Article

Re-fueling road transport for better air quality in India

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Road transport in India plays a vital role in our growing economy. Given an aggressive vehicle sales outlook through 2030, in order to maintain a balance between the energy demand, growing on-road emissions, and overall air quality in the cities, there is a need to implement and enforce Bharat-5 standards (equivalent of Euro-V) nationwide by 2015. Any delay in its implementation or even staggered implementation of the standards will result in a delayed response for improving air quality in the Indian cities.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The existing global (Ohara et al., 2007;Borken et al., 2008;Zhang et al., 2009) and regional (Sahu et al., 2008;Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014;Sadavarte and Venkataraman, 2014;Paliwal et al., 2016) emission inventories of aerosols from South Asia often differ by almost a factor of 2-4. For road transport sector, most global emission inventories used the data reported by International Energy Outlook (U.S. EIA, 2013) for activity estimate, while the EFs (i.e., g of pollutant emitted (unit of fuel use) -1 ) is either from AP-42 database (U.S. EPA, 2011) or emission model (MOBILE 5.0) or literature based on dynamometer studies conducted in developed countries (Yanowitz et al., 2000;Zielinska et al., 2004). ...
... For making this comparison, we scaled the previous emission estimates by multiplying them with the ratio of present-day fuel usage to previously reported fuel usage. Our comparison shows that the PM2.5 emission estimated in the present study is comparable to recently reported emission estimates by Guttikunda and Mohan (2014), and Pandey and Venkataraman Fig. S3(a)) resulted in approximately 17%, 28% and 29% higher emission estimates respectively as compared to the present work. Lower values of EFs used by Reddy and Venkataraman (2002) and Ramachandra and Shewtmala (2009) for most vehicle categories as compared to our present work resulted in 23% and 37% lower emission estimates by these two studies respectively as compared to present work. ...
... OC emissions from on-road transport sector as estimated in the present work is mostly consistent (6-12% difference) with the previous estimates reported by and Guttikunda and Mohan (2014), while the present estimates are found to be 32-42% lower than the emissions reported by Reddy and Venkatarman (2002) and Ohara et al. (2007). Whereas some other previous studies such as by Klimont et al. (2009) andLu et al. (2011) reported lower OC emissions compared to present estimates by 33% and 58% respectively (Fig. S3(c)). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we categorized detailed mass-based emission factors (EFs) by age, calculated new estimates of fuel use, and developed spatially resolved emission inventories of constituents (PM 2.5 , black carbon [BC], and organic carbon [OC]) in the fine aerosol generated by the on-road transport sector in India. On a national level, this sector released an estimated 355 (104-607) Gg y-1 , 137 (47-227) Gg y-1 , and 106 (34-178) Gg y-1 of PM 2.5 , BC, and OC, respectively, for the base year 2013, contributing nearly 7%, 17%, and 6% of the total emissions for each constituent. Although super-emitter vehicles comprised only 24% of the total traffic volume, they were responsible for 67% and 47% of the national PM 2.5 and BC emissions, respectively, which indicates that eliminating these vehicles may rapidly reduce emissions from the on-road transport sector in India. To predict the direct radiative forcing (DRF) from BC emissions in this sector, we then input emission estimates for the carbonaceous aerosols into the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) global climate model and found a positive DRF of up to 6 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and a negative DRF of up to 10 W m-2 at the surface, suggesting that as much as 16 W m-2 of energy remains trapped within the atmosphere. With the rapid economic growth and continued urbanization, the transport sector in India is likely to further expand in the future and hence requires immediate attention in order to reduce the BC burden and improve air quality in the nation.
... Received 28 February 2018; Received in revised form 28 July 2018; Accepted 5 August 2018 policies and programs. This is supported by Guttikunda and Mohan (2014) who emphasize that policies should not be implemented in isolation but be supplemented by providing high quality fuel, stringent fuel efficiency standards and enforcing them to reduce pollution levels. Improvement in traffic management, vehicle pollution checking procedures and promotion of behavioral change to use more public and non-motorized transport are also some additional actions to be undertaken to reduce pollution (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). ...
... This is supported by Guttikunda and Mohan (2014) who emphasize that policies should not be implemented in isolation but be supplemented by providing high quality fuel, stringent fuel efficiency standards and enforcing them to reduce pollution levels. Improvement in traffic management, vehicle pollution checking procedures and promotion of behavioral change to use more public and non-motorized transport are also some additional actions to be undertaken to reduce pollution (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). ...
... The per capita ownership of private cars in Fiji is still lower than many of high income and some middle-income countries. The per capita registered private cars ownership in Fiji is 8 per 100 people, compared to 80 in the United States, 61 in Canada, 59 in Japan, 52 in United Kingdom, 27 in Russia and 16.5 in Thailand (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). Using estimated population data obtained from Fiji Bureau of Statistics and GDP at constant basic price in FJD, the vehicle intensity has been calculated as seen in Fig. 6. ...
Article
Road transport in Fiji is fully dependent on petroleum fuels. This study is a first for Fiji where fuel demand for land transport is studied under some clean transportation strategies. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) tool is used with 2016 as the base year and 2040 as the end year. In 2016, approximately 337 million litres of fuel was used with an associated GHG emission of around 864 Gg of CO2e, which increases to 1158.4 Gg by 2040 in Business as usual (BAU) scenario. Several measures are explored to reduce the fuel consumption in the land transport sector in Fiji.
... The total vehicle fleet in India is currently approximately 150 million, where between 67-82% are two-wheelers including scooters, motorcycles, and mopeds due to their low cost (Pandey andVenkataraman 2014, Guttikunda andMohan 2014). Approximately one-sixth is from fourwheelers including cars and jeeps, and small shares are from other modes of transport (Pandey andVenkataraman 2014, Guttikunda andMohan 2014). ...
... The total vehicle fleet in India is currently approximately 150 million, where between 67-82% are two-wheelers including scooters, motorcycles, and mopeds due to their low cost (Pandey andVenkataraman 2014, Guttikunda andMohan 2014). Approximately one-sixth is from fourwheelers including cars and jeeps, and small shares are from other modes of transport (Pandey andVenkataraman 2014, Guttikunda andMohan 2014). The vehicle fleet is predominately in urban areas (Pandey andVenkataraman 2014, Guttikunda andMohan 2014). ...
... Approximately one-sixth is from fourwheelers including cars and jeeps, and small shares are from other modes of transport (Pandey andVenkataraman 2014, Guttikunda andMohan 2014). The vehicle fleet is predominately in urban areas (Pandey andVenkataraman 2014, Guttikunda andMohan 2014). There is little use of public vehicles, largely due to a lack of infrastructure (Venkataraman et al 2018). ...
... The dynamic flow management and technological upgradation (such as cleaner fuel with reduced sulphur, alternative fuels and electric vehicles, Kum et al. 2011) could be better options to improve air quality. In developing countries like India, the demand for private cars has increased (Guttikunda and Mohan 2014). A para-transit mode of transportation, for example, auto-rickshaw has higher kilometre travel per day. ...
... Berggren and Magnusson (2012) reported that upgradation from Euro-I to Euro-III reduced the emissions of CO, HC, NO x and PM by 42-76% and, further, to Euro-IV may reduce 50% emissions of NO x and PM. Guttikunda and Mohan (2014) in a study in India found a little improvement in the emissions for the period 2009-2012 due to introducing Bharat-4 (equivalent to Euro-IV) fuel standards in 20 Indian cities. The report of auto-fuel vision and policy 2025, India, has stressed the fuel quality (Vision 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the investigation of the three emission mitigation alternatives—upgradation to higher Euro norms, conversion to cleaner fuel and regulation of public transport, a major cause of interruption to traffic flow, from the private modes of transportation in a congested urban traffic corridor using both on-road measurements and emission modelling. The results show that the upgradation from Euro-III to Euro-VI emission standards for passenger cars could reduce up to 83–90% of CO, 86–92% of HC, 83–84% of CO2 during peak hours and 77% of NOx emissions during off-peak hours. The change of fuel from gasoline to CNG for auto-rickshaw could reduces up to 89% of HC and CO, 32–36% of CO2 during peak hours and 23–56% of NOx emissions during off-peak hours. And, by regulating the frequency of buses, emissions of CO2, CO and HC from both passenger car and auto-rickshaw reduced up to 40–66% during peak hours and NOx up to 40% during off-peak hours. The results, thus, showed that traffic flow management can bring significant emission reductions. Graphical abstract Open image in new window
... For emission calculations, a well-established bottom-up methodology of ASIF (Activity-Share-Intensity-Factor) is adopted (Ramachandra and Shwetmala, 2009;Goel et al., 2016;Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). This methodology takes into account: (a) The annual travel activity in terms of vehicle-kilometre; (b) The share of a particular mode in the total travel activity; (c) Share of a particular fuel type and its corresponding intensity (fuel consumed/km); and (d) Emission factors corresponding to the fuel type used. ...
... Thus, different emission factors (g/km) based on vehicle technology are required to calculate the total emissions from the freight vehicles registered outside Delhi. Secondly, it is also observed that the freight vehicles following newer emission standards end up filling their tanks with low-quality fuel in the neighbourhood state, thus negating the benefits of the introduction of newer emission standards in selected cities (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). Based on the OD surveys in the case of light-duty vehicles it is found that 86% of the goods auto, and 56% of the mini light commercial vehicles (denoted by Lcv type-2) are registered in Delhi. ...
Article
Vehicle emission inventory forms a critical element for the air pollution studies. The methodology for capturing intercity freight fleet operations is already available. However, urban freight activity and characteristics may be quite different from intercity freight operations. The present study thus aims to provide a generalised methodology to capture urban freight operations data relevant to emission estimates. Delhi has been selected as the case study city to illustrate the application of the proposed methodology. In order to quantify freight fleet emissions, relevant freight fleet characteristics such as age distribution, fuel distribution, fuel economy, and the number of in-use freight vehicles are established through on-field surveys. Further, special attention is paid to quantify the contribution of previously neglected external freight trips entering Delhi to the city’s air pollution. Comprehensive disaggregated analysis for external freight trips terminating in Delhi and transiting through Delhi is presented. 72-hour traffic count and a 24-hour origin and destination surveys are conducted at 17 entry locations of Delhi. Based on the captured characteristics, different emission scenarios are estimated for future policy intervention in the city. The developed methodology will serve as a means of generating emission relevant freight data for various urban areas. Integration of the urban and non-urban freight characteristics is expected to offer a robust and reliable national road freight transport emissions.
... This is a function of fuel burnt which is then converted to emission loads using relevant emission factors. We used the same methodology for similar projects for 10 Indian cities -Pune, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Indore, Surat, Rajkot, Hyderabad, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, and Delhi ( Guttikunda and Jawahar, 2012;Guttikunda and Calori, 2013;Guttikunda and Kopakka, 2014;; national transport sector (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014); national power plant sector (Guttikunda and Jawahar, 2014); and Delhi transport sector (Goel and Guttikunda, 2015). We used multiple sources to collate a library of emission factors for transport, industrial, and domestic sectors (CPCB, 2011;Pandey et al., 2014;Sadavarte and Venkataraman, 2014;IIASA, 2015;Goel and Guttikunda, 2015;Sakar et al., 2016). ...
... On-road transport ASIF principles (Schipper et al., 2000) -total travel activity (A), modal shares (S) in vehicle-km traveled per day, modal energy intensity (I) representing energy use per kilometer and an emission factor (F) defined as the mass emitted per vehicle-km traveled -were used to calculate the on-road vehicle exhaust emissions. The total vehicle exhaust emissions are available by vehicle type, vehicle age, and fuel type and calculated following the methodology discussed in Guttikunda and Mohan (2014) for Indian states and districts. A database of average emissions factors for current and projected fleets is available as Supplementary material in Goel and Guttikunda (2014). ...
Article
Delhi, with a population of 22 million (1.6% of national total) is one of the most polluted capital cities in the world. Nearly 50% of the published literature in India focus on air pollution in Delhi. However, air pollution impacts are not limited only to the capital city. Yet, there is little information and attempt to quantify these impacts for Tier 1 and 2 cities, even though they account for > 30% of India's population. To remedy this vacuum of information, the Air Pollution knowledge Assessments (APnA) city program deliberately focuses on 20 Indian cities, other than Delhi. We established baseline multi-pollutant high-resolution emissions inventory, after colating information from multiple resources detailed in this paper, which was used to estimate spatial concentrations of key pollutants across city's urban airshed using WRF-CAMx chemical transport modeling system. The inventory includes anthropogenic sources, such as transport (road, rail, ship, and aviation), large scale power generation (from coal, diesel, and gas power plants), small scale power generation (from diesel generator sets for household use, commercial use, and agricultural water pumping), small and medium scale industries, dust (road resuspension and construction), domestic (cooking, heating, and lighting), open waste burning, and open fires and non-anthropogenic sources, such as sea salt, dust storms, biogenic, and lightning. The emissions inventory is currently in use for 3-day advance air quality forecasting for public release on an on-going basis. Using meteorological parameters and big data like gridded speed maps from google, the emissions inventory is dynamically updated. The results from this research will be valuable to local and national policy makers - especially the information on source contributions to air pollution.
... The total number of vehicles in operation considering the number of registered vehicles may be highly overestimated as it is a cumulative number and does not exclude the vehicles that might have gone out of use. For the purpose of estimating the number of vehicles that may be in use for this study, it is assumed that about 30% of the vehicles might have gone out of use [100]. Accordingly, a total of 213.9 million vehicles might have been in use by the end of 2019 and a total of 411.8 million vehicles are expected to be in use in India by 2030, as per details given in Table 3. ...
... These values have been estimated using a simplified vehicle turnover stock assuming the historical CAGR values as observed for different vehicles during the period 2014-2019. The estimate for total number of vehicles in use is broadly in agreement with the reported values [100]. Petrol and diesel demand in India are expected to be about 64 BL and 160 BL by 2030-31 [47]. ...
Article
Rapid economic development and increasing population are contributing to growing energy demand in India. Road transport sector, almost fully dependent on petroleum oil, is the third highest user of the total final energy in India. More than four-fifth of crude petroleum is imported, which is responsible for nearly one-fifth of country’s import bill. India’s share of the global energy related CO2 emissions was about 7% in 2018, of which about 13% was caused by the transport sector. With a view of decarbonising the road transport sector and also addressing issues concerning energy efficiency, energy security, air quality and transport induced noise, alternative fuels have been explored in India for about two decades. This paper reviews policy support and related developments regarding biofuels, compressed natural gas, methanol, electricity, and hydrogen for automotive applications in India with a brief mention about international progress. The opportunities for their growth by 2030 and challenges to realise the potential are also analysed. Biofuels and electricity can offer significant opportunities for decarbonising the road transport sector in the near term. Compressed natural gas in short term and hydrogen in medium and long term may also play important roles in this regard.
... Vehicular emission (air and noise) severely hamper the environmental quality of roadside ambient environment as well as the indoor of roadside buildings. In India, the number of vehicles increased up to 700% between 1990 to 2010 and by 2030, it is expected to increase 4 to 5 times and the older vehicles contribute 30% to 50% of the total emission from transport sector (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). Several studies (Beelen et al., 2008;Héritier et al., 2018) indicated that combined effect of traffic induced air, more specifically PM2.5 and noise pollution led to cardiovascular mortality, respiratory problems, diabetes, annoyance and different severe health disorders to human being. ...
Conference Paper
Rapid urbanization led to environmental pollution is a big concern. Air and noise pollutions are the prime issues in urban areas of which road traffic is the largest contributor. People living in the roadside building and the pedestrians are severely affected by these pollutants as several health disorders e.g. cardiovascular problems, annoyance, insomnia, auditory problems, digestive problems, etc. This paper reviewed the suitable reduction strategies of traffic originated air and noise in roadside buildings. It is understood that dispersion of fine particles into the indoors of the buildings depends on airflow pattern, barrier (noise barrier, tree canopies, parked cars), type of pavement (elevated or depressed), building façade, different crack geometry of building surface, ventilation, indoor-to-outdoor ratio, air-exchange rate, infiltration and penetration mechanisms, weight, roof geometry and height. Noise shielding phenomenon is observed by different elements like building façade, materials, presence of balconies, types of roofs, etc. Further, the role of windows locations, surface crack geometry, building materials, roof geometry and the impact of different roadside barriers e.g. haphazardly parked vehicles, flyover and irregular tree canopies, etc. on the combined transport phenomena of vehicular air and noise propagation in the roadside buildings can be studied. Keywords: noise barrier, tree canopies, building façade, crack geometry, indoor-to-outdoor ratio (I/O), air exchange rate, infiltration and penetration mechanism
... The major twenty-nine cities of India account for 30-40% of the national on-road total emissions. ( Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014 ). Current scenarios indicate that vehicle movement on the road is one of the major contributors to urban air quality problems in India. ...
Article
Full-text available
Air quality at two traffic junctions representing GLA indicating pollution at highway and Iradatnagar indicating rural pollution was evaluated in Uttar Pradesh, India. The present study aimed to determine the concentration of size-segregated PM with the characterization of metals at different traffic junctions i.e. (Agra and Mathura). In the study, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.5 were measured with the help of Cascade Sioutas Impactor during the study period December to January 2018. The size fraction of PM2.5-1.0 was found to be higher at GLA (350.92µg/m³) followed by Iradatnagar (329.12µg/m³), whereas the average value of size fraction of PM1.0-0.5 was found higher at Iradatnagar (341.01µg/m³) in comparison with GLA (313.47µg/m³) respectively. The average PM2.5 concentration in all the sampling sites was found to be 7-8 times higher when compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (60µg/m³) (NAAQS, India). Twelve metals viz. (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were subsequently determined by ICP-OES. Al, Ba, Ca, and Mg, were found in higher concentrations in comparison with other metals. Source apportionment of metals was done by PCA (Principal Component Analysis) which shows that metal loading of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Ni was influenced by vehicular emission with 33.6 % constitutes of the total variance. Higher bioavaiablity was observed for PM2.5-1.0 (5.12-6.46%) and least was found for PM1.0-0.5 (4.56-7.055%). For health risk estimation, the average value of HQs was found higher for PM1.0-0.5 size fraction. HQ values were recorded higher for GLA (7.95) for PM2.5-1.0 and (9.50) for PM1.0-0.5 fraction. Overall, the observed HQs values far exceeded the acceptable level. Average value (1×10–⁶) of carcinogenic risk factor was found higher for an adult and child respectively.
... The transport sector and construction sector plays a vital role in economic development of a region, as a result the contribution of vehicular emissions is sure to increase (Ghate and Sundar, 2013). Under such circumstances following the global emission standard enforcement of Bharat-5 (equivalent to Euro-5) must be introduced (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). Any delay in strict enforcement of such norms will bring about the improvement in air quality at a delayed pace in all the Indian cities. ...
... Rapid industrialization and urbanization in India have resulted in highly polluted cities and a large proportion of the Indian population is exposed to high levels of particulate pollutants (Dey et al., 2012;Greenstone et al., 2015). According to World Health Organization (WHO), 37 cities in India have been identified as having the highest pollution levels of PM 10 among the top 100 cities in the world, and more than 100 cities under the national ambient monitoring program exceeded the limit indicated in the WHO guidelines of 20 µg m -3 (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014;Venkataraman et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we aimed to comprehensively investigate particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) at industrial, residential, and ecologically sensitive sites in the western Himalayan region. To achieve this goal, PM10 data from 20 stations across the state of Himachal Pradesh were used to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns. To determine the potential sources of pollution, we created a bivariate polar plot based on wind speed and direction. Our findings showed that only the PM10 concentrations at the ecologically sensitive sites (59.02 ± 34.77 μg m–3) were below the National –3 –3 Ambient Air Quality Standard of 60 μg m . The concentrations at both the industrial (115.9 ± 47.82 μg m ) and residential (87.16 ± 35.83 μg m–3) sites exceeded the standard, with the highest concentrations occurring during the winter and the lowest occurring during the monsoon season of the same year. The emission sources both within and outside of the Himachal Pradesh for each site were determined based on the bivariate polar plot, and industrial and vehicular emission, biomass and solid waste burning, dust from a nearby unpaved road, and long-range transported pollution were identified as contributors to the deterioration of air quality in this state. Moreover, the monsoon season significantly affected air quality. We conclude that local industrial and traffic pollution and long-range-transported emissions increased the PM10 concentration in Himachal Pradesh, resulting in its exceedance of the limit indicated in the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines.
... For instance, medium-and heavy-duty trucking-almost entirely dieselbased-contributes 23% of U.S. transportation-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (US EPA, 2015); heavy-duty trucking is expected to contribute a third of transportation NOx emissions by 2025 (US EPA, 2018). In developing countries, this sector has an even larger impact-for example, of India's transportation emissions, heavy-duty trucking contributes 41% of the CO2 and 55% of the NOx (Guttikunda & Mohan, 2014). However, technological constraints and economic conditions have generally suggested that electrifying this sector is challenging. ...
Article
Full-text available
The imperative to decarbonize long-haul, heavy-duty trucking for mitigating both global climate change as well as air pollution is clear. Given recent developments in battery and ultra-fast charging technology, some of the prominent barriers to electrification of trucking are dissolving rapidly. Here we shed light on a significant yet less-understood barrier, which is the general approach to retail electricity pricing. We show that this is a near term pathway to $0.06/kWh charging costs that will make electric trucking substantially cheaper than diesel. This pathway includes (i) reforming demand charges to reflect true, time-varying system costs; (ii) avoiding charging during a few specific periods (<45 h in a year) when prices are high; and (iii) achieving charging infrastructure utilization of 33% or greater. However, without reforming demand charges and low utilization of charging infrastructure, charging costs more than quadruple (to $0.28/kWh). We also illustrate that a substantial share of current trucking miles within select large regions of the United States can be reliably electrified without constraining electricity generation capacity as it exists today. Using historical hourly electricity price and load data for last 10 years and future projections in Texas and California, we show that electricity demand is at least 10% lower than yearly peak demand for at least 15 h on any given day. In sum, with electricity rates that closely reflect actual power system costs of serving off-peak trucking load, we show that electric trucks can provide overwhelming cost savings over diesel trucks. For reference, at diesel prices of $3.16/gal and charging costs of $0.06/kWh (inclusive of amortized charging station infrastructure costs), an electric truck’s fuel cost savings are $251 000 (NPV), providing net savings of $61 000 (18% of lifetime diesel fuel cost) over the truck’s lifetime at battery price of $170/kWh, or up to $148 000 (44% of lifetime diesel fuel cost) at a battery price of $100/kWh (figure 1).
... However, according to the literature, there is less research on converted plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (CPHEVs). Most of the studies are on conversion aspect and energy management strategy with stress on fuel economy [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] . Both fuel economy and emissions are not considered. ...
Article
Electric and Plug-in Hybrid electric vehicles are gaining more attention nowadays due to its environmental impacts. However, there is less attention in terms of conversion of the conventional vehicle (CV) into Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) to address the environmental impact of present vehicles running on the road. The paper investigates fuel economy and emissions for Parallel Converted Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (CPHEV) and compares with CV on Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and West Virginia Suburban Driving Schedule (WVSUB). The parameters of conventional 2L diesel engine car and its converted version of a PHEV is used for the study. In-depth analysis of conventional and CPHEV has been done. ADVISOR software is used in linking with MATLAB as a simulation tool. The results show a significant reduction in emissions and fuel consumption of CPHEV compared to the CV which motivates for conversion of CV into PHEV.
... 107 Compact and mixed-use design of cities can lead to shorter access to work, school, and other activities, and therefore reduce the need for passenger car travel. 108 Reductions in passenger car travel demand are often accompanied by modal shifts towards more sustainable transport means, such as walking, cycling, and use of public transport (see section 2.1.4). Conversely, the rapid expansion of metropolitan areas, or urban sprawl, and the resulting un-mixed land use and low-density development patterns reinforce the need and convenience for extensive road networks and private car travel. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Over half the population of the world live in urban areas. This means that efforts to meet human development goals and sustain economic growth must be concentrated in cities. However, the pursuit of more prosperous, inclusive and sustainable urban development is complicated by climate change, which multiplies existing environmental risks, undermines the effectiveness of existing infrastructure, and creates new resource constraints. This paper demonstrates that there are many synergies between aspirations for urban development and the imperative for climate action. It draws on over 700 papers, focusing on the literature on low-carbon measures in the buildings, transport, and waste sectors. This systematic review clearly shows that low-carbon measures can help to achieve a range of development priorities, such as job creation, improved public health, social inclusion, and improved accessibility.
... Today, developing countries are still suffering significantly from severe and frequent air pollution problems. The traditional approach to tackle the problem is through improving fuel products and vehicle technologies to directly cut down pollutants (Faiz and Sturm, 2000;Gwilliam et al., 2004;Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). Besides, reducing motorized vehicle usage via promoting non-motorized transport modes has also become a popular solution nowadays in developing countries (Hidalgo and Huizenga, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research aims to investigate the mode choice behaviour associated with bike-sharing and car-sharing, and the strategies for encouraging their demand in order to pull people away from using private cars. In particular, we reveal the factors that could affect the choices of both services and explore their associated modal substitution patterns. Key interests are put on air pollution’s impact on bike-sharing choice and the sources of demand for car-sharing (i.e. from private car users or public transport users). Moreover, we look at in what ways attitudinal factors could influence shared mobility choices and hence identify any implications. Furthermore, we are also interested in any measures from the habitual level that may help control private car usage in addition to the tactical-level efforts. The mode choice and related data employed in this work were collected by a paper-based questionnaire survey launched in 2015 at a Chinese city. Discrete choice modelling techniques are extensively applied, including the mixed logit (ML), mixed nested logit (mixed NL) and integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV) models. Our findings are compared to those from developed countries for any similarities and differences that lie between, though by addressing several key research gaps in the field, the findings will also significantly enrich the literature on shared mobility choice behaviour as well as disclosing implications for practitioners from both developed and developing countries for take-away and formulating the corresponding demand management policies.
... In the past 20 years, the area of urban cover in the top 100 Indian cities has increased about 2.5 times (Nagendra, Sudhira, Katti, Tengö, & Schewenius, 2014). During the same period, vehicle ownership grew by 7 times at a compound annual rate of 10% (Guttikunda & Mohan, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Many transport planners consider urban population density to be a significant determinant of travel behaviour. Much of the evidence for this comes from research in low-density, high-income settings. The 2011 Census of India reported mode of travel to work and distance for the first time. We have used these data to investigate the effect of urban density on commute travel patterns at city-level for Indian cities. In addition, we investigated the relationship between travel behaviour and other city-level variables. Using regression, we found almost no independent effect of density on the mode share of walk, cycle, motorised two-wheelers, cars and public transport, after controlling for population and income levels for the cities. Further, it appears that once density levels are greater than ~80 persons per hectare (pph), other factors become more important in determining travel patterns in cities. This evidence has significant implications for urban planning and transport policy in Indian cities and for many other low- and middle-income cities where average density tends to be higher than ~80 pph. For these cities, growth in the use of sustainable transport may not depend on further densification of already dense cities, but on details of how neighbourhoods and streets are designed.
... It is highly dependent on different type of vehicle present in the fleet. Motorized two-wheelers like scooters, small capacity motorcycles, and mopeds constitute 70% of the personal vehicle fleet and are more common and major contributor to vehicle emission due to their low initial cost (Guttikunda et al., 2014). In past, vehicular emission rates have hiked as much as 72%. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid industrialization, urbanization, and motorization lead to hiking of air pollution in various mega cities including Delhi, India. Studies done to analyze pollution suggests that vehicle exhaust emissions are major contributor to the urban air quality along with many other comparable sources. Hence to check instantaneous pollution increment, government aims to reduce vehicle emission. Traditional policies are working at times for holding sudden increase but long-term effects are not seen which need meso-spatial and small temporal policy. For optimizing meso-spatial policies implementation, many intricacies related to moving and stationary sources in near real-time have to be monitored including vehicular emission, itself. Analyzing these moving source emissions on the meso-spatial level is challenging. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to first understand the need of meso-spatial and near real-time checking policy and then leveraging the usage of previous region specific pollutant survey reports to map real-time pollution monitoring parameters. For that, a real-time vehicle monitoring strategy is proposed to map city-wide traffic congestion and emission using crowd-source data of Google Maps. For comparative study of different meso-spatial regions real-time moving source pollutant parameter 'µ' is calculated using a factor 'F'. Also, the different effects of congestion on vehicular emission in two different meso-spatial areas of Delhi is presented using comparative case study. Analysis of case study revealed that Anand Vihar area is more prone to vehicle emission variability in case of congestion fluctuation. Further the discussion of short temporal and spatial emission calculation, for weekly pollution evaluation is presented in the paper. This will be helpful to the authorities in formulating technological, institutional and traffic management policies.
... In 2015, the transportation sector was contributed the 22.9% of total world CO2 emission [1]. According to the Central pollution control board of India, government set CO emission norms for passenger cars such as Bharat stage-III and Bharat stage-IV to limit the emission to 2.3 g/km and 1.0 g/km respectively [2]. In 2014-15, the car fleet CO2 emission was recorded at 84.8 g/km in India [1] and it is mainly responsible for the low air quality index and irregular climate changes in urban cities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Electrified transportation technology has matured in different parts of the globe. However, this technology is in an advent stage in the Indian market. Due to this fact, a lot more challenges are being encountered in the development of electrified transportation in India; with the scarcity of viable charging stations posing as a significant bottleneck. In this study, the techno-economic analysis of different solar-based charging schemes that are available in the existing environment and present a modest, economical and reliable method of charging an electric vehicle (EV) )(e.g. e-rickshaw) through a solar panel that ultimately enhances the driving range and overall reliability of the system has been done. To validate the performance, the prototype of vehicle-integrated photovoltaic (PV) charging system has been developed and test results are demonstrated. Economic analysis is done based on the yearly average solar irradiance profile in Aligarh, India. Further, this work presents a comparative analysis of CO 2 emission for 100 km driving range from the EVs charge by different charging schemes and internal combustion engine vehicles.
... Fast industrialization and urbanization over the last two decades have led to the growth of road transportation to move goods and people. On-road vehicle ownership increased over 700% between 1990 and 2010 and is estimated to increase five-fold by 2030 (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). At present, India has 620 national highways (NH) with a total length of ∼100,000 km. ...
Article
Full-text available
National Highways (NH) are the major road networks linking cities but exposure studies during long commutes on highways are limited. We assessed exposure concentrations of fine particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) inside bus, ac (air-conditioned) and non-ac car and on an Indian NH over 200 km length. A total of nine round journeys were made in three modes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalized linear model (GLM) were applied to quantify the contribution of determinants that may explain the variability of exposure concentrations and their association with in-vehicle temperature and relative humidity (RH). The highest and lowest exposures concentrations to PM2.5 were observed in non-ac car (89 ± 32 μg m−3) and the ac car (55 ± 19 μg m−3). Exposures concentrations in non-ac car were higher during in-city travel (113 ± 36 μg m−3). The average CO exposure concentrations were highest in ac car (2.0 ± 0.9 ppm). Results of GLM analysis suggested that travel mode, highway segments (in/out-city) and the journey times are key determinants of personal exposure concentrations. Travel mode for PM2.5 (15%) and NH segments for CO (21%) explained maximum variability. Altogether, these explained 33% and 57% of the variability in PM2.5 and CO exposure concentrations, respectively. PM2.5 consists of soot, mineral and fly ash that are a proxy of fresh exhaust emissions, re-suspended road dust and industrial emissions, respectively. Additionally, EDX analyses revealed an abundance of Si, Al, Ca and Pb, confirming re-suspension, brake/tire wear and construction dust as important sources.
... The emissions inventory is developed for total PM in four bins (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC)), SO 2 , nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The overall methods, emission factors, and general assumptions were presented in Guttikunda and Jawahar (2012); Guttikunda and Calori (2013); Guttikunda and Kopakka (2014); Guttikunda and Mohan (2014); Guttikunda and Jawahar (2014);. Applicable emission factors for transport, industrial, and domestic sectors were collated from multiple sources (CPCB, 2010;GAINS, 2015;Goel and Guttikunda, 2015;Venkataraman et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bengaluru - capital of the state of Karnataka is the original “Silicon Valley” of India. In this paper, we present a comprehensive snapshot of the state of air quality in Bengaluru, along with an emissions inventory for the pollutants necessary for chemical transport modeling at 0.01° grid resolution (approximately 1-km), for an urban airshed covering 60 × 60 grids (4300 km ² ). For 2015, emission estimates for the city are 31,300 tons of PM 2.5 , 67,100 tons of PM 10 , 5300 tons of SO 2 , 56,900 tons of NO x , 335,550 tons of CO, and 83,500 tons of NMVOCs. Overall, transport is the key emission source for Bengaluru - vehicle exhaust and on-road dust resuspension account for a combined 56% and 70% of total PM 2.5 and PM 10 emissions; followed by industries (17.8% including the brick kilns), open waste burning (11.0%), and domestic cooking, heating, and lighting (6.5%), in case of PM 2.5 . We conducted particulate pollution source apportionment of local and non-local sources, using WRF meteorological model and CAMx chemical transport modeling system. A comparison of range of 24-hr average modeled PM 2.5 concentrations (36.5 ± 9.0 μg/m ³ ) and monitored PM 2.5 concentrations (32.3 ± 24.2 μg/m ³ ) by month, shows that the model catches the quantitative ranges and qualitative trends. The modeled source contributions highlight the vehicle exhaust (28%) and dust (including on-road resuspended dust and construction activities) (23%), and open waste burning (14%), as the key air pollution sources. Unless there is an aggressive strategy to improve urban planning and public transport options, pollutant emissions under the business as usual scenario are expected to increase at least 50% in 2030 and doubling the urban area with PM 2.5 annual averages above the national ambient standard of 40 μg/m ³ . © 2019 Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control
... Spreadsheet method, proposed in Sharma et al. [16], is used for calculation of vehicle taken off by the users of Delhi Metro. Bottom-up emission inventory ASIF (Activity-Share-Intensity-Factor) methodology, as used by many scholars [12][13][14]10,11] is employed to quantify the vehicle exhaust emissions. The milestone years of the study are decided based on having discussions with experts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban systems are the engines of economic growth. Urbanisation significantly contributes to economic, social, and physical transformation. This transformation is supported by infrastructure services. The pace of urbanisation and industrialisation of Delhi city has not only burdened transport system but also has produced detrimental impact on human development, environment and urban ecosystem. The basic concept of co-benefits is applied to understand the multiple dimension of transport policy beyond its intended benefit. Authors in this research have quantified the benefits and co-benefits of different implemented policies and technology intervention done by the government from 2001 to 2015 in Delhi, the capital city of India, and have observed that the emissions from all vehicles have been steadily increasing despite sincere efforts done by the planners due to increase in number of vehicles in the city. The paper concluded with plausible findings and strategies for emission reduction, and benefits and co-benefits of Delhi Metro system in the city.
... The Indian emission control system largely follows the European standards and technologies, with adjusted driving cycle and temperature controls. We therefore use adjusted European emission factors to model exhaust emissions in India (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). Emission controls up to BS III are assumed for agricultural tractors and construction machinery, and Stage I for diesel generators. ...
Book
Full-text available
Air pollution is a major global health risk, with India estimated to have some of the worst levels globally. While Indian authorities implemented several measures to reduce emissions from the power, industry and transportation sectors over the last years, such strategies appear to be insufficient to reduce the ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration below the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 40 μg/m3 across the country. This study explores pathways towards achieving the NAAQS in India in the context of the dynamics of social and economic development. In addition, to inform action at the subnational levels in India, we estimate the exposure to ambient air pollution in the current legislations and alternative policy scenarios based on simulations with the GAINS integrated model. The analysis reveals that in many of the Indian States emission sources that are outside of their immediate jurisdictions make the dominating contributions to (population-weighted) ambient pollution levels of PM2.5. As a consequence, most of the States cannot achieve significant improvements in their air quality and population exposure on their own without emission reductions in the surrounding regions, and any cost-effective strategy requires regionally coordinated approaches. Advanced technical emission control measures can deliver air quality improvements in India, but will not be sufficient to achieve the NAAQS everywhere. A package of sustainable development measures that are usually taken for other policy priorities can deliver significant co-benefits on air quality.
... PM 2.5 is one of the key local pollutants and is associated with severe health risks. The transport sector accounts for 30%-50% of PM 2.5 emissions (Guttikunda & Mohan, 2014). Evidently, decarbonization and air pollution abatement actions are naturally linked since they both originate from fossil fuel combustion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Relations (IDDRI), aims to demonstrate how countries can transform their energy systems by 2050 in order to achieve a low-carbon economy and significantly reduce the global risk of catastrophic climate change. Built upon a rigorous accounting of national circumstances, the DDPP defines transparent pathways supporting the decarbonization of energy systems while respecting the specifics of national political economy and the fulfillment of domestic development priorities. The project currently comprises 16 Country Research Teams, composed of leading research institutions from countries representing about 70% of global GHG emissions and at very different stages of development. These 16 countries are: Australia, Paris. Its objective is to determine and share the keys for analyzing and understanding strategic issues linked to sustainable development from a global perspective. IDDRI helps stakeholders in deliberating on global governance of the major issues of common interest: action to attenuate climate change, to protect biodiversity, to enhance food security and to manage urbanization, and also takes part in efforts to reframe development pathways. The Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) was commissioned by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to mobilize scientific and technical expertise from academia, civil society, and the private sector to support of practical problem solving for sustainable development at local, national, and global scales. The SDSN operates national and regional networks of knowledge institutions, solution-focused thematic groups, and is building SDSNedu, an online university for sustainable development. Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA). IIMA, established in 1961, is India´s premier management institute and an eminently recognized international school of management education and research. IIMA's mission is to transform India and other countries through generating and propagating new ideas of global significance based on research and creation of risk-taking leader-managers who change managerial and administrative practices to enhance performance of organizations. IIMA faculty has contributed significantly to the methodological and policy relevant research in the areas such as sustainable development, health, infrastructure, energy and environment.
... Road traffic is one of the primary sources of air quality deterioration (Gulia et al. 2015). Due to increasing urbanization and economic development, number of trips per day are increasing (Guttikunda & Mohan 2014). Urban streets are characterized as intense roadside development and intense traffic density at access point of signalized intersection, no lane discipline that cause frequent interruption and congestion (Asaithambi et al. 2016, Choudhary & Gokhale 2019a. ...
Article
Most urgent transport related problems in India are traffic congestion and concomitant air pollutant emissions. During traffic flow, the common causes of congestion in urban centres are pedestrian interruption, unregulated traffic signals, unregulated bus stoppages and unauthorized roadside parking, which together, particularly during peak hours, create erratic traffic pattern causing higher emissions. In this study, we characterized auto-rickshaw driving dynamics by instantaneous measurements of speed and emission at different times of the day. Traffic speed is an important factor that is perceived by commuters. The speed variables and traffic volume are used as a base variable to examine the traffic flow patterns. The speed variables such as average speed (AS), velocity noise (VN, standard deviation of speed), and the coefficient of variation of speed (CV, the ratio of VN and AS) were examined with respect to traffic volume. The polynomial fit of CV shows three distinct zones of variations with increasing traffic volume, explaining the dynamics of traffic flow. Further, time, speed and mileage variable were investigated for the emission rate analysis in different traffic flow pattern. The analysis depicted that the combined factor of lower speed (speed ≤12 km/h) and higher time of travel in correspondence cause higher emission rate. Similarly, vehicle mileage of ≥52,000 km has significant impact on emission for pollutants CO, HC and NOx. The results provide real-time information on traffic flow characteristics and impacts of dynamic and age variables on emission rate in on-road driving condition, which may be useful for the public and transport related agencies.
... Nonetheless, India has a big potential for energy generation in the uncharted domain of solar power plants. Guttikunda and Mohan (2014) suggested that the transportation industry represents for 30-50 percent of PM 2.5 emissions for regular motor vehicles and BS IV emission regulations in six major cities, including Delhi-NCR. ...
Article
Full-text available
With increasing concerns of pollution in India, the usage of Electric Vehicles became popular, as it reduces the pollution and thereby promotes an emission free means of transport. Wide adoption of Electric Vehicles (EV) may require an effective and efficient network of charging infrastructure across the nation. In this research work an attempt has been made to study and analyze the risk factors associated with Public Private Partnership Project of EV across the India. The risk factors are identified, with the help of literature review and inputs received from the industry experts, and are divided into four main categories which consist of financial, market, political/legal and operational risks. The Fuzzy AHP approach is applied to find out the associated risk factors and rank them accordingly. In addition to that a sensitivity analysis is also carried out in order to assess the robustness of the solution methodology. The proposed research work will be helpful for the practicing engineers, academician, researcher and the concern Industries in order to promote the EV charging infrastructure in the most efficient and effective manner.
... Additionally, particles from fresh vehicular emissions can grow rapidly from the Aitken mode at the tailpipe to accumulation mode at roadside and ambient locations (Ning et al., 2013). We speculate that the traffic-related particles in Delhi may become smaller as India's vehicle fleet (espe-cially heavy-duty trucks) is upgraded (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014;. Overall, UFPs contributed to ∼ 65 % of the PN concentrations for winter and autumn. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Indian national capital, Delhi, routinely experiences some of the world's highest urban particulate matter concentrations. While fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentrations in Delhi are at least an order of magnitude higher than in many western cities, the particle number (PN) concentrations are not similarly elevated. Here we report on 1.25 years of highly time-resolved particle size distribution (PSD) data in the size range of 12–560 nm. We observed that the large number of accumulation mode particles – that constitute most of the PM2.5 mass – also contributed substantially to the PN concentrations. The ultrafine particle (UFP; Dp
... The introduction of the BSVI emission norms, which primarily targeted diesel particulate matter emissions, will ensure that by 2030 transport sector PM 2.5 emissions will drop by 69% from 2015 levels (181 ± 20 Ggy -1 ; Hakkim et al., 2021) to (56 ± 6 Ggy -1 ) despite an increase in the transport demand. This air quality improvement is much larger than what was projected by Guttikunda and Mohan (2014) for a BSV introduction in 2020. Results obtained under intervention scenario 3 thus illustrate the magnitude of the additional potential health and economic benefits to society that can be achieved by reducing particulate pollution emission and exposure through substitution of diesel vehicles by CNG or compressed biogas vehicles and the substitution of 2and 3-wheelers with electric vehicles. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic emissions are a major source of air pollution and associated damage to human health in India. Many of the Indian metro cities urgently require cleaner transportation technologies to ensure cleaner air. Here, using newly compiled spatially disaggregated, gridded, high-resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) road transport emission inventory for India for 2030 (RTEII) of 74 speciated VOCs, CO, SO2, NOx, NH3, CH4, CO2, BC, OC and PM2.5 from varied fuels and vehicle technologies that are currently in use in India, we investigated changes in emission in response to substitution of the existing vehicular fleet by cleaner alternatives. Three “what-if” intervention scenarios were considered to assess the extent in improvement of air quality due to the reduction in the primary emission of air pollutants. The results show that significant reductions in direct emission of pollutants (Non-Methane VOCs, −91%; CO, −80%; PM2.5, 44%) including toxic VOCs (e.g., isocyanic acid, −76%; BTEX, −93%; as well as individual VOC classes (e.g., sum of OVOCs, −61% and sum of alkenes, −80%) can likely be achieved in 2030 by shifting from highly polluting Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based 2 and 3-wheeled vehicles to Electric Vehicles (EVs) under scenario 1. The amount of secondary pollutants such as SOA and O3 that can potentially be formed from traffic also showed significant reduction of 94% and 84%, respectively, under scenario 1. Conversion of diesel fuelled vehicles to CNG under scenario 2 can lead to a larger reduction in black carbon emissions (−50%). Scenario 3, in which the benefits of scenarios 1 and 2 are combined, represents the best long-term strategy moving forward, which can result in massive emission reductions of pollutants through existing technologies of greener transport fleets over India. Large scale conversion of the vehicle fleets as explored here can lead to a substantial reduction of air pollution and fewer lives lost.
... Many often urban regulatory bodies attempt to offset the increased passenger mobility by increasing vehicular density, but this situation further worsens the urban traffic as the major routes in cities connecting different urban pockets get saturated during peak hours. In the top 100 Indian cities vehicle ownership grew by seven times in the past 20 years at a compound annual rate of 10 per cent (Guttikunda & Mohan, 2014). The increased over route traffic and congestion increase the journey time, which enhances the potency of the virus to pass on to other people. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic, from its beginning in India on 30 January 2020, has caused over 3.7 million cases of illness and claimed over 66 thousand deaths as of 1 September2020. The large metropolitan cities have been the major hotspots of COVID-19 pandemic. The peculiar urbanisation patterns are crucial in spreading COVID-19 in India. This study attempts to highlight how urbanisation patterns increase the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in India. The higher density, urban sprawl and associated intra-urban commuting, large slum population, inadequate water, sanitation and housing conditions along with homelessness are found to catalyse the vulnerability of COVID-19 spread in urban areas. The existing public health infrastructure in the country is found to be inadequate with respect to the increasing demand. Efforts to contain the spread are being made; nonetheless, the rapid increase in the cases of illness and deaths from COVID-19 has inflated the challenges for administration and citizens. Rapid enhancement in health infrastructure and health personnel must be made along with strict adherence to the measures of quarantine, social distancing and hygiene for the citizens are of utmost response to the decrease the spread.
... Figure 2h shows the averaged source profile of the whole air sample collected from three busy traffic junctions which therefore represent the ambient traffic emissions mixture. Although the Indian vehicular fleet comprises vehicles running on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG, more than 70 % of on-road vehicles are petrol fuelled (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014;Goel and Guttikunda, 2015;Prakash and Habib, 2018). Therefore, the petrol vehicular exhaust emissions were expected to dominate the ambient traffic mixing ratios. ...
Article
Full-text available
In complex atmospheric emission environments such as urban agglomerates, multiple sources control the ambient chemical composition driving air quality and regional climate. In contrast to pristine sites, where reliance on single or a few chemical tracers is often adequate for resolving pollution plumes and source influences, the comprehensive chemical fingerprinting of sources using non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and the identification of suitable tracer molecules and emission ratios becomes necessary. Here, we characterise and present chemical fingerprints of some major urban and agricultural emission sources active in South Asia, such as paddy stubble burning, garbage burning, idling vehicular exhaust and evaporative fuel emissions. A total of 121 whole air samples were actively collected from the different emission sources in passivated air sampling steel canisters and then analysed for 49 NMHCs (22 alkanes, 16 aromatics, 10 alkenes and one alkyne) using thermal desorption gas chromatography flame ionisation detection. Several new insights were obtained. Propane was found to be present in paddy stubble fire emissions (8 %), and therefore, for an environment impacted by crop residue fires, the use of propane as a fugitive liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) emission tracer must be done with caution. Propene was found to be ∼ 1.6 times greater (by weight) than ethene in smouldering paddy fires. Compositional differences were observed between evaporative emissions of domestic LPG and commercial LPG, which are used in South Asia. While the domestic LPG vapours had more propane (40 ± 6 %) than n-butane (19 ± 2 %), the converse was true for commercial LPG vapours (7 ± 6 % and 37 ± 4 %, respectively). Isoprene was identified as a new tracer for distinguishing paddy stubble and garbage burning in the absence of isoprene emissions at night from biogenic sources. Analyses of source-specific inter-NMHC molar ratios revealed that toluene/benzene ratios can be used to distinguish among paddy stubble fire emissions in the flaming (0.38 ± 0.11) and smouldering stages (1.40 ± 0.10), garbage burning flaming (0.26 ± 0.07) and smouldering emissions (0.59 ± 0.16), and traffic emissions (3.54 ± 0.21), whereas i-pentane ∕ n-pentane can be used to distinguish biomass burning emissions (0.06–1.46) from the petrol-dominated traffic and fossil fuel emissions (2.83–4.13). i-butane ∕ n-butane ratios were similar (0.20–0.30) for many sources and could be used as a tracer for photochemical ageing. In agreement with previous studies, i-pentane, propane and acetylene were identified as suitable chemical tracers for petrol vehicular and evaporative emissions, LPG evaporative and vehicular emissions and flaming-stage biomass fires, respectively. The secondary pollutant formation potential and human health impact of the sources was also assessed in terms of their hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity (s−1), ozone formation potential (OFP; gO3/gNMHC) and fractional benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) content. Petrol vehicular emissions, paddy stubble fires and garbage fires were found to have a higher pollution potential (at ≥95 % confidence interval) relative to the other sources studied in this work. Thus, many results of this study provide a new foundational framework for quantitative source apportionment studies in complex emission environments.
... Recently, multiple Indian cities have featured in the list of most polluted cities in the world, and the capital city New Delhi and a few satellite cities nearby (Part of the National Capital Region: NCR) have been among the worst affected (Bhanarkar et al., 2018;Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). The Delhi-NCR region is infamous for its poor air and often features in the list of the world's most polluted cities. ...
Article
Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unprecedented cessation of outdoor anthropogenic activities, which has led to a significant improvement of the environment across the world. However, the positive impacts on the environment are not expected to last long as countries have started to gradually come out of lockdown and engage in aggressive measures to regain the pre-COVID-19 levels of economic activity. The present study provides for an assessment of air quality changes during the period of lockdown and unlocking across 9 major cities in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, including three cities (Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida) in the national capital region, which have frequently found a place among the most polluted cities in the world. The pollutant load in a vertical column of air during March-July 2020 has been analyzed and compared with the corresponding period's pollution load in 2019. In addition, a detailed analysis of the ground-level changes in pollution load for Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida is also presented, along with the changes in local meteorology. A significant reduction in the total column density of NO2 and CO and ground-level pollution load of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 have been observed. In contrast, an increase in total column density of SO2 across all the cities (except Kanpur) and ground-level concentration of CO (in Noida and Greater Noida) and O3 (in Noida) was evident. Multiple industrial clusters and heavy vehicular traffic characterize the NCR landscape and contribute towards its poor air quality. The improvement in air quality (with respect to particulate matter) can primarily be attributed to the restrictions on construction and demolition activities, reduced re-suspension of roadside dust, and the restrictions on the movement of vehicles.
... Ramachandra (2009) estimated that trucks and lorries contributed the highest proportion of vehicular emissions in India. This estimation was in line with the findings of other studies on the emission inventories for different Indian cities, suggesting that diesel operated heavy and light-duty vehicles had the highest contribution to the overall vehicular emissions (Guttikunda and Kopakka, 2014;Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). From 1901From -2001, the Indian urban population increased from 10% to 28%, leading to increased use of vehicles, and consequently, more traffic congestions. ...
Article
This study examines point and non-point sources of air pollution and particulate matter and their associated socioeconomic and health impacts in South Asian countries, primarily India, China, and Pakistan. The legislative frameworks, policy gaps, and targeted solutions are also scrutinized. The major cities in these countries have surpassed the permissible limits defined by WHO for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. As a result, they are facing widespread health problems, disabilities, and causalities at extreme events. Populations in these countries are comparatively more prone to air pollution effects because they spend more time in the open air, increasing their likelihood of exposure to air pollutants. The elevated level of air pollutants and their long-term exposure increases the susceptibility to several chronic/acute diseases, i.e., obstructive pulmonary diseases, acute respiratory distress, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. More in-depth spatial-temporal air pollution monitoring studies in China, India, and Pakistan are recommended. The study findings suggest that policymakers at the local, national, and regional levels should devise targeted policies by considering all the relevant parameters, including the country's economic status, local meteorological conditions, industrial interests, public lifestyle, and national literacy rate. This approach will also help design and implement more efficient policies which are less likely to fail when brought into practice.
... Transport intervention policies such as Odd Even policies are also one of the mitigation measures adopted in Delhi city to reduce the impact of vehicular emissions, where PM concentrations were found to reduce up to 70% . Fuel efficiency standards improvement and limiting the use of diesel vehicle fleet on Indian roads are necessary measures to be implemented immediately to mitigate the impact of vehicular emissions (Goel et al., 2016;Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). ...
Article
In this study, researchers have explored real-world driving conditions and developed emission factors for 58 passenger cars using on-board emission measurement technique while driving on five different routes in Delhi. The measured average emission factors of CO, HC, and NO were 3.99, 0.34, and 0.54 g/km for diesel vehicles, 7.26, 0.17, and 0.62 for petrol vehicles respectively. Road, traffic, vehicle type, and driving characteristics affect the quantity of emissions released. However, speed and acceleration significantly impact emission rates increasing with the increase in speed and acceleration. Also, emissions were minimal at 40–60 kmph and −0.5–0.5 m/s2. The estimated city-wide CO, HC, and NO emissions were 60.8, 4.8, and 9.72tonnes/day. These results demonstrate the importance of monitoring the real-world exhaust emissions given the substantial difference between test cycle measurements used for compliance testing of new vehicles.
... Recently, multiple Indian cities have featured in the list of most polluted cities in the world, and the capital city New Delhi and a few satellite cities nearby (Part of the National Capital Region: NCR) have been among the worst affected (Bhanarkar et al., 2018;Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014). The Delhi-NCR region is infamous for its poor air and often features in the list of the world's most polluted cities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an unprecedented cessation of outdoor anthropogenic activities leading to a significant improvement of the environment across the world. However, the positive impacts on the environment are not expected to last long as countries have started to gradually come out of lockdown and engage in aggressive measures to regain the pre-COVID-19 levels of economic activity. The present study provides for an assessment of air quality changes during the period of lockdown and unlocking across 9 major cities in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, including three cities (Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida) in the national capital region, which have frequently been included among the most polluted cities in the world. The pollutant load in a vertical column of air during March–July 2020 has been analyzed and compared with the corresponding period’s pollution load in 2019. In addition, a detailed analysis of the ground-level changes in pollution load for Ghaziabad, Noida, and Greater Noida is also presented, along with the changes in local meteorology. A significant reduction in the total column density of NO2, CO and ground-level pollution load of PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 have been observed. In contrast, an increase in total column density of SO2 across all the cities (except Kanpur) and ground-level concentration of CO (in Noida and Greater Noida) and O3 (in Noida) was evident. The improvement in air quality (with respect to particulate matter) can primarily be attributed to the restrictions on construction and demolition activities, reduced re-suspension of roadside dust, and the restrictions on the movement of vehicles. A significant decline in the average summer temperature was recorded, and it can plausibly be attributed to lower radiative forcing due to reduced pollutant load in the atmosphere.
... Age of the vehicle also positively correlated with emission rates (Pandian et al., 2009). It was expected that by 2030, the vehicle population may increase four-to fivefold, with older vehicle's contribution of 30-50% of automobile emissions (Guttikunda and Mohan, 2014;Pant et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Road transport is the principal means of transportation for both movements of people and goods in India and has gained importance in the overall transport system. This article elaborates the trends of road transportation growth and its significant influences on air quality and public health in India. The unconditional growth of motor vehicles along with the inadequate development in technology, fuel quality and infrastructure makes the air quality awful. Automobile emissions are multi-characteristics and add a major fraction of pollutants into the atmosphere. Currently, most of the Indian cities are critically polluted by vehicular emissions, which leads to acute and chronic health effects on the exposed population. A series of vehicular pollution control norms were already implemented in India. Despite of several policy measures, there was an overall rise in traffic emissions, constantly. As a result, it requires a comprehensive approach to understand pollution levels and its sources regularly. Improving public transport, limiting the number of polluting vehicles on the road, introducing less polluting vehicles (Electric vehicles), Strict emission regulations and removing dust from roads can be a reliable approach to limit vehicular emissions. These strategies should turn out to be an action plan which is time bound and has targets and penalties.
Article
Full-text available
India is home to 1.3 billion people who are exposed to some of the highest levels of ambient air pollution in the world. In addition, India is one of the fastest-growing carbon-emitting countries. Here, we assess how two strategies to reuse waste-heat from coal-fired power plants and other large sources would impact PM2.5-air quality, human health, and CO2 emissions in 2015 and a future year, 2050, using varying levels of policy adoption (current regulations, proposed single-sector policies, and ambitious single-sector strategies). We find that power plant and industrial waste-heat reuse as input to district heating systems (DHSs), a novel, multisector strategy to reduce local biomass burning for heating emissions, can offset 71.3-85.2% of residential heating demand in communities near a power plant (9.3-12.4% of the nationwide heating demand) with the highest benefits observed during winter months in areas with collocated industrial activity and higher residential heating demands (e.g., New Delhi). Utilizing waste-heat to generate electricity via organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) can generate an additional 22 (11% of total coal-fired generating capacity), 41 (8%), 32 (13%), and 6 (5%) GW of electricity capacity in the 2015, 2050-current regulations, 2050-single-sector, and 2050-ambitious-single-sector scenarios, respectively. Emission estimates utilizing these strategies were input to the GEOS-Chem model, and population-weighted, simulated PM2.5 showed small improvements in the DHS (0.2-0.4%) and ORC (0.3-3.4%) scenarios, where the minimal DHS PM2.5-benefit is attributed to the small contribution of biomass burning for heating to nationwide PM2.5 emissions (much of the biomass burning activity is for cooking). The PM2.5 reductions lead to ∼130-36,000 mortalities per year avoided among the scenarios, with the largest health benefits observed in the ORC scenarios. Nationwide CO2 emissions reduced <0.04% by DHSs but showed larger reductions using ORCs (1.9-7.4%). Coal fly-ash as material exchange in cement and brick production was assessed, and capacity exists to completely reutilize unused fly-ash toward cement and brick production in each of the scenarios.
Chapter
Climate change is an urgent challenge that requires action at the national, regional and local levels. However, a perception that impacts on human wellbeing and the economy will only be felt in the distant future, and a belief that climate action would require reducing attention towards a host of other environmental and societal issues, stand in the way of measures being taken. With cities emerging as key actors in fighting climate change as well as other societal and environmental issues, this chapter provides a review of the ways urban climate action provides direct and more immediate benefits —in climate terms, ‘co-benefits’— to public health. We focus on the impacts of five key transport policy measures which have been established to yield significant greenhouse gas reductions and substantial economic benefits. These are: (1) compact land use planning to reduce motorised passenger travel demand, (2) passenger modal shift and improving transit efficiency, (3) electrification and passenger vehicle efficiency, (4) freight logistics and (5) freight vehicle efficiency and electrification. We show that these measures have great potential to improve public health in urban areas whilst mitigating climate change, and provide arguments that in some cases these benefits may rival, or exceed, benefits to the economy and climate from these actions. We conclude that climate change action in the transport sector represents a great opportunity for policymakers to develop transport roadmaps that jointly achieve climate change objectives and improve public health in cities.
Article
Power from coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) represents a large percentage of the electricity generated in India. As the demand increases, expansion of the coal-fired TPPs is the most likely scenario, which will lead to an array of environmental and health impacts. The proposed projects in India net a generation capacity of 300 GW through 2030. With limited emission control regulations in place, this will increase the number of health impacts—some from direct particulate matter (PM) emissions and some from secondary PM, especially due to the chemical transformation of sulfur emissions. The WRF-CAMx chemical transport modeling system was utilized to study the impact of these emissions from the planned coal-fired TPPs. The additional 300 GW of projects will result in 3-times the coal consumption and at least 2-times the health impacts (premature mortality and asthma attacks), compared to those estimated for the operational TPPs. The technology to control all criteria pollutant emissions, which could reduce the health impacts linked to ambient PM 2.5 from the coal-fired TPPs by as much as 50%, is widely available, and the only barrier to implementing these solutions is the lack of a stricter timeline.
Article
In Chhattisgarh, Raipur-Durg-Bhilai (RDB) tri-city area hosts the new administrative capital of the state, interconnected by an expressway forming the industrial corridor and is one of the largest steel manufacturing hubs in India. Between 1998 and 2016, the satellite and global model data derived concentrations show a 50% increase in the overall PM2.5 pollution in the region. The average PM10 concentration measured at commercial, industrial, and residential monitoring stations is 125 ± 52 µg m-3 in 2015. None of the stations currently measure PM2.5. The annual average PM10 concentrations in 2011 is 175 ± 110 µg m-3, which translates to 28% improvement in 5 years. A multiple pollutant emissions inventory was established for this urban airshed (extending 60 km x 30 km), with annual estimates of 41,500 tons of PM2.5, 59,650 tons of PM10, 7,600 tons of SO2, 67,000 tons of NOx, 163,300 tons of CO, 118,150 tons of NMVOCs, and 3.1 million tons of CO2 for 2015, and further projected to 2030 under business as usual conditions. The ambient source contributions were calculated using WRF-CAMx chemical transport modeling system, highlighting the heavy industries (mostly steel) (23%), followed by transport (including on road dust) (29%), domestic cooking and heating (12%), open waste burning (6%), as the key air pollution sources in the urban area. The city has an estimated 26% of the ambient annual PM2.5 pollution originating outside the urban airshed - this contribution is mostly coming from the coal-fired power plants, large (metal and non-metal processing) industries, and brick kilns located outside the urban airshed and seasonal open biomass fires.
Article
Full-text available
India is currently experiencing degraded air quality, and future economic development will lead to challenges for air quality management. Scenarios of sectoral emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors were developed and evaluated for 2015–2050, under specific pathways of diffusion of cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The impacts of individual source sectors on PM2.5 concentrations were assessed through systematic simulations of spatially and temporally resolved particulate matter concentrations, using the GEOS-Chem model, followed by population-weighted aggregation to national and state levels. We find that PM2.5 pollution is a pan-India problem, with a regional character, and is not limited to urban areas or megacities. Under present-day emissions, levels in most states exceeded the national PM2.5 annual standard (40 µg m⁻³). Sources related to human activities were responsible for the largest proportion of the present-day population exposure to PM2.5 in India. About 60 % of India's mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations come from anthropogenic source sectors, while the remainder are from other sources, windblown dust and extra-regional sources. Leading contributors are residential biomass combustion, power plant and industrial coal combustion and anthropogenic dust (including coal fly ash, fugitive road dust and waste burning). Transportation, brick production and distributed diesel were other contributors to PM2.5. Future evolution of emissions under regulations set at current levels and promulgated levels caused further deterioration of air quality in 2030 and 2050. Under an ambitious prospective policy scenario, promoting very large shifts away from traditional biomass technologies and coal-based electricity generation, significant reductions in PM2.5 levels are achievable in 2030 and 2050. Effective mitigation of future air pollution in India requires adoption of aggressive prospective regulation, currently not formulated, for a three-pronged switch away from (i) biomass-fuelled traditional technologies, (ii) industrial coal-burning and (iii) open burning of agricultural residue. Future air pollution is dominated by industrial process emissions, reflecting larger expansion in industrial, rather than residential energy demand. However, even under the most active reductions envisioned, the 2050 mean exposure, excluding any impact from windblown mineral dust, is estimated to be nearly 3 times higher than the WHO Air Quality Guideline.
Article
We perform a state-specific life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gases (GHG) (CO2eq) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in India for representative passenger vehicles (two-wheelers, three-wheelers, four-wheelers, and buses) and technologies (internal combustion engine, battery electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles). We find that in most states, four-wheeler battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) have higher GHG and SO2 emissions than other conventional or alternative vehicles. Electrification of those vehicle classes under present conditions would not lead to emission reductions. Electrified buses and three-wheelers are the best strategies to reduce GHG emissions in many states, but they are also the worst strategy in terms of SO2 emissions. Electrified two-wheelers have lower SO2 emissions than gasoline in one state. The Indian grid would need to decrease its carbon dioxide emissions by 38-52% and SO2 emissions by 58-97% (depending on the state) for widespread vehicle electrification for sustainability purposes to make sense. If the 2030 goals for India under the Glasgow COP are met, we find that four-wheeler BEVs still have higher GHG emissions in 18 states compared to a conventional gasoline compact four wheeler, and all states will have higher SO2 emissions for BEVs across all vehicle types compared to their conventional counterparts.
Article
Full-text available
A nationwide lockdown was imposed in India from 24 March 2020 to 31 May 2020 to contain the spread of COVID-19. The lockdown has changed the atmospheric pollution across the continents. Here, we analyze the changes in two most important air quality related trace gases, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) from satellite and surface observations, during the lockdown (April–May 2020) and unlock periods (June–September 2020) in India, to examine the baseline emissions when anthropogenic sources were significantly reduced. We use the Bayesian statistics to find the changes in these trace gas concentrations in different time periods. There is a strong reduction in NO2 during the lockdown as public transport and industries were shut during that period. The largest changes are found in IGP (Indo-Gangetic Plain), and industrial and mining areas in Eastern India. The changes are small in the hilly regions, where the concentrations of these trace gases are also very small (0–1 × 10¹⁵ molec./cm²). In addition, a corresponding increase in the concentrations of tropospheric O3 is observed during the period. The analyses over cities show that there is a large decrease in NO2 in Delhi (36%), Bangalore (21%) and Ahmedabad (21%). As the lockdown restrictions were eased during the unlock period, the concentrations of NO2 gradually increased and ozone deceased in most regions. Therefore, this study suggests that pollution control measures should be prioritized, ensuring strict regulations to control the source of anthropogenic pollutants, particularly from the transport and industrial sectors. Highlights • Most cities show a reduction up to 15% of NO2 during the lockdown • The unlock periods show again an increase of about 40–50% in NO2 • An increase in tropospheric O3 is observed together with the decrease in NO2
Research
Full-text available
Urban India, particularly metros, is a major hotspot of air pollution with a PM2.5 concentration level ranging above the permissible limits defined by the WHO for most of the year. Unsurprisingly, special efforts have been made by the Government of India in recent years to improve air quality. Since the transport sector is a major source of air pollution in urban India, the Government of India adopted BS-VI emission standards in 2016 in principle for all major on-road vehicle categories. The rollout of Euro 6 in India began with the capital city Delhi. Furthermore, India’s policymakers have been proactive in introducing clean fuel such as CNG, as well as electric vehicle and hydrogen fuel vehicles for urban transport. In this paper, we analyze the interplay between the policy shifts on transport and the level of emissions for Delhi for the next 10 years. We devised three scenarios, starting with the Optimistic Scenario (OPS), which assumes that all of the set policy targets of the Government of India will be realized as planned. A Pessimistic Scenario (PES) assumes implementation of the Optimistic Scenario with a delay of three years, and finally, the Business as Usual Scenario (BAU) assumes no policy interventions in the transport sector and a status quo to be in operation for the coming decade. We predict a significant decline in the emissions of particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the OPS/PES scenarios due to the proposed introduction of BS-VI and battery electric fuel vehicles. We find a 20.67% decrease in the overall PM emissions level in the city by 2030. By contrast, our BAU scenario predicts that emissions will increase significantly if no policy intervention is undertaken. In sum, policy interventions may lead to a substantial reduction in emissions in Delhi and thereby a longer life for Delhi inhabitants.
Article
Air pollution problems are the top environmental problems persisting. The urban transportation has drastically improved over the recent years contributing to more vehicular growth. Vehicular congestion and traffic has paved ways to increase in vehicular air pollution. This paper analyses the traffic volume data at three places in Chennai. From the study, comparing with the three locations, based on the vehicle count, among all other vehicles, motorcycles are the highest in count. The air pollutants carry significant risks for the people who live in the particular surroundings. This could be an evident that CO2 and Particulate matter are high in the cases of motor cycles when compared to the passenger cars. The centralizations of toxins near streets are all around connected to transportation, so these markers can be utilized as a pointer of density of residents and also they signify as the metropolitan toxic wastes which pollute the surroundings.
Preprint
Full-text available
Air quality at two traffic junctions representing GLA (highway pollution) and Iradatnagar (rural pollution) was evaluated In India. Present study aimed to determine the concentration of size-segregated PM with characterization of metals at different traffic junctions (Agra and Mathura). PM 2.5-1.0 and PM 1.0-0.5 was measured with the help of Cascade SioutasImpactor during the study period December to January 2018.The size fraction of PM 2.5-1.0 was found higher at GLA (350.92µg/m ³ ) followed by Iradatnagar site (329.12µg/m ³ ) whereas average value of size fraction of PM 1.0-0.5 was found higher at Iradatnagar site (361.01µg/m ³ ) in comparison with GLA (313.47µg/m ³ ) respectively. The average PM 2.5 concentration in all the sampling sites was found 7-8 higher times than National Ambient Air Quality Standards (60µg/m ³ ) (NAAQS, India). Twelve Metals (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pband Zn) subsequently determined by ICP-OES. Al, Ba, Ca, and Mg, were found higher comparison to other metals. Metals source identification was done by PCA (Principal Component Analysis). The average value of HQs was found higher for PM 1.0-0.5 size fraction. HQ values were recorded higher for GLA sampling site it was 7.95 for PM 2.5-1.0 and 9.50 for PM 1.0-0.5 fraction. Overall, the observed HQs values far exceeded the acceptable level. The trend of average value of carcinogenic risk factor was found higher than prescribed limit (1*10 - 6 ) for an adult and child respectively.
Article
Full-text available
India is the third-largest contributor to global energy-use and anthropogenic carbon emissions. India’s urban energy transitions are critical to meet its climate goals due to the country’s rapid urbanization. However, no baseline urban energy-use dataset covers all Indian urban districts in ways that align with national totals and integrate social-economic-infrastructural attributes to inform such transitions. This paper develops a novel bottom-up plus top-down approach, comprehensively integrating multiple field surveys and utilizing machine learning, to model All Urban areas’ Energy-use (AllUrE) across all 640 districts in India, merged with social-economic-infrastructural data. Energy use estimates in this AllUrE-India dataset are evaluated by comparing with reported energy-use at three scales: nation-wide, state-wide, and city-level. Spatially granular AllUrE data aggregated nationally show good agreement with national totals (<2% difference). The goodness-of-fit ranged from 0.78–0.95 for comparison with state-level totals, and 0.90–0.99 with city-level data for different sectors. The relatively strong alignment at all three spatial scales demonstrates the value of AllUrE-India data for modelling urban energy transitions consistent with national energy and climate goals.
Article
Climate change and air pollution have important societal consequences, especially in emerging economies, wherein transitions from polluting technologies to cleaner alternatives coincide with high population vulnerability to environmental threats. India is home to a fifth of the world’s population and a gamut of human activities, employing a far ranging spectrum of technologies and fuels, with consequent emissions. Atmospheric fine particles or aerosols in the region predominate in carbonaceous constituents and dust. Multi-institutional studies in the region have earlier focused on natural and anthropogenic climate forcing by aerosols and feedbacks on regional and global climate. Important gaps remain in understanding human activities influencing emissions, emission aerosol properties, and regional atmospheric processes, specifically those related to carbonaceous aerosol impacts on climate and air quality. With an aim to address these gaps, the COALESCE (Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions, Source Apportionment and Climate Impacts) project was launched on 7 July 2017. The project adopts integration of scientific methods developed by both the climate and air quality research communities. New fundamental knowledge from the project and strong links to India’s policy framework would enable climate and clean-air action in the region. The article describes the scientific rationale, objectives, and planned activities under COALESCE to explore engagement with the international climate and air quality research communities and to enable eventual dissemination of research findings, knowledge products, and decision-support tools.
Article
Vehicular emissions are the major source of air quality deterioration in Indian megacities. However, there is uncertainty in vehicular emission estimation due to the paucity of vehicular use and travel characteristics, and there is no specific methodology to assess the same. Thus, this study presents a methodology to capture the urban in-use vehicular characteristics. Additionally, it evaluates current vehicular emissions in Mumbai and estimates future emission levels for the year 2030, taking into account various policy interventions. Data for the study were collected via questionnaire surveys at fuel stations across Greater Mumbai – a first in western India. Exhaust and non-exhaust vehicular emissions were developed using the “bottom-up” methodology. Six scenarios were tested for exhaust vehicular emissions and energy consumption under various policy interventions. Monte-Carlo Simulations (MCS) were carried out to find the uncertainties in the vehicular emission estimation. Results showed that approximately 66% of the registered vehicles ply on Mumbai roads, and the on-road fuel efficiency is 12–33% less than the reported lab-based studies. Our study findings suggest that conducting surveys at three fuel stations is adequate for determining urban in-use vehicular characteristics with <5% bias. Reduction in vehicular emissions calls for stringent norms for private passenger vehicles and regulation of non-exhaust vehicular emissions. Given projected vehicular emissions for 2030, urban cities like Mumbai will have to inevitably replace conventional vehicles with electric vehicles to achieve the Paris agreement, which is to limit global warming well below 2 °C.
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes technical, financial, and performance information regarding bus system improvements in 11 cities in Latin America and Asia. The cities selected in this review improved their transport conditions either through citywide bus reorganizations (São Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile) or through improvements in selected corridors and areas of the city (Beijing; Bogotá and Pereira, Colombia; Curitiba, Brazil; Jakarta, Indonesia; León and Mexico City, Mexico; and Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador). Both citywide reorganizations and corridor improvements included the introduction of bus rapid transit (BRT) elements. The reviewed systems improved the transport conditions for the commuters served and had other benefits, particularly the reduction of pollution and accidents. The BRT corridors implemented show high performance (carrying 3,000 to 45,000 passengers per hour per direction) and have generally been well received by the users, with relatively low capital investments ($1.4 million/km to $8.2 million/km) and small or no operational subsidies. The systems have faced problems related to planning, implementation, and operations, mostly as a result of institutional and financial constraints. Most problems were solved in the initial months after implementation. The experiences in developing cities show the potential of BRT for a wide range of applications, from medium-demand to very-high-demand corridors. Lessons learned from these applications are useful for the development of similar projects.
Article
Full-text available
India is used as a case study in reviewing the application of receptor models for source apportionment. India has high concentrations of airborne particulate matter, and the application of effective abatement measures is a high priority, and demands confidence in the results of source apportionment studies. The many studies conducted are reviewed, and reveal a very wide range of conclusions, even for the same city. To some degree these divergences may be the result of using different sampling locations and/or seasons, but to a large extent differences probably arise from methodological weaknesses. The assignment of factors from multivariate receptor models to specific source categories is in many cases highly questionable as factors often include combinations of chemical constituents that are of low plausibility. This ambiguity in terms of presence of tracer elements may be the result of genuine collinearity of diverse sources, or more probably arises from methodological problems. Few studies have used either organic molecular markers or chemical mass balance (CMB) models, and there is a shortage of data on locally-derived emission source profiles, although recent work has begun to remedy this weakness. The conclusions include a number of recommendations for use in design of future studies.
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle emissions are major precursors for the formation of tropospheric ozone that can have adverse effect on human health, buildings and vegetation. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of altitude on emission rates of ozone precursors (e.g., CO, NOx and VOCs) from gasoline-driven light–duty commercial vehicles (LDCVs) in three Indian cities (i.e. Delhi, Dehradun, and Mussoorie). Basic equations of the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model are applied to estimate emission rates from the LDCVs. Topography (altitude) and meteorology (temperature) specific parameters of the IVE model were modified to Indian conditions for estimating emission rates. Unlike NOx, emission rates of CO and VOCs have increased with altitude. For example, CO emission rate has considerably increased from 36.5 g km−1 in Delhi to 51.3 g km−1 (i.e. by ∼41%) in Mussoorie, whereas VOCs emission rate marginally increased from 3.2 g km−1 to 3.6 g km−1. Findings and their implications are important from human health perspective, especially for the people residing in high altitude cities where a peculiar combination of lower oxygen levels and high concentrations of CO and VOCs can adversely affect the public health. Also, increased levels of CO and VOCs at high altitudes may conspicuously influence the chemistry of tropospheric ozone.
Article
As India's capital, Delhi has grown across sectors - industry, transport, and housing - which contribute to an increase in air pollution. This, in turn, has increased health risks, which are reflected in a rise in respiratoryailments. While the benefits of some interventions in the transport sector have been apparent, it is time to focus on low-hanging fruit in other sectors in order to improve air quality and public health in the city.
Article
a b s t r a c t Concentrations of air pollutants from vehicles are elevated along roadways, indicating that human exposure in transportation microenvironments may not be adequately characterized by centrally located monitors. We report results from w180 h of real-time measurements of fine particle and black carbon mass concentration (PM 2.5 , BC) and ultrafine particle number concentration (PN) inside a common vehicle, the auto-rickshaw, in New Delhi, India. Measured exposure concentrations are much higher in this study (geometric mean for w60 trip-averaged concentrations: 190 mg m À3 PM 2.5 , 42 mg m À3 BC, 280 Â 10 3 particles cm À3 ; GSD w1.3 for all three pollutants) than reported for transportation micro-environments in other megacities. In-vehicle concentrations exceeded simultaneously measured ambient levels by 1.5Â for PM 2.5 , 3.6Â for BC, and 8.4Â for PN. Short-duration peak concentrations (averaging time: 10 s), attributable to exhaust plumes of nearby vehicles, were greater than 300 mg m À3 for PM 2.5 , 85 mg m À3 for BC, and 650 Â 10 3 particles cm À3 for PN. The incremental increase of within-vehicle concentration above ambient levelsdwhich we attribute to in-and near-roadway emission sourcesdaccounted for 30%, 68% and 86% of time-averaged in-vehicle PM 2.5 , BC and PN concentrations, respectively. Based on these results, we estimate that one's exposure during a daily commute by auto-rickshaw in Delhi is as least as large as full-day exposures experienced by urban residents of many high-income countries. This study illuminates an environmental health concern that may be common in many populous, low-income cities.
Road Transport in India
  • S Guttikunda
  • K Jawahar
Guttikunda, S., K., Jawahar, P, 2012. Road Transport in India 2010–30:
Generating Evidence and Guiding Policy Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Road Safety in India: Challenges and Opportunities
  • D Mohan
  • O Tsimhoni
  • M Sivak
  • M J Flannagan
IHME, 2013. The Global Burden of Disease 2010: Generating Evidence and Guiding Policy. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, USA Mohan, D., Tsimhoni, O., Sivak, M., Flannagan, M.J., 2009. Road Safety in India: Challenges and Opportunities. Transportation Research Institute, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA MoUD, 2011. Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure and Services. High Powered Expert Committee of the Ministry of Urban Development, the Government of India, New Delhi, India. MoUD, 2012. Transforming City Bus Transport in India through Financial Assistance for Bus Procurement under JnNURM. Ministry of Urban Development, the Government of India, New Delhi, India.
List of Countries by Vehicles per Capita (Compiled from Multiple Sources) 〈http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_vehicles_per_ca pita〉
  • Wikipedia
Wikipedia, 2013. List of Countries by Vehicles per Capita (Compiled from Multiple Sources) 〈http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_vehicles_per_ca pita〉. Last accessed on 16/Nov/2013.
World Development Indicators—Motor vehicles (per 1000 people) 〈http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.NVEH.P3〉, The World Bank
  • World
World-Bank, 2011. World Development Indicators—Motor vehicles (per 1000 people) 〈http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.VEH.NVEH.P3〉, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA. Last accessed on 16/Nov/2013. S.K. Guttikunda, D. Mohan / Energy Policy 68 (2014) 556–561