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Co-branding in Fast Fashion: The Impact of Consumers' Need for Uniqueness on Purchase Perception

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Co-branding is deemed as an effective strategy of brand development and has been largely adopted by fast fashion brands such as H&M. A fast fashion brand collaborating with a luxury designer fashion brand is recognized as “fast fashion co-branding.” This study explores the consumers’ need for uniqueness and purchase perception of fast fashion co-brands, which also relates to the consumers satisfaction and welfare. A self-administered survey questionnaire was employed in main shopping areas in Hong Kong and 175 valid respondents were obtained. The empirical results show that the consumers’ needs for uniqueness among the associated fashion brands have significant differences. The impact of their need for uniqueness on the purchase perception of fast fashion co-brands is also revealed. This study gives an important implication of fast fashion co-brands on consumer-purchasing behavior and provides managerial insights to companies’ co-branding strategies centered on fashion brands of different brand positioning.
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101
Chapter 7
Co-branding in Fast Fashion:
The Impact of Consumers’ Need
for Uniqueness on Purchase Perception
Bin Shen, Jaehee Jung, Pui-Sze Chow and Szeman Wong
B. Shen ()
GloriousSunSchoolofBusinessandManagement,DonghuaUniversity,
Yan An Road (West) 1882, Shanghai 200051, China
e-mail: binshenjerry@gmail.com
J. Jung
Department of Fashion & Apparel Studies, University of Delaware,
304 Alison Hall West, Newark, DE 19716, USA
e-mail: jajung@udel.edu
P.-S. Chow · S. Wong
Business Division, Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
e-mail: linda.chow@connect.polyu.hk
S. Wong
e-mail:wongszeman_@hotmail.com
1 Introduction
Fashion industry has seen much of partnerships between fast fashion and designer
fashion brands launching a special co-branded line. This kind of popular strategy
ofbranddevelopmentisrecognizedas“fastfashionco-branding.” For example,
H&M, a popular fast fashion brand from Sweden, is highly involved in collabora-
tion with various luxury designer fashion brands. H&M initiated designer collabo-
rations starting with Karl Lagerfeld in 2004. Collaborations in subsequent years
include those with Stella McCartney, Viktor & Rolf, Madonna, Roberto Cavalli,
Commedes Garcons, MatthewWilliamson,Jimmy Choo,Sonia Rykiel,Lanvin,
Versace, and Marni. Co-brands of H&M receive high popularity and are always
under spotlight. Consumers are willing to queue up for a whole night to buy co-
brandeditems,andtheproductsareusuallysoldoutinaveryshorttime(Fitzsimons
2011; Chilvers 2012). Taking the latest collaboration between Marni for H&M as
an example, the whole collection of Marni for H&M was sold out by lunchtime of
the first day of opening in London (Milligan 2012). Uniqlo, a Japanese fast fashion
brand,hadcollaborated with the German luxury designer brand Jil Sander for 2
T.-M. Choi (ed.), Fashion Branding and Consumer Behaviors,
International Series on Consumer Science, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-0277-4_7,
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
102 B. Shen et al.
years and their collaborative collections (+ J) were also highly accepted by the mar-
ket (Kachi 2011). By collaborating with luxury designer fashion brands, the brand
equity as well as the image of fast fashion brands is increased (Okonkwo 2007).
At the same time, the collaborated designer fashion brands can also get benefits
from this co-branding. For example, Lavin, one of the oldest Paris designer brands,
received a wider audience appeal from the mass market after expanding its mar-
ket with new products and retail outlets through co-branding with H&M (Horyn
2010). As illustrated by the above examples, fast fashion co-branding has shown an
incredible marketing response and it can create a win-win situation for the brands
involved. It is interesting to explore why consumers have this response, as well as
what kind of consumer behavior is related to this phenomenon.
It is essential for brand owners to understand the effect of branding on consum-
ers’ behavior, particularly for new brands such as fast fashion co-brands. Keller
(2001) states that consumers’ brand perceptions are driven by their knowledge
and the need for uniqueness towards brand, which are derived from personal ex-
perience. Consumers’ need for uniqueness is defined as the trait of pursuing dif-
ferences relative to others so that it can develop and enhance one’s self-image as
well as social image (Tian et al. 2001). A common feature of fast fashion brands
and designer fashion brands is that they both provide the trendiest items and
create uniqueness in the fashion market: the former by producing scarcity with
smallquantities(Barnes andLea-Greenwood2006) whereasthelatter bycreat-
ing exclusivity with high price (Okonkwo 2007). Thus, consumers of these two
types of fashion brands share the same characteristic of having a strong desire
for uniqueness. However, according to a marketing report by Labbrand (2011),
an Asia-based marketing and brand-consulting firm, fast fashion consumers and
designer-label consumers are different in terms of their perception to brand equity
and pricing of the brands. After collaboration, fast fashion co-brands attract pur-
chases from both consumer groups as the co-branding strategy has brand spillover
effect in marketing (Desai and Keller 2002). In other words, co-branding enables
one brand to benefit from the “halo of affection” that belongs to another. Walchli
(2007) indicates that co-branding should consider not only the good synergy-
generating relationship, but also consumer assessment concerning the association
between brands. She noticed that all these previous studies concern traditional
brands whereas the consumers’ need for uniqueness and perception of fast fashion
co-brands are still unknown.
As an attempt to bridge such research gap, this chapter empirically examines the
relationship between the consumers’ need for uniqueness and purchase perception of
fast fashion co-brands. In particular, the research objectives are identified as follows:
1. To examine the difference in the need for uniqueness among consumers of fast
fashion brands, designer fashion brands, and fast fashion co-brands;
2. To investigate the impact of such need for uniqueness on purchase perception of
fast fashion co-brands.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on consumer behavior of fast
fashion co-branding. Due to the increasing popularity of co-branding in the fashion
1037 Co-branding in Fast Fashion
market, it is important to study consumers’ purchase perception of fast fashion co-
brands. Our results reflect that there are significant differences in consumers’ need
for uniqueness from different types of fashion brands and that their need for unique-
ness has an impact on the purchase perception of fast fashion co-brands. This study
will also provide managerial insights to the collaborative brands as to how they can
attract consumers and select appropriate co-branding partners.
Thischapterisorganizedasfollows.InSect.2,wereview the literature in
co-branding, need for uniqueness, and purchase perception, as well as present
our hypotheses. Section 3 describes our methodology. Results are discussed in
Sect. 4. Section 5 concludes the chapter with remarks and managerial implica-
tions. Limitations and recommendations for further research are discussed in
Sect. 6.
2 Literature Review and Hypothesis Formulation
2.1 Co-branding in Fashion
Park et al. (1996) define co-branding as “the pairing of two or more branded prod-
ucts (constituent brands) in forming a separate and unique product.” Co-brand-
ing between two brands for making a joint effort in a new marketing venture is
popular in many industries, particularly in the fashion industry. As an effective
strategy of brand development, co-branding facilitates parent brands to access to a
broader consumer base as well as to form a new relationship with the clients. The
co-brands can attract attention from consumers of both parent brands (Desai and
Keller 2002), and a new relationship with these two groups of consumers is then
built up (Walchli 2007).SpethmannandBenezra(1994) indicate that co-branding
strategy is increasingly appealing to brand owners as a measure to gain more expo-
sure in the market, mitigate the threat from private label brands, and lessen the cost
of promotion (since it is shared with the partner brand or brands). It is reported by
Simonin and Ruth (1998) that consumers’ attitudes towards co-brands would influ-
ence the subsequent consumers’ attitudes towards individual brands that comprise
that alliance.
Brands and branding are important in fashion business. Okonkwo (2007) points
out that a brand name or brand logo attracts consumers to create a relationship with
it. A well-known fashion designer name (such as Karl Lagerfeld and Jimmy Choo)
is an important branding element that helps form a commercial strategy of the asso-
ciated brand. Similarly, for fast fashion co-brands, the collaborated luxury designer
fashion brand not only is understood as an important and central means of market-
ing and product differentiation, but it also serves as a constructed idea and lifestyle
which the consumers not only desire, but also identify (Ferrero-Regis 2008). A fast
fashion co-brand as a new fashion brand is thus able to change consumers’ attitudes
regarding its collaborated brands.
104
2.2 Need for Uniqueness
Consumers’ need for uniqueness is grounded by Snyder and Fromkin (1980)’s
uniqueness theory. For a person who has a high need for uniqueness, he/she tends
to experience positive emotions in the low similarity condition and negative emo-
tions in the high similarity condition, as a result, engages mostly in changes towards
dissimilarity relative to others. Tian et al. (2001) classify the need for uniqueness
into three types: (1) creative choice counter-conformity, (2) avoidance of similarity,
and (3) unpopular choice counter-conformity. For consumers seeking for creative
choice counter-conformity, the products they would purchase are those that not only
can reflect their uniqueness, but also are accepted by others. Knight and Kim (2007)
state that brand names offer the distinguishing attributes, such as unique features,
exclusivity and prestige, which appeal to consumers who seek for creative choice
counter-conformity. Consumers seeking for avoidance of similarity would select
products that are not likely to become too popular so that they can be distinguished
from others. On the contrary, consumers seeking for unpopular choice counter-con-
formity would select products with tastes that are deviated from the group norms.
Clothing selection is a uniqueness-seeking behavior (Snyder and Fromkin 1980;
Snyder 1992; Workman and Kidd 2000). In the fashion industry, a high degree
of uniqueness is the common feature shared by luxury designer fashion brands,
fast fashion brand, and fast fashion co-brands; yet they focus on different types of
uniqueness according to their industrial practices. Luxury designer fashion brands
are usually associated with differentiation, exclusivity, and innovation (Okonkwo
2007). Consumers of luxury designer fashion brands use the brands to classify
themselves or to distinguish themselves from others (Vigneron and Johnson 2004).
In other words, luxury designer fashion brands are closely related to conspicuous
consumption—people’s perceived use of brands in conveying consumer’s social
status (Li et al. 2012).Fromthisaspect,luxurydesignerbrandsappeartoemphasize
uniqueness in terms of avoidance of similarity.
On the other hand, fast fashion consumption is driven by the desire for newness
whichisrelatedtocreativechoicecounter-conformity(BarnesandLea-Greenwood
2010). Fast fashion apparels are produced in small quantities and without replen-
ishment(BarnesandLea-Greenwood2006);theyarequicklychangingandhighly
accepted by consumers (Sheridan et al. 2006). According to the case study on Zara,
a famous fast fashion retailer from Spain, Tokatli (2008) maintains that the need for
newness and uniqueness of fast fashion drives the change of the culture from haute
couture and ready-to-wear to fast fashion.
Fast fashion co-brands combine the strategies adopted by their parent brands. On
the one hand, fast fashion co-brands usually exist in the form of limited edition col-
lections which will be discontinued after a period of time (Ferrero-Regis 2008). On
the other hand, products of the co-brands, which usually carry the designers’ names,
arecreatedbythecollaborateddesignersandemphasize trendiness and newness
(Fitzsimons 2011; Milligan 2012). All the aforementioned H&M co-brands are
good examples of fast fashion co-brands in which their features are highly matched
to the needs for the creative choice counter-conformity and avoidance of similarity.
B. Shen et al.
105
In light of the focuses on different types of uniqueness by the three types of fash-
ion brands, we develop the following hypothesis:
Hypothesis 1 Consumers expect different levels of need for uniqueness from fast
fashion brands, luxury designer fashion brands, and fast fashion co-brands�
2.3 Purchase Perception
The willingness of consumers to purchase a product or service reflects their percep-
tion of purchase. Yoo et al. (2000) assert that product quality is one of the determi-
nant factors for the consumers’ subjective judgment about a brand’s overall value
or superiority. Apart from quality, a vast amount of literature shows that purchase
decision is significantly affected by consumers’ need for uniqueness of a product or
service (e.g., Simonson and Nowlis 2000; Wu et al. 2012).
Consumption of luxury goods appears to have a strong social function. The so-
cial dimension of luxury value perception refers to the perceived utility that indi-
viduals acquire by consuming products or services recognized within their own
social group(s); such goods may confer conspicuousness and prestige value, which
may significantly affect a consumer’s evaluation and propensity to purchase luxu-
ry brands (Wiedman et al. 2007). These results demonstrate the importance of the
perceived value of luxury brands with respect to potential purchasing decisions.
Possessing products from a designer fashion brand as people’s desire may serve as
symbolic markers of group membership (Kim et al. 2010; Vigneron and Johnson
2004). Keller (1993) also finds that uniqueness as a type of brand value positively
affects consumer’s willingness to pay premium prices. On the other hand, fast fash-
ion brands have been increasing its share in the fashion market and become more
capable of gaining loyal consumers. This might be due to the fact that latest fast
fashion apparels are produced in limited quantities that ensure a sort of exclusivity
(BarnesandLea-Greenwood2010).
Apparently, there is no existing literature exploring fast fashion co-brands as an
individual type of brands, and how their customers’ needs for uniqueness in their
products affect their purchase perception. Adopting mixed strategies from their par-
ent brands, fast fashion co-branding should be able to create synergy. Based on
arguments from previous research, we have developed the following hypotheses
and depicted our conceptual framework as shown in Fig. 7.1:
Hypothesis 2 Consumers having higher need for uniqueness on fast fashion have
higher favorable purchase perception of fast fashion co-brand
Hypothesis 3 Consumers having higher need for uniqueness on designer fashion
brand have higher favorable purchase perception of fast fashion co-brand
Hypothesis 4 Consumers having higher need for uniqueness on fast fashion co-
brand have higher favorable purchase perception of fast fashion co-brand
7 Co-branding in Fast Fashion
106
3 Methodology
We employed empirical research methodology in the form of survey question-
naire in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to include five
sections: (a) the general recognition of fast fashion co-branding, (b) the need for
uniqueness in fast fashion brand; (c) the need for uniqueness in designer fashion
brand; (d) the need for uniqueness in and purchase perception of fast fashion co-
brand; and (e) demographic information. Specifically, the questionnaire items re-
garding needs for uniqueness in various types of fashion brands and their purchase
perception are mainly adapted from previous literature (Knight and Kim 2007; O’
Cass 2000; Tian et al. 2001). New items generated from in-depth interviews with
industrialists are also included to reflect their views of factors that affect consumer
behaviors of fast fashion co-branding. In the first section of the questionnaire the
respondents were asked whether they have the general fast fashion co-branding rec-
ognition. By doing so, we could ensure the respondents are suitable for this study. A
pilot survey was carried out in order to ensure that the survey questions and research
instruments operate well.
We employed convenient sampling approach under which the questionnaire sur-
vey was conducted in various main shopping areas in Hong Kong, using a random
delivery procedure during both weekdays and weekends.
4 Statistical Results
Similartothesamplesizescollectedinexistingliteratureinconsumerbehavior of
fashion (Knight and Kim 2007; Liu et al. 2011; Shen et al. 2012), 200 sets of ques-
tionnaires were collected, among which 175 were valid. The final sample consisted
Fig. 7.1  Conceptual
framework of
Hypotheses 2–4
B. Shen et al.
107
tof 58 male and 117 female respondents. About 74.8 % of the respondents were in
the age from 19 to 25, 21.7 % were from 26 to 30, and the rest of them were above
30 years old.
Reliability test is employed in order to test the internal consistency of the various
constructs under investigation. The values of Cronbach’s alpha (CR) for all con-
structs are greater than 0.7 (see Table 7.1), which imply that the internal consistency
of our data is good for further analysis.
Next, we compared the differences of the respondents’ need for uniqueness in
fast fashion brands, designer fashion brands, and fast fashion co-brands. The re-
sults of the paired sample t-test (Bryman and Bell 2007, pp. 347–372) depicted in
Table 7.2 provide an evidence to support Hypothesis 1. Specifically, respondents’
need for uniqueness in the three types of brands were significantly different, with
that in luxury designer fashion brands the highest (mean = 4.38), followed by fast
fashion co-brands (mean = 4.15). Respondents’ need for uniqueness in fast fashion
brands was the lowest (mean = 3.13).
Next, we conducted linear regression analysis to investigate the proposed re-
lationships between respondents’ need for uniqueness in different types of fash-
ion brands and their purchase perception of fast fashion co-brands. As shown in
Table 7.3, Hypotheses 2–4 are all supported. Specifically, there was statistically
significant evidence that a higher need for uniqueness in any of the three types of
fashion brands leads to a higher purchase perception of the fast fashion co-brands.
Comparing the impact of the uniqueness level on purchase perception, we found
that respondents’ need for uniqueness in fast fashion co-brands itself had the larg-
est impact on their purchase perception on fast fashion co-brands (Beta = 0.865 in
Table 7.1  Results of the reliability test
Cronbach’s alpha (CR) Construct No. of items Reference(s)
0.76 The need for uniqueness in
the luxury designer fashion
brand (LD)
5 Knight and Kim 2007;
Tian et al. 2001
0.83 The need for uniqueness in the
fast fashion brand (FF)
5 Knight and Kim 2007;
Tian et al. 2001
0.87 The need for uniqueness in the
fast fashion co-brand (CB)
5 Knight and Kim 2007;
Tian et al. 2001
0.91 The purchase perception of the
fast fashion co-branding
7 O’ Cass 2000
Table 7.2  Consumers’ need for uniqueness
Luxury designer fashion
brand vs. fast fashion
brand
Luxury designer fashion
brand vs. fast fashion
co-brand
Fast fashion brand vs.
fast fashion co-brand
Mean 4.38 vs. 3.13 4.38 vs. 4.15 4.15 vs. 3.13
Mean difference 1.253 (1.176) 0.233 (1.288) 1.01 (1.16)
t-value 14.0** 2.394* 11.6**
Note. Standard deviations are reported in parentheses. **<0.01 *<0.05
7 Co-branding in Fast Fashion
108
Hypothesis 4), followed by fast fashion brands (Beta = 0.404 in Hypothesis 2). The
need for uniqueness in luxury designer brands had the smallest impact among the
three types of brands (Beta = 0.247 in Hypothesis 3).
4.1 Discussion of Findings: Consumer Preference,
Welfare, and Utility
Inthisstudy,thehypothesizedtheoreticalframeworkcomprisestwoparts.Thefirst
part (Hypothesis 1) examines the difference in consumers’ need for uniqueness
among three types of associated brands (fast fashion brands, luxury designer fash-
ion brands, and fast fashion co-brands). The second part (Hypotheses 2–4) exam-
ines the impact of consumers’ need for uniqueness for each of the three associated
brands on purchase perception of fast fashion co-brands.
For Hypothesis 1, the statistical results imply that consumers’ needs for unique-
ness are significantly different among the three types of associated fashion brands.
Comparing the mean scores of the need for uniqueness among these three types of
fashion brands, fast fashion brands scored the lowest. Fast fashion brands can be
easily and affordably possessed by the consumers and are of comparatively lower
quality. Therefore, consumers might feel them as less unique. This explanation is
also justified by Wu et al. (2012) that both high price and good quality associate
scarce products with the purpose of differentiating them from others, or in other
words, the need for uniqueness. By contrast, our results also showed that luxury
designer fashion brands scored the highest among the three types of fashion brands.
Since luxury designer fashion brand always leads the fashion trend, target con-
sumers with a high need for uniqueness are deemed as the fashion opinion leaders
(GoldsmithandClark2008; Zheng et al. 2013).
Hypotheses 2–4 investigate the impact of consumers’ need for uniqueness on
their purchase perception of fast fashion co-brands. Based on the statistical results
of Hypotheses 2–4, we find that when consumers make purchase decision on fast
fashion co-brands, the need for uniqueness in fast fashion co-branding is the most
important when comparing with both parent brands. In view of the two parent
brands, consumers’ need for uniqueness in the fast fashion brands is more important
than that in the luxury designer fashion brands when they need to make purchase
decision on the fast fashion co-brands. As such, from the perspective of the consum-
ers, their level of satisfaction with respect to product uniqueness depends on the
type of fashion brands. Thus, how the product uniqueness affects consumer welfare
and utility depends on the specific type of fashion brands.
Table 7.3  Regression results for Hypotheses 2–4
Hypothesis R square F-value Beta T-value Sig Hypothesis results
Hypothesis 2 0.163 33.64 0.404 5.807 0.000 Supported
Hypothesis 3 0.061 11.258 0.247 3.355 0.001 Supported
Hypothesis 4 0.748 514.2 0.865 22.67 0.000 Supported
B. Shen et al.
109
5 Remarks and Managerial Implications
This study explored consumers’ need for uniqueness and purchase perception
of fast fashion co-brands. We first investigated the differences in consumers’
need for uniqueness in fast fashion co-brands and their parent brands (namely:
fast fashion brands and luxury designer fashion brands). Our empirical results
show that consumers have significantly different needs for uniqueness in these
types of fashion brands. In addition, our findings on the impact of consumers’
need for uniqueness on purchase perception of fast fashion co-brands provide
the following insights for fast fashion co-branding with respect to its business
development. First, fast fashion as a host brand should collaborate with a luxury
designer fashion brand which induces a high degree of need for uniqueness for
their consumers. It is a meaningful implication for co-branding partnership as
there must be a strategic purpose behind the co-branding alliance(Beezy2007;
Helmig et al. 2008). Walchli (2007) indicates that consumer assessment concern-
ing the association between collaborative brands in co-branding strategy is large-
ly related to the choice of the strategic partner. Real examples can be found in
H&M who collaborated with Karl Lagerfeld and Stella McCartney as an attempt
to address consumer’s changing needs and to expose them to luxury fashion in
anticipation of “trading up”. This study thus offers a clear picture that consumers’
need for uniqueness on the collaborative brands is an important factor in brand
selection for developing fast fashion co-branding. Second, when the strategy of
fast fashion co-branding is launched, enhancing the uniqueness level of both par-
ent brands helps attracting more consumers to purchase co-brands. In particular,
a fast fashion brand should try harder to increase its uniqueness level for higher
consumers’ purchase perception of its co-branded products since it has a larger
impact than that of a luxury designer fashion brand. It is especially important if
the fast fashion co-brand will run for several seasons. Take + J as an example,
Uniqlo should reinforce its own uniqueness through marketing and branding after
collaborating with Jil Sander, so that consumers can be attracted to purchase + J
repeatedly. Third, to increase consumers’ purchase perception, the most effective
way is to improve the uniqueness level of the fast fashion co-brand itself. It can
be improved not only by marketing and branding, but also operational strategies
such as quick response with small quantities, no replenishment, and higher retail
prices (Cachon and Swinney 2011; Chow et al. 2012).
6 Limitations and Recommendations
for Further Research
With the adoption of convenience sampling, the findings of the present study should
beinterpretedwith cautionasthe studysampleisquite limitedwiththe sizeand
demographic characteristics. Another limitation is that the data were collected in
7 Co-branding in Fast Fashion
110
Hong Kong only; there may be different findings when a similar study is to be con-
ducted in other countries and areas with different cultural backgrounds. For future
research, it is interesting to conduct a cross-cultural study (Choi et al. 2008; Jung
and Lee 2009; Choi et al. 2011; Liu et al. 2011; Jung and Shen 2011) on the topic.
Further research can expand the scope of this study to explore other areas, for in-
stance, the problem of fast fashion co-branding from the supply chain context with
issues such as supply chain coordination and incentive alignment schemes between
involved brands (Chiu et al. 2011; Chiu et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2013).
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... In this way, the tendency to repurchase duplicate products is reduced. On the other hand, Shen et al. [12] acknowledged that consumers' need for uniqueness affects the perception of buying common fashion brands. Kauppinen-Räisänen et al. [22] also stated that the need to be unique strengthens the creation of unique brands through collaboration between two companies. ...
... Shen et al. [12] stated that consumers tend to show themselves differently from others by buying common luxury brands, and common luxury sports brands sell quickly among consumers. However, the important point is that both brands that partner with each other must be special, and the new product must be rare in the market to create a sense of uniqueness in the customer after purchase. ...
... For the adaptation of the scales to the Persian language, we carried out the back-translation techniques indicated in the literature [69,70] with a group of 15 experts in the field of sports marketing, who, after the process, reported that all items were appropriate in terms of the psychological characteristics in previous studies. To measure the need for uniqueness, four items measuring this construct were adopted from Abosag et al. [32], and cobranding items are adopted from Shen et al. [12]. We also used four items for self-presentation and four items for self-expression used in the study of Kauppinen-Räisänena et al. [22]. ...
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Luxury sports products and brands in general have seen a significant increase in their sales, highlighting the high consumption of smart sports watches. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of cobranding, self-presentation, self-expression, and symbolic values in the relationship between the consumer’s need for uniqueness and the intention to repurchase luxury smart sports watches. The sample consisted of a total of 217 users of smart sports watches. An online questionnaire was used for data collection (24 items from 6 scales) and Smart PLS-SEM software was used for confirmatory factor analysis and to test a structural equation model. The findings provide an insight into the importance of cobranding on self-expression, self-presentation, and symbolic value. Specifically, in the case of intention to repurchase, the results show that symbolic value is the variable with the highest predictive value. This study provides an important advance in the academic literature related to luxury products in the sports sector, and the results facilitate a better understanding of the consumer’s intention to repurchase.
... The above dimensions have a mediating impact on the formation of the brand image and customer's brand attitude towards a product or a service. It is evident that the consumers' behavioural intention is dependent on how the brand is perceived, how it performs to maintain brand image consistency during the entire journey of first interaction to the final purchase stage by a customer (28) . Therefore, not only the static brand identity or image, but the dynamism of the brand performance amidst the competition and the evolving consumer brand attitude over time which impacts the customer. ...
... The (n=146) sample has male (68%) and female at (32%). The age group of respondent representation is (19)(20)(21)(22)(23) years at (32.1%), young adults at (24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29) years at (20%), matured adults (31-40) years at (28%), and over 41 years at (19.9%). The occupation profile of the respondents show that around 59% possess Bachelors' degree or is pursuing, while (27%) have graduate degree/masters' degree. ...
... If a consumer is familiar with a brand, he will be dedicated to buying it. Explicitly brand awareness has a significant positive relation with brand loyalty (Shen et al., 2014). Hence based on the above discussion, it can be hypothesized that brand awareness affects brand loyalty positively. ...
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This research paper explains the impact of social media marketing on the dimensions of Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) of fast-food restaurants. This relationship is tested between dimensions of social media marketing and brand loyalty; moreover, the relationship is also tested through the mediating effects of brand awareness and brand image. The study consisted of 312 social media users as survey respondents. Most of the respondents were from the age bracket of 21-30 since people of this age are most active on social media platforms. The study provides empirical evidence and proof regarding the impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty with brand awareness and brand image as mediating variables. It has been identified that investing efficiently in these variables would help the firms to increase customer loyalty. Each variable was found to have a positive impact on brand loyalty; however, the User-Generated Content (UGC) and Firm-Generated Content (FGC) were found to have an insignificant impact on brand loyalty directly. The findings of this research indicated that exploiting these variables effectively might provide fruitful and productive marketing results for the firms. A brand needs to be active on social media or should hire an agency on its behalf to manage its social media network in order to create awareness among the customers about its presence. Firms should take into account the social media communication of the brand as part of their marketing plan, as it has become essential in today's era.
... If a consumer is familiar with a brand, he will be dedicated to buying it. Explicitly brand awareness has a significant positive relation with brand loyalty (Shen et al., 2014). Hence based on the above discussion, it can be hypothesized that brand awareness affects brand loyalty positively. ...
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This research paper explains the impact of social media marketing on the dimensions of Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) in fast-food restaurants. This relationship is tested between dimensions of social media marketing and brand loyalty, moreover, the relationship is also tested through the mediating effects of brand awareness and brand image. The study consisted of 312 social media users as survey respondents. Most of the respondents were from the age bracket of 21-30 since people of this age are most active on social media platforms. The study provides empirical evidence and proof regarding the impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty with brand awareness and brand image as mediating variables. It has been identified that investing efficiently in these variables would help the firms to increase customer loyalty. Each variable was found to have a positive impact on brand loyalty; however, the User-Generated Content (UGC) and Firm-Generated Content (FGC) were found to have an insignificant impact on brand loyalty directly. The findings of this research indicated that exploiting these variables effectively might provide fruitful and productive marketing results for the firms. A brand needs to be active on social media or should hire an agency on its behalf to manage its social media network in order to create awareness among the customers about its presence. Firms should take into account the social media communication of the brand as part of their marketing plan as it has become essential in today’s era.
... To date, empirical research that focuses on co-branding for fashion tends to examine perceptions of brand image and the impact of this action on brand equity, either from luxury brands' perspective (e.g. Desai and Keller, 2002;Kim et al., 2014;Shen et al., 2014), non-luxury brands' perspective (Okonkwo, 2007;Wang et al., 2012;Hennigs et al., 2013) or both (e.g. Oeppen and Jamal, 2014;Shen et al., 2017). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the realistic trade-offs young consumers make when evaluating luxury co-branding combinations based on signalling theory. Design/methodology/approach Conjoint analysis was employed to evaluate the relative impact of four major attributes (i.e. brand combinations, retail channels, uniqueness and price) on consumer desirability for luxury co-branding combinations. The data were analysed using desirability indices. Findings Brand combinations, uniqueness and price significantly impact consumer desirability of luxury co-branding combinations. The luxury brand and sportswear combination results in the highest desirability when price is more similar to the sportswear constituent and participants perceive that the collaboration as exclusive. Practical implications The results suggest that luxury brands need to consider the partnering brand's retail format primarily for co-branding strategy. Luxury brand collaborations with sportswear and premium priced streetwear brands are more likely to result in higher desirability among consumers compared to collaborations with fast fashion and mass-market brands. Additionally, uniqueness may not be effective as a point of differentiation in cases where luxury brands cannot guarantee a single yearly collaboration. Originality/value The decision to use existing brands for the fictitious combinations developed more sensible scenarios for respondents. In addition, rather than discrete questions, attribute-based combinations provide a more realistic depiction of consumers' decision making on luxury co-branding. Finally, the results provide marketing practitioners with practical directions for future development of fashion luxury co-branding strategy.
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The authors report two studies investigating the effectiveness of a composite brand in a brand extension context. In composite brand extension, a combination of two existing brand names in different positions as header and modifier is used as the brand name for a new product (e.g., Slim-Fast chocolate cakemix by Godiva). The results of both studies reveal that by combining two brands with complementary attribute levels, a composite brand extension appears to have a better attribute profile than a direct extension of the header brand (Study 1) and has a better attribute profile when it consists of two complementary brands than when it consists of two highly favorable but not complementary brands (Study 2). The improved attribute profile seems to enhance a composite's effectiveness in influencing consumer choice and preference (Study 2). In addition, the positions of the constituent brand names in the composite brand name are found to be important in the formation of the composite's attribute profile and its feedback effects on the constituent brands. A composite brand extension has different attribute profiles and feedback effects, depending on the positions of the constituent brand names.