Ebola virus vaccines: An overview of current approaches

Expert Review of Vaccines (Impact Factor: 4.21). 02/2014; 13(4). DOI: 10.1586/14760584.2014.885841
Source: PubMed


Ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of the most fatal viral diseases worldwide affecting humans and nonhuman primates. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, the virus has the potential to spread globally and is classified as a category A pathogen that could be misused as a bioterrorism agent. As of today there is no vaccine or treatment licensed to counteract Ebola virus infections. DNA, subunit and several viral vector approaches, replicating and non-replicating, have been tested as potential vaccine platforms and their protective efficacy has been evaluated in nonhuman primate models for Ebola virus infections, which closely resemble disease progression in humans. Though these vaccine platforms seem to confer protection through different mechanisms, several of them are efficacious against lethal disease in nonhuman primates attesting that vaccination against Ebola virus infections is feasible.

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    • "The importance of biomedical countermeasures, such as vaccines, therefore cannot be understated. In this respect, it has been resolved that failures in advanced drug development and production must be tackled (WHO 2015), especially the political and economic barriers that hamper development and deployment in places such as West Africa, and which further emphasise the neglect of certain transmissible diseases in that region (Marzi and Feldmann 2014). 5 The current perspectives to zoonotic risks and pandemic planning have changed little despite the warnings from the 'swine flu' pandemic of 2009 6 that the opportunities for expedient vaccine production and sustainable clinical access still seem someway off (Gates 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: The 2013 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, as of writing, is declining in reported human cases and mortalities. The resulting devastation caused highlights how health systems, in particular in West Africa, and in terms of global pandemic planning, are ill prepared to react to zoonotic pathogens. In this paper we propose One Health as a strategy to prevent zoonotic outbreaks as a shared goal: that human and Great Ape vaccine trials could benefit both species. Only recently have two phase 2/3 Ebola human vaccine trials been started in West Africa. This paper argues for a conceptual change in pandemic preparedness. We first discuss the ethics of One Health. Next, we focus on the current Ebola outbreak and defines its victims. Third, we present the notion of a ‘shared benefit’ approach, grounded in One Health, and argue for the vaccination of wild apes in order to protect both apes and humans. We believe that a creation of such inter-species immunity is an exemplar of One Health, and that it is worth pursuing as a coextensive public health approach.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics
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    • "Until now, there are a number of interesting reviews on the virology of Ebola viruses, ecology and vaccine development[2] [3] [4]. This paper is an review which shows biological aspects of Ebola virus, transmission with focusing on reservoirs hosts, the most recents Ebola virus outbreaks, clinical features, symptoms of Ebola, diagnosis tests, prevention and treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses, are recognized as a significant warning to public health. They are zoonotic agents with bats as primary reservoir. Those viruses can cause severe human infection with hemorrhagic syndrome leading to death. The mortality rate can be higher than 90%. In West Africa, recent Ebola virus outbreak occurred in March 2014, has caused more than 8 300 infections with more than 4 000 deaths. That shows the critical state of this country, and the critical context in worldwide. In order to fight this deadly scourge, it is necessary to understand the epidemiology of disease and to establish a good diagnosis protocols and protective measures. In recent decades, traditional techniques of virus isolation are replaced by molecular biology techniques which are faster, more sensitive and specific. Until now, no specific Ebola virus treatment or vaccine but many studies are in progress with promising results.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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    • "), and vaccine development is under way (Marzi & Feldmann, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: On the 23rd March 2014, the WHO issued its first communiqué on a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) which began in December 2013 in Guinée Forestière (Forested Guinea), the eastern sector of the Republic of Guinea. Located on the Atlantic coast of west Africa, Guinea is the first country in this geographical region in which an outbreak of EVD has occurred, leaving aside the single case reported in Ivory Coast in 1994. Cases have now also been confirmed across Guinea as well as in the neighbouring Republic of Liberia. The appearance of cases in the Guinean capital, Conakry, and the transit of another case through the Liberian capital, Monrovia, presents the first large urban setting for EVD transmission. By 20th April 2014, 242 suspected cases had resulted in a total of 147 deaths in Guinea and Liberia. The causative agent is now identified as an outlier strain of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV). The full geographical extent and degree of severity of the outbreak, its zoonotic origins and its possible spread to other continents are sure to be subjects of intensive discussion over the next months.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of General Virology
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