Book

Creativity: Theories and Themes: Research, Development, and Practice

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Abstract

An integrative introduction to the theories and themes in research on creativity, the second edition of Creativity is both a reference work and text for courses in this burgeoning area of research. The book begins with a discussion of the theories of creativity (Person, Product, Process, Place), the general question of whether creativity is influenced by nature or nurture, what research has indicated of the personality and style of creative individuals from a personality analysis standpoint, and how social context affects creativity. This wide-ranging work then proceeds to coverage of issues such as gender differences, whether creativity can be enhanced, if creativity is related to poor mental or physical health, and much more. The book contains boxes covering special interest items, including one-page biographies of famous creative individuals, and activities for a group or individual to test or encourage creativity, as well as references to Internet sites relating to creativity. Includes all major theories and perspectives on creativity. Consolidates recent research into a single source. Includes key terms defined and text boxes with interesting related material. Single authored for clarity and consistency of presentation.
... Creativity is a major source of innovation, growth, adaptability, and resilience, making it a top priority of governments, global corporations, kindergarten-throughprofessional educational institutions, and other organizations and individuals who collectively invest hundreds of millions of dollars annually into training in divergent thinking and related practices (e.g., combinatorial play, associational fluency, analogical reasoning, multiuse sets, design schooling, brainstorming, and innova-tion forecasting). 19,21,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40] Yet, for all the tangible gains that training has yielded, its incongruity with children's mental processes raises a question: 22,41 How much more could be gained if the focus was placed instead on the alternative, creative engine that young minds employ? ...
... 16,[19][20][21] In assessment, it has yielded tests for measuring the quantity and diversity of creative ideas. 26,[81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88] The most well-known and widely used of those tests is the Torrance Test, which was invented in the 1960s and incorporates many of Guilford's original assessment tools (including Unusual Uses, the Impossibilities Task, the Consequences Task, the Improvement Task, the Common Problems Task, and the Situations Task), while also adding a number of pictorial assessments. 89,90 These tests and exercises became over the later 20th century, and remain in our 21st century, almost the entirety of creativity training within the American higher education system (from middle school to graduate design), global business (across all sectors, from manufacturing to finance to tech to services), and the U.S. government (from the Department of Education to the military's special operations community). ...
... Over the previous half-century, computational approaches to human cognition have been adopted by many computer scientists, cognitive scientists, and psychologists, 125,126 and they have prompted creativity researchers to treat narrative as though it too is computational, reducible to the semantic processing and association of representational and symbolic content. 26,64,[127][128][129][130] This computational view of narrative has been disputed by decades of work in narrative theory. The challenge comes in various forms, the streamlined version being: ...
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Article
Creativity is a major source of innovation, growth, adaptability, and psychological resilience, making it a top priority of governments, global corporations, educational institutions, and other organizations that collectively invest hundreds of millions of dollars annually into training. The current foundation of creativity training is the technique known as divergent thinking; yet for decades, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of divergent thinking: it is incongruent with the creative processes of children and most adult creatives, and it has failed to yield expected downstream results in creative production. In this article, we present an alternative approach to creativity training, based in neural processes different from those involved in divergent thinking and drawing upon a previously unused resource for creativity research: narrative theory. We outline a narrative theory of creativity training; illustrate with examples of training and assessment from our ongoing work with the U.S. Department of Defense, Fortune 50 companies, and graduate and professional schools; and explain how the theory can help fill prominent lacunae and gaps in existing creativity research, including the creativity of children, the psychological mechanisms of scientific and technological innovation, and the failure of computer artificial intelligence to replicate human creativity.
... Creativity, the ability to produce something novel and useful that is a valuable contribution to a specific domain [1,2], is often associated with psychopathology [3]. Parnas et al. [4] assume an inverted U-curve and suppose that low levels of psychopathology are associated with creativity. ...
... At first, we offer an overview of empirical-statistical studies on creativity and psychopathology. Since these studies are limited especially with respect to extraordinary creativity [2,5], we here reflect the results of empirical studies phenomenologically on the basis of biographical studies. Inspired by person-centered psychiatry [22], we complete empirical studies with ideographic analyses, especially of the best documented case of an eminent creator who suffered from dysthymia, major depression, and suicidality, namely J.W. v. Goethe. ...
... The severity of symptoms in general correlated with the reduction of creative activities in everyday life. In accordance with Csikszentmihalyi [1] and Runco [2,47], Hofmann [46] concluded that slight forms of mental disorders (e.g., mild depressive or hypomanic states) are compatible with creative work, as long as the person has sufficient cognitive capacities, affective energies, and supportive environments. This is compatible with the con- cept of cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperament which both are considered conducive to creativity in contrast to severe bipolar disorder [13]. ...
Article
Since ancient philosophy, extraordinary creativity is associated with mental disorders, emotional and cognitive destabilization, and melancholia. We here summarize the results of empirical and narrative studies and analyze the most prominent case of a highly creative person who suffered from dysthymia and major depression with suicidality. Hereby, we focus on the interaction of different phases of the creative process with “bipolar” personality traits. Finally, we offer an interdisciplinary interpretation of the creative dialectics between order and chaos. The results show that severe psychopathology inhibits creativity. Mild and moderate disorders can inspire and motivate creative work but are only leading to new and useful solutions when creators succeed in transforming their emotional instability and cognitive incoherence into stable and coherent forms. The cultural idea that creativity emerges in dialectical processes between order and chaos, is also to be found in the psychologic interplay of coherence and incoherence, and in neuro-scientific models of the dynamics between tightening and loosening of neuronal structures. Consequences are drawn for the psychotherapeutic treatment of persons striving for creativity.
... 62). Extensive studies on motivation showed that intrinsic motivation is highly related to an individual's creativity (Amabile, 1983;Amabile, Goldfarb, & Brackfield, 1990;Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;Hennessey, 1989;Hennssey & Amabile 2010;Montuori & Purser, 1999;Runco, 2007;Simonton, 1984;Sternberg, 2006). In the domain of science, instructional methods are found to improve creativity in conjunction with motivation related to a career in science (Alexopoulos et al., 2021). ...
... In many studies, intrinsic motivation was considered as the driving force of initiating creative behavior and predicting creative potential (Amabile, 1983;Amabile, Goldfarb, & Brackfield, 1990;Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;Hennessey, 1989;Hennssey & Amabile 2010;Montuori & Purser, 1999;Runco, 2007;Simonton, 1984;Sternberg, 2006), but it was very surprising to find that both SMIM and SMSE are not significant predictors of ideation. Though both showed a positive correlation to ideation, possibly due to high inter-correlation between the two sub-factors, multicollinearity affected the variance explained by them in regression analysis. ...
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Article
The study was conducted on science learners at high school-and college-level to explore the interrelation of various factors from social environment, cognitive, and non-cognitive resources affecting their creative potential. A hierarchical regression method was used to determine how well positive behavior of parents, supportive behavior of friend groups, grit, motivation in science, and legislative thinking style could predict the creative potential of the science learners. The results revealed that supportive friend group behavior, consistency of interest (a sub-factor of grit), and legislative thinking style can predict the creative potential of science learners. Group variance explained by them was at over 53%. Legislative thinking style turned out to be the most dominant pre-dictor, with 63% of unique variance explained by it. Positive friend group behavior came second, with 9% unique variance explained to the residual. Finally, consistency of interest could explain 12% of unique variance but with negative sign, implying it was not a component of the creative potential of science learners.
... Aktualnie najczęściej przyjmuje się, że każdy może wykazywać się kreatywnością, jednak jej przejawy będą różnić się między jednostkami (Richards, 1990(Richards, , 2007Runco, 2004bRunco, , 2007. Kreatywność, rozumiana jako właściwość/postawa twórcza, może przejawiać się bowiem w wielu obszarach funkcjonowania człowieka: w funkcjonowaniu poznawczym, emocjonalnym, a także w twórczym działaniu. ...
... Twórczość jest też zjawiskiem niezwykle bogatym, jeśli chodzi o zachodzące w jej trakcie procesy emocjonalne (Runco, 2007). Doświadczenia emocjonalne związane z doznaniami dotykowymi będą się różnić w zależności od czynników, takich jak rodzaj twórczej aktywności i techniki (np. ...
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Book
Książka zawiera przegląd badań na temat znaczenia twórczości dla kształtowania, utrzymywania oraz powracania do zdrowia oraz dobrostanu. Ukazuje również model wyjaśniający mechanizm „prozdrowotnego” oddziaływania twórczości, na podstawie dotychczasowych ustaleń teoretycznych oraz najnowszych wyników badań empirycznych. Dla uzyskania pełnego obrazu tego zjawiska uwzględnione zostały zarówno procesy pozytywnie oddziałujące na zdrowie, jak i czynniki ryzyka towarzyszące twórczości, które mogą być dla niego pewnym zagrożeniem. Ukazane zostały także najważniejsze kierunki rozwoju i wyzwania w zakresie badań naukowych i praktyki w obszarze związków między twórczością a funkcjonowaniem zdrowotnym.
... Moreover, AI education at the high-school level emphasized the importance of cultivating creativity and innovation among students in order to keep up with future technological advancements. Notably, there are some differences between these two abilities: creativity involves curiosity, risk-taking, challenge, and imagination (Williams, 1980;Sternberg, 2006;Runco, 2014), emphasizing the generation of creative ideas and developing original conception of new things (Westwood and Sekine, 1988); innovation involves decision-making, feasibility, practicality, effectiveness, representing the market demand, and the value of the product (Fagerberg et al., 2005;Clydesdale, 2006;Schumpeter et al., 2017). ...
... Students in the treatment group were proficient at weighing the originality, practicality, and social value of their outcomes through the presentation of the 7P model, which emphasized social satisfaction and recognition that contributed to the commercial value of the product. Innovation and creativity are characterized by the balance between novelty and efficacy (Runco, 2014), which is a remarkable reflection of the transformation of the two types of thinking under PBP. ...
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Article
The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of product-based pedagogy (PBP) on students’ creativity and innovative thinking in artificial intelligence (AI) education. A seven-step model (i.e., phenomenon, problem, plan, prototype, product, presentation, price) in accordance with PBP was proposed, in which the key function of the product as a linkage between creativity and innovation was emphasized. A total of 209 students from a major high school in South China were randomly assigned to a treatment group with PBP and a control group with direct instruction. Results indicated no significant difference was found in students’ learning performance; however, students in the treatment group performed significantly better than the control group in terms of students’ project management skills, creativity, and innovative thinking. This research validates the feasibility and effectiveness of the PBP and highlights its advantages for high-school AI education, which indicates a new direction for cultivating creative and innovative talents.
... Creativity is a dynamic phenomenon, plays a pivotal role in human life, and is important in daily life and environment settings, as it describes a core aspect of human adaptability (Beghetto & Corazza, 2019;Martinsen, 2011;Runco, 2014). It serves as the key aspect that determines someone's learning and business success, and psychological well-being (Susanto et al., 2018). ...
... Study on creativity is an interdisciplinary study that reflects on current researches about behavior, clinic, cognitive, development, economic, education, evolution, history, organization, personality, and social perspective (Runco, 2014). Other research shows creativity as an important aspect of educational performance, especially creativity design and development, as the goals of most design education programs (Chang et al., 2015). ...
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Article
This article aims to describe the students' learning creativity profile reviewed from school's accreditation status. The method in this study was a survey method by distributing a questionnaire of students’ learning creativity through google form. Participants in the study were grade VIII students in public schools with National Standard School accredited status, schools with A accredited State Junior High School (JHS), and B accredited State Junior High School (JHS). Based on the results of data processing, there was a significant average difference in learning creativity on indicators the ability to deal with learning problems between public schools with National Standard School accredited status and schools with A accredited State JHS. The average ability to deal with learning problems is also significantly different between schools with A accredited State JHS, and B accredited State JHS. A significant difference in average is also shown in the indicators of interest in learning creations and indicators of the ability to develop in learning between public schools with National Standard School accredited status and schools with A accredited State JHS. The results of this study can be used as empirical data for research on guidance and counseling programs to develop students' creativity in schools.Keywords: Profile, learning creativity, student
... Risk-taking has been identified by numerous researchers as a key character trait of creative individuals (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;Hill, 2014;Grant, 2016;Reisman, 2014;Runco, 2014;Bilton, 2007). Indeed, risk-taking is a part of the creative process because it is a search for that which is unknown, and may not be immediately knowable. ...
... I value the importance of empathy, enjoy being a lifelong learner, and commit myself to educating others everywhere I go. Creativity-originality plus effectiveness (Runco, 2014), is not just for work; it is for life; it is the only way I know how to live. ...
Presentation
This presentation submission focused on a few simple, proven ideas that can help parents, school boards, architects, and community leaders reimagine how K-12 schools can be reconceived to incorporate the latest research and scholarship on education in the 21st century, from an architectural design perspective.
... Per tutte e tre le prospettive, originalità ed efficacia sono concetti immediatamente associati alla creatività (Runco, 2007), all'idea che un qualche cosa di creativo determini una rottura, porti a un cambiamento significativo, una prospettiva nuova a cui nessuno aveva pensato prima, un atteggiamento, un modo di comportarsi o di pensare diverso, a un solco tra un prima e un dopo l'evento creativo. ...
... Robinson, 2017), ma come un insieme di capacità, atteggiamenti e risorse personali che permettono a un individuo di dare un corso originale al proprio percorso di crescita e maturazione, assumendo un ruolo di agente di cambiamento della propria vita, anche in situazioni di contesto non completamente favorevoli (e, dunque, operando come agente di cambiamento anche per lo stesso contesto). Così come accade nei modelli teorici generali, l'originalità è considerata come elemento essenziale per la creatività (Runco, 2007), ma in questo caso, relativizzandosi, deve essere inteso come originale un percorso di vita autonomo e personale, adattato alle proprie esigenze e ai propri interessi, in cui è possibile poter sviluppare pienamente le proprie capacità e i propri talenti così da poterli poi esercitare nei diversi contesti della vita quotidiana. ...
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Article
A partire da una riflessione sugli orientamenti necessari a contrastare la povertà educativa, l’articolo propone un modello di intervento che, sotto il versante educativo, possa amplificare la portata e l’efficacia delle azioni intra- prese. L’approccio è riconducibile al welfare generativo, secondo il quale i beneficiari, da semplici destinatari degli interventi, sono coinvolti come agenti di cambiamento della propria condizione in seno alla comunità di appartenenza, con un approccio fondato sulla promozione della resilienza e della creatività.
... Unlike convergent thinking, which requires individuals to zero in on known correct answers (as tested in traditional school exams), divergent thinking leads people to generate numerous and varied responses to a given prompt or situation [24,25]. In this paper, we focus on divergent thinking performances in terms of novel idea generation. ...
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Article
Recent works suggest that striking a balance between maximizing idea stimulation and minimizing idea redundancy can elevate novel idea generation performances in self-organizing social networks. We explore whether dispersing the visibility of high-performing idea generators can help achieve such a trade-off. We employ popularity signals (follower counts) of participants as an external source of variation in network structures, which we control across four conditions in a randomized setting. We observe that popularity signals influence inspiration-seeking ties, partly by biasing people’s perception of their peers’ novel idea-generation performances. Networks that partially disperse the top ideators’ visibility using this external signal show reduced idea redundancy and elevated idea-generation performances. However, extreme dispersal leads to an inferior performance by narrowing the range of idea stimulation. Our work holds future-of-work implications for elevating idea generation performances of people.
... The participants specified the artistic nature of creativity which aligned with the empirical findings about teachers' beliefs about creativity such as Adams (2013), Aish (2014), and Aljughaiman & Mowrer-Reynolds, (2005), all three conducted their studies in different parts of the US. According to some research involving teachers, creativity is considered synonymous with art (see Glȃveanu, 2014b;Runco, 2007). Although the artistic feature of creativity has always been the primary and often only feature of creativity in Kazakhstani culture and understanding, the findings of this study demonstrated that other characteristics of creativity shared by participants appear to be influenced by the western understanding of creativity. ...
Article
Creativity is connected with the prominent challenges of the 21st century, such as unpredictability and complexity of a fast-changing, globalizing world. Possessing creative skills can help young people to navigate through uncertainty and fast paced changes. Therefore, the topic of creativity has received considerable attention and been studied extensively in education over the past few decades. However, in Kazakhstan and former-Soviet countries, there is minimal literature using qualitative studies on creativity in education, especially teachers’ beliefs about creativity. It is commonly agreed that teachers behave according to their beliefs, with teachers’ beliefs shaping and guiding their classroom practices. Teachers’ beliefs about creativity can influence the effective implementation of creativity in the classroom with different studies on creativity demonstrating that teachers frequently do not have a clear understanding of what creativity is (Cho et al., 2017; Patston et al., 2021; Vincent-Lancrin et al., 2019). Teachers’ lack of understanding of creativity means a possible lack of development of creativity in the classroom. This study presents Kazakhstani upper secondary school teachers’ beliefs regarding the characteristics of creativity and creative students. We conducted a multiple case study involving four schools using semi-structured in-depth individual interviews with 15 Kazakhstani upper secondary school teachers. Findings of this study suggest that regardless of what type of schools participants work at and what subjects they teach, participants’ beliefs about creativity and creative students overlap not only with teachers’ beliefs about creativity from other countries but also with the majority of creativity theories.
... Ключевое достоинство комбинаторной категоризации в рамках «стрелы познания» заключается, с одной стороны, в существенном расширении области различаемых ситуаций (интерпретируемых, понимаемых, узнаваемых ситуаций), а с другой стороны, в нахождении наиболее экономных имплицитноэксплицитных знаний (Creativity as a Dynamic, Personal, Parsimonious Process [370] ...
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Book
Prokopchuk Y. Intuition: The Experience of Formal Research. Dnipro, Ukraine : PSACEA Press, 2022. 724 p. ISBN 978-966-323-188-4 (1st edition) A new concept of Intuition, the Deep Unconscious is considered on the basis of the Paradigm of limiting generalizations. The book describes a high-level sketch. The results of the study can be used in education, economics, medicine, artificial intelligence, and the management of complex systems of various nature. Прокопчук Ю.А. Интуиция: опыт формального исследования. Монография. Днепр, Украина: Изд. ПГАСА, 2022. – 724 с. Традиционная рациональность оказывается неспособной ответить на многие вопросы, возникающие вокруг интуиции. В книге предпринята попытка прояснить глубинные механизмы работы интуиции, творчества, бессознательного на основе парадигмы предельных обобщений. Результаты описывают новые подходы к поддержанию оптимальной сложности в субъективном представлении и анализе больших данных. Результаты исследования могут найти применение в образовании, экономике, медицине, искусственном интеллекте, управлении сложными системами разной природы.
... Convergent thinking, which is used for problem analysis and evaluation, is well represented in engineering curricula (Daly et al., 2014). However, creativity also entails divergent thinking which enables the generation of ideas before they are evaluated (Runco, 2007). However, it is less evident that engineering students receive instruction on how to generate ideas. ...
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Conference Paper
Creativity is a crucial skill for future engineers. Hence, it is becoming increasingly important for higher education (HE) engineering educators to foster and enhance engineering students’ creative abilities. Simultaneously, engineering education is shifting to online learning. However, we find that current online engineering curricula at universities fall short when it comes to teaching and rewarding creativity. To aggravate the situation, there is a paucity of pedagogical studies addressing teaching creativity online in HE institutions and there is a lack of systematic approaches to guide engineering educators to incorporate the topic into online teaching environments. To address these shortcomings, we conducted a comprehensive qualitative study using structured interviews and focus group techniques involving more than 60 higher HE engineering educators from Ireland, Germany, Denmark and Turkey to investigate the challenges related to teaching creativity online. Eight challenges were identified and we organize them in a four-field-matrixconceptual model which encompasses intellectual, social, organizational, and technological challenge aspects.
... Creative learning can be seen as any learning which involves understanding and new awareness, which allows the learner to go beyond notional acquisition, and focuses on thinking skills. It is the ability to make connections between things which were not connected before and see relationships between unrelated items (Runco 2007). From the teacher's perspective, student creativity is illustrated as a six-facet model, in which teachers 'see' student creativity expressed through (1) student self-reflections, (2) independent decisions, (3) through curiosity and motivation, (4) producing something, (5) multi-perspectives, and (6) when students develop original new ideas (Jahnke et al. 2017). ...
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Article
The most important purposes of Slovakian universities are research and education. The main goal of university education is to prepare highly skilled graduates to be employed in the labour market either at home or abroad. To achieve this goal, universities need to receive feedback from their graduates as to whether they are satisfied with their education and whether their employers are satisfied with their skills. The results obtained in this study show that, except for graduates from technical sciences, most graduates of Slovakian universities are not satisfied with the study programmes they chose. There are various factors affecting the satisfaction of graduates with their study programme; however, the most important ones were related to their employability and their employment in their field of study. Moreover, potential employers have greater expectations in relation to soft skills than graduates have acquired. The greatest differences between the required and acquired skills were seen in soft skills, such as the ability to take responsibility, to communicate with people, to negotiate, and to adapt to change, regardless of the field of study. Other than foreign language skills, the level of required hard skills was only slightly higher than the level acquired. According to these results, we make recommendations for universities, politicians, and potential employers; however, only reasonable cooperation among them can lead to graduates being satisfied with their chosen study programme.
... Furthermore, only the student's solved solution was evaluated in this case. Meanwhile, some studies have focused on the process of solving (Runco, 2007;Schindler & Lilienthal, 2020). Such different approaches can also advance the relationship between creativity in Fermi problems and other creativity. ...
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Article
Recently, creativity in mathematical modelling has been studied. These studies have found a relationship between mathematical modelling and creativity. However, few correlational analyses of those associations have been conducted using quantitative measures. The present study, using Fermi problems, regarded as a type of mathematical modelling, examined whether there are correlations between creativity in the Fermi problem and general creativity in psychology and mathematical creativity by Structural Equation Modeling. The results of a survey of junior high school students (n = 364) in Japan showed a strong correlation (r = .711, p < .01 in the acceptable model between creativity in Fermi problems and mathematical creativity. A moderate correlation (r = .429, p < .01 in the acceptable model was also found between creativity in Fermi problems and general creativity in psychology. In addition, these correlations were shown to vary depending on the content and format of the Fermi problem.
... Engineers are not supposed to take risks or favor creativity; they must be accurate, because engineering is a serious business. Nevertheless, a growing number of psychology theorists consider that regardless of the discipline, creativity is an important skill that needs to be nurtured, because it helps people combine and improve learned ideas, find adequate and innovative solutions to problems, and adapt to changing circumstances and confront emerging environmental situations (Moran and John-Steiner, 2003;Runco, 2007). ...
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Chapter
Fostering an innovative mindset and developing entrepreneurial competencies is what CETYS Graduate School of Business (CGSB) was looking for when the MBA program was reviewed and redefined five years ago. Launching a startup or strategically reconfiguring an existing business requires intelligence, commitment, passion, skills and entrepreneurial competencies. Competencies represent recognizable, learnable and measurable personal skills, knowledge, attitudes, values and behaviors. To develop such entrepreneurship competencies effectively in class, students not only need to learn about entrepreneurship, they also must practice and experience it. To address this, I designed, develop and apply three different in-class experiential learning exercises to help students reduce their change aversion and resistance to new knowledge acquisition. This meant pushing them outside of their comfort zone to learn and practice seven entrepreneurship competencies: opportunity recognition, opportunity assessment, tenacity, creative problem-solving, value creation, resilience, and networking.
... Second, research on creativity has moved from a focus on the creative individual as a lone genius, to an understanding of the social dimension of creativity where the creative individual is only one element (Glaveanu, 2009;Runco, 2014). Similarly, entrepreneurship research, originally interested in the traits and behaviours of individuals, has shifted towards an understanding of the role of the social in forming entrepreneurial opportunities and, consequently, entrepreneurs (Belchior and Lyons, 2021;Kelliher et al., 2020;Stephens, 2020;Walsh, 2019). ...
Article
Expanding our understanding of the lived experience of individuals who use their creativity to realise entrepreneurial opportunity is the primary aim of this paper. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis is used, based on two interviews of one-hour duration, with eight participants. The key contribution of this research is the recognition of the Creative Industries Entrepreneur. A Creative Industries Entrepreneur is an individual who occupies a space between traditional entrepreneurship theory and established creativity models. The main driving force in opportunity formation for a Creative Industries Entrepreneur is their creative impulse. This pushes them to achieve a personhood which can reconcile intrinsic impulses with external market forces and social imperatives.
... Since Amabile (1988) included intrinsic task motivation in her componential theory of creativity as one of four necessary components of creative performance, the link between creativity and intrinsic motivation has been extensively supported by numerous studies (Collins & Amabile, 1999;Luria & Kaufman, 2017;Runco, 2007;Tan et al., 2019). Nevertheless, Collins and Amabile (1999) suggested that some types of extrinsic motivation may be beneficial for creativity and that extrinsic motives may coexist with intrinsic ones (see also Covington & Müeller, 2001). ...
Article
Metacognition and motivation are considered key facets of self‐regulation in various contexts. Recent studies identified a link between metacognition and creative performance, with metacognitively aware students performing more creatively and exhibiting higher levels of intrinsic and identified extrinsic motivation. The present study aims to examine the relationship between metacognition, orientation toward intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, and creative performance. One hundred nineteen university students completed the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom and performed four verbal creativity tasks (product improvement task, consequences task, and two unusual uses tasks). The partial correlation network showed that all the creativity tasks were uniquely related to at least one facet of metacognition, and that the most complex task (product improvement task) was linked to both metacognitive knowledge and regulation. Furthermore, the structural equation model indicated that orientation toward intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between metacognition and creative performance, explaining 16% of the variance in creative performance.
... When faced with a problem, regardless of whether it requires creativity or not, individuals form ad-hoc mental representations of the problem space (Holyoak, 1984), which consists of three components: an initial state (the problem itself), a goal state (the solution or product), and solution paths (the cognitive processes and strategies that yield the solutions) (Kulkarni & Simon, 1988;Runco, 2007;Simon & Newell, 1971). Problems differ widely in the extent to which each of the three components of the problem space is well-defined. ...
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Article
Using the frameworks of creativity as problem solving and Integrated Constraints in Creativity (IConIC), this article develops the proposal that creativity is best understood in terms of a cycle of constraint exploration and exploitation. This general thesis, which applies to varied domains and levels of creativity, is supported by three specific proposals about the role of constraints in creativity, each of which is developed and illustrated with examples. First, constraints provide the criteria for the evaluation of creative outcomes, which can vary as a function of the emphasis on novel usefulness or useful novelty. Second, constraints are critical in each step of the creative process: problem finding, problem construction, and problem solving. Third, constraints play a key role in both open-ended and closed-ended creative problems. These arguments are supported by specific predictions, concerning: (a) task differences in whether novelty or usefulness are emphasized more; (b) individual differences in the processing of constraints (some may favor flexible constraint exploration, while others may favor persistent constraint exploitation), which I hypothesize also correlate with (c) engagement in different types of creative problem-solving (more open-ended, of the sort encountered in art, vs. more closed-ended, of the sort encountered in science, business, and engineering).
... Plucker et al. (2004) define creativity as individuals' knowledge and capabilities to produce new, original, surprising, and valuable products. Runco and Chand (1995) proposed that the creative process was once deemed to consist of divergent thinking entirely, but researchers later realized that it includes divergent thinking and cognitive processes like aggregated thinking and associative thinking (Cropley, 1997;Runco, 2007). Its socio-psychology orientation is focused on socio-environmental characteristics that promote or hinder creativity (Dul & Ceylan, 2011;Simonton, 2003), and the study about individual differences of creativity mainly paid attention on the iconic characteristics of extremely creative individuals, such as their personality, motivation, interest, attitude, etc., which are different from those of ordinary people (Kim et al., 2010;Prabhu et al., 2008;Runco, 2019;Sarathy, 2018). ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">This research’s aim was to explore the role of cognitive flexibility in mediating the effect of intrinsic motivation on the creativity of junior high school students. A creativity scale, an intrinsic motivation inventory and a cognitive flexibility inventory were utilized to investigate a sample of junior high school students in Shaanxi Province in western China. 765 valid questionnaires were collected and analyzed using the structural equation model (SEM). The SEM analysis showed that intrinsic motivation and cognitive flexibility have significantly positive impacts on junior high school students’ creativity. Furthermore, a full model revealed that cognitive alternatives and cognitive control mediate the relationship intrinsic motivation and creativity, and the mediation effect of cognitive alternatives is significantly greater than that of cognitive control. In general, the current research suggests that the impact of intrinsic motivation on junior high school students’ creativity is mediated by cognitive flexibility, and its results amplify prior scholars’ research results and give educators an inspiration how to cultivate creativity for the middle school students.</p
... All ideas were collected into an idea pool to assess how often the idea appeared. Only 5% of the ideas were considered 'unusual' (1 point), and only 1% of the responses were considered 'unique' (2 points) (Runco, 2014;Torrance, 1990;Wang et al., 2019). Based on the rating method, three experienced experts independently scored each use on these three dimensions. ...
Article
Previous studies revealed a close relationship between retrieval ability and creative thinking; however, it is still unclear what processes of creative thinking are influenced by retrieval ability. This study applied a novel task paradigm to distinguish between different processes of creative thinking. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to explore the differences of cortical activation and functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and temporal cortex between high (HRA) and low (LRA) retrieval ability groups during creating original ideas (CO) and recalling original ideas (RO) tasks. The behaviour results revealed that in the CO task, the HRA group performed better than the LRA group on fluency, flexibility, and originality. Importantly, the fNIRS results further indicated that the HRA group exhibited higher activation of the l-TPJ, l-STG, l-MTG, r-FPC, r-DLPFC than the LRA group during the CO task. Moreover, the HRA group exhibited higher activation of the bilateral TPJ, l-STG, l-MTG, r-DLPFC, and r-FPC in the CO task than in the RO task, and the LRA group exhibited higher activation of the l-STG in the CO task than in the RO task. The functional connectivity between the PFC and IFG, TPJ, and MTG of the HRA group was significantly stronger than that of the LRA group in both the CO and RO tasks. The findings suggest that high retrieval ability could facilitate the generation of creative ideas by facilitating the retrieval of novel information and suppression of common information compared to low retrieval ability. This study provides neural evidence for the effect of different levels of retrieval ability on creative thinking.
... Besides teaching how to read, write and perform basic mathematics, it is also worth mentioning the one should be knowledgeable about using proper thinking skills required for gaining maximum benefits (Rhodes, 1961;Runco, 2014). Similarly, the skills how to cope with different arising problems in every field need to be addressed (Segal, Chipman & Glaser, 1985). ...
... Modern world requires "a brandnew approach" [1] (p. 275) to cultivating a successful personality. Being a rather ambiguous concept, creativity has led its way to the educational system and now is being delivered not only through art and cultural theories, but also through developing novel and effective ideas, artifacts, or solutions in other domains [2]. Creativity is in great demand in numerous fields such as science, technology, economy, and politics [3]. ...
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Creativity is coming to the forefront in various spheres of modern life, with technically-relevant educational environment being no exception. Given the fact that it is a rather ambiguous concept, the creative development of engineering students in the course of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) allows fostering professional competence supplemented with efficiency and productivity of a generation Z student. The paper seeks to discuss the integration of creative-imposed methodology in an ESP course. The research provides a pilot three-componential model aimed at cultivating intrinsic motivation of technically-minded students stemming from comfortable and creative educational environment that simulates true-to-life situations in the English language course. To reach the aim, firstly, the relevant career-related material was compiled. Secondly, students were divided in a baseline group and an experimental one with latter undergoing additional creativity-related training. Finally, the authors assessed students’ performance and determined the correlation between creativity and productivity of future petroleum specialists. The findings reflecting the benefits of creativity in the ESP course are highlighted.
... To shape an environment to creatively solve the problems that societies face, Runco (2007) stated that teachers should play the role of encouraging the expression of creativity in the classroom or, further, providing an environment in which students actively learn creativity. Merrotsy (2017) pointed out that CPS is deeply influenced by the conditions where students work on producing solutions to problems with creativity. ...
Article
Game-based learning has been shown to motivate and engage students in the domain of learning, knowledge and thinking skills, such as problem-solving and decision-making. This article reports the design and use of an educational board game for learning chemistry that attempts to improve students’ scientific concepts as well as creative problem solving (CPS) skills. The investigation of a board game as a teaching material was conducted in a field test with 48 high school students. After experiencing gameplay, most students’ CPS skills increased, especially in the construct of solution-finding. Their scientific concepts of chemical techniques and products also improved significantly according to the comparisons of pre- and post-test results, indicating that the game context can help students develop a holistic view of the function of chemistry knowledge. Student interviews revealed the nuances of the improvements in the conceptual dimensions as well as the interactivity to construct creative ideas from different points of view. The recommendation to integrate science-related social issues into the game mechanism to enable students to explicitly experience all stages of the CPS process in each game round is the main outcome of this research.
... Во новата литература (покрај претходно посочената, в. Мещеряков и Зинченко, 2007;Runco 2004Runco , 2007Runco & Jaeger, 2012;Simonton, 2005Simonton, , 2008Sternberg, Grigorenko & Singer, 2004;Cropley, Cropley, Kaufman & Runco, 2010;и др.), како главни карактеристики/критериуми на креативност претежно се наведени (1) новост/оригиналност и (2) продуктивност/ адаптивност/корисност. Овие критериуми можат да се оспоруваат. ...
... Learners in constructionist computer-supported collaborative learning environments are situated as designers, and expert designer practices can inform learning environment designs in which students develop skills in learning while becoming increasingly expert designers (Donaldson, Barany, & Smith, in press). Design thinking involves a set of complex and interdependent characteristics (Cross, 2006) including framing (Schön, 1983;Dorst, 2011), wicked problems ( Rittel & Webber, 1973;Cross, 2006), abductive reasoning (Dorst, 2011), divergent and convergent thinking (Runco, 2014;Dorst, 2015), rapidly changing goals and constraints (Razzouk & Shute 2012), prototyping from abstract to concrete (Brown, 2009), constructing prototypes according to designer-constructed meanings (Poulsen & Thøgersen, 2011), contextualized thinking (Suwa, Gero, & Purcell, 2000), reflecting on relevance (Clark & Smith, 2010), and reflection-in-action (Schön, 1995). The enactment of such design thinking processes may prove particularly valuable to 21st century learners as ways to facilitate scientific and computational thinking abilities (Fields, Quirke, & Amely, 2015;Navarrete, 2015). ...
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Conference Paper
This paper reports the results of a case study developed around a workshop implemented at the 12th international conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. Both the focus and the design of the workshop centered around design thinking: the workshop itself was developed to enact the design thinking process model, while the process was leveraged to encourage the generation of creative ways to facilitate digitally-mediated ideation. The ideation process of writing creative ideas on sticky notes and collaboratively organizing and selecting a focus offers many benefits, yet has proven difficult to translate to digitally-mediated environments. This work describes the implementation of the workshop as a design case, and offers general themes that emerged from an analysis of workshop outcomes. It concludes with implications for future work around this issue, and reiterates the need for online collaborative tools for enacting ideation as part of the design thinking process.
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In craft practice, artisans display creativity through design, material and aesthetic adaptation, during the pandemic. There are limited studies on craft practice and creativity aspects of Mysore Rosewood Inlay craft of India. The objective of this research is to study the same among Mysore Rosewood Inlay artisans. Research methodology for the study is ethnographic research and creativity studies was conducted using the Test of Creative Thinking- Drawing Production and Four C of Creativity. The ethnographic study of the craft showed that traditional designs of products revolve around flora, fauna and Indian mythology whereas, the contemporary designs are based on diverse cultural aspects with precision. During pandemic, changes in craft practices were observed between older and younger artisans. Due to traditional grounding, artisans scored high in predesigned patterns compared to ones on free thought, whereas current time demands improvement in free thought based design skills.KeywordsDesignCraftsSkillCreativity evaluationMysore Rosewood InlayArtisans
Article
Scoring in creativity research has been a central problem since creativity became an important issue in psychology and education in the 1950s. The current study examined the psychometric properties of 27 creativity indices derived from summed and averaged scores using 15 scoring methods. Participants included 2802 middle-school students. Data included students’ scores on the Creative Scientific Ability Test (C-SAT). The following summed and averaged indices were included in the analysis: fluency, flexibility, creativity quotient, traditional creativity index, originality indices, 26 teachers’ ratings of creativity and appropriateness, and additive and multiplicative indices of originality and appropriateness. Results showed that most summed indices were slightly or largely right-skewed and displayed leptokurtic distributions. Averaged indices showed less skewness with mesocurtic, platycurtic, and leptokurtic distributions. Summed scores had higher variance and reliability than did the averaged scores. Fluency contamination was evident on all the summed indices, with much higher contamination on flexibility and percentile-raking-based originality. Interitem correlations between the indices are compared and contrasted using the equal odds baseline, dual pathway, and the trade-off model.
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Prokopchuk Y. (2022). Intuition: The Experience of Formal Research. Dnipro, Ukraine: PSACEA Press ISBN 978-966-323-188-4 (1st edition). References
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Beklagen heutzutage immer mehr Menschen, dass früher „alles“ viel einfacher war, spiegelt sich darin im operativen Bereich von (Alltags-)Handlungen zum einen eine subjektiv erlebte Steigerung von Kompetenzanforderungen (mit der Folge erhöhter und/oder neuer Lernansprüche; Abschn. 4.2) wider. Zum anderen die offensichtlich damit einhergehende, intensivere mentale Beanspruchung (mit der Folge der Herausbildung funktionalerer Wahrnehmungsmuster bzw. deren Verarbeitungsprozesse) (Abschn. 4.1). Bestehen diese Notwendigkeiten in immer mehr Lebensbereichen, hat dies vermutlich mittel- bis langfristig auch Folgen für die Identität bzw. Identitätsbildung (Abschn. 4.3) der Individuen.
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The chapter explores and elucidates the ways in which the cultivation of creative discourse is associated with the formation of the necessary conditions that promote human creativity. The study focuses on revealing the mechanisms behind their attempts of personal expression which incite a multifaceted processing of reality and a redefinition of the relationship between pre-existing and newly acquired knowledge. These mechanisms are studied in order to identify the ways in which creative discourse, under specific conditions, can transform from an innate human capacity into a creative ability.
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En los últimos años el estudio de la creatividad ha tomado preponde-rancia, así como su medición. El objetivo del presente trabajo es identificar instrumentos para evaluar la creatividad desarrollados en América Latina y España y analizar desde qué enfoque creativo se posicionan, qué dimensiones evalúan y qué propiedades psicométri-cas obtienen. Siguiendo la guía de PRISMA, se seleccionaron 11 estudios empíricos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, extraídos de las bases de datos de ERIC, Scielo, Latindex, Sciencie Direct, Scopus, Dialnet, Redalyc y Google Scholar. Resultados: de acuerdo al objetivo de la investigación, se encontró que los enfoques más uti-lizados para evaluar la creatividad fueron el de la persona y el de los procesos. En forma general, los resultados ponen de manifiesto que la medición de la creatividad en América Latina y España es un tema pendiente. Se discuten lagunas de investigación y sugerencias para futuros estudios. Palabras clave: Creatividad-Evaluación-Instrumento-Test-Escalas. Advances in Measuring Creativity in Latin America and Spain In more recent years, both the study of creativity, as well as its measurement have risen to prominence.The present work aims at identifying certain instruments developed in Latin America and Spain in order to assess creativity, and analyzing from which creative approach they are positioned, which dimensions they evaluate and the psychometric properties they obtain. Following the PRISMA guideline , eleven empirical studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected, extracted from the databases of ERIC, Scielo, Latindex, Science Direct, Scopus, Dialnet, Redalyc and Google Scholar. Results according to the objective of the research, it was found that the most used approaches to evaluate creativity were those of the person and of the processes. In general, the outcomes reveal that the measurement of creativity in Latin America and Spain still remains an issue. Research gaps and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
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Antworten auf die Frage, welches mathematische Handwerkszeug die Lehrkräfte von morgen brauchen, können und müssen auf ganz verschiedenen Ebenen ansetzen. Lehrkräfte von morgen werden Jugendliche von morgen unterrichten, die ihrerseits übermorgen unsere Gesellschaft prägen werden: Welche Unterrichtsinhalte werden dann relevant sein? Wie hoch muss das fachliche Niveau der Lehrkräfte sein? Welchen Anteil soll die mathematische Fachausbildung im Vergleich zu den didaktischen, pädagogischen und berufspraktischen Elementen der Lehramtsausbildung haben? Aber vor allem: Welcher Blick auf die Mathematik soll bei der Lehrerinnen- und Lehrerausbildung vermittelt werden? Lernenden aller Schulstufen, von der Primar- bis zur Hochschule, stellt sich die Mathematik oftmals als starres, fertiges Lehrgebäude dar, das bereits alle Fragen und Antworten abgearbeitet hat. Die Mathematik ist jedoch eine zutiefst fragende Wissenschaft. So waren es in der Geschichte der Mathematik immer wieder einfache aber eben tiefe Fragen, welche das Fach einen entscheidenden Schritt vorangebracht haben. In der Schule und im Studium werden die Fragen jedoch in der Regel von der Lehrkraft einfach vorgegeben. Echte mathematische Fragen stellen sich die Lernenden daher kaum je selber. Im Gegensatz zum Problemlösen wird in der Ausbildung die Fähigkeit, selber kreative, interessante Fragen zu entwickeln, wenig oder gar nicht geübt. Dies ist ein schmerzliches Defizit, denn erst die Fragen machen die Mathematik lebendig und interessant. Kennt man die Seite der Fragen besser, so sind die Antworten umso staunenswerter. Erleben künftige Lehrkräfte diesen Aspekt der Mathematik in ihrer Ausbildung, so sind sie auch eher in der Lage, ihn in die Schule zu tragen und das Fach den Schülerinnen und Schülern als kreatives und schöpferisches Tun zu vermitteln. Was macht nun eine gute mathematische Frage aus? Wie kann man den Blick für interessante Fragen schärfen? Wie kann man das Fragenstellen üben?
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Galileo's revolution in science introduced an analytical method to science that typifies the overall modern thinking of extracting, abstracting, and grasping only critical aspects of the target phenomena and focusing on “how”, which is a quantitative relationship between variables, instead of “why”. For example, to him, the question of 'why does an object fall' is of no significance; instead, only the quantitative relationship between distance from the falling object and time is important. Yet, the most fundamental aspect of his idea is that he introduced a quantified time t. When an object is projected horizontally, the distance travelled at some time in the horizontal direction is summed up as d ∝t, whereas the distance falling at some time in the vertical direction is summed up as d ∝ t². Here, the distance, which is a spatial attribute, is expressed as a function of time, t. That is, time is identified as a homogeneous amount that can be reduced to an algebraic number. It is now possible to calculate the laws of motion of things using functions of time. In this respect, mathematical time was a decisive variable in making mathematisation of physical nature practical. Because, according to atomic theory, vacuum exists between an atom and an object composed of atoms or between objects – ignoring factors that interfere with motion, such as friction – the space for absolute time, which is a mathematical time, can be geometrically defined. In order to justify this mathematical abstraction strategy, thought experiments were conducted rather than laboratory experiments, which at that time were difficult to perform.
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Creative and performing artists often experience heightened levels of mental health distress, experiences increasingly recognised in the discourse and the academic literature. Some students studying the arts at the higher education level may even bring with them pre-existing mental health issues, which can affect their capacities for learning and career preparation. On completing their studies, graduates enter a sector that offers particular challenges in terms of significant competition for employment, non-linear work patterns, precarious resource bases and physical and mental stressors associated with the nature of artistic work. An artist therefore requires resilience and mental strength to cope with the realities of their practice. This chapter surveys recent research literature relevant to artists and mental health, it identifies several implications for higher education programs in the arts, and suggests ways curricula might be reimagined to respond to a post-pandemic world which is likely to offer significant challenges for artists.KeywordsArtistsMental healthHigher educationCurriculumCovid-19
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Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Frage, welche Einflüsse Kultur auf Kreativität hat. Nach Überlegungen zum Begriff der Kultur und zu Kreativitätstheorien wird der komplexe Begriff der Kultur anhand einiger Beispiele beleuchtet und Auswirkungen auf die Kreativität werden diskutiert. Dabei kann keine umfassende Analyse stattfinden, die es erlauben würde, allgemeine Regeln und Gesetzmäßigkeiten abzuleiten, wie Kultur auf Kreativität wirkt. Dazu sind die Wirkungsweisen zu komplex und vielfältig. Herausgearbeitet wird aber, dass der Kreativitätsbegriff in unterschiedlichen Kulturen unterschiedlich definiert wird. Betrachtet wird, inwieweit Kultur als Filter für kreative Ideen wirksam wird. Anhand der Fragen, ob bei der Kreativität das Ergebnis oder der Prozess dominiert, welche sprachlichen Einflüsse wirksam werden und wie der Umgang mit Feedback ausgeprägt ist, werden Beispiele für kulturelle Einflüsse diskutiert.
Article
This study attempts to test a simple method of consensus assessment of contemporary dance, which allows a viewer to subconsciously assess the manifestation of creativity in contemporary dance. The sample is represented by 12 choreographers, 46 dancers and 123 spectators. The main analysis was carried out using the capabilities of the LAVAAN package; to determine the influence of the main studied categories (experience and knowledge), the correlation was checked using Cohen's kappa (value 0.82, high level of reliability). Analysis of variance was used to determine the difference in average ratings of videos with dance performances. The results show that a real-life dance experience is critical. The fact that raters have had some dance lessons or that they regularly watch dance videos does not affect the final score in assessing the creative component of the shown contemporary dance. Raters with dance choreography experience rated creativity higher.
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While creativity is a key element of contemporary curriculum frameworks around the world, it is still insufficiently fostered in formal education settings. This study analyzes a project for collaborative musical creativity, entitled The Sonorous Paella. Participants (N = 12) were eight Year 4 secondary students, two professional musicians, an artist-in-residence, and a music teacher. Drawing on a graphic musical score, the participants worked together for 1.5 months to produce a group composition and performance. They were provided with various sound producers (instruments, everyday objects, technological devices) and were encouraged to flexibly utilize the physical space to maximize collaborative participation. Field notes and pictures taken during working sessions and rehearsals, audio recordings from the final concert, and individual interviews with all participants were qualitatively analyzed. In response to the three study objectives, we conclude that: (1) the design of this collaborative project was consistent with current research-based creativity discourses; (2) drawing on the quality and originality of the final concert, the project fostered the musical creativity of the group; and (3) participants’ perceptions of and opinions about their creativity learning processes were unanimously positive. Our final aim is to inspire music teachers in designing curriculum units that foster collaborative musical creativity.
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Originality is the main criterion for creating an author’s work. However, authors are often influenced by previous works of other authors that they have seen, heard or experienced. The aim of this study is to identify criteria for determining creativity in authors’ works, trying to find and define the difference between accidental influence and deliberate misappropriation or plagiarism. This article does not claim an in-depth analysis of creativity and originality from a social science perspective. It is more a scientific essay on creativity from a law science point of view, so that further research can be carried out in the field of authorship and its determination. In order to find an answer to the research question (Where does influence end and plagiarism begin?), theoretical framework and knowledge about creativity were observed, international and national laws were studied, case law from different countries was researched, materials of international conferences were examined, as well as information accessible on the Internet on copyright issues was observed. The research used a descriptive method to investigate the works of various researchers on the types of mutual influence, regulatory framework and court practice in this field, as well as a grammatical, systemic, teleological, and historical interpretation of legal norms to assess the inadequacy of existing legal norms and propose the necessary amendments in legislative enactments. The main result of this study is understanding that the factor of consciousness or subconscious forms the main criteria. If the influence is unintentional, the copyright of the original work is not infringed, but if repetition is intentional, when it goes beyond originality, the new work is considered to be an appropriation of authorship or plagiarism.
Article
The authors sought to test the fit of a new model of spirituality in music education by examining one jamming session through a hermeneutic phenomenological lens. In accordance with the work of Van der Merwe and Habron, the authors employ four lifeworld existentials as categories by which to organize the experience of the five musicians involved in a particular jam session. Participant researcher narratives are analyzed for fit with the model, and an analysis is reported. These narratives seem to support the existence of the guideposts inherent to the model. Furthermore, the researchers present a model as a way for situating the spirituality model in the context of an understanding of person, product, process, press, and position to inform the literature in creativity.
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Interest in creativity in mathematics education research is increasing, and the field of research is growing. Yet, research on creativity and the notions (we use this wording to accumulate understandings, beliefs, and ideas about the construct) of creativity that are addressed in empirical research are diverse and difficult to organize in an overview, with different theoretical backgrounds and theoretical assumptions underlying them. The aim of this article is therefore to provide a systematic overview of notions of creativity addressed in recent empirical research on mathematical education. We conducted a systematic literature review, guided by the question, What notions of creativity are addressed in current mathematics education research and what theoretical foundations do they rely on? The article gives an overview of the five predominant notions of creativity that were identified in current empirical research in mathematics education from 2006 to 2019. We describe and evaluate these notions and identify trends that will help to structure this diverse field of research.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic, natural disasters, and political and social movements have required each of us to pause. Collectively they signal a unique moment in our history, and we argue that they provide us with an opportunity to consider what matters most as we move forward. Using poetic representation and Brené Brown’s guideposts for wholehearted living as a framework, we offer a series of provocation for readers to consider the role of wholeheartedness and wellbeing in education.
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This paper exploring the impact of the utilization of Design Thinking tool in facilitating the development of a group of design undergraduates’ creativity skills and motivation to think creatively. This study used a qualitative approach based on open-ended face-to-face interviews. A group of 55 design undergraduates from a Malaysian university was recruited, who were equally divided into 11 design teams, with each team having to solve the problems faced by alocal community. A stratified sampling method was employed to choose two members from each group, totaling 22 students as the interviewees. In the interviews, open endedquestionwas asked to probe their experience on how Design Thinking had facilitated their creative thinking and motivation to be creative. The qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed that the Design Thinking approach helped the design students to be both creative and highly motivated, thus enabling them to propose and develop practical, innovative designs. Clearly, such findings suggest that both factors are intimately linked with one another. The study shows that it is important for design educators to utilize the Design Thinking learning strategy to synergize the creative skills and motivationto be creative especially in design education in developing competent, responsible future designers who able to serve the society more effectively.
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In this chapter, we propose that online courses or programs require what we term as a creatively focused and technology fluent mindset (a “CFTF” mindset) on the part of faculty, instructors, instructional designers and other program stakeholders. Such a mindset must be grounded in multiple things: a knowledge of the discipline and of teaching with technology, a creative willingness to try new things and experiment with technologies, and a willingness to push students to consider and re-consider what they know. Through this chapter, we describe the context for change in emerging opportunities for online learning environments and then describe the factors that comprise a CFTF mindset for instructors, designers and developers in online environments. This mindset is built upon theoretical foundations in creative thinking, openness and willingness to experiment. Finally, we share examples of how CFTF has played out in one course in the Educational Leadership & Innovation Ed.D. program at Arizona State University, along with reflections and recommendations—as a means to exemplify what such a mindset might look like in real-world online learning settings.
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Este trabajo expone el modelo del taller creativo Zona C, en el cual un conjunto de estudiantes de Centro de diseño, cine y televisión, responden a una problemática planteada por un patrocinador externo con una propuesta de diseño. Con ello, se pretende dar cuenta de esta forma de trabajo replicable en otras instituciones educativas.
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Six measures of divergent thinking were administered to 825 men ranging in age from 17 to l01 over the period from 1959 to 1972; repeat administrations were given to a subset of 278 men after a 6- year interval. Cross-sectional analyses showed curvilinear trends, with an increase in scores for men under 40 and a decline thereafter. Repeated measures analyses on subjects initially aged 33 to 74 generally replicated this finding whereas cross-sequential analyses suggested a decline for all cohorts tested at a later time. Additional analyses suggested that not all of the decline could be attributed to reduced speed of response production. These longitudinal findings confirm earlier cross-sectional reports of decline in divergent thinking abilities with age.
Article
The development of the formal operations and creativity from early to middle adolescence was investigated across high and average levels of school achievement. Two sixth grade classes (sixth high and sixth average) and two tenth grade classes (tenth high and tenth average) were given formal thinking and creativity tests at separate sessions. On formal thinking and verbal fluency, the tenth graders did significantly better than the sixth graders and the high achievers performed significantly better than the average achievers. On the preferred indexes of creativity, though, there was a drop in creativity from early to middle adolescence. The drop was interpreted as a function of the increasing stress and peer orientation of the developing adolescent. The superior performance of males in formal thinking and females in creativity was discussed in terms of masculine feminine cognitive styles.
Article
Flexibility is the ability to change. Innovation involves different types of change. In this chapter we will examine the importance of fiexibility for different aspects of innovation. Different types of fiexibility will be considered throughout the chapter, such as adaptive fiexibility (the ability to change as a function of task requirements) and spontaneous fiexibility (the tendency to change for intrinsic reasons, to try out a variety of methods). Finally, we will discuss how different types of fiexibility can be important at different stages in the innovation process.
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When the ‘cognitive revolution’ of the 1960s and 1970s took place, psychology breathed a metaphorical sigh of relief. For many years, it had been dominated by the rigid demands of behaviourism, with an insistence on an ‘objective’ approach that many felt had become increasingly trivialised, not least in view of its emphasis on animal learning as the essence of psychological mechanisms.
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Montuori and Purser (1995), in "Decontructing the Lone Genius Myth," and Hale (1995), in "Psychological Characteristics of the Literary Genius," are perhaps closer together than one might think. The first authors do not deconstruct the lone genius, but rather the lone aspect of this genius, with attention to the context for creativity. Hale does not deem context unimportant but emphasizes situations in which the creator might stand more in reaction to than in resonance with parts of that context. Nonetheless, Montuori and Purser's view of context is more expansive and interconnected and stems from an important social critique. The present comment uses chaos theory as both model and metaphor for creative innovation, highlighting the uniqueness of individuals and their contributions and, at the same time, acknowledging the intricate interdependence and sensitivity that can occur within the context for creation. Viewing the "genius" in this framework may, however, require attention to other issues not elaborated upon in these articles, including mood disorders and creativity, thought disorder and normalcy, and a greater acceptance of our own personal divergence and deviancy.
Article
The purposes of the study were to investigate the distinctiveness of the creative personality and the Chinese personality and to examine what values Hong Kong Chinese people attached to traits of both personalities. A checklist of 60 adjectives, which consisted of traits of the creative personality, the Chinese personality and the western personality, was administered to 278 Hong Kong Chinese participants. The participants were asked to rate the importance they attached to each adjective. Results of factor analyses indicated that characteristics of the creative and Chinese personalities were perceived as distinctive by the participants. Among the top ten factors which the participants attached high values, four of them belonged to the creative personality, three of them to the Chinese personality and three of them to the Western personality. A dynamic interaction between traditional Chinese and Western values, including the creative personality, can be observed.
Article
This study investigated the effect of brainstorming experience on the ability of groups to subsequently select the best ideas for implementation. Participants generated ideas either alone or in interactive groups and with either the regular brainstorming rules or with additional rules designed to further increase the number of ideas generated. All participants subsequently were asked to select their top five ideas in a group evaluation phase. Groups of individuals generating ideas in isolation (nominal groups) generated more ideas and more original ideas and were more likely to select original ideas during the group decision phase than interactive group brainstormers. Additional rules increased idea generation but not idea originality or idea selection.
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Creativity does not have a dark side. Creative products and efforts can be malevolent, but that is apparent in their impact and is not an inherent quality of creativity nor a requisite trait in the creative personality. Claiming that there is a dark side to creativity is much like arguing that hammers are evil because they can be used to dismantle as well as construct things. Creativity is indeed in some ways a tool of humanity, but of course that is merely a metaphor and, as such, only imperfectly applicable. The important point is that the process that underlies all creative things is not moral or immoral, ethical or unethical, good or evil. It is essentially blind. Like a tool, it can be applied in many different ways, some of which are benevolent and some of which are unethical and immoral, but to understand creativity it is best to be parsimonious and leave out what is extraneous, and that includes all possible effects. This chapter develops this view of parsimonious creativity and describes the ostensible dark side as a function of values and decisions that are ancillary to actual creative work. There is no denying that creative talents have in the past been used in highly unfortunate ways. Many famous examples of this have been described by McLaren (1993), Stein (1993), and the authors of others chapters in this volume.
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The best education is grounded in good science. It is not based on opinion, tradition, or speculation but instead is drawn directly from the reliable information of empirical studies and the logical theories that take into account the empirical data. I have often told my students (many of whom are planning to teach) that it is their ethical responsibility to develop curriculum and follow pedagogy that has been tested and verified. Fortunately, there is no lack of good information about creativity. This means that educators should have plenty of data and reliable theory to apply in the classroom. There is also quite a bit of bad information about creativity, but if opinion, tradition, and speculation are used to identify untrustworthy sources, it is not that difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. Indeed, there may be too much information about creativity. There are different perspectives on various aspects of the creative process (e.g., Simonton, 2007; Weisberg, 2007), which can make it difficult to focus. Many of the differences can be explained by the fact that creativity is a syndrome (MacKinnon, 1965; Mumford & Gustafson, 1988), which is affected by quite a few different influences. Additionally, it takes various forms depending on the creator's age (Runco & Charles, 1997) and the domain (Albert, 1980; Gardner, 1983). Age and domain are especially relevant to education because they indicate that certain things may be best for the creativity of a preschool- or elementary school–aged student, but other things may be best for an adolescent or a young adult.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the definition, source, process, and measurement of creativity. The definition of creativity involves primarily novelty and appropriateness but is influenced by the quality, importance, and production history of a piece of work. In future research, the behavior of judges could be examined further to refine the definition of creativity. The source of creativity involves intelligence, knowledge, thinking styles, personality attributes, motivation, and the environment. These components work together to yield creative performance. Each component deserves further study, and the interaction of components especially needs to be explored. The chapter describes the creative process and the theoretical range of process models. The examination of the four-stage process model points to the need for more specification and development of creative process models in general. In particular, differences between the creative and routine problem-solving process need to be determined, and the use of intellectual abilities, knowledge, and other components of creativity need to be linked to the process in more detailed ways. The chapter also discusses creativity assessment methods. Each method has positive features, negative features, and room for improvement.
Article
This book sets forth a provocative agenda for the scientific study of human personality. Blending no-nonsense empiricism with the humanistic desire to understand the whole person, the book is as relevant today as it was to its many readers seventy years ago. The book sets forth a full theory of human personality, illustrated with a bevy of creative methods for personality assessment, and presenting the results of a landmark study of fifty Harvard men. The book is one of the great classics in 20th-century psychology.
Article
This study was designed to determine what concepts teacher-educators in India have of the ideal student in terms of what characteristics they believe should be encouraged and discouraged and to compare the results with the concepts of teachers in the United States. Torrance’s Ideal Pupil Checklist was administered to one hundred teachers of education in teacher training colleges in Rajasthan, India. When the sixty-two characteristics of the Checklist were ranked, a rank-order coefficient of correlation of .76 was obtained between the ranks assigned by the Rajasthan teacher-educators and United States teachers. In general, the Rajasthan Ss emphasize the receptive nature of man and de-emphasize man’s self acting nature more than United States teachers.
Article
Creative things are always original. Originality is not sufficient to guarantee creativity, for some original things are worthless, unattractive, or otherwise uncreative. It is a one-way relationship: creative things are always original, but original things are not always creative. The fact that originality is not sufficient for creativity indicates that creativity involves something in addition to originality. Usually that additional element is defined as a kind of usefulness, appropriateness, or fit (e.g., Runco & Charles, 1993). When the task at hand requires problem solving, creativity leads to a solution that is both original and effective. Bruner (1962) described that part of creativity that is not accounted for by originality as effective surprise. When the task is not a kind of problem, creativity leads to original and aesthetically pleasing results rather than a solution per se. Whatever term we use, this additional element of creativity is important for the present purposes because it requires reasoning. It is reasoning that insures that original things are effective and aesthetically appealing. In that light, all creative performances depend on reasoning. It is unlike the reasoning that is involved in other cognitive activities, but similar to it – after all, all reasoning is reasoning. There is some sort of commonality. In fact, it is possible to model reasoning in such as way as to capture both creative and noncreative cognition. The differences between creative and noncreative reasoning are easily built into the model. Such a model is described late in this chapter.
Article
How do experts reach their high level of performance? Recent reviews (Ericsson, 1996, 1998b, 2001; Ericsson & Lehmann, 1996) dispel the common belief that “talented” expert performers attain very high levels of performance virtually automatically through cumulative domain-related experience. Instead, empirical evidence strongly implies that even the most “talented” individuals in a domain must spend over ten years actively engaging in particular practice activities (deliberate practice) that lead to gradual improvements in skill and adaptations that increase performance. In this chapter I argue that the acquisition of expert performance can be described as a sequence of mastered challenges with increasing levels of difficulty, such as playing pieces of music, performing challenging gymnastic routines, and solving complex mathematical problems. Different levels of mastery present the learner with different kinds of problems that must be solved for the skill to develop further. And each individual's path toward skilled performance is distinct; it depends on when technical challenges were encountered and the specific methods used to help the individuals continue their development. When beginners are first introduced to a domain of expertise they can successfully perform only the most simple tasks and activities. With the aid of instruction and training many individuals are able to master increasingly difficult tasks, thus gradually improving and slowly approaching the level of expert performers. The incremental nature of gaining mastery means that tasks that were initially impossible to perform can be executed effortlessly as increased skill is attained.