Resveratrol (3,4´,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a polyphenolic compound of dietary origin, is found in several plant sources such as berries, grapes, and peanuts. In the past two decades, resveratrol has been a subject of intense investigation for its therapeutic potential in a plethora of age-related chronic ailments, such as cardiovascular, neoplastic and neurodegenerative diseases. Biochemical ... [Show full abstract] studies reveal that the strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory property of resveratrol as well as its fascinating ability to modulate a wide array of signaling pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of the aforementioned illnesses. Both oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the neuronal loss and neurodegeneration observed in serious illnesses, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease along with other deleterious factors, such as apoptotic and necrotic damage and protein aggregation. In this chapter, we review the current understanding regarding the potential use of resveratrol in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Pre-clinical investigations on the pharmacological effects of resveratrol in both in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are systematically reviewed. Although deemed promising, the clinical application of resveratrol is beset with several roadblocks, such as poor bioavailability, lack of sufficient clinical evidence and dosing studies. We review the current progress in areas, such as development of semi-synthetic stilbenoids as well as novel formulations of resveratrol and its analogs. Finally, novel hypothesis, innovative concepts and future directions required to successfully transition reseveratrol from an alternative treatment option to a robust mainstream neuroprotective agent with a well-defined therapeutic profile in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease as well as other neurodegenerative disorders is critically discussed.