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Due to the development of nuclear technology and use of these technologies in various fields of industry, medicine, research and etc, protection against radioactive rays is one of the most important topics in this field .The purpose of this is to reduce the dose rate from radioactive sources. The sources in terms of components are emitted various types of nuclear radiation with different energies. These radiations are involving of alpha particles, beta, and neutron and gamma radiation. Given that alpha and beta particles can be fully absorbed by the shield, the main issue in the debate protection radioactive rays is stopping of gamma rays and neutrons. Accordingly in shield design usually two types of radiation should be considered. First, X-rays and gamma rays, which have great influence, and by the mass of any suitable material, can be more efficiently attenuate the higher the density, the better the potential attenuation effect against gamma rays and the required shielding thickness decreases. The second type of radiation is neutrons. Often a combination of three materials is desirable that include heavy metals, light metals, and neutron-absorbing material to omit the slow neutrons through adsorption to the neutron shield. There are different materials that can be used to shielding against radioactive rays. The main materials that are used in protection include: water, lead, graphite, iron, compounds that contains B, concrete, and polyethylene. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is evaluating the kind of shield against gamma and neutrons rays.
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies
ISSN 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 4 Aug. 2013, pp. 1079-1085
© 2013 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals
Corresponding Author: Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi ( 1079
Study of Neutron and Gamma Radiation Protective Shield
Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi1, Marzieh Salimi2, Nima Ghal-Eh2, Gholam Reza Etaati3, and Hossien Asadi4
1Department of Physics,
Payam-e-Noor University,
Tehran, Iran
2School of Physics,
Damghan University,
Damghan, Iran
3Energy Engineering and Physics Department,
Amir Kabir University of Technology,
Tehran, Iran
4Department of Physics,
Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Damghan, Iran
Copyright © 2013 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ABSTRACT: Due to the development of nuclear technology and use of these technologies in various fields of industry,
medicine, research and etc, protection against radioactive rays is one of the most important topics in this field .The purpose
of this is to reduce the dose rate from radioactive sources. The sources in terms of components are emitted various types of
nuclear radiation with different energies. These radiations are involving of alpha particles, beta, and neutron and gamma
radiation. Given that alpha and beta particles can be fully absorbed by the shield, the main issue in the debate protection
radioactive rays is stopping of gamma rays and neutrons. Accordingly in shield design usually two types of radiation should
be considered. First, X-rays and gamma rays, which have great influence, and by the mass of any suitable material, can be
more efficiently attenuate the higher the density, the better the potential attenuation effect against gamma rays and the
required shielding thickness decreases. The second type of radiation is neutrons. Often a combination of three materials is
desirable that include heavy metals, light metals, and neutron-absorbing material to omit the slow neutrons through
adsorption to the neutron shield. There are different materials that can be used to shielding against radioactive rays. The
main materials that are used in protection include: water, lead, graphite, iron, compounds that contains B, concrete, and
polyethylene. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is evaluating the kind of shield against gamma and neutrons rays.
KEYWORDS: Neutrons, Gamma rays, Protective shield, Gamma absorbing, Radioactive sources.
Due to the development of nuclear technology and using this technology in various fields of industry, medicine, research,
etc, protection against radioactive radiation is the most important aspect in this context in order to minimizing the radiation
rate of radioactive sources. The sources in terms of components are emitted different types of radiation with different
energies. These radiations are involving of alpha particles, beta, and neutron and gamma radiation. Radioactive rays
protection is a physical barrier that is placed between the radioactive ionization source and the object or purpose of the
protection to reduce the amount of radiation exposure in the safeguard place. In order to protect of nuclear radiation maybe
Study of Neutron and Gamma Radiation Protective Shield
ISSN : 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 4, Aug. 2013 1080
a variety of materials such as lead, iron, graphite, water, polyethylene or concrete are used. Among these materials,
Concrete is one of the best and most widely used materials for manufacture of Gamma and neutron radiation shield,
because in addition to having the proper Structural properties of the material, there are variety choice of the materials used
to build it, that lead to manufacture of concrete with different densities and different combinations. . Ease of fabrication, low
cost for the construction and maintenance of concrete are another advantage. In fixed installations and large nuclear power
plants, Such as power plants, medical centers and nuclear particle accelerators of concrete are used to protect against
nuclear radiation. Given that alpha and beta particles can be fully absorbed by the shield, the main issue in the debate of
protecting of radioactive rays, is stopping of gamma rays and neutrons ,because with increasing thickness of the absorbent
material can only be reduced gamma rays and neutrons. Accordingly in shielding design usually two types of radiation should
be considered. First X-rays and gamma rays, which have great influence and by using the mass of any suitable material they
can be more efficiently attenuation good. Most materials can attenuate gamma-ray and photon energy in effect of Compton
scattering. Attenuation of operating efficiency, which is roughly proportional to the mass of the material, is exposed in
radiation path. Since the photon attenuation function is not affected by the type of material, so different materials with the
same mass, has virtually identical ability to protect against X-rays and gamma rays .The higher the density of the shielding
material, the ability to better attenuation effect against gamma rays and reduces the thickness of required shielding.
Therefore, in cases where there is limited space, we can use the heavy concrete instead of ordinary concrete to reduce
thickness of required shield largely. The second type of radiation is neutrons. Designing an effective neutron shield is very
complex. A good shielding for neutrons should contain a heavy material such as iron, barium or elements with higher atomic
number. These heavy elements reduce fast neutrons through inelastic collisions. Light elements is desirable to reduce the
moderately fast speeds of neutrons through inelastic. In this context, the presence of hydrogen is very effective because its
mass is about the mass of the neutron. Finally, removal of the slow neutrons through the absorption operation is necessary.
Hydrogen is effective at absorbing neutrons, but with absorption of neutrons by hydrogen- gamma rays with the energy 2/2
million electron volts (secondary gamma) are produced, these radiations due to the high permeability of the material will
increase the thickness of the shield [5], [1].
Among the neutron absorber material, boron element not only contains high neutron absorption, but after absorbing
neutrons produces secondary gamma rays with energies 378/0 of millions of electron volts, which have a lower permeability
(compared to secondary gamma radiation of neutron absorption in other shielding materials). For this reason, materials
containing boron are used often in neutron shields. It should always be considered in the protection discussion that a
material efficiency in protection is determined by the effectiveness of it in attenuation per unit thickness .view of this, that
the weight and volume of maintenance are surrounding a radioactive system ,Approximately increases with third exponent
of the shield thickness and dependent on other factors such as increasing the total cost (both in material and in cases where
the amount of savings), Particularly is easy to understand the important of using protection with excellent efficiency.
Accordingly, the main objective of this article is choosing the best protection for mixed fields of neutrons and gamma rays.
Alpha radiation, beta and gamma rays and neutrons are the most particles that may be emitted in nuclear reactions.
Alpha particle is a helium nucleus that consisting of two neutrons and two protons. It is based on two positive charges and as
the particle is relatively large, has a little bit of range in target material so easy to stop. For example, it stops an ordinary
sheet of paper of alpha particles that is emitted from a radioactive element. Beta particle is high-energy electrons that are
thrown out of the nucleus. It is believed that a neutron at the nucleus is changed into a proton and an electron and an
electron is thrown out with considerable kinetic energy. Because beta particle is much smaller than the alpha and contains
only one negative charge that permeability of it in the material is more than alpha. Permeability depends on the energy of
the beta, but to stop a beta particle with an average energy, aluminum plates of thickness less than six - seven millimeters is
sufficient. Gamma ray is High-energy photons; the nuclear gamma-ray emission is just very rare. What usually happens is that
when a nucleus emitting alpha or beta particles maybe radiation one or more photons of gamma. Because gamma photons
have no electric charge and mass so the permeability of it is much higher than beta particles. Permeability of gamma photons
in the material depends on its energy. To stop gamma photons with average energy is needed elements with mass numbers
up to several centimeters in thickness such as pieces of lead. Gamma radiation can directly or indirectly impact on the body
and can cause serious risks both internal and external. Gamma irradiation plant is found in machine containing radioactive
material around each nuclear power and in most plant the workers exposed to radiation, Thus, in plants everywhere which
there is the possibility of gamma-ray radiation ,the proper shields are embedded into alignment that to reduce radiation to a
safe level [3].
Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi, Marzieh Salimi, Nima Ghaleh, Gholamreza Etaati, and Hossien Asadi
ISSN : 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 4, Aug. 2013 1081
How gamma rays dealing with the matter are different in compared with alpha and beta particles. So that the alpha and
beta can be absorbed in substance completely so they have certain range, but gamma-rays cannot be absorbed completely,
But with increasing thickness of the absorbent material can only reduce the radiation intensity. Since gamma rays have no
mass and charge the Probability of collision or in other words cross sections dealing with the matter is much lower in contrast
to alpha and beta particles. Therefore, the influence of gamma radiation, are much more penetrating power than alpha and
beta particles and it is to some extent to which high-energy photons can penetrate the material without loss of energy from
several centimeters to few meters . The initial collision of a photon with material occurs in orbital electrons. During the
collision, Part of the photon energy is converted into kinetic energy of fast electrons and other part is removed from material
as scattered radiation. Express electrons in its path, causing ionization, excitation of atoms and breaking of molecular bonds.
It may some of the express electrons in dealing with material can cause brake beams. The beam and the scattered photons
with matter can be treated with material as having the primary photons. Gamma rays or X-rays collide with matter is in
several different ways. As one of the most important encounters of gamma with material are photoelectric effect, Compton
scattering, Thomson scattering and ion production. Photoelectric effect: on the phenomenon of photoelectric effect, a
photon includes energy deal with an atom [2]. The result of this collision is sala, following the collision with the electrons
that come out of atoms are called photoelectrons.
Leaves atom in this regard, Eb, is the binding energy of the orbital. However, when the electrons are replaced by
electrons from higher orbits one or more photons are emitted from the atom. On the photoelectric effect, the probability of
photon collision with electrons that are closest to the nucleus is higher. If gamma rays have enough energy, in 80% of cases
with electrons of K orbit collide. The collision of electron orbits in M, L and N is also possible. Based on the photoelectric
effect, the photon absorption coefficient that known as the photoelectric coefficient strongly dependent on the photon
energy and absorber atomic number (Z). Although there is not the simple correlation that expressed coefficient of the
photocurrent variation with respect to all of the energy levels, however, we can use the following approximate relation for
the photoelectric coefficient [6].
In this regard, changes in n and m can be expressed as follows:
In the above equation, based on the Mev and a is equal with
From this relationship can be derived that the heavy material is capable of absorbing photons of low energy as well and
this has led to this lead is used as the best protection against low energy gamma rays. Compton scattering: the phenomenon
of Compton scattering, photons may deal with any of the orbital electrons. In fact, this phenomenon can be assumed that the
elastic collision is carried out between a photon with and a free electron at rest energy. From a practical standpoint, if the
photon energy is MeV1 R 0, the orbit electrons in comparison with photon energy are assumed release. In phenomenon
Compton, unlike photoelectric effect transferring all the energy of the photon to released electron is not possible, because
that according to The principle of conservation of energy and angular momentum it requires that after the electron left the
atom, continuing the movement with the speed of light is impossible. Thus, the Compton scattering process, only part of the
photon energy is converted to the free electron kinetic energy [7].
Probability of collision between a photon and a free electron in the Compton effect is anticipated by using the equations
that proved by Nyshyn and Klasn proved. Based on this equation, the probability of a photon collision with orbital electrons
regardless of the binding energy of nuclear are equal. In other words, the coefficient of Compton scattering, depends solely
on the number of electrons in the absorption material and, therefore, is independent of the atomic number of the absorber
material. The Compton scattering coefficient decreases with increasing photon energy, but the rate of decline compared with
the photoelectric effect, is much slower. In general, it is very important that the probabilities of Compton collision at energies
which have declined the photoelectric absorption coefficient are more important [9], [12].
Thomson scattering: In this phenomenon, photons with energy collision with a free electron and with no loss of energy,
only to be deflected from its original path. Pair production: when a photon passes near the nucleus of an atom, it disappears
and instead a positron and an electron are created. Therefore, this phenomenon is called pair production. Therefore,
because the phenomenon occurs, it is necessary that at least the energy of the photon be equal with mass energy of an
electron and a positron in the rest. Contrast phenomena photoelectric and Compton, pair production cross section is
increased by increasing the photon energy. Also, due primarily to the phenomenon of pair production occurs naturally
Study of Neutron and Gamma Radiation Protective Shield
ISSN : 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 4, Aug. 2013 1082
influenced by atomic absorption with increasing atomic number, the probability of pair production increases. Attenuation
coefficient of the photons collide with matter, each process photoelectric Compton scattering, Thomson scattering and pair
production may occur, but one process can only happen in every encounter, whereas in multiple interactions may occur in
the whole process. It is evident that the probability of each of these processes is proportional to the surface area. In any case,
the probability of a photon collision is equal to the total cross section of the process. Neutron-proton mass is nearly equal
mass but no charge [11]. Therefore, unlike charged particles neutrons are not able to loss their energy during a series of
closely ionizations. Moreover, the neutron was not component of the electromagnetic wave and based on this will not have
collision with absorbent electron. After the neutrons penetrate into matter, continue their path to collision with the nucleus
of an atom generally, this is the kind of elastic scattering and inelastic or absorption. Neutrons collision probability (cross-
section) are not only material, but also strongly depends on the neutron energy. So, it is performed collisions of neutrons
with matter to be discussed with respect to energy of this particle. The neutron energy is divided into the following groups:
A – Fast neutrons: they have the addition of 1/0 millions of electron volts of energy. In this energy range, the neutron
collision is mainly dispersion and absorption cross section of the material is much lower than scattering cross section.
B - Thermal neutrons: that the energy of them are an electron volt or less (Often 025/0 eV). These neurons, like gas
molecules cuffed in thermal equilibrium with its environment and finally absorbed or in short duration (minutes) are
analyzed to the proton.
C – Neutrons that their energy is located between fast neutrons and thermal neutrons, to these neurons are given
different topics such as medium, slow and near thermal neutrons. In this energy range, neutron can create varied reactions.
Attenuation of neutron in a material that occurs by the absorption and scattering phenomena is as the exponential
function: In which is the microscopic cross sections of neutron collides with the nucleus of an atom per cm, N the number of
absorbent atoms on cm3 and X is adsorbent material thickness in terms of cm. Fast neutrons, usually during Elastic collisions
with surrounding atoms, rapidly lose their energy and change into thermal neutrons or near heat. As the neutron loss energy,
the probability of its absorption is increased by the absorbent material core. In the case of many-core, neutron absorption
cross section with low energy is proportional to the neutron velocity inversely. Scattering of neutrons: neutron collision with
a nucleus can be elastic or inelastic collision. In an elastic collision, the maximum neutron loses its energy during a collision
with a hydrogen nucleus. In general, elastic scattering is the most likely type of collisions between fast neutrons and light
absorbing materials. During an inelastic collision, part of kinetic energy of the neutrons has been transferred to the hit
nucleus, effect arousing the nuclear. Aroused nucleus then emitted the extra energy as gamma rays [5].
Radiation emitted from radioactive materials or which are produced in radiation generating devices, in collision with the
human body put extra energy, that this energy, has deleterious effects on living body tissue. Physical radiation effects are
different in partial and temporary disruption of some physical exercise and also some serious consequences such as
shortening life expectancy, decreased body resistance against diseases, reduced reproductive output cataract and leukemia
and other cancers and damage to a developing fetus. Extent of the damage is a function of radiation dose and is different
about different people. Local exposure (to a small area of the body) basically affects only the exposed tissues, but the whole
body irradiation cause the general reaction of the body. It is possible that the light shine on it from outside or from within the
body. External dose can be limited by reduceing the exposure time, distance from the radiation source, and finally
protection. Generally emission of alpha particles and emitted beta slow energy particles are not dangerous from outside to
the body, they are not usually dangerous, but if the particles are absorbed into the body, their energy is transferring to the
sensitive tissues of a living organism during short distance. If energetic particles shine from outside on the body can enter a
huge dose to the skin. X-rays and gamma rays have high permeability and can affect the entire body from the inside and
outside [7].
In summary, two important factors in the proper radiation protection are: distance, shielding or absorbent material that
in this regard a brief study of the topic will be discussed. Distance from the source: the distance makes us this sure that the
person is not exposed unnecessary radiation source .For example, while distribution of radioactive material in the laboratory,
we should not use the fingers, but must use tools such as pliers, scissors or tweezers. This is kind of protection method using
Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi, Marzieh Salimi, Nima Ghaleh, Gholamreza Etaati, and Hossien Asadi
ISSN : 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 4, Aug. 2013 1083
the distance. With increasing distance from the source of radiation, the beam decreases. The relationship is inverse-square
law, which states that track radiation is proportional to the inverse square of the distance from an exposure point source. By
simple calculations we found that imagine of this point is wrong that rapid transport of radioactive material by hand (in a
very short time) to the more time which is consuming their transform by the help of long-handled tools (to keep away of the
body)which significantly this will reduce radiation dose. It should be noted that when calculating the radiation we must
considered together the attenuated inverse square rule and the exponential attenuation of absorbent barrier.
Protecting: One of the most important ways to protect against nuclear radiation is using suitable protective material
between the radiation source and human or environmental protection. Materials used in nuclear reactors protection must
have the property of making neutrons slow and can make gamma rays in order to attenuation. To slow the neutrons that are
used usually from the layers of graphite, beryllium and water and for the attenuation of gamma rays are used heavy metals
and concrete. In addition to that concrete is capable to attenuation the gamma radiation is very important at slowing and
absorbing neutrons of thermal neutrons. Hence concrete with high availability, low cost and its effects suppressive properties
are of great use in protecting, especially in the outer shield [7].
Protecting materials: Making an appropriate and effective shielding against neutrons and gamma of a nuclear facility
requires proper selection of materials and thickness. Choosing the right material for making protective shield interconnected
optimality analysis are the weight, volume and cost considerations such as these. It is possible that these considerations
affect the choice of materials and consequently affect on the final design. However, cannot usually design protection that to
ensure the entire above range. Usually, for practical purposes, one of the above cases is considered as main goals and the
other goals are settings in order to be optimal. Most important characteristic of a material protection is its ability in
attenuation of neutron and gamma radiation. In general, lighter materials have higher ability in attenuation of neutrons and
heavy materials have higher ability in attenuation of gamma rays. The use of only one material is impossible for shielding
source of gamma and neutron. Meanwhile, heavy materials often activated by absorbing neutron and irradiation secondary
gamma that should be considered in shielding design. In practice an appropriate protection forms from the combination of
different layers of hevy and light materials to control neutron, gamma and secondary gamma. Different materials are that
can be used for protecting against radioactive rays. The main materials that are used in protecting include: water, lead,
graphite, iron, boron, concrete, and polyethylene. However, experience has proven that the use of appropriate concrete has
a lot of advantages compared to other materials. Boron (usually in addition to other materials such as polyethylene and
concrete) has many applications in protecting. The use of this is due to primarily higher neutron absorption cross sections.
Particularly this particle interesting is because of its dominant reaction that results in complete inhibition of neutrons and
does not produce any secondary particles with high penetration [3].
Water due to the high hydrogen content and the availability and cheap is useful shield for neutrons. However, due to the
low atomic number of the constituent nuclear of water are not acceptable against the gamma rays. There are Issues over the
use of water as the shielding that is hard case for storage, corrosion problem, purified, corrosion problem and removing
stiffness. Another problem of using water as a shield against neutron sources (reactors are widely used around the blue
shield) is neutron absorption in oxygen and producing of excited.
Lead as shielding: Lead is the most common substance for the attenuation of gamma rays. Lead's blocks with relatively
high prices can provide good attenuation of gamma rays. The power of gamma rays Attenuation in the lead back to its proper
density and high atomic number. Pieces of Lead Because of the softness and flexible are suitable for filling pore in the doors
and fittings. Lead is not satisfactory and cannot creat acceptable neutron attenuation in neutron field. Lead by absorbing the
neutron is emitting 7.4 Mev that cause it to worse the neutron properties. The impurities in commercial sorbs can have
activation gamma with full energy.
Graphite as shielding: Graphite is good retarders for neutron and in the types of reactors used as retarders. Neutron
absorption cross section is low in graphite and hence (as the possibility of the comfortable production of highly pure)
problem of secondary Gama is largely absent. Like Water graphite is not proper attenuation for gamma. Graphite has good
thermal properties which can also be involved in its use as a shield. Iron as shield, iron in the form of steel has widely used in
the shielding against radioactive sources. In addition to the shield in front of radiation iron is also used as a heat shield. Of
course, iron in effect of absorption of neutrons is emitted Gammas impart maximum MeV10 energy. Iron contains
attenuation effect somewhere between carbon as low and tungsten as high against gamma. Isotopes readily activated with
absorbing of thermal neutrons and isotope with half-life of the - 59 days and Gama with 1.5 MEV energy is producing.
Study of Neutron and Gamma Radiation Protective Shield
ISSN : 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 4, Aug. 2013 1084
Concrete as a barrier: Most commonly employed shield in different sectors of the nuclear is shield of concrete. It is
cheap and has features that are used as building materials. Concrete is known and this case facilitates its making and using.
Because concrete is a mixture of several different materials (in any combination may be highly variable) its composition is not
constant. Even two of the same type of concrete with depending on the materials have used very different in composition. So
when referring to concrete as shielding material, the material used in its composition should be told correctly. Generally
concrete are divided to batch "ordinary" and "heavy". Common concrete density was2/2 up to 2/4 gr / cc and the most
common substances has found in it is oxygen and depending on the material used for heavy making concrete is silicon or
calcium (or both). Usually granite, sandstone or limestone is used for this purpose. The heavy concrete with a density of 3 to
6 gr / cc as heavy concrete iron ore, barite (barium sulfate), steel balls, steel punch or other additives are used.
Typically, the concrete is as mix of cement, water (water in which the matter is considered too heavy concrete) and the
reinforcement of concrete .As stated, by vary of the reinforcement material can be prepared by various concrete types.
Various additives to improve the attenuation of neutrons or gamma rays, or increasing the hydrogen content of concrete can
be used to better mental health [10].
By the study of nuclear radiation such as alpha, beta, gamma and neutron we conclude that, by given that alpha and beta
particles can be fully absorbed by the shield, the main issue in the debate of radioactive rays shielding is stopping of gamma
rays and neutrons. Accordingly, in designing of the shield, usually two types of neutron and gamma radiation should be
considered. With examining of with these two types of radiation and processing of the prevention of these radiation with
different materials can be examined types of shield against these radiations. Protective material between the source of
radiation and humans must have the slowing property of neutrons and be able to attenuate gamma radiation. Making
protective and affective shield against neutron and the gamma of a nuclear facility requires choosing the right material and
considering the required thickness for them. Choosing right materials for making shield are interconnected with optimality
analysis of the weight, volume and cost and considerations such as these. It is possible that these considerations affect the
choice of materials and consequently on the final design. However, usually we cannot design shield that to satisfy all cases
highly and will be optimal from all sides. Usually, for practical purposes, one of these cases is considered as main goals and
other purposes besides it are being regulated to the optimum. Most fundamental characteristic of a sconce or protection
material is its ability in attenuating of gamma and neutron radiation. Accordingly types of protection can be designed. Design
a shield against nuclear sources requires highly accurate dose and effective intensity of nuclear radiation in the total
generated dose is in the out of shield. Often the computational methods used to obtain this information. All calculation
methods can be evaluated in two ways certainty and probabilistic methods. Simple equations for describing the behavior of
functions in certain ways (such as flux or neutron radiation) are introduced and the coefficients are determined by methods.
In short, semi-empirical methods based on predetermined rules of radiation change are determined in protection.
Accordingly, we can be summarized shielding design methods in a more accurate classification in the following three
categories [9]:
• Experimental methods
• Methods for solving the transport equation
• Monte Carlo methods
Monte Carlo method is the statistical simulation of the parameters of probabilistic nature. Nature is the examining
quantitative in statically protection of issues that means quantitatives such as flux is determines by the average performance
of very large number of neutrons. Based on this it is expected that by Using statistical methods can be calculated common
amounts such as flux and rates of dose and this is the basis of Monte Carlo method. The ultimate goal of the Monte Carlo
method is determining the neutron flux, the rate of varies reaction, dose rate and also identifying the critical state of the
system. Issues considered in the Monte Carlo method (in the field of reactor physics) can be classified in two categories:
constant source issues and critical issues. Our next article (if God willing) will investigate the problems of constant source (or
guards problems) [8].
Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi, Marzieh Salimi, Nima Ghaleh, Gholamreza Etaati, and Hossien Asadi
ISSN : 2028-9324 Vol. 3 No. 4, Aug. 2013 1085
[1] Aprsht, W., “identification of structural materials in nuclear technology”, refugees, H, printing, Tehran, Tehran
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[2] ACI Committee 211, “Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal, Heavy weight, and Mass Concrete”,
Appendix 4, American Concrete Institute, 2002.
[3] ACI Committee 304, “Heavyweight concrete, Measuring, Mixing, transporting, and, Placing (ACI 304.3R-96)”, Detroit,
American Concrete Institute, 1996.
[4] Akkurt, I, et al., “Radiation shielding of concretes containing differed aggregates”, Cement and Concrete Composites,
Vol. 28, no. 2, 2006.
[5] American Society for Testing and Materials, “Annual Book of ASTh Standards, Significance of tests and properties of
concrete an concrete making materials,” United States, ASTM special Technical Publication, Vol. 04.01, 04.02, 2007.
[6] Bashter, I. I., “Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients for shielding concretes”, Annals of Nuclear Energy, Vol.
24, no. 17, pp. 1389-1401, 1997.
[7] Basyigit, C. et al., “The effect of freezing-thawing (FT) cycles on the radiation shielding properties of concretes”, Building
and Environment, Vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1070-1073, 2009.
[8] Chilton, A. B., Shultis., J.K., and Few, R. E., “Principles of Radiation Shielding”, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632,
[9] RG Jaeger, Engineering Compendium on Radiation Shielding, Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, 1968.
[10] Sakr, K, et al., “Effect of high temperature or fire on heavy weight concrete properties”, Cement and Concrete Research,
Vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 590-596, 2005.
[11] Suzuki, A, et al., “Trace Elements with Large Activation Cross Section in Concrete Materials in Japan”, Journal of Nuclear
Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 7, pp. 542-550, 2001.
... Gamma-rays (γ-rays) are the riskiest compared to other types of radiation. γ-Rays are highly energetic photons with no mass or charge; thus, they readily penetrate the matter [3]. It exists either naturally by radioactive decay of radionuclides, e.g., of 238 U and 232 Th series, or artificially in nuclear reactors [4]. ...
... The hydrous WO 3 .H 2 O prepared was used as a precursor for the synthesis of Bi 2 WO 6 and PbWO 4. The binary oxides (Bi 2 WO 6 and PbWO 4 ) were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal approach. In a typical synthesis procedure, 5 g of WO 3 .H 2 O was added to 6.6 g of Pb (NO 3 ) 2 or 9.7 g of Bi(NO 3 ) 3 (i.e. 0.02 mol of each, made up to 75 mL with DIW, and then the capping agent (SLS: 2.1 g) was dissolved before adding 4.16 g of Urea with vigorous stirring for 15 min at room temperature. ...
... As shown in the forthcoming results, XRD patterns of all synthesized materials show that the capping agent (SLS) disappeared after annealing. 3 .H 2 O) and the synthesized materials: the chemical composition, elemental analysis (wt.%), the XRD identification, experimental and theoretical density, and the molecular weight, (g/mol) [25]. ...
Full-text available
The expanded use of radiations in diagnosis therapy, energy sectors, and various industries caused considerable concerns resulting from the increased exposure to ionizing radiations. Therefore, a series of tungsten-based composites (Bi2WO6, PbWO4, and Pb0.82Bi0.12WO4/W0.5Pb0.5Bi12O20) were synthesized, through One-Pot Hydrothermal Route, as effective protective barriers against gamma rays. The synthesized composite materials were characterized by XRD, Raman spectrometry, SEM-EDX-mapping, and density measurements. Various parameters were experimentally measured to determine the composites' viability as radiation shields, including linear attenuation coefficient (LAC), enhancement ratio, radiation protection efficiency, half-value layer, and mean free path. The narrow beam experimental gamma-photon transmission method was used to estimate the LAC's values for the synthesized composites using isotopes Cs-137 and Co-60 with energies of 0.662, 1.173, and 1.332 MeV, respectively. Among the investigated novel composites, the ternary composite (Pb0.82Bi0.12WO4/W0.5Pb0.5Bi12O20) proved to be the most efficient radiation shield. The MCNP-5 Monte Carlo simulation code and XCOM theoretical calculations data were in excellent harmony with the obtained experimental findings. The obtained results confirmed a strong relationship between the synthesized composites' chemical composition and their shielding capacity, where the ternary synthesized composite Pb0.82Bi0.12WO4/W0.5Pb0.5Bi12O20 with high lead-bismuth content has the highest LAC among the synthesized composites.
... The need for radiation protection materials arises in various industries and human activities: nuclear power, medicine, space technologies [1]. Active use of ionizing radiation sources requires development of modern effective materials for protection against radiation [2]. ...
... At present special binding cements (barium [3], lead-barium, iron-lead-barium) and others [1,4] have been developed, but portland cement is usually used for construction works and manufacturing of protective materials and products. For improvement of operational and radiation-protective properties of building materials it is recommended to enter into their structure special additives-modificators [5]. ...
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The influence of tungsten carbide and tungsten oxide nanopowders on radiation-protective properties of a composite material based on a cement matrix has been studied. These powders are obtained from carbide scrap production. In the radiation energy range of 0.06…1.408 MeV the gamma radiation attenuation coefficients at various concentrations of nanopowders WC and WO 3 (3.6%, 6.4%, 9.6% of the material mass) have been considered. The mass attenuation coefficient and the multiple of attenuation of radiation of investigated materials are calculated. It is shown that nanomodified composite material has high radiation protection characteristics and can find wide application as a radio protection material.
... XX, X, (2023) It should be taken into account that both the attenuation coefficient and the HVL of rubber composite shielding material are functions of γ-photons energy. The degree of attenuation of -rays depends on the number of atoms per unit volumethe shield thickness and photon energy, in other words, on macroscopic cross-sections and material density[25][26][27]. ...
... The element composition of Barite Concrete comes from the ICRP publication 103 (Protection, 2007) ambient dose equivalent rate. Boron-containing concrete is composed of boron and ordinary concrete to compare the shielding effect of CRT with boron (Al-Obaidi et al., 2020; Amirabadi et al., 2013;Piotrowski et al., 2012). The content percentage of each element is listed in Table 1. ...
Proton therapy is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and its shielding must be considered. The cathode ray tube (CRT) material is a glass containing heavy metal elements, these materials have become a good choice for the production of radiation-proof concrete. In this study, the ability of concrete containing CRT fragments as shielding materials for proton therapy rooms is evaluated in terms of neutron shielding ability, neutron reflection ability, ambient dose equivalent rate, and induced radioactivity. In addition, this concrete is compared with commonly used ordinary concrete, boron-containing concrete, and barite concrete. The results show that with the increase of CRT content (10%–90%), the transmitted neutron fluence decreases continuously (5.06 × 10⁻¹⁰ – 1.77 × 10⁻¹⁰ cm⁻²/particle), and the reflection of neutrons gradually increases (2.64 × 10⁻⁹ – 3.20 × 10⁻⁹ cm⁻²/particle), resulting in an increased potential to patients. When 50% CRT concrete is used, the ambient dose equivalent rate is below 3.80 μSv/h/nA, and 90% CRT concrete is below 3.11 μSv/h/nA. The trend of radionuclide activity of induced radioactivity from 0 to 60 min after irradiation for concrete with different CRT contents is 2.74–5.38 × 10⁻³ Bq/cm³, and the maximum photon fluence is 8.13 × 10² cm⁻². In conclusion, the optimization model of the three-layer shielding structure of ordinary concrete, high CRT content concrete, and boron-containing concrete is proposed with ambient dose equivalent rate less than 1.88 μSv/h/nA, minimizing the reflected neutrons to which the patient is exposed. This study shows the protection performance of CRT concrete is better than ordinary concrete and barite concrete.
... Minimizing the radiation dose of radioactive sources and protecting nuclear installations from collapse or exposure to harmful environmental conditions is important to avoid nuclear radiation chaos and to increase the reactor lifespan. The most broadly used substances for achieving these purposes is concrete (Amirabadi et al., 2013;El-Sawy, 2017). In relation to radiation exposure, the walls of biological shield are of great benefit as these safety-related structures encase the reactor and supply essential protection from radiation. ...
Based on determining the optimum concrete shielding in terms of its nuclear and mechanical properties, the difference between the performance of ordinary concrete (O.C.) and a new generation of reactive powder concrete (RPC) incorporating different contents of steel fibers (0, 1, 2, and 3 wt % of cement) were studied. Density, compressive and tensile strengths, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to examine the characteristics of the investigated samples. Nine different gamma-ray energy lines up to 1407 keV were used to determine the mass attenuation coefficients (σ, cm²/g) of gamma rays for the concrete samples. Three types of neutron energies (slow neutron, total slow neutron, and neutron with energy greater than 10 keV) were used to determine the macroscopic neutron cross-sections (Σ, cm⁻¹) for the prepared concretes. The study was extended to conduct at different five temperatures (25, 100, 350, 500, and 700 °C) as simulations for nuclear reactors in the cases of operation and accidents. The results showed that content of steel fiber somewhat has a positive effect on the mechanical and nuclear properties of RPC. Furthermore, the outcomes illustrated that at room temperature, the RPC gave a superiority in mechanical properties and nuclear attenuation properties for gamma radiation but for neutrons the preference was for the ordinary concrete. After exposure of both types of concrete to high temperatures, the nuclear and mechanical properties of the RPC have improved in contrast to what happened to the ordinary concrete.
... So, shielding materials are required for protection in nuclear industry [2]. There are variety of conventional shielding materials like water, lead, graphite, iron, polyethylene concrete and so forth which can be utilized for radiation shielding [3]. Some of these materials e.g., lead might be preferred because of good shielding properties and high density but they lack in other properties like flexibility, chemical stability, mechanical strength etc. [4]. ...
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Polymer matrix composite (PMCs) materials developed by room temperature vulcanization having various compositions i.e. 0, 30.1, 47.8, 59.8, 68.1 and 88.1 wt. % of tungsten incorporated in silicon rubber matrix were investigated using EGS5 Monte Carlo Code. Narrow beam geometry similar to experimental setup was modeled and validated for Monte Carlo simulation by making a comparison with standard XCOM (NIST) results. Gamma-ray shielding features of all composite materials were studied for several photon energies (122, 511, 662, 837, 1173, 1332 and 1811 keV) and compared with the XCOM and previously reported experimental results. Monte Carlo simulation results were in high accordance with the previous experimental study at gamma ray energy of 662 keV and maximum deviation was observed to be around 10 %. Thus, it can be concluded that this method is suitable for predicting the shielding characteristics of different materials. Additionally, mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ), mean free path (MFP), half-value layer (HVL), tenth value layer (TVL) were determined and effective atomic numbers (Zeff) is calculated using Power law for all PMCs. PMCs with tungsten loading above 68% showed mass attenuation coefficients greater than lead with additional feature of flexibility which makes them promising candidate in radiation shielding. In addition, these silicon/tungsten composites having 68 and 88 % of tungsten are 3.6 and 1.7 times lighter than lead respectively.
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Ionizing radiation such as x-ray, γ-ray and neutron ray have serious negative health effects on human being. Hence, new and smart textile fabric nanocoating was facilely developed and coated on lab coat cloth. The newly hybrid nanocoatings were fabricated from uniform dispersion of PbWO4 NPs and Bi2WO6 NPs of an average sizes of 47.38 ±7.6 and 9.1 ±1.8 nm, respectively in chitosan solution. The dispersion of tungsten-based nanoparticles was performed using ultrasonication process, then well dispersed hybrid nanocoatings were coated on textile fabrics derived lab coat. The mass ratio of nanoparticles in nanocoatings were altered and optimized. The attenuation properties of x-ray/gamma ray and neutron ray were studied and achieving good shielding properties compared to uncoated fabrics. Additionally, the antibacterial and mechanical properties of coated fabrics were evaluated. The coated textile fabrics achieved clear inhibition zone of 4 mm compared to zero clear inhibition zone for uncoated ones against E-Coli. Moreover, the developed coating layer achieved good reinforcement effect recording superior tensile strength by 11.5% than uncoated sample. The dispersion properties of nanoparticles in coating nanocomposites were investigated using microscopic tools.
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In the present study, five different type of new super alloys have been developed and produced which have high temperature resistance for both gamma and fast neutron radiation shielding. These super alloys have been produced with powder methodology by using the materials such as iron (Fe), rhenium (Re), boron carbide (B4C), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), boron (B), copper (Cu), tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta). Gamma-ray Mass attenuation coefficients, half value layer effective atom number, mean free path and fast neutron total macroscopic cross section, transmission number values have theoretically been calculated by using Geant 4 code, WinXCom and PY-X, PSD software. In addition, experimentally equivalent dose measurements have been carried out by using ²⁴¹Am-Be fast neutron source. Sulfuric acid abrasion, compressive strength, temperature resistance and weldability tests have been made. The results are compared with 316LN nuclear stainless steel because of its common use in nuclear shielding applications and all new type super alloy samples have shown better radiation absorption ability for both gamma and fast neutron. It has been determined that these new type super alloys can be used in nuclear applications for better shielding.
Presents a summary of ACI 304R-85 which is proposed as the replacement for ACI 304-73 (Reaffirmed 1983). The full report presents information on the handling, measuring, and batching of all the materials used in making normal weight, lightweight structural, and heavyweight concrete. It covers both weight and volumetric measuring, mixing in central mix plants and truck mixers, and concrete placing using buckets, buggies, pumps, and conveyors. Underwater concrete placing and preplaced aggregate concrete are also covered. The guide outlines procedures for obtaining good quality concrete in completed structures.
Theoretical calculations have been performed in order to obtain the mass attenuation coefficients and the linear attenuation coefficients at photon energies from 10 keV to 1 GeV for ordinary, hematite-serpentine, ilmenite-limonite, basalt-magnetite, ilmenite, steel-scrap and steel-magnetite concretes. The concrete densities ranged from 2.3 to 5.11 g cm−3. The calculated values of linear attenuation coefficients have been compared with those measured at gamma ray energies from 1.5 to 6 MeV for the concretes under investigation. Agreement between measured and calculated values has been obtained. Also, the fast neutron effective macroscopic removal cross-sections for the seven types of concrete have been calculated using the elemental composition of the mixes. Comparison between the measured and calculated effective removal cross-section values show a reasonable agreement for all types of concrete. Steel-magnetite concrete of high density (5.11 g cm−3), and with constituents of relatively high atomic number, is an effective shield for both photons and neutrons.
Properties of shielding materials for gamma radiation, including occurrence and extraction, physical properties, fabrication, and applications and design considerations are presented for lead and lead alloys, iron and iron alloys (steel), uranium, tungsten, bismuth, copper, aluminum, soil, ceramics, water, transparent materials (silicate and lead glasses), concretes, and air. Neutron shielding properties are given for lead and lead alloys, iron and iron alloys, uranium, tungsten, bismuth, copper, aluminum, beryllium, graphite, water, organic materials (rubber, plastics, oils, paraffins), wood and compressed wood, metallic and saline hydrides, cadmium and cadmium alloys, boron and boron compounds, boral, boron-graphite, combinations, concretes, and air. Laminated shields are discussed, the effects of heating on the properties of concretes are given, and optimization of the choice of shielding materials is considered. Extensive tables and figures. (GHT)
This book presents discussions of the transport description of radiation penetration, material and structural conditions in shield design, appendices and index. This book explains well the shielding against ionizing radiation, principally neutrons and photons.
The shielding of gamma-rays by concrete has been investigated for concretes containing different amounts of barite and normal weight aggregates. The linear attenuation coefficients (mu, cm(-1)) have been calculated at photon energies of 1 keV to 100 GeV using XCOM and the obtained results compared with the measurements at the photon energies of 0.66 MeV and 1.33 MeV. It is shown that the type of the aggregate is more important than the amount of aggregate used in concrete for gamma-ray shielding.
Temperature plays an important role in the use of concrete for shielding nuclear reactors. In the present work, the effect of different durations (1, 2 and 3 h) of high temperatures (250, 500, 750 and 950 °C) on the physical, mechanical and radiation properties of heavy concrete was studied. The effect of fire fitting systems on concrete properties was investigated. Results showed that ilmenite concrete had the highest density, modulus of elasticity and lowest absorption percent, and it had also higher values of compressive, tensile, bending and bonding strengths than gravel or baryte concrete. Ilmenite concrete showed the highest attenuation of transmitted gamma rays. Firing (heating) exposure time was inversely proportional to mechanical properties of all types of concrete. Ilmenite concrete was more resistant to elevated temperature. Foam or air proved to be better than water as a cooling system in concrete structure exposed to high temperature because water leads to a big damage in concrete properties.
The variation of linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm−1) with the freezing–thawing (F–T) cycles has been investigated for concretes, in which different materials were used as an aggregate. For this purposes, six different concrete blocks have been produced in various ratios of water/cement (w/c) utilizing different materials as aggregates. Then, linear attenuation coefficients were measured for five different F–T cycles. It was noticed that the linear attenuation coefficients decreased with F–T cycles for all concrete types and also different effect observed for different w/c ratio and different aggregate.
Amounts of trace elements with large activation cross section in concrete materials were measured to offer the basic data for developing of low activation concrete. From the measurements, the quantities of the activated radioactivities in biological shielding concrete were measured and evaluated for the clearance level. The average concentrations of ⁶⁰Co, ¹⁵²Eu and ¹³⁴Cs formed in concrete were 21.9, 1.08 and 3.21 ppm, respectively. The combination of the concrete materials for the most lowering concentrations of ⁶⁰Co, ¹⁵²Eu and ¹³⁴Cs was the limestone as aggregate and the white Portland cement produced in specific places. The most lowering concentrations of this limestone concrete were 0.16, 0.049 and 0.060 ppm, respectively. The limestone concrete was excellent as biological shielding concrete, because the neutron shielding effect was excellent a little compared with ordinary concrete. If this concrete used for biological shielding concrete, concrete waste will be able to handle as follows. Usage of this limestone low-activated concrete makes almost all concretes satisfy the clearance level for ⁶⁰Co after 20 yr cooling from decommissioning. In respect of ¹⁵²Eu, radioactivation quantity in the biological shielding concrete is reduced up to a half of the average value or less. With regard to ¹³⁴Cs, all concrete satisfies the clearance level.
identification of structural materials in nuclear technology
  • W Aprsht
Aprsht, W., "identification of structural materials in nuclear technology", refugees, H, printing, Tehran, Tehran University Institute for Publishing and Print, 2009.
Annual Book of ASTh Standards, Significance of tests and properties of concrete an concrete making materials United States
  • American Society
  • Testing
American Society for Testing and Materials, " Annual Book of ASTh Standards, Significance of tests and properties of concrete an concrete making materials, " United States, ASTM special Technical Publication, Vol. 04.01, 04.02, 2007.