Article

Resveratrol: Nutraceutical believed to counteract the detrimental effects of high-fat diet

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in red wine which has received considerable attention in recent years for its many beneficial effects on health. There is a wealth of evidence from laboratory models that resveratrol has anti oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anticancer effects which contribute to improved health. In the past five years, a number of human clinical trials have emerged, which generally support the data from animal models. While resveratrol may ultimately be useful in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease, considerable research is required before it can become incorporated into mainstream clinical use across multiple disciplines of medicine.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... A study has shown that resveratrol could increase lifespan in obese mice, though its role in improving lifespan in healthy mammals has not yet been established. Resveratrol may not increase longevity, but it might extend the period of time in one's life before one develops a chronic disease, that is, health span, which is used to prevent or treat many chronic diseases related to aging in humans (Silk and Smoliga, 2014). Lately, resveratrol derivatives have been shown to extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, making them promising candidates for investigation as anti-aging bioactives (Fischer et al., 2017). ...
... In rodents and nonhuman primates, a number of studies have proven that cognitive performance can be improved by resveratrol, though this improvement has not yet been consistently observed in humans (Silk and Smoliga, 2014). A recent report has disclosed resveratrol to be a potential antidepressant agent (de Oliveira et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Resveratrol is a polyphenol stilbenoid that amongst other sources come from grapes and red wines. Resveratrol is believed to be responsible for the cardio protective effects, which is associated with red wine consumption. Recently there has been increased interest in resveratrol as nutraceutical due to its cardioprotective effect and prevention of neuronal degeneration along with other beneficial pharmacological activities e.g. chemopreventive action, anti-aging, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Despite the range of therapeutic effects of resveratrol, its biopharmaceutical properties limit its use because of its poor aqueous solubility, extensive gut metabolism, and rapid excretion resulting in very poor bioavailability. In this context, to surpass these obstacles, nanotechnology based drug delivery systems are being developed to improve the stability of resveratrol, avert its metabolism and enhance bioavailability for improved health benefits. This chapter presents the therapeutic potential of resveratrol and highlights the nano and micro- formulations being investigated for resveratrol encapsulation that include liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles nanosponges, nanosuspension and cyclodextrins as carriers. KEY WORDS: Resveratrol, Nutraceutical, Cancer, Bioavailability, Nano -formulation SUBJECT INDEX: Polygonum Cuspidatum (PC), Resveratrol, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-aging, Anti-carcinogenic, Neuroprotective. Liposomes, Polymeric Nanoparticles, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Nanostructured lipid Carriers, Nanosponges, Nanosuspension, Cyclodextrins.
Article
Background Due to an aging population and illnesses related to current lifestyles, health-related concerns are becoming increasingly more important. Moreover, today's society is more aware of the potential side effects of medicines and is looking for innovative therapeutic alternatives. Hence, the use of natural compounds in the prevention of various diseases and health maintenance has been studied. Among the natural products studied are mushrooms, which are well known for their nutritional value and health-promoting properties. These have been considered as both functional foods and a source of nutraceuticals. Scope and approach The present review is aimed at collecting and critically examining current data on the bioactive properties of mushrooms as well as their classification as functional foods and source of nutraceuticals. It also intended to describe the state of the art regarding mushroom formulations currently available on the market, and to highlight what could be done to improve this market in order to make a variety of quality and duly-certified products that promote human well-being available. Key findings and conclusions Mushrooms are natural matrices of excellence. Their bioactivity has been proved and therefore, their incorporation in foods has been studied. However, these new food products have not yet gone to market and most of the mushrooms and their compounds are mainly consumed in their natural form or in dietary supplements. Despite interest in such products having grown over the years, in Western countries, mushroom products are not as common as in Asia and legislation needs to be implemented to permit an increase in their consumption.
Article
The detection and quantification of polyphenols in grape-based nutraceutical products were performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to single-stage Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS). The method is based on an extraction using a mixture of methanol:water (80:20, v/v), followed by two dilutions (10 or 50 times). The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision and trueness, and limits of detection and quantification ranged from 1 to 10 μg L−1 and 2–50 μg L−1 respectively. High variability of the amount of anthocyanins and flavanols were obtained in the analyzed samples, with values ranging from 2 to 27448 mg kg−1, whereas the resveratrol was only detected in 6 out of 8 samples at concentrations ranging from 3 to 11107 mg kg−1. Furthermore, other polyphenols belonging to other families like dihydrochalcones, flavanones, flavonols, isoflavonoids or phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids) were quantified. Apart from this, a tentative identification of 8 compounds was performed.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the wealth of basic science research supporting resveratrol's potential to treat, delay, and even prevent age-related chronic diseases has led to a number of human clinical trials. While such translational research has yielded promising results in clinical populations, recently published conflicting results from studies evaluating resveratrol's potential for primary prevention of chronic disease in healthy / asymptomatic individuals have generated considerable controversy and do not initially appear consistent with findings from animal models. We argue that trials targeting healthy humans are often fundamentally flawed owing to inappropriate use of paradigms only applicable to populations with overt clinical disease and the consequent misleading (typically negative) results can severely retard advancement of drug development. To appropriately perform translational research centered on resveratrol as a primary prevention agent in non-clinical populations, it is critical to utilize study designs which can provide adequate information on clinically relevant outcome measures, avoid paradigms and assumptions from interventions which are specific to clinical populations, and maintain realistic expectations compared to interventions which provide the theoretical maximal response (e.g., caloric restriction and aerobic exercise training).
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The grape and wine polyphenol resveratrol exerts cardiovascular benefits but evidence from randomized human clinical trials is very limited. We investigated dose-depending effects of a resveratrol-containing grape supplement on stable patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated according to currently accepted guidelines for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Methods: In a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, one-year follow-up, 3-arm pilot clinical trial, 75 stable-CAD patients received 350 mg/day of placebo, resveratrol-containing grape extract (grape phenolics plus 8 mg resveratrol) or conventional grape extract lacking resveratrol during 6 months, and a double dose for the following 6 months. Changes in circulating inflammatory and fibrinolytic biomarkers were analyzed. Moreover, the transcriptional profiling of inflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was explored using microarrays and functional gene expression analysis. Results: After 1 year, in contrast to the placebo and conventional grape extract groups, the resveratrol-containing grape extract group showed an increase of the anti-inflammatory serum adiponectin (9.6 %, p = 0.01) and a decrease of the thrombogenic plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) (-18.6 %, p = 0.05). In addition, 6 key inflammation-related transcription factors were predicted to be significantly activated or inhibited, with 27 extracellular-space acting genes involved in inflammation, cell migration and T-cell interaction signals presenting downregulation (p < 0.05) in PBMCs. No adverse effects were detected in relation to the study products. Conclusions: Chronic daily consumption of a resveratrol-containing grape nutraceutical could exert cardiovascular benefits in stable-CAD patients treated according to current evidence-based standards, by increasing serum adiponectin, preventing PAI-1 increase and inhibiting atherothrombotic signals in PBMCs.
Article
Full-text available
Several beneficial effects of resveratrol (RES), a natural antioxidant present in red wine have already been described. The aim of our study was to investigate if RES had a clinically measurable cardioprotective effect in patients after myocardial infarction. In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial 40 post-infarction Caucasian patients were randomized into two groups. One group received 10 mg RES capsule daily for 3 months. Systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), several laboratory and hemorheological parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Left ventricular ejection fraction showed an increasing tendency (ns) by RES treatment. However, left ventricular diastolic function was improved significantly (p < 0.01) by RES. A significant improvement in endothelial function measured by FMD was also observed (p < 0.05). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the RES treated group. Red blood cell deformability decreased and platelet aggregation increased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.05), while resveratrol treatment has prevented these unfavourable changes. Concerning other measured parameters no significant changes were observed neither in placebo nor in RES group. Our results show that resveratrol improved left ventricle diastolic function, endothelial function, lowered LDL-cholesterol level and protected against unfavourable hemorheological changes measured in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Article
Full-text available
Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has shown promising effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in animal models and is also reported to have cardioprotective properties, but human studies are limited. In a pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that resveratrol improves glucose metabolism and vascular function in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods: Ten subjects aged 72 ± 3 years (M ± SD) with IGT were enrolled in a 4-week open-label study of resveratrol (daily dose 1, 1.5, or 2 g). Following a standard mixed meal (110 g carbohydrate, 20 g protein, 20 g fat), we measured 3-hour glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and secretion (corrected insulin response at 30 minutes). Endothelial function was assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (reactive hyperemia index) before and 90 minutes postmeal. Results did not differ by dose, so data were combined for analysis. Results: At baseline, body mass index was 29 ± 5 kg/m(2), fasting plasma glucose 110 ± 13 mg/dL, and 2-hour glucose 183 ± 33 mg/dL. After 4 weeks of resveratrol, fasting plasma glucose was unchanged, but peak postmeal (185 ± 10 vs 166 ± 9 mg/dL, p = .003) and 3-hour glucose AUC (469 ± 23 vs 428 ± 19, p = .001) declined. Matsuda index improved (3.1 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.5, p = .03), and corrected insulin response at 30 minutes was unchanged (0.6 ± 0.1 vs 0.5 ± 0.5, p = .49). There was a trend toward improved postmeal reactive hyperemia index (baseline vs resveratrol postmeal delta -0.4 ± 0.2 vs 0.2 ± 0.3, p = .06). Weight, blood pressure, and lipids were unchanged. Conclusions: At doses between 1 and 2 g/day, resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and postmeal plasma glucose in subjects with IGT. These preliminary findings support the conduct of larger studies to further investigate the effects of resveratrol on metabolism and vascular function.
Article
Full-text available
Although resveratrol has widely been studied for its potential health benefits, little is known about its metabolic effects in humans. Our aims were to determine whether the polyphenol resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients and to gain some insight into the mechanism of its action. After an initial general examination (including blood chemistry), nineteen patients enrolled in the 4-week-long double-blind study were randomly assigned into two groups: a resveratrol group receiving oral 2 × 5 mg resveratrol and a control group receiving placebo. Before and after the second and fourth weeks of the trial, insulin resistance/sensitivity, creatinine-normalised ortho-tyrosine level in urine samples (as a measure of oxidative stress), incretin levels and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt):protein kinase B (Akt) ratio in platelets were assessed and statistically analysed. After the fourth week, resveratrol significantly decreased insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) and urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion, while it increased the pAkt:Akt ratio in platelets. On the other hand, it had no effect on parameters that relate to β-cell function (i.e. homeostasis model of assessment of β-cell function). The present study shows for the first time that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in humans, which might be due to a resveratrol-induced decrease in oxidative stress that leads to a more efficient insulin signalling via the Akt pathway.
Article
Full-text available
Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has cancer chemopreventive properties in preclinical models. It has been shown to downregulate the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) in rodents. The purpose of the study was to assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects on circulating levels of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) after repeated dosing. Forty healthy volunteers ingested resveratrol at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g daily for 29 days. Levels of resveratrol and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-UV in plasma obtained before and up to 24 hours after a dose between days 21 and 28. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured by ELISA in plasma taken predosing and on day 29. Resveratrol was safe, but the 2.5 and 5 g doses caused mild to moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Resveratrol-3-O-sulfate, resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide, and resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide were major plasma metabolites. Maximal plasma levels and areas under the concentration versus time curve for the metabolites dramatically exceeded those for resveratrol, in the case of areas under the concentration versus time curve, by up to 20.3-fold. Compared with predosing values, the ingestion of resveratrol caused a decrease in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 (P<0.04 for both), respectively, in all volunteers. The decrease was most marked at the 2.5 g dose level. The results suggest that repeated administration of high doses of resveratrol generates micromolar concentrations of parent and much higher levels of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in the plasma. The observed decrease in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 might contribute to cancer chemopreventive activity.
Article
Full-text available
The many putative beneficial effects of the polyphenol resveratrol include an ability to bolster endogenous antioxidant defenses, modulate nitric oxide synthesis, and promote vasodilation, which thereby improves blood flow. Resveratrol may therefore modulate aspects of brain function in humans. The current study assessed the effects of oral resveratrol on cognitive performance and localized cerebral blood flow variables in healthy human adults. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 22 healthy adults received placebo and 2 doses (250 and 500 mg) of trans-resveratrol in counterbalanced order on separate days. After a 45-min resting absorption period, the participants performed a selection of cognitive tasks that activate the frontal cortex for an additional 36 min. Cerebral blood flow and hemodynamics, as indexed by concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, were assessed in the frontal cortex throughout the posttreatment period with the use of near-infrared spectroscopy. The presence of resveratrol and its conjugates in plasma was confirmed by HPLC after the same doses in a separate cohort (n = 9). Resveratrol administration resulted in dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow during task performance, as indexed by total concentrations of hemoglobin. There was also an increase in deoxyhemoglobin after both doses of resveratrol, which suggested enhanced oxygen extraction, that became apparent toward the end of the 45-min absorption phase and was sustained throughout task performance. Cognitive function was not affected. Resveratrol metabolites were present in plasma throughout the cognitive task period. These results showed that single doses of orally administered resveratrol can modulate cerebral blood flow variables.
Article
Full-text available
The red grape constituent resveratrol possesses cancer chemopreventive properties in rodents. The hypothesis was tested that, in healthy humans, p.o. administration of resveratrol is safe and results in measurable plasma levels of resveratrol. A phase I study of oral resveratrol (single doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 g) was conducted in 10 healthy volunteers per dose level. Resveratrol and its metabolites were identified in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV. Consumption of resveratrol did not cause serious adverse events. Resveratrol and six metabolites were recovered from plasma and urine. Peak plasma levels of resveratrol at the highest dose were 539 +/- 384 ng/mL (2.4 micromol/L, mean +/- SD; n = 10), which occurred 1.5 h post-dose. Peak levels of two monoglucuronides and resveratrol-3-sulfate were 3- to 8-fold higher. The area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) values for resveratrol-3-sulfate and resveratrol monoglucuronides were up to 23 times greater than those of resveratrol. Urinary excretion of resveratrol and its metabolites was rapid, with 77% of all urinary agent-derived species excreted within 4 h after the lowest dose. Cancer chemopreventive effects of resveratrol in cells in vitro require levels of at least 5 micromol/L. The results presented here intimate that consumption of high-dose resveratrol might be insufficient to elicit systemic levels commensurate with cancer chemopreventive efficacy. However, the high systemic levels of resveratrol conjugate metabolites suggest that their cancer chemopreventive properties warrant investigation.
Article
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in the skin of red grapes, peanuts, and red wine that has been shown to modify many cardiovascular risk factors. Small animal models have been extensively used to investigate cardiovascular disease, but the results often fail to translate in clinical trials. Disease-specific pig models are emerging as clinically useful tools that may offer insight into cardiovascular disease and the effect of drugs such as resveratrol on cardiovascular health. In this paper, we discuss the advantage of using clinically relevant pig models of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and myocardial ischemia to investigate the role of resveratrol in cardiovascular disease prevention.
Article
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound. Numerous animal studies have been reported on its wide-ranging beneficial effects in the biological system including diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesized, therefore, that oral supplementation of resveratrol would improve the glycemic control and the associated risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present clinical study was therefore carried out to test the hypothesis. Sixty-two patients with T2DM were enrolled from Government Headquarters Hospital, Ootacamund, India, in a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled trial. Patients were randomized into control and intervention groups. The control group received only oral hypoglycemic agents, whereas the intervention group received resveratrol (250 mg/d) along with their oral hypoglycemic agents for a period of 3 months. Hemoglobin A(1c), lipid profile, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and protein were measured at the baseline and at the end of 3 months. The results reveal that supplementation of resveratrol for 3 months significantly improves the mean hemoglobin A(1c) (means ± SD, 9.99 ± 1.50 vs 9.65 ± 1.54; P < .05), systolic blood pressure (mean ± SD, 139.71 ± 16.10 vs 127.92 ± 15.37; P < .05), total cholesterol (mean ± SD, 4.70 ± 0.90 vs 4.33 ± 0.76; P < .05), and total protein (mean ± SD, 75.6 ± 4.6 vs 72.3 ± 6.2; P < .05) in T2DM. No significant changes in body weight and high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols were observed. Oral supplementation of resveratrol is thus found to be effective in improving glycemic control and may possibly provide a potential adjuvant for the treatment and management of diabetes.
Article
Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind crossover study for 30 days. Resveratrol significantly reduced sleeping and resting metabolic rate. In muscle, resveratrol activated AMPK, increased SIRT1 and PGC-1α protein levels, increased citrate synthase activity without change in mitochondrial content, and improved muscle mitochondrial respiration on a fatty acid-derived substrate. Furthermore, resveratrol elevated intramyocellular lipid levels and decreased intrahepatic lipid content, circulating glucose, triglycerides, alanine-aminotransferase, and inflammation markers. Systolic blood pressure dropped and HOMA index improved after resveratrol. In the postprandial state, adipose tissue lipolysis and plasma fatty acid and glycerol decreased. In conclusion, we demonstrate that 30 days of resveratrol supplementation induces metabolic changes in obese humans, mimicking the effects of calorie restriction.
Article
In the past decade, the small polyphenol resveratrol has received widespread attention as either a potential therapy or as a preventive agent for numerous diseases. Studies using purified enzymes, cultured cells, and laboratory animals have suggested that resveratrol has anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant properties that might be relevant to chronic diseases and/or longevity in humans. Although the supporting research in laboratory models is quite substantial, only recently data has emerged to describe the effects of resveratrol supplementation on physiological responses in humans. The limited number of human clinical trials that are available has largely described various aspects of resveratrol's safety and bioavailability, reaching a consensus that it is generally well-tolerated, but have poor bioavailability. Very few published human studies have explored the ability of resveratrol to achieve the physiological benefits that have been observed in laboratory models, although many clinical trials have recently been initiated. This review aims to examine the current state of knowledge on the effects of resveratrol on humans and to utilize this information to develop further guidelines for the implementation of human clinical trials.
Article
Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery (FMD) is a biomarker of endothelial function and cardiovascular health. Impaired FMD is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and obesity. Various food ingredients such as polyphenols have been shown to improve FMD. We investigated whether consuming resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, can enhance FMD acutely and whether there is a dose-response relationship for this effect. 19 overweight/obese (BMI 25-35 kg m(-2)) men or post-menopausal women with untreated borderline hypertension (systolic BP: 130-160 mmHg or diastolic BP: 85-100 mmHg) consumed three doses of resveratrol (resVida™ 30, 90 and 270 mg) and a placebo at weekly intervals in a double-blind, randomized crossover comparison. One hour after consumption of the supplement, plasma resveratrol and FMD were measured. Data were analyzed by linear regression versus log(10) dose of resveratrol. 14 men and 5 women (age 55 ± 2 years, BMI 28.7 ± 0.5 kg m(-2), BP 141 ± 2/89 ± 1 mmHg) completed this study. There was a significant dose effect of resveratrol on plasma resveratrol concentration (P < 0.001) and on FMD (P < 0.01), which increased from 4.1 ± 0.8% (placebo) to 7.7 ± 1.5% after 270 mg resveratrol. FMD was also linearly related to log(10) plasma resveratrol concentration (P < 0.01). Acute resveratrol consumption increased plasma resveratrol concentrations and FMD in a dose-related manner. This effect may contribute to the purported cardiovascular health benefits of grapes and red wine.
Article
Resveratrol, a constituent of red wine, has long been suspected to have cardioprotective effects. Interest in this compound has been renewed in recent years, first from its identification as a chemopreventive agent for skin cancer, and subsequently from reports that it activates sirtuin deacetylases and extends the lifespans of lower organisms. Despite scepticism concerning its bioavailability, a growing body of in vivo evidence indicates that resveratrol has protective effects in rodent models of stress and disease. Here, we provide a comprehensive and critical review of the in vivo data on resveratrol, and consider its potential as a therapeutic for humans.
  • D O Kennedy
Kennedy, D. O. et al., American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010, 91, 1590.
  • P Brasnyo
Brasnyo, P. et al., Br J Nutr 2011, 106, 383.
  • J K Bhatt
  • S Thomas
  • M J Nanjan
Bhatt, J. K., S. Thomas, M. J. Nanjan, Nutr Res 2012, 32, 537.
  • B Agarwal
Agarwal, B. et al., Int J Cardiol 2013, 166, 246.
  • J Tome-Carneiro
Tome-Carneiro, J. et al., Am J Cardiol 2012, 110, 356.
  • E Konings
Konings, E. et al., Int J Obes (Lond) 2013.
  • S Timmers
Timmers, S. et al., Cell Metab 2011, 14, 612.
  • J M Smoliga
  • E S Colombo
  • M J Campen
Smoliga, J. M., E. S. Colombo, M. J. Campen, Aging (Albany NY) 2013, 495.
  • R H Wong
Wong, R. H. et al., Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011, 21, 851. [16] Brown, V. A. et al., Cancer Res 2010, 70, 9003.
  • J M Smoliga
  • J A Baur
  • H A Hausenblas
Smoliga, J. M., J. A. Baur, H. A. Hausenblas, Mol Nutr Food Res 2011, 55, 1129.
  • J Tome-Carneiro
Tome-Carneiro, J. et al., Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2013, 27, 37.
  • D J Boocock
Boocock, D. J. et al., Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2007, 16, 1246.
  • J P Crandall
Crandall, J. P. et al., J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2012, 67, 1307.
  • K Magyar
Magyar, K. et al., Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2012, 50, 179.
  • N Y Elmadhun
Elmadhun, N. Y. et al., Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013, 1290, 130.
  • J M Smoliga
  • E S Colombo
  • M J Campen
Smoliga, J. M., E. S. Colombo, M. J. Campen, Aging (Albany NY) 2013, 495.
  • R H Wong
Wong, R. H. et al., Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2011, 21, 851.
  • V A Brown
Brown, V. A. et al., Cancer Res 2010, 70, 9003.