s design methods and contractors working procedure was described, with a focus on how contractors are working in order to find opportunities in civil projects today. It can be concluded that requirements documents and information management need to improve. Furthermore, several methods for multi-objective constrained optimization exists today. If this is combined with a set-based parametric design approach, contractors could increase their ability in finding opportunities.</p
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Conventional pedestrian simulators are inevitable tools in the design process of a building, as they enable project engineers to prevent overcrowding situations and plan escape routes for evacuation. However, simulation runtime and the multiple cumbersome steps in generating simulation results are potential bottlenecks during the building design process. Data-driven approaches have demonstrated their capability to outperform conventional methods in speed while delivering similar or even better results across many disciplines. In this work, we present a deep learning-based approach based on a Vision Transformer to predict density heatmaps over time and total evacuation time from a given floorplan. Specifically, due to limited availability of public datasets, we implement a parametric data generation pipeline including a conventional simulator. This enables us to build a large synthetic dataset that we use to train our architecture. Furthermore, we seamlessly integrate our model into a BIM-authoring tool to generate simulation results instantly and automatically.
Conference Paper
Conventional pedestrian simulators are inevitable tools in the design process of a building, as they enable project engineers to prevent overcrowding situations and plan escape routes for evacuation. However, simulation runtime and the multiple cumbersome steps in generating simulation results are potential bottlenecks during the building design process. Data-driven approaches have demonstrated their capability to outperform conventional methods in speed while delivering similar or even better results across many disciplines. In this work, we present a deep learning-based approach based on a Vision Transformer to predict density heatmaps over time and total evacuation time from a given floorplan. Specifically, due to limited availability of public datasets, we implement a parametric data generation pipeline including a conventional simulator. This enables us to build a large synthetic dataset that we use to train our architecture. Furthermore, we seamlessly integrate our model into a BIM-authoring tool to generate simulation results instantly and automatically.
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The globe has been moving in the direction of using less energy and emitting fewer emissions in recent years, which has a variety of implications like causing climate change. Hence, the environmental analysis is essential today in construction sector to develop a good product with adequate performance, safety, with logical cost and friendly to environment. One of the most significant emissions from various stages in the building sector is carbon dioxide, which may be further separated into two categories: embedded emissions and operating emissions. This paper’s main goal is to introduce a simple tool integrated into a BIM-based framework that provides an analysis of embodied carbon (related to SE2050’s commitment to net zero) in order to produce a manual for designers to select the appropriate materials, systems, and alternatives during the design phase. The suggested integration procedure was carried out using Autodesk Revit (to produce the 3D model), Dynamo (a visual programming tool), and BIM360 (to link with), with good interoperability between each product. Finally, a case study is done to apply and validate this process to foresee that the tool can be ready to use, the results shows that the maximum variance was 0.047, this support developers’ environmental strategies, and enable clients and other stockholders to consider the environmental impact in the early phases of the construction projects.
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The design of most buildings is typically driven by budget, time, safety, and energy codes, producing buildings that just meet these minimum criteria. To achieve better or even exceptional energy performance in buildings, the design team needs to work with the building owner and others involved in the building process toward a focused energy performance goal. This paper describes the performance-based design process for buildings and benefits of this approach.
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Handbook 135 is a guide to understanding the life-cycle cost (LCC) methodology and criteria established by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for the economic evaluation of energy and water conservation projects and renewable energy projects in all federal buildings. The purpose of this handbook is to facilitate the implementation of the FEMP rules by explaining the LCC method, defining the measures of economic performance used, describing the assumptions and procedures to follow in performing evaluations, giving examples, and noting NIST computer software available for computation and reporting purposes.