Article

Do You "Like" My Photo? Facebook Use Maintains Eating Disorder Risk

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Abstract

Objective Social media sites, such as Facebook, merge two factors that influence risk for eating disorders: media and peers. Previous work has identified cross-sectional and temporal associations between Facebook use and disordered eating. This study sought to replicate and extend these findings using an experimental design. Method In Study 1, 960 women completed self-report surveys regarding Facebook use and disordered eating. In Study 2, 84 women were randomly assigned to use Facebook or to use an alternate internet site for 20 min. ResultsMore frequent Facebook use was associated with greater disordered eating in a cross-sectional survey. Facebook use was associated with the maintenance of weight/shape concerns and state anxiety compared to an alternate internet activity. DiscussionFacebook use may contribute to disordered eating by maintaining risk for eating pathology. As such, targeting Facebook use may be helpful in intervention and prevention programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014)

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... Among the paths that may lead to an exacerbation of symptomatic distress during the pandemic, the effects of social media play an important role [9]. The negative impact of social media, such as Facebook, on fostering and maintaining both disordered eating behavior and cognitions is well-documented [25][26][27]. The examination of Facebook usage patterns and their associations with problematic eating behavior is an important research topic to pursue in the context of COVID-19-related home con nement, given that people moved to online social media interactions in mass [28] and spent less time communicating face to face. ...
... However, prior research regarding the association between amount of time spent on Facebook and disordered eating or body image concerns, resulted in mixed ndings. Some studies suggested that time spent on SNSs is related to higher eating disorder symptoms and concerns [25,37,38]. One of the few longitudinal studies on this issue ...
... The theoretical model tested in this study is displayed in Figure 1. Given the central role of shape and weight concerns in the relationship with SNS use [25] only EDE-Q shape and weight concern subscales were used for the following analyses. Model testing was performed using Mplus software (version 6.12). ...
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Background: The social isolation due to the COVID-19-related lockdown has had an impact on social media consumption around the world. This study examines the relationship between fear of COVID-19, maladaptive Facebook use and disordered eating. Methods: Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyse two-wave survey data (T0: Italian first lockdown; T1: after two months) from 115 Italian subjects (91.3% females; mean age = 28.60 ± 7.31) with self-reported dysfunctional eating behaviors. Participants were assessed on Facebook use, dysfunctional eating cognitions, and fear of COVID-19. Results: Participants’ disordered eating cognitions increased during the pandemic. At T0, higher fear of COVID-19 was positively associated to time spent on Facebook, which in turn predicted disordered eating cognitions at T1. Moreover, maladaptive Facebook use mediated the relationship between daily time on Facebook and Shape concerns. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest an influence of dysfunctional Facebook use in increasing disordered eating cognitions during the pandemic.
... Indeed, meta-analytic data confirm causal claims associating SNSs/Facebook use and disordered eating [35]. Facebook implicates numerous factors that increase the risk for eating pathology such as media and peers [34,36,37]. These factors operate via a mechanism that involves potentiation of emotional negativity, which furthers the progression to disordered eating in persons addicted to Facebook/internet [34]. ...
... These factors operate via a mechanism that involves potentiation of emotional negativity, which furthers the progression to disordered eating in persons addicted to Facebook/internet [34]. In particular, time spent online and frequent Facebook use are associated with increased state anxiety, depressive symptoms, concerns about weight/shape/eating, as well as disordered eating attitudes and behaviors [36,38]. Longitudinal studies indicate that specific Facebook activities such as social grooming (e.g., viewing and commenting on peers' profiles), seeking and receiving negative feedback via SNSs [39,40], and photo-based Facebook activities rather than use time contribute to increased body dissatisfaction, derive for thinness, and disordered eating [36,37,41]. ...
... In particular, time spent online and frequent Facebook use are associated with increased state anxiety, depressive symptoms, concerns about weight/shape/eating, as well as disordered eating attitudes and behaviors [36,38]. Longitudinal studies indicate that specific Facebook activities such as social grooming (e.g., viewing and commenting on peers' profiles), seeking and receiving negative feedback via SNSs [39,40], and photo-based Facebook activities rather than use time contribute to increased body dissatisfaction, derive for thinness, and disordered eating [36,37,41]. Appearance comparison mediates this relationship [39]. ...
Article
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Objective Facebook addiction is increasing, giving rise to limited real-life social networks, loneliness, poor work and academic performance, psychopathology, and low well-being. Facebook entails numerous factors that increase the risk for disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., use time and Facebook activities such as social grooming and photo sharing). This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) among patients with eating disorders (EDs) given lack of validation of Facebook addiction measures in this population. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 123 inpatient and outpatient women with EDs (Mean age = 27.3, SD = 10.6, range = 14–59 years) used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multigroup CFA, structural equation modeling (SEM), Spearman’s rho Spearman’s analysis, McDonald's Omega (ω), Cronbach’s alpha (α), and item-total correlations to examine the structure, invariance, criterion validity, reliability, and discriminant validity of the BFAS. Results Correlating the residuals of items 2, 3, and 5 resulted in an excellent fit of a one-factor structure of the BFAS ( χ ² (7) = 8.515, p = .289, CFI = .998, TLI = .996, RMSEA = .042, SRMR = .0099). The BFAS was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels across groups of EDs, age, education, and marital status. High values of ω and α (.96) as well as item-total correlations (.851–.929) indicated excellent reliability and high discrimination index of the BFAS. Criterion validity is noted by strong positive correlation with the Six-item Internet Addiction Test (S-IAT, r = .88) and SEM using the S-IAT to predict the BFAS (χ2(49) = 103.701, p = .001, CFI = .975, TLI = .966, RMSEA = .096, SRMR = .0317).. Conclusion The BFAS is a reliable unidimensional measure. Its high discrimination index and invariance across different groups make it useful for detecting Facebook addiction among patients with ED.
... It seems to be a widespread phenomenon that adults and adolescents are exposed to idealized body images in social media such as Facebook and Instagram (Tiggemann et al., 2020). There are for example several studies that show a close connection between Facebook usage and young women's body image concerns Slater, 2013, 2014;Mabe et al., 2014;Cohen et al., 2017). This also applies to men (Mabe et al., 2014) and girls and boys (Ringrose, 2011;Flynn, 2016;Trekels and Eggermont, 2017;Trekels et al., 2018). ...
... There are for example several studies that show a close connection between Facebook usage and young women's body image concerns Slater, 2013, 2014;Mabe et al., 2014;Cohen et al., 2017). This also applies to men (Mabe et al., 2014) and girls and boys (Ringrose, 2011;Flynn, 2016;Trekels and Eggermont, 2017;Trekels et al., 2018). ...
... An overview study showed increased awareness of one's own body in connection with exposure to attractive Facebook profiles and using social media in general (Holland and Tiggemann, 2016). Studies shows that participants who spent time on Facebook reported being in a more negative mood than those who spent time on the control website (Mabe et al., 2014;Sagioglou and Greitemeyer, 2014;Fardouly et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Several studies show that young people today are negatively impacted by body image ideals in social media. We studies young people's reflections on body image and body pressure. More precisely: How does a selected group of third-year upper secondary school students understand their body images and body pressures through social media? Eight third-year students, four of each gender, were interviewed from two upper secondary schools in a medium-sized city in Norway. An interesting find was that body pressure was not experienced solely as one-sided pressure exerted externally by media sources, but that they also personally influenced others through their own active use of social media channels like Facebook and Instagram. They reported having experienced body pressure in their own lives and in their immediate environment, and that both genders are affected. The study builds on sociocultural body theory based on Foucault's ideas and work, but also uses more recent media theory for the analysis and discussion. A BOPS model developed by the researchers was used for the operational parameters that is centered around the concepts of panopticon, synopticon and omniopticon.
... Sixteen papers were reviewed and these included 18 studies, and are summarised in Table 1. With regards to design, 4 studies were randomised control trials (RCTs) [26][27][28][29], 3 mixed methods [30][31][32], 3 non-controlled before-after trials (NCBA) [33][34][35], 5 controlled beforeand-after trial (CBA) [36][37][38][39][40], and 3 cross-sectional [37,39,41]. Most of the papers were published between 2017 and 2020 (13 of 16) [26-35, 37, 40, 41], and included the following social media platforms: Facebook, Instagram, Reddit, Twitter, and WeChat. ...
... Sixteen papers were reviewed and these included 18 studies, and are summarised in Table 1. With regards to design, 4 studies were randomised control trials (RCTs) [26][27][28][29], 3 mixed methods [30][31][32], 3 non-controlled before-after trials (NCBA) [33][34][35], 5 controlled beforeand-after trial (CBA) [36][37][38][39][40], and 3 cross-sectional [37,39,41]. Most of the papers were published between 2017 and 2020 (13 of 16) [26-35, 37, 40, 41], and included the following social media platforms: Facebook, Instagram, Reddit, Twitter, and WeChat. ...
... Most of the papers were published between 2017 and 2020 (13 of 16) [26-35, 37, 40, 41], and included the following social media platforms: Facebook, Instagram, Reddit, Twitter, and WeChat. Most data were collected within the USA (9 studies) [28-30, 33-37, 39], and 11 out of 18 studies targeted young adults aged between 18 and 35 years old [26,28,29,33,[36][37][38][39][40] and eight included college/university students [28,33,[36][37][38][39][40]. Five of the 18 studies targeted specific populations including primigravid women [34], adults at risk of colorectal cancer [30], nurses [32], and overweight or obese individuals [27,35]. ...
Article
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Background The objectives of this systematic review were to update the evidence base on social media interventions for physical activity and diet since 2014, analyse the characteristics of interventions that resulted in changes to physical activity and diet-related behaviours, and assess differences in outcomes across different population groups. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted across 5 databases (Medline, Embase, EBSCO Education, Wiley and Scopus) using key words related to social media, physical activity, diet, and age. The inclusion criteria were: participants age 13+ years in the general population; an intervention that used commercial social media platform(s); outcomes related to changes to diet/eating or physical activity behaviours; and quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies. Quality appraisal tools that aligned with the study designs were used. A mixed methods approach was used to analyse and synthesise all evidence. Results Eighteen studies were included: randomised control trials ( n = 4), non-controlled trials ( n = 3), mixed methods studies ( n = 3), non-randomised controlled trials ( n = 5) and cross-sectional studies ( n = 3). The target population of most studies was young female adults (aged 18–35) attending college/university. The interventions reported on positive changes to physical activity and diet-related behaviours through increases in physical activity levels and modifications to food intake, body composition and/or body weight. The use of Facebook, Facebook groups and the accessibility of information and interaction were the main characteristics of social media interventions. Studies also reported on Instagram, Reddit, WeChat and Twitter and the use of photo sharing and editing, groups and sub-groups and gamification. Conclusions Social media interventions can positively change physical activity and diet-related behaviours, via increases in physical activity levels, healthy modifications to food intake, and beneficial changes to body composition or body weight. New evidence is provided on the contemporary uses of social media (e.g. gamification, multi-model application, image sharing/editing, group chats) that can be used by policy makers, professionals, organisations and/or researchers to inform the design of future social media interventions. This study had some limitations that mainly relate to variation in study design, over-reliance of self-reported measures and sample characteristics, that prevented comparative analysis. Registration number: PROPSERO; CRD42020210806 .
... Among the paths that may lead to an exacerbation of symptomatic distress during the pandemic, the effects of social media play an important role [10]. The negative impact of social media, such as Facebook, on fostering and maintaining both disordered eating behavior and cognitions is well-documented [26][27][28]. However, prior research regarding the association between amount of time spent on Facebook and disordered eating or body image concerns, resulted in mixed findings. ...
... However, prior research regarding the association between amount of time spent on Facebook and disordered eating or body image concerns, resulted in mixed findings. Some studies suggested that time spent on SNSs is related to higher eating disorder symptoms and concerns [26,29,30]. One of the few longitudinal studies on this issue showed that more frequent SNS use predicted increased body dissatisfaction among adolescents 18 months later, but body dissatisfaction did not predict SNS use [31]. ...
... The theoretical model tested in this study is displayed in Fig. 1. Given the central role of shape and weight concerns in the relationship with SNS use [26] only EDE-Q shape and weight concern subscales were used for the following analyses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The social isolation due to the COVID-19-related lockdown has had an impact on social media consumption around the world. This study examines the relationship between fear of COVID-19, Facebook use and disordered eating. Methods Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyse two-wave survey data (T0: Italian first lockdown; T1: after two months) during the pandemic. Young adults with self-reported dysfunctional eating behaviors (N = 115; 91.3% females; mean age = 28.60 ± 7.31) were recruited to complete an online survey at T0; 66 participants (92.4% females; mean age = 28.85 ± 7.85) completed the survey at T1. They were assessed on Facebook use, dysfunctional eating cognitions, and fear of COVID-19. Results Participants’ disordered eating cognitions increased during the pandemic. At T0, higher fear of COVID-19 was positively associated to time spent on Facebook, which in turn predicted disordered eating cognitions at T1. Moreover, maladaptive Facebook use mediated the relationship between daily time on Facebook and Shape concerns. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest an influence of dysfunctional Facebook use in increasing disordered eating cognitions during the pandemic.
... In the final sample. sixteen studies were included (n = 13168 study participants) (Alpaslan et al., 2015;Bair et al., 2012;Canan et al., 2014;Cañon Buitrago et al., 2016;Cohen and Blaszczynski, 2015;Eckler et al., 2017;Fernández-villa et al., 2015;Griffiths et al., 2018a;Kamal and Kamal, 2018;Mabe et al., 2014;Marco et al., 2018;Quesnel et al., 2018;Rodgers et al., 2013;Simpson and Mazzeo, 2017;Walker et al., 2015;Zeeni et al., 2018) with a small pooled estimate effect Pearson's r = 0.22 (s.e. = 0.037, p < 0.001) (Fig. 3). ...
... In adult participants, those with elevated risk for developing an ED had a lower appearance self-esteem after exposure to the pro-ED website, compared to neutral condition (Theis et al., 2012); similarly, low mood after SNS exposure was more prominent to those having appearance comparison traits . Furthermore, being allocated to use Facebook 20 min/day was associated with the maintenance of weight/shape concerns as compared to an alternate (ED neutral) internet activity (Mabe et al., 2014). Also, exposure to fitspiration images (Prichard et al., 2020;Tiggemann and Zaccardo, 2015), or celebrity or peer Instagram sourced images (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016) was significantly associated with higher BD relative to exposure to travel (ED neutral) images. ...
Article
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Eating disorders are widespread illnesses with significant impact. There is growing concern about how those at risk of eating disorders overuse online resources to their detriment. We conducted a pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining Problematic Usage of the Internet (PUI) and eating disorder and related psychopathology. The meta-analysis comprised n = 32,295 participants, in which PUI was correlated with significant eating disorder general psychopathology Pearson r = 0.22 (s.e. = 0.04, p < 0.001), body dissatisfaction r = 0.16 (s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.001), drive-for-thinness r = 0.16 (s.e. = 0.04, p < 0.001) and dietary restraint r = 0.18 (s.e. = 0.03). Effects were not moderated by gender, PUI facet or study quality. Results are in support of PUI impacting on eating disorder symptoms; males may be equally vulnerable to these potential effects. Prospective and experimental studies in the field suggest that small but significant effects exist and may have accumulative influence over time and across all age groups. Those findings are important to expand our understanding of PUI as a multifaceted concept and its impact on multiple levels of ascertainment of eating disorder and related psychopathology.
... Así, la formulación interpersonal de los TCA postula que pueden iniciarse en un intento de reparar la autoestima después de tener interacciones sociales fallidas, al mismo tiempo que los desórdenes alimentarios aumentan los problemas interpersonales (18,19) . En este sentido, el uso de las redes sociales y la exposición a pares atractivos puede producir una percepción negativa de la propia imagen corporal, llegando a ser un factor determinante en su desarrollo o pudiendo perpetuar la enfermedad (20,21) . ...
... En este aspecto, debemos tener presente que el uso de redes sociales puede generar preocupación por Rev Esp Salud Pública. 2021; 95: 22 de diciembre e202112200 la imagen corporal, al mismo tiempo que contribuye al riesgo de desarrollo y mantenimiento de patologías alimentarias (20,21) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Fundamentos. Los Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) se inician normalmente durante la pubertad y adolescencia, momento en el que se debe prestar atención a los factores que influyen en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las actitudes hacia la alimentación y el riesgo de padecer TCA, teniendo en cuenta las variables personales y familiares en una población de estudiantes de educación secundaria. Métodos. Participaron un total de 790 estudiantes de educación secundaria obligatoria (ESO) matriculados/as en el curso 2019/2020 en institutos de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia de los cuales 410 eran varones y 380 mujeres (M=13,84; DT= 1,37). En este estudio descriptivo-transversal los TCA fueron valorados mediante el Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) de Garner, en la versión adaptada a sujetos españoles. Resultados. Atendiendo a las variables personales analizadas, no se han encontrado diferencias significativas de los trastornos de conducta alimentaria en el género de los adolescentes, pero sí en la edad, curso escolar y uso de redes sociales. Del mismo modo, los datos sí presentan diferencias significativas en los trastornos de conducta alimentaria según el nivel de estudios de las familias y su relación familiar. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos en la investigación verifican una influencia de las variables personales y familiares sobre las actitudes asociadas a los TCA. Continuar ahondando en estas variables puede facilitar una mejor intervención, así como mejorar el diseño de estrategias preventivas.
... The results from a recent nationally representative survey of children and adolescents living in Germany substantiate these findings: a total of 19.8% of 11-to 17-year-old children and adolescents showed ED symptoms, with a significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males and a higher prevalence in adolescents aged 14 to 17 years compared to those aged 11 to 13 years [5]. Explanatory approaches highlight the role of social media in the development and maintenance of body image norms and corresponding eating disorder symptoms by endorsing a thin ideal in late adolescent and emerging adult females [6,7]. To date, the question of how far relations between the frequent use of social media and ED symptoms are indeed a phenomenon, particularly in adolescent girls, is unclear and needs to be investigated in more detail. ...
... These findings relativize general assumptions of females in transition to emerging adulthood being at higher risk of both ED symptoms and discrimination experience, as addressed in H2a [4,5,52]. In addition, the results are contradictory to previous indications of sex-differential risk factors for ED symptoms (H2b [6,7];) and suggest that body image, selfefficacy and social media use do not differ significantly in their associations with ED symptoms between males and females or between adolescents and emerging adults. One explanation for the mixed findings is based on a sex-invariant operationalization of body image in various studies. ...
Article
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Background Eating disorder symptoms (EDs) have been discussed as a prominent problem among late adolescent girls with serious health risks and long-term consequences. However, there is a lack of population-based evidence on EDs comprising the age range from early adolescence to emerging adulthood as well as considering both females and males equally. Additionally, the differential role of a comprehensive set of several relevant risk factors and particularly weight- and appearance-related discrimination warrants further attention. Thus, we aimed to contribute to a better understanding of sex- and age-related differences in associations between discrimination experience and other relevant personal risk factors (body image, social media use, self-efficacy, social support) with EDs. Furthermore, we were interested in the exploration of underlying mechanisms enhancing the risk of EDs by taking discrimination experience into account. Methods Based on a logistic regression model, we investigated associations between weight- and appearance-related discrimination and EDs while controlling for other relevant personal risk factors in a subsample of N = 8504 adolescents and emerging adults (54.4% female, mean age = 20.71 years, SD = 4.32 years) drawn from a German representative health survey (KiGGS Wave 2). In a second step, we investigated the mediating role of discrimination experience between the other risk factors and EDs with the help of a path model. Results While controlling for other relevant personal risk factors, weight- and appearance-related discrimination was significantly related to EDs. Whereas the risk of EDs was significantly enhanced in males and emerging adults frequently experiencing weight-related discrimination, adolescents showed a higher risk of EDs when experiencing appearance-related discrimination. Moreover, discrimination experience partly explained the associations between body image dissatisfaction, low self-efficacy, high media use and ED symptoms. Conclusions The results highlight weight- and appearance-related discrimination as one central factor to be considered in the pathogeneses of EDs and underpin the need for discrimination prevention as well as the promotion of adaptive coping with discrimination experience to reduce the risk of developing ED symptoms. Males and emerging adults need particular attention when facing weight-related discrimination whereas risk constellations and EDs particularly affecting females need further investigation.
... In addition, this appearance comparison on FB had more negative effects on body satisfaction if comparisons were made with more attractive people (Haferkamp & Krämer, 2011) or people who weighed less (Lee et al., 2013). In addition, the experimental studies also indicated that FB use was linked to the maintenance of concerns about shape (Mabe et al., 2014). The meta-analysis by Mingoia et al. (2017) found a greater positive correlation between ED risk and appearance-related use of SNs than between ED risk and overall use of SNs. ...
... This was repeated in the CONAPP-S in which almost half of the items were about likes and many of the remaining items referred to activities related to photos, except for two which were about the numbers of followers. This again highlights the importance of physical comparison via images on SN which has been noted by other studies , along with the numerical indicators such as likes (Mabe et al., 2014). It may seem that the two items about numbers of followers are unconnected to images and likes. ...
Article
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Appearance-related use of Social Networks (SNs) exhibits a clear relationship with the risk of eating disorders (ED). To determine which components of appearance-related use are most important for the detection and prediction of ED, it is necessary to measure concern about appearance on SNs in detail. The two main objectives of this study are to develop and validate the Concern about appearance on SNs scale (CONAPP), and to analyze the relationships between concern about appearance on SNs and the risk of ED. A total of 576 Spanish women over 18 years old, with an average age of 28.88 (SD = 11.14), participated in an online survey. We evaluated the use of the two most-commonly used SNs (Facebook and Instagram), concern about appearance on SNs, and eating attitudes (the latter through the Eating Attitudes Test-26). The psychometric properties of the CONAPP questionnaire were excellent. Strong positive correlations were found between concern about appearance on SNs and risk of ED. The pattern differed between users of Facebook and Instagram. Instagram users were younger, demonstrated higher risk of EDs and higher scores in the CONAPP questionnaire. The implications of the results for the prevention of ED are discussed.
... Fitspiration and thinspiration studies tend to examine the effects of the visuals relative to texts (e.g., inspirational Instagram quotes). Research has suggested that the visual aspect of social media sites more influenced users' body image than the textual aspect (Mabe et al., 2014). Visualized social media platforms allow users to manage their physical impression by selecting to post only the most attractive pictures of themselves (Holland & Tiggemann, 2016). ...
... Visualized social media platforms allow users to manage their physical impression by selecting to post only the most attractive pictures of themselves (Holland & Tiggemann, 2016). Using the hashtag function, users can easily share and search for idealized media images, which allow them to visually estimate the media figures' body shape relative to their own (Mabe et al., 2014). The current research aimed to examine the relationship between viewing inspirational Instagram content and young women's sexual attitudes, which is a relatively new topic. ...
Article
Viewing idealized social media images may negatively impact women’s self-esteem, yet the underlying mechanisms and vulnerable female groups remain under-investigated. This online experiment applied a posttest-only, between-subjects design to examine the interaction effects of viewing #fitspiration and #thinspiration Instagram images, body mass index, and perceived weight on women’s self-esteem ( N = 221) via appearance comparison. A moderated moderated mediation analysis (MMMA) shows significant effects for fitspiration and thinspiration conditions. Fitspiration pictures predicted lower self-esteem among Overweight women with perceived healthy weight (OH) than healthy weight women with perceived healthy weight (HH) and those with perceived overweight (HO). Thinspiration images resulted in lower self-esteem among HO than HH and OH. Implications include the importance of subjective and objective appearance comparison measurements, effect sizes of idealized social media images, the usefulness of MMMA, and the call for an Instagram literacy program.
... Así, la formulación interpersonal de los TCA postula que pueden iniciarse en un intento de reparar la autoestima después de tener interacciones sociales fallidas, al mismo tiempo que los desórdenes alimentarios aumentan los problemas interpersonales (18,19) . En este sentido, el uso de las redes sociales y la exposición a pares atractivos puede producir una percepción negativa de la propia imagen corporal, llegando a ser un factor determinante en su desarrollo o pudiendo perpetuar la enfermedad (20,21) . ...
... En este aspecto, debemos tener presente que el uso de redes sociales puede generar preocupación por Rev Esp Salud Pública. 2021; 95: 22 de diciembre e202112200 la imagen corporal, al mismo tiempo que contribuye al riesgo de desarrollo y mantenimiento de patologías alimentarias (20,21) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Eating disorders (EDs) usually begin during puberty and adolescence, a time when attention should be paid to the factors that influence the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards eating and the risk of developing EDs, taking into account personal and family variables in a population of secondary school students. Methods: A total of 790 Compulsory Secondary School students enrolled in the 2019/2020 academic year in secondary schools in the Autonomous Community of Galicia participated, of whom 410 were male and 380 female (M=13.84; SD=1.37). In this descriptive-cross-sectional study, eating disorders were assessed using Garner's Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), adapted to Spanish subjects. The statistical treatment of the data was carried out by means of a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), which took the form of frequency analysis and contingency tables. Results: With regard to the personal variables analysed, no significant differences in eating disorders were found across adolescents' gender (p>0.05), but there were significant differences in age (p<0.001), school year (p<0.001) and use of social networks (p<0.05). Similarly, the data do showed significant differences in eating disorders according to the level of studies of the families (p<0.01) and their family relationship (p<0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained in this research confirm an influence of personal and family variables in attitudes associated with EDs. Further investigation of these variables may facilitate better intervention, as well as improve the design of preventive strategies.
... Partiendo de este contexto teórico y estos hallazgos empíricos, en este estudio se pretende analizar el posible efecto de las alteraciones de la conducta alimentaria, en mujeres, y la satisfacción con la imagen corporal, en hombres, además de identificar en ambos si existe dependencia al ejercicio físico. También se incluye en el análisis una variable sobre uso adictivo de las redes sociales, pues hay hallazgos que insinúan una posible relación entre esta condición, las alteraciones de la conducta alimentaria y la satisfacción con la imagen corporal (23)(24)(25)(26)(27). ...
... Los hallazgos evidenciaron que una amplia variedad de mensajes en estos grupos se asociaba con comportamientos y percepciones problemáticas, en algunos casos extremas, relacionados con la alimentación y el ejercicio físico. En general, hay una alta y creciente cantidad de evidencia empírica que vincula el uso de las redes sociales con preocupaciones por la imagen corporal y los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria en mujeres (25,70). El ejercicio excesivo, y un posible riesgo de dependencia al ejercicio, sería una respuesta maladaptativa para afrontar el malestar psicosocial. ...
Article
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Hay un número creciente de adicciones conductuales que aún no han sido incluidas en el DSM pero que están siendo abordadas científicamente, como la dependencia al ejercicio físico. Con el objetivo de contribuir al estudio de esta problemática, se analizó la posible contribución del uso adictivo de redes sociales, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal y el riesgo de trastorno de conducta alimentaria, junto con otras variables sociodemográficas, en una muestra de 407 usuarios regulares de gimnasios. Se realizó el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple en función del sexo. Para los hombres, las variables incluidas en el modelo fueron, en orden del valor del coeficiente de regresión: las horas por día en el gimnasio (B = 5,347, p<0,0001), los días por semana en el gimnasio (B = 2,917, p = 0,001), la dependencia al ejercicio físico (B = 1,801, p<0,0001), las lesiones (B = 1,006, p = 0,036) y el uso excesivo de redes sociales (B = 0,431, p= 0,006). Para las mujeres, los días por semana en el gimnasio (B = 3,812, p<0,0001), el nivel socioeconómico (B = -2,874, p = 0,024), la edad (B = 0,797, p=0,001), el valor total de la prueba de actitudes alimentarias (B = 0,697, p<0,0001) y el valor total del cuestionario de adicción a las redes sociales (B = 0,406, p =0,0001). Se encontró también una elevada prevalencia
... In the final sample. sixteen studies were included (n = 13168 study participants) (Alpaslan et al., 2015;Bair et al., 2012;Canan et al., 2014;Cañon Buitrago et al., 2016;Cohen and Blaszczynski, 2015;Eckler et al., 2017;Fernández-villa et al., 2015;Griffiths et al., 2018a;Kamal and Kamal, 2018;Mabe et al., 2014;Marco et al., 2018;Quesnel et al., 2018;Rodgers et al., 2013;Simpson and Mazzeo, 2017;Walker et al., 2015;Zeeni et al., 2018) with a small pooled estimate effect Pearson's r = 0.22 (s.e. = 0.037, p < 0.001) (Fig. 3). ...
... In adult participants, those with elevated risk for developing an ED had a lower appearance self-esteem after exposure to the pro-ED website, compared to neutral condition (Theis et al., 2012); similarly, low mood after SNS exposure was more prominent to those having appearance comparison traits . Furthermore, being allocated to use Facebook 20 min/day was associated with the maintenance of weight/shape concerns as compared to an alternate (ED neutral) internet activity (Mabe et al., 2014). Also, exposure to fitspiration images (Prichard et al., 2020;Tiggemann and Zaccardo, 2015), or celebrity or peer Instagram sourced images (Brown and Tiggemann, 2016) was significantly associated with higher BD relative to exposure to travel (ED neutral) images. ...
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Eating disorders are widespread illnesses with significant impact. There is growing concern about how those at risk of eating disorders overuse online resources to their detriment. We conducted a pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining Problematic Usage of the Internet (PUI) and eating disorder and related psychopathology. The meta-analysis comprised n = 32,295 participants, in which PUI was correlated with significant eating disorder general psychopathology Pearson r = 0.22 (s.e. = 0.04, p < 0.001), body dissatisfaction r = 0.16 (s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.001), drive-for-thinness r = 0.16 (s.e. = 0.04, p < 0.001) and dietary restraint r = 0.18 (s.e. = 0.03). Effects were not moderated by gender, PUI facet or study quality. Results are in support of PUI impacting on eating disorder symptoms; males may be equally vulnerable to these potential effects. Prospective and experimental studies in the field suggest that small but significant effects exist and may have accumulative influence over time and across all age groups. Those findings are important to expand our understanding of PUI as a multifaceted concept and its impact on multiple levels of ascertainment of eating disorder and related psychopathology.
... Social media sites, such as Weibo, are among the most widespread and used online communication networks (Navithasulthana and Shanmugam, 2021). Previous studies found that people who use Facebook more were less satisfied with their appearance (Stronge et al., 2015) and reported more eating disorders (Mabe et al., 2014). Conversely, women with EDS also come in contact with social media and continue perpetuating the disorder, believing that EDS are a lifestyle rather than a mental health condition (Eikey, 2017). ...
... Conversely, women with EDS also come in contact with social media and continue perpetuating the disorder, believing that EDS are a lifestyle rather than a mental health condition (Eikey, 2017). Positive correlations have also been observed between social networking site (SNS) usage and disordered eating levels in young adults (Mabe et al., 2014;Hummel and Smith, 2015). In developing countries, mass media exposure has a significant impact on eating attitudes and behaviors (Eapen et al., 2006;Musaiger et al., 2013). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the common predictive factors between social media addiction (SMA) and eating disorder symptoms (EDS), in a group of Chinese female college students. A total of 216 students completed the behavioral assessments of cognitive flexibility and sustained attention, as well as the questionnaires on anxiety, social media dependence, and eating disorders. The results indicate that SMA is significantly correlated with EDS. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model in which state anxiety, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention predicted social gain and EDS. Additionally, the results confirmed the mediating role of cognitive flexibility and sustained attention between state anxiety and SMA/EDS in the participants. The findings revealed that in the sample group, state anxiety was related to SMA and EDS through cognitive flexibility and sustained attention. These proposals reflect the significance of improving cognitive flexibility/sustained attention and reducing state anxiety to prevent EDS and SMA in female college students.
... Social media like Google, Twitter, and Facebook are a part of new media. In previous studies, researchers have found that the use of social media is correlated with increased eating concern and body dissatisfaction [12][13][14][15]. Online media was also found to further increase disordered eating behaviors [16]. ...
... Online media was also found to further increase disordered eating behaviors [16]. Notably, although some studies were mainly interested in female samples [13,14,17,18], males seemed to be equally sensitive to online media [13,15,19]. However, males and females differed in Internet use patterns [12], and eating disorder patients of different sexes tend to have different symptom manifestations [20]. ...
Article
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Background The relationship between online media exposure and disordered eating symptoms has been reported in western regions. Though the prevalence of eating disorders and access to the Internet increased substantially in recent years, relevant evidence is rare in mainland China. This study aims to evaluate the association between online media exposure or weight and fitness management app use and disordered eating symptoms in Chinese mainland young adults, and the mediation effect of disordered eating cognition. Methods 353 Chinese mainland female and 142 male young adults completed online questionnaires consisting of demographic information, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q 6.0), and items relating to online media exposure and weight and fitness management app use. Through correlation analysis, the relationship between online media exposure or weight and fitness management app use and disordered eating symptoms was examined, separately by sex. The mediation effect of disordered eating cognition on the relationship between online media exposure or weight and fitness management app use on disordered eating behaviors was investigated with two moderated mediation models. Results Young female adults in the Chinese mainland presented higher disordered eating symptoms and were more engaged in online media and weight and fitness management app use than males. Online media exposure and weight and fitness management app use showed a significant correlation with disordered eating behaviors in males and females. Disordered eating cognition mediated the relationship between online media exposure or weight and fitness management app use and disordered eating behaviors. This effect was significantly higher in females. Conclusion Online media exposure and weight and fitness management app use play a crucial role in the generation of disordered eating symptoms in Chinese mainland young adults, especially in females. The mediation analysis suggested the importance of prevention and intervention of disordered eating cognition. Monitoring and scientific guidance of online media are necessary.
... Besides, Facebook use may contribute to disordered eating by maintaining risk (i.e. weight/shape concerns and state anxiety) for eating pathology compared to an alternate internet activity [20]. In many ways, social media dependence and eating disorders tendency are closely intertwined [14,20]. ...
... weight/shape concerns and state anxiety) for eating pathology compared to an alternate internet activity [20]. In many ways, social media dependence and eating disorders tendency are closely intertwined [14,20]. ...
Article
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Background Social media dependence (SMD) and eating disorders (ED) risk are often thought to be inextricably linked. Because social media dependence often precedes an ED, predicts poor outcome, and persists even after recovery from an ED, it is important to examine whether certain factors have the ability to potentially attenuate or intensify SMD’s effect on eating disorders. Methods In the current study, we examined one possible moderating factor: impulsiveness. 767 undergraduates (mean age = 18.78 years, SD = 1.20) in Shaanxi province of China, completed anonymous questionnaires regarding social media dependence, eating disorders, impulsiveness. Results Revealed that non-planned impulsiveness (NPI) moderated the relation between SMD and ED risk. Individuals who were low in SMD and who reported low levels of NPI reported much lower levels of ED risk than those with low SMD and high NPI. However, Individuals who were high in SMD and who reported low levels of NPI reported much higher levels of ED risk than those with high SMD and high NPI. Contrary to our hypotheses, Motor impulsiveness and cognitive impulsiveness did not emerge as moderators of the relation between SMD and ED risk. Conclusions Results provide growing support that factors that interact with SMD can lessen or aggravate SMD’s effect on ED risk. These findings can be beneficial to our understanding of how and when social media dependence impacts undergraduates’ eating disorders risk.
... Excessive dependence on SNSs can diminish people's satisfaction with their lives, and may increase the likelihood of some people, notably teenagers, feeling depressed and lonely (Spraggins, 2009;Valkenburg and Peter, 2009;Das and Sahoo, 2011). Although several studies have found that concerns about body shape and disordered eating attitudes are positively related to the length of time spent on social media, the results of associated studies have not been consistent (Smith et al., 2013;Mabe et al., 2014;Holland and Tiggemann, 2017). For instance, some discrepancies have been found in the reported relationships between dietary behaviors and different types of SNSs (Kim and Chock, 2015;Blassingame, 2020b). ...
... The current study was intended to expand upon previous work by adopting a three-level meta-analysis model to analyze the association between SNSs and disordered eating behaviors. Analysis in this study revealed a weak but significant positive correlation between the use of SNSs and disordered eating behaviors, in line with the results of several previous studies (Mabe et al., 2014;Latzer et al., 2015;Santarossa, 2015;Aparicio-Martinez et al., 2019;Niu et al., 2019;Teo and Collinson, 2019;Blassingame, 2020b;Rodgers et al., 2020). Considering that the focus of analysis in this study was the influence of frequency and duration of SNS usage on eating disorders, combined with the social-cultural model and self-objectification theory, the high frequency and long-term use of SNSs might indeed lead people to participate regularly in social comparisons (Ho et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are common tools with which modern people share their lives and establish social relationships. However, some studies have found SNSs to be associated with eating disorders, although other have identified no connection between the two. To explore the interaction between SNSs and eating disorder behaviors, this study aimed to comprehensively synthesize previous studies using meta-analysis methods. Based on selection criteria, there were 87 effect sizes from 22 studies. After analysis using a three-level random-effects meta-analysis model, a positive correlation between the use of SNSs and irregular eating behaviors was found, r = 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11; p < 0.001). In addition, by analyzing potential moderators, body mass index (r = −0.032; 95% CI: −0.058, −0.006; p = 0.019), survey methods, and sample sources was discovered could alter the relationship between SNSs and disordered eating behaviors. Specifically, there was a significantly larger association between SNSs results obtained by paper and pencil surveys and disordered eating behaviors (r = 0.114; 95% CI: 0.081, 0.147; p < 0.001) than that between SNSs results obtained by online surveys and disordered eating behaviors (r = −0.055; 95% CI: −0.102, −0.007; p < 0.01). University students showed a larger correlation between SNSs and disordered eating behavior than other samples (r = 0.089; 95% CI: 0.049, 0.129; p < 0.001). Overall, this meta-analysis confirms that the excessive use of SNSs is associated with an increased risks of disordered eating behaviors. It is hoped that this study can provide a reference for the management and intervention of dietary behaviors related to social networks in the future.
... Exercise is being increasingly used as a path to boost appearance, rather than primarily as a path to health, or as a pleasurable activity in itself (23,30). Social media have been contributing to such a "fitspirational" trend, namely, through the continuous posting of photos and videos displaying "perfect bodies, " or inspirational messages encouraging exercising, often beyond the human physical limits (31)(32)(33)(34). Such potential damaging content might have an increased effect on adolescents and individuals with mental health problems (35), who might feel unable to meet such unrealistic beauty ideals. ...
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Introduction: Little is known about the impact of restrictive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic on self-image and engagement in exercise and other coping strategies alongside the use of image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPEDs) to boost performance and appearance. Objectives: To assess the role of anxiety about appearance and self-compassion on the practice of physical exercise and use of IPEDs during lockdown. Methods: An international online questionnaire was carried out using the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in addition to questions on the use of IPEDs. Results: The sample consisted of 3,161 (65% female) adults from Italy (41.1%), Spain (15.7%), the United Kingdom (UK) (12.0%), Lithuania (11.6%), Portugal (10.5%), Japan (5.5%), and Hungary (3.5%). The mean age was 35.05 years ( SD = 12.10). Overall, 4.3% of the participants were found to engage in excessive or problematic exercise with peaks registered in the UK (11.0%) and Spain (5.4%). The sample reported the use of a wide range of drugs and medicines to boost image and performance (28%) and maintained use during the lockdown, mostly in Hungary (56.6%), Japan (46.8%), and the UK (33.8%), with 6.4% who started to use a new drug. Significant appearance anxiety levels were found across the sample, with 18.1% in Italy, 16.9% in Japan, and 16.7% in Portugal. Logistic regression models revealed a strong association between physical exercise and IPED use. Anxiety about appearance also significantly increased the probability of using IPEDs. However, self-compassion did not significantly predict such behavior. Anxiety about appearance and self-compassion were non-significant predictors associated with engaging in physical exercise. Discussion and Conclusion: This study identified risks of problematic exercising and appearance anxiety among the general population during the COVID-19 lockdown period across all the participating countries with significant gender differences. Such behaviors were positively associated with the unsupervised use of IPEDs, although no interaction between physical exercise and appearance anxiety was observed. Further considerations are needed to explore the impact of socially restrictive measures among vulnerable groups, and the implementation of more targeted responses.
... Our results showed that BMI and social media use functioned as predictors of social influence difference between genders and generations. Also, considering the fact that social media use has been associated with mental health issues (Barry et al., 2017;O'Reilly et al., 2018), eating (Mabe, Forney, & Keel, 2014) and body image disorders (Perloff, 2014;Rodgers & Melioli, 2016), we consider that studying population with these pathologies is a matter of importance. Finally, this study only included people from Argentina, and considering previous studies that found differences between cultures in body ideal internalization (Ricciardelli et al., 2007;Lee et al., 2014), a multicenter study comparing different cultures would be of interest. ...
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One of the consequences of the pandemic is that throughout 2020 virtual interactions largely replaced face-to-face interactions. Though there are few studies of how social media impacts body image perception across genders, research suggests that socializing through a virtual self-body image might have distinct implications for men and women. On an online study, we examined whether type of social pressure and body-ideal exert distinct pressures on members of the X, Y, and Z generations. Results showed media pressure affected body image satisfaction significantly more than other kinds of social pressure across genders and generations, with young males reporting a higher impact compared to older males. Males experienced more pressure to be muscular and women to be thin, especially for the younger generation.Future research should focus on social media as a potential intervention tool for the detection and prevention of body image disorders in both young female and male adults.
... The eight-item Selfie Practices Scale was developed for the current study to assess participants' selfie practices, including behaviors and cognitions identified in prior studies, such as investment in one's appearance in selfies, use of filters and photo editing apps, importance of receiving likes and feedback, and concern about peers' perceptions of one's selfies (Brown et al., 1990;Mabe et al., 2014;McLean et al., 2015). See Table 1 for full item list. ...
Article
Sharing "selfies" on social media is common among adolescents. The frequency with which adolescents post selfies may be less important than behaviors and cognitions underlying selfie-posting, and these practices may differ by gender. This multi-method study explored selfie practices in a school-based sample of 639 adolescents (M age=17.6; 53.5% female). Participants completed self-report measures of selfie practices, body esteem, depressive symptoms, and peer behaviors. In addition, a subset of participants' social media pages (n = 245) were observationally-coded for numbers of selfies, followers, and likes. Factor analyses revealed two distinct selfie practices: selfie appearance investment and selfie peer feedback concern. Girls posted selfies more frequently, and reported greater levels of appearance investment and concern over peer feedback on selfies compared to boys. Multiple group structural equation models indicated that for boys and girls, selfie appearance investment was associated with depressive symptoms. For girls only, selfie peer feedback concern was associated with excessive reassurance-seeking and lower body esteem. No associations were revealed between observationally-coded measures of selfie-posting frequency and psychosocial outcomes. Overall, findings suggest that frequency of selfie-posting may be less relevant for understanding adolescent adjustment than investment in and concern over the selfie-posting experience.
... The main issues discussed in this set of papers are the exposure of users to social content and the influence of time spent on social media itself, with most of the studies highlighting a potential negative (or mixed) effect on consumers. Mabe et al. (2014) identified cross-sectional and temporal associations between Facebook use and disordered eating. Similarly, other studies point to a link between social media use (e.g. the amount of time spent on Facebook, the number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into day-to-day life) and eating disorders and unhealthy eating behaviours, including skipping of meals and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (Eckler et al., 2016;Sampasa-Kanyinga et al., 2015;Sidani et al., 2016;Tang & Koh, 2017;Walker et al., 2015). ...
Article
Background Academic interest in the use of social media data is rapidly increasing. The application of social media analysis in various domains is an emerging trend due to a massive volume of available data, accessibility, and interaction. Food is often a protagonist of the posting activity on social networks; however, the analysis of social media use in relation to food is still limited. Scope and approach The dual purpose of this systematic review was, firstly, to provide an overview of the existing literature about the phenomenon of food in social media, in order to identify the role of the consumer, the interlocutors of the message, and the type of content conveyed. Secondly, evaluate the impact of social media use, and understand whether the access to social media content can affect consumer knowledge, awareness of healthy food choices, or drive consumers towards unhealthy food practices. Key findings and conclusions Studies can be classified according to two types of communication flow, named from (consumer as the sender of a message) and to consumers (consumer as a receiver). Content analysis outlined four main categories: user-generated content, information measures and risk communication, digital marketing and exposure. Our results revealed a dual nature of social media use in relation to food: a virtuous one, leading to an increase in consumer knowledge and information, and a bad one, which tends to change individual behaviours in the direction of unhealthy food consumption practices.
... Social media has also facilitated the interaction of diverse behaviours, making it easier for role models to impart societal concepts of body ideals [6,7]. Initially the body image research was focused on Facebook use, since this was the first social media platform [8,9]. More detailed examinations of Facebook have deemed that it was not merely the duration of time an individual spends on the site, but the amount of time spend on photo-related activities that correlate with body image concerns [10]. ...
Article
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The increasingly popular #fitspiration community on Instagram aims to promote body positivity and inspire health in its followers. However, fitspiration accounts often endorse unattainable, overly fit body ideals. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of viewing fitspiration photos on body image and fit-ideal internalisation. We compared 109 British students’ (18–50 years-old) responses on state self-esteem, mood satisfaction, body satisfaction and fit-ideal internalisation before and after viewing fitspiration photos. Online questionnaires exposed students to either five male or five female fitspiration photos, respectively for their given gender. Photos were sourced from public Instagram accounts. This study also examined the influence age and Instagram usage have on body image. Exposure to fitspiration photos produced a significant reduction in state self-esteem, mood satisfaction and fit-ideal internalisation, but had no significant influence on body satisfaction. Age had no effect on body image; however, gender impacted mood satisfaction and fit-ideal internalisation. Instagram usage influenced fit-ideal internalisation, with specific Instagram factors, such as how the importance of a photo’s “likes” were negatively associated with state self-esteem, mood and body satisfaction. Unexpectedly, Instagram frequency use and posting were related to higher levels of state self-esteem. Detailed explanations of the findings and potential future research opportunities are also discussed.
... This has been especially important in discussing the super body that, "fills a particular place in the construction of fantasies that go beyond gender stereotypes: often they take a stereotype and push it into the absurd or even the surreal" (Salter & Blodgett, 2017, p. 110). Thus, super bodies pose a serious problem as findings indicate that societal values projected through media, such as the consumption of traditionally muscular superheroes, harms body image of those who consume them (Ferguson, 2018;Teo & Collinson, 2018;Mabe et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Hegemony entails a presumption of social dominance of one group over another, and masculinity refers to the behavior of men. These terms together suggest that there is a “culturally normative” idea of “what a man should act like,” and men who do not adhere to this idea become subordinate masculinities (Connell, 1995). Scholarly literature has often featured arguments that comic book representations of masculinity have negative overtones by privileging whiteness and “macho” hegemonic masculinities over more realistic representations. There has also been a pernicious preoccupation with linking violence and masculine comic book characters together. Subsequently, the portrayal of hegemonic masculinity in the comic book world, especially that of superheroes, has become an important field of inquiry, making Fables an appropriate text to analyze. The framework suggested in this chapter is a tool which focuses on the use of violence as a marker of Western hegemonic masculinity, a gendered violence against any identity which does not conform to hegemony, and how critique can break this down in the classroom.
... Being exposed to pro-ED content or "fitspiration" content (media content aimed to inspire towards fitness activity or a fit body ideal) or regular popular social media (which often contain dieting, fitness, or other-appearance-focused content) as opposed to neutral conditions (e.g., viewing travel images or spending time reading encyclopedia entries online) seems to bear a degree of risk towards the development of mood and self-esteem difficulties that fuels EDs. Those experimental conditions were tested to show the "PUI condition" associating stronger with lower appearance self-esteem [25] and higher ED symptomatology [26][27][28][29]; those with appearance comparison traits were more prone to low mood effects from exposure to social media [30,31] . Another important aspect of engaging with the online content is the exposure to manipulated content, as this has the potential of creating unrealistic expectations of appearance and beauty. ...
Article
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Purpose of review: We aimed to accrue recent evidence exploring effects of modern online activities (e.g. Internet use) on feeding and eating disorder symptoms, and related traits. We examined available evidence to ascertain any direct influences from online activities on feeding and eating disorders, thereby shedding light on putative mechanisms by which those influences may occur. Recent findings: Many facets of problematic usage of the internet correlate cross sectionally with eating disorder and related psychopathology. There is evidence to suggest that significant effects do exist in the direction of specific internet activities contributing to eating disorder symptoms, viewed dimensionally. Putative mechanisms are discussed. However a significant number of eating disorder phenotypes and internet-related activities remain under-researched. Summary: Specific facets of engagement with the online environment appear to confer risk for feeding and eating problems, evidence being strongest for non-clinical studies using dimensional measures. More research is required to rigorously confirm causal effects, including in patients meeting formal diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. We also highlight the need for high quality evidence to explore how eating disorder phenotypes are commonly as well as uniquely affected by different online activities. Such research is needed in order that scientific understanding in this area can be translated to protect those most at risk of disordered eating, including through changes in public health approaches and clinical practice. <br/
... Similarly, a study by Mabe, Forney, and Keel (2014) examined women who were either randomly assigned to browse Facebook images, or an alternative site, for a designated period of 20 minutes. They discovered that those who used Facebook demonstrated higher associations with eating disorder-related concerns than those who used the alternative website. ...
Thesis
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The prevalence of social media use in modern society has led to increased imagery viewing, which can impact female body image satisfaction levels and subsequent eating disordered behavior. Social media imagery was examined in this study to determine the impact that it has on body image constructs and to discover approaches that will help to lower the likelihood of eating-disordered behavior occurrence. The research ascertained interesting personal perspectives and experiences regarding body image, based on phenomenological one-on-one interviews with 13 active women participants between the ages of 18 and 49. Results indicated that active females believe that social media imagery affects one’s body image in both positive and negative ways, depending on the types of imagery viewed, with "thinspirational" photos eliciting feelings of empathy and sadness, and "fitspirational" images evoking feelings of motivation and empowerment. Heightened levels of body image satisfaction were found after viewing "fitspirational" images, and social comparison tactics were utilized, which aligned with the theoretical framework of the study. Findings and conclusions demonstrate that psychological factors are affected when users interact within a sphere of optimized ideals. In addition, the data suggests the need for future examinations of motives related to social comparison and their effect on body image constructs, interventions such as warning label and advisory messages, and educational models centered around social media advantages and disadvantages.
... Moreover, people not only pay attention to the photo they choose to display online but also to the specific poses they take (Ellison et al., 2007). As popular forms of social media, correlational research on social networking sites has demonstrated that social networking site use is associated with internalization of beauty ideals, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating (Fardouly & Vartanian, 2015;Mabe et al., 2014;Meier & Gray, 2014). ...
Article
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Facebook has become a worldwide phenomenon and is one of the greatest important means of communication between people. Given that teenagers and emerging adults are typically concerned with peer acceptance, physical appearance and the self-impressions they convey, they are active users of social networking sites (SNS) because these sites provide platforms for them to connect to their peers and facilitate identity construction and experimentation within a social context. The present study aims to address the gap about how teenagers and emerging adults in the Malaysian context present themselves by analysing the photos which they posted on Facebook and to examine online self-presentations in Facebook between teenager and emerging adults. A quantitative analysis (percentages of the representational and interactional meaning) and qualitative analysis was conducted on 200 images of teenagers and emerging adults, which were collected from 40 participants (5 images from each participant). The 40 participants who consisted of teenagers and emerging adults were selected based on gender, age, geographical location and Facebook access. Kress and van Leeuwen’s (1996, 2006) metafunctional framework was employed to analyse the photos. The results show that there are similarities and differences in terms of self-presentation. Teenagers and emerging adults posed differently, with regard to the shot, gaze and angle, the location of the photos, their actions in the photos, their position (position or placement of the participants in the photo) and the relation between the image background of the participants. This study also found that teenagers and emerging adults in Malaysia exhibit behaviors which can be considered universal based on the visual analysis of their online photos. An important contribution of this study is how culture and religion contribute to the types of photos and poses posted by both groups on Facebook.
... The systematic review conducted by Seabrook and her collaborators (2016), for example, suggested that research has not explicitly established whether the social networking use effect is beneficial or detrimental because it generally depends on the quality of the social factors within the online social networking environment. Finally, while many scholars suggested that social media use might enhance and maintain ED (e.g., Mabe et al., 2014) risk, some studies also suggested the importance of social media in the recovery process from ED. ...
Article
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Objective: In the current study, we explored the links between social networking activity, eating attitudes (EA), anxiety, and depression among adolescents. Design: We used a cross-sectional design. Methods and Main outcome: Our sample consisted of 532 males and females, aged 12 to 15 (M=13.55, SD=.90), from the Eastern side of Romania. We analyzed our data using three different pathways to explore these relationships on the overall sample, as well as the at-risk for eating disorders (ED) group (N = 134), and the non-ED-risk (N = 398) samples. Results: The results suggested that depressive and anxiety symptoms partially mediated the relationship between social networking and eating attitudes in the overall group and in the not-at-risk for ED group, but not in the at-risk for ED sample. When controlling for gender, social networking use partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and eating attitudes in the overall group and the not-at-risk for ED group, and a total mediating effect within this relationship in the at-risk ED sample was also found. In adolescents with symptoms of potential ED, social networking use seemed to have a protective role compared to the not-at-risk sample. Conclusion: The present research suggested that social networking use might increase the chances of developing unhealthy eating attitudes in adolescents who are not-at risk to develop an eating disorder, but, at the same time, it might play a protective role (instead of a harmful one) for adolescents who already developed such symptoms. Results are discussed concerning their clinical and practical implication for adolescents' physical and mental health, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the potential protective role of social media use for adolescents with ED symptoms.
... Research has shown that teens engaging with body image content on social media (SM) that idealizes thinness may be more likely to suffer from eating or body image concerns, and some studies have linked increased SM use with ED risk [13], pointing to the crucial role of this media in the formation of these concerns [14][15][16]. This is concerning, as 97% of teens report use of at least one SM platform, including YouTube, Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, or Reddit [17]. ...
Article
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(1) Background: The current study leveraged social media to connect with teens with EDs to identify population specific characteristics and to gather feedback on an mHealth intervention. (2) Methods: We recruited teens with EDs from social media in two phases: (1) Discovery Group, (2) Testing Group. The Discovery Group (n = 14) participants were recruited from Facebook/Instagram and were asked to review the app for up to one week and provide qualitative feedback. After incorporating feedback from the Discovery Group, we refined our social media outreach methods to connect with 30 teens with EDs to pilot this mobile app. Recruitment from a variety of platforms on social media was successful, with the majority of enrolled participants in the Testing Group coming from Snapchat (60%) and a large percentage of participants belonging to gender and sexual minority groups (63%). (3) Results: Participants from both groups experienced extremely high rates of depression (100% Discovery, 90% Testing) and/or anxiety symptoms (100% Discovery, 93% Testing) in addition to ED symptoms, and noted this as a possible barrier to app engagement. (4) Conclusion: Use of social media for recruitment of teens with EDs is feasible and may connect with groups who may be more difficult to reach using traditional recruitment methods. Among the Discovery Group there was high acceptability of and interest in an app to support ED recovery, and characteristics of both groups demonstrated need for support in other mental health domains. Future studies should evaluate the preliminary efficacy of such tools among teens to determine the effects of such interventions on ED symptoms and other mental health outcomes.
... Concerning the use of SNs, for some years, the positive correlations between the use of SNs and EDs among younger people have been corroborated (Hummel & Smith, 2015;Mabe et al., 2014). (Rodgers et al., 2020). ...
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Eating disorders are mental health illnesses that are influenced by various individual, family and social factors. The present study aimed to examine the influence of self‐esteem and socialisation through social networks on eating disorder behaviours in adolescence. The sample was made up of 721 secondary school students (49.1% girls). The sample age ranged between 12 and 18 years (M = 13.89, SD = 1.37). Participants completed the Eating Attitudes Test‐26 (EAT‐26) to measure disordered eating attitudes and behaviours, the Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale and the ESOC‐39 scale, which measures socialisation through social networks, in addition to a brief initial sociodemographic survey. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were carried out with MANOVA. Low self‐esteem was shown to increase behaviours linked to eating disorders globally. Likewise, high socialisation through social networks was also associated with a general increase in eating disorders during adolescence. The findings of the study provide empirical support for the need to develop prevention strategies that address the improvement in self‐esteem and adequate socialisation through social networks during adolescence. The development of effective interventions along these lines could be helpful to treat the behaviours and attitudes that are observed in eating disorders.
... TV exposure was not always directly negative for eating disorder symptoms [26]. Recent social media or internet use affects obesity and eating disorders [27][28][29][30][31]. However, there is a lack of research on the potential impact of eating broadcasts on eating behaviors. ...
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Recently, there has been a notable rise in binge drinking and in the popularity of eating broadcasts via TV and online platforms, especially in Korea. This study analyzed the moderating effect of the eating broadcast viewing experience on the relationship between binge drinking and obesity-related eating behaviors. Cross-sectional self-reported online survey data were collected from 1125 Korean adults. Moderation models for restrained, emotional, and external eating behaviors were tested using moderation analyses with Hayes’s PROCESS version 3.5 compatible with SPSS. As a result, the eating broadcast viewing experience moderated the relationship between binge drinking frequency and external eating (Fchange = 2.686, p = 0.045). More frequent binge drinking was associated with a higher level of external eating in participants who only watched online eating broadcasts, especially among women. Participants in their twenties showed the same above association; additionally, those who only watched TV eating broadcasts showed an inverse association, indicating that more frequent binge drinking was associated with a lower level of external eating. Consequently, an eating broadcast viewing experience was one of the environmental factors associated with binge drinking that influences obesity-related eating behaviors.
... In this regard, EDs are viewed not just as eating disturbances and body image problems, but as complex responses to environmental, sociocultural, and political stressors [30]. There is a growing empirical foundation supporting sociocultural and environmental factors as aetiological features of EDs [12,13,29,31,[37][38][39]. Feminist and sociocultural perspectives have contributed to the basis of several prevention programs targeted at the sociocultural influences impacting eating behaviours and body image [29,40]. ...
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Plain English Summary Eating disorders can result from a variety of factors including previous trauma and sociocultural influences. Critical feminist perspectives acknowledge these influences are core contributing factors to the development and maintenance of eating disorder behaviours and postulate the exploration of the eating disorder in relation to these wider factors as crucial to the treatment process. Therefore, treatment interventions that utilise feminist frameworks and approaches that are integrative of a variety of psychological therapies to suit individual needs may be useful to address underlying factors while also managing eating disorder behaviours. However, there have been few experimental studies that have evaluated these interventions. This article aims to address this gap in current eating disorder literature by describing and evaluating the effectiveness of a counselling therapy for eating disorders that employs feminist practice and a variety of psychological therapies. The results indicate that eating disorder symptoms, stress, and mental health recovery improved after 10 sessions of the counselling intervention for a sample of 80 participants receiving eating disorder treatment. The results from this study provide initial evidence for the usefulness of feminist-informed practice and individualised counselling interventions for the treatment of eating disorders.
... Accordingly, users who spend more time on Facebook are rather in favor of the slimming ideal and are less satisfied with their own bodies (Fardouly & Vartanian, 2015;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). Also, eating disorders are more likely to occur in this group (Mabe, Forney, & Keel, 2014). Even the number of Facebook friends seems to be related to the desire for a slim body (Kim & Chock, 2015;Tiggemann & Slater, 2013). ...
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Die vorliegende Studie befasst sich mit der Veränderung der Selbstwahrnehmung durch soziale Vergleichsprozesse im medialen Umfeld. Untersucht wird die Wirkung sogenannter Fitspiration-Bilder auf die physische Selbstwahrnehmung sowie das Selbstbewusstsein. Theoretisch baut die Arbeit auf der Theorie des Sozialen Vergleichs nach Festinger sowie den Besonderheiten computervermittelter Kommunikation über soziale Netzwerke auf. Das Genre Fitspiration umfasst insbesondere Fotografien sportlicher Menschen, die entweder einer entsprechenden Aktivität nachgehen oder lediglich posieren. Betrachter sollen dazu angeregt werden, durch Bewegung und gesunde Ernährung ein positiveres Körperbild sowie einen vernünftigen Lebensstil zu erreichen. Ursprünglich soll das Material der Idealisierung einer schlanken physischen Erscheinung entgegenstehen. Eine Betrachtung einschlägiger Forschung legt jedoch nahe, dass die Bilder bisherigen innerhalb der Massenmedien postulierten Idealen sehr ähnlich sind. Sie könnten daher lediglich einen, um den Aspekt der Muskularität ergänzten, Aufwärtsvergleich verursachen. Die konkreten bisherigen Forschungsergebnisse gehen teilweise weit auseinander, was gegebenenfalls auf die Rahmenbedingungen, das Stimulusmaterial und die diversen Methodiken der einzelnen Studien zurückzuführen ist. Innerhalb der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde daher neues Stimulusmaterial erstellt, das weitestgehend frei von Störvariablen ist. Zwei Vorstudien dienten der Feststellung erster Trends sowie der Bewertung des generierten Bildmaterials. Die Hauptstudie besteht aus einer Kombination von Befragungen und Eyetracking Experiment. Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Arbeit stehen der bisherigen Forschung in großen Teilen entgegen. Es fällt auf, dass die Veränderungen der physischen Selbstwahrnehmung sowie des Selbstbewusstseins im Durchschnitt positiv ist – wenn auch mit kleinen Effektstärken. Im Sinne der Theorie des Sozialen Vergleichs kann bestätigt werden, dass in erster Linie die Probanden von Veränderungen betroffen sind, die die Models attraktiv fanden. Als weitere relevante Variablen bei der Frage, wer von den Fitspiration-Bildern beeinflusst wird, stechen der eigene BMI sowie das Alter der Probanden hervor. Es ergeben sich, trotz einiger Limitationen, interessante Ansatzpunkte für weiterführende Forschung.
... Indeed, the relationship between social media usage and body image concerns has been documented in many cross-sectional and correlational studies (see Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016, for a review). But longitudinal and experimental studies yielded more varied results, with some showing no or little effect of social media usage (e.g., Fardouly, Diedrichs, Vartanian & Halliwell, 2015;Mabe, Forney & Keel, 2014). Some researchers have suggested that these findings might be in part due to the relatively short duration of exposure typically used in such studies (Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016). ...
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The mass media portrayal of a muscular body type ideal has been increasingly tied to men's body image dissatisfaction. We examined the role of self-determination theory's intrinsic life goals within this body image ideal and its potential as a moderator of this dissatisfaction. We first tested the moderating effect of intrinsic life goals on the link between magazine consumption and body image dissatisfaction via an online questionnaire (Study 1; N = 826), then experimentally manipulated these goals and exposure to images of muscular male models (Study 2; N = 150). A robust protective effect of intrinsic goals on body image satisfaction was observed - the relationship between magazine consumption and body image dissatisfaction was only significant among individuals with a lower level of intrinsic life goal orientation. When participants' intrinsic goals were momentarily heightened, they reported significantly less body image dissatisfaction, compared to those not receiving a strengthening of these goals. The results are the first to find a protective effect of intrinsic life goals on men's body image, and have important implications for intervention.
... Moreover, social media use is particularly interesting due to the known influence of peers on social comparison. In fact, current social networking sites use (SNS) appears increasingly based upon visual content sharing that may increase physical appearance comparison (Clerkin et al., 2013;Hummel & Smith, 2015), with greater attentiveness to evaluation cues and photo comments/sharing (Mabe et al., 2014). Indeed, SNS users are more likely to engage in increased appearance-based comparisons and self-objectification (Cohen et al., 2017), which are consequently associated with body shame and lower self-esteem (Hanna et al., 2017). ...
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Objective: According to the objectification framework, media pressure toward body models promotes the internalization of beauty ideals that negatively influence individuals' body image and self-esteem. Historically, women have been the main target of sociocultural pressures. However, research has recently suggested that self-objectification is a male phenomenon as well, which can be inscribed in men's body experiences. Nevertheless, fewer studies have specifically focused on the male experience and general consequences of body-objectification are yet to be extensively analyzed regarding males' body image features. The current cross-sectional study explores the consequences of body-objectification on male body esteem, specifically testing the predictive role of exercising/dietary habits, body-objectification features, and SNS-related practices on male body esteem. Method: A total of 238 male participants (mean age = 24.28 years, SD = 4.32) have been involved in an online survey. Three hierarchical analyses were performed to test the influence of objectified body consciousness and social networking-related experiences (i.e. Instagram intensity use, photo manipulation, selfie feedback investment) on young men's body esteem with specific reference to the weight, appearance, and attribution features of the Body Esteem Scale. Results: Findings highlighted that body shame played an interesting key role, influencing negatively all the body esteem dimensions, thus highlighting that attention needs to be deserved on this feature of OBC regarding males' experience. On the contrary, appearance control-related dimensions positively influenced body esteem. Overall, findings confirmed that objectification theory can adequately mark a pathway by which media imagery is internalized also by men and may negatively affect their body esteem. Conclusions: Despite some limitations, this study may contribute to enlarging our knowledge on male body image and self-objectification experience and support literature shattering the stereotype that body dissatisfaction is a "female-exclusive" issue. Likewise, beyond some questioning positions, these findings also encourage further exploration of a healthier "control dimension", including body appearance-related activities and beliefs.
... countless advantages of using social media, including social support (LaRose et al. 2001), or a feeling of perceived belonging (Seabrook et al. 2016;Mackson et al. 2019), most research to date tends to emphasise the potentially negative consequences associated with frequent or excessive social media use. These include, for example, addictive or problematic use (Blackwell et al. 2017), anxiety and depression (Seabrook et al. 2016;Vannucci et al. 2017;Shensa et al. 2018), weight or shape concerns and increased risk of body image issues and eating disorders (Tiggemann and Slater 2013;Mabe et al. 2014) or frequent social comparison (Seabrook et al. 2016). ...
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This chapter explores the convoluted relation between loneliness, body image issues and disordered eating in young people and its association with excessive social media use. Combining findings from a review of the main existing theoretical frameworks with a qualitative analysis of data collected between 2017 and 2019 from 241 participants the chapter argues for an expansion of Rodgers’ (Adolescent Research Review 1 (2): 131, 2016) integrated theoretical model to include loneliness as a predictor for social media use and an aggravating factor for those at risk of developing an eating disorder. This is the first cross-sectional study to explore the effects of SNS use on loneliness and disordered eating behaviours (emotional eating, bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction) in British young adults (18–24 years of age).
... Even when not maliciously intended, images displayed on SM can increase the risk of significant negative consequences in all areas of emotional, mental, and physical health, including an increased risk of EDs and mood disorders (Kwon, 2020). The use of SM combines two influences, on the one hand, the media and, on the other hand, group pressure, promoting a negative body image and requiring social-health intervention and prevention programs for possible EDs (Mabe et al., 2014). ...
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The relationship between socialization through social media (SM) and eating disorders (EDs) is a serious problem for public health, largely affecting the mental health of younger people. This work aimed to identify scientific works addressing ED psychopathologies, studying their relationship with SM usage. In this systematic review, we analyze the available scientific evidence, thereby providing tools for intervention, prevention, and treatment. A systematic review and PRISMA analysis of narrative syntheses was carried out. Works were selected from the databases of Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and PsycINFO. Out of a total of 257 references, 19 articles were identified and selected; among them, correlational studies predominated. A growing interest in the subject matter was identified, as it is undergoing constant changes. The investigations found that EDs and SM usage are influenced by the time spent on SM, the type of interactions, and shared photographs, as well as gender and sociocultural context.
... However, prior experimental studies have also reported inconsistent findings. In comparing the effects of female undergraduates spending 20 minutes browsing either their Facebook or an appearance-neutral website, Mabe et al. (2014) reported no significant difference in participants' preoccupation with weight and shape. But other studies involving female undergraduates (Brown & Tiggemann, 2016;Tiggemann & Zaccardo, 2015) found that exposure to "fitspiration" images on Instagram (i.e., images featuring women exercising or wearing fitness clothing) and exposure to Instagram images featuring attractive celebrities and unknown peers led to significant increases in body dissatisfaction and negative mood. ...
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Research has suggested that Instagram is detrimental to one’s body image and health, as a result of its image-driven nature and the social comparisons that are commonly made between users’ bodies and the bodies they see portrayed. This study was designed to provide a better understanding of the effects of thin and fat body types portrayed in Instagram posts. This was done by examining how such body type portrayals influence attention to the posts, in addition to influencing outcomes such as body dissatisfaction and appearance management behavioral intentions. A total of 309 college students viewed 30 Instagram posts in an online experiment with a 2 (portrayed body type: thin vs. fat) X 15 (message repetition) within-subjects design. The findings indicate that thin-body portrayals increase audience self-reported attention to the posts and state body dissatisfaction, but female users who self-perceive themselves as fat report a similar level of attention to the posts regardless of portrayed body types. Additionally, Instagram use (defined as the number of photos users personally post) is found to moderate the effects of the body portrayals.
Article
La imagen corporal positiva presenta una función protectora preeminente ante los medios de comunicación actuales, sin embargo, a la fecha no se cuenta con estudios que la vinculen con las redes sociales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la asociación entre la motivación y usos de redes sociales y la imagen corporal positiva, considerando diferencias por sexo y grupos de edad. La muestra contó con 180 participantes, 94 varones (52.2 %) y 86 mujeres (47.8 %), edades de 18 a 65 años (M = 31.03; DE = 13.34). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el BAS-2 y una encuesta sobre redes sociales. La imagen corporal positiva presentó asociación negativa con dos escalas de la motivación para usar redes sociales. La imagen corporal positiva y uso activo, por un lado, y la motivación de búsqueda y mantenimiento de vínculos sociales, por otro, presentaron mayor correlación en el grupo de mujeres y nativos digitales, respectivamente.
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The pandemic resulted in increased use of videoconferencing. This study investigated whether Appearance-Related Anxiety, Videoconferencing Appearance-Focused Behaviours, and Weekly Videoconferencing Time contributed to state body dissatisfaction in 191 community Australians. Results indicated moderate to strong positive correlations between the three constructs, a weak negative correlation for weekly video time, although no correlation for total week video time. The three constructs predicted state body dissatisfaction when controlling for age and gender and Appearance Related Anxiety mediated Videoconferencing Appearance-Focused Behaviours and body dissatisfaction. The impact of videoconference communication on body dissatisfaction is discussed.
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Despite binge eating being important to public health, no recent reviews have been conducted to produce a comprehensive synthesis of current literature on the relationship between social media use and binge eating. The aims of this review were: (1) to standardize the measurement of social media use in recent research, (2) to identify eating types that include binge‐eating concepts, and (3) to identify the relationships between social media use and binge eating. This is an integrative review of studies conducted from 2016 to 2021 on binge eating and social media use. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science; eight studies were included in this integrative review. Included studies found direct or indirect effects of social media use on binge eating. The more participants use social media, the more likely they are to have increased appetite or intention to eat, which can lead to binge eating. The recent binge‐eating studies indicated a significant relationship between social media use and binge eating. Interventions for binge eating should be developed with an understanding of individuals’ social media use.
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Hintergrund: Die Anorexia nervosa (AN) ist eine psychische Erkrankung, die häufig chronisch oder auch lebensgefährlich verläuft. Die 12-Jahres-Letalität ist mit ca. 10 % höher als bei Depression und Schizophrenie (Herpertz et al., 2011). Die Behandlung der AN ist komplex und es existieren bisher nicht ausreichend genug kontrollierte Studien (Herpertz-Dahlmann et al., 2015), so dass die Behandlungsempfehlungen in den meisten Fällen auf der breiten klinischen Meinung basieren (Herpertz-Dahlmann et al., 2015). Zu den häufigsten Symptomen der AN zählen neben dem selbst herbeigeführten Untergewicht (BMI unter 17.5) auch hormonelle Störungen sowie eine Störung des Körperbilds. Letzteres ist eines der Hauptsymptome der AN. Der Zusammenhang zwischen einem negativen Körperbild und einem gestörten Essverhalten kann in mehreren Studien nachgewiesen werden (Cash & Pruzinsky, 1990; Cash & Smolank, 2012). Die Körperbildstörung ist ein wesentlicher Ansatzpunkt für die Psychotherapie der AN (Legenbauer & Vocks, 2014; Vocks & Legenbauer, 2010). Die Möglichkeiten der datenbasierten Erfassung der individuellen Einflüsse auf das Körperbild werden bisher kaum erforscht, auch nicht, um diese Daten in eine personalisierte Behandlung einzubringen. In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird ein Körperbildmodell entwickelt, welches individuelle Einflüsse auf das Körperbild bei AN erfasst, um daraus einen personalisierten Körperbildscore zu berechnen. Diese Arbeit bewegt sich dabei im Schnittfeld von Psychologie und Informatik und greift zum erweiterten Verständnis des Körperbilds bei AN ebenso auf philosophische Diskurse zurück. Das Körperbild wird auf Basis dieser Ergebnisse für die vorliegende Arbeit nicht nur als Symptom, sondern als (eine mögliche) Ursache einer AN betrachtet. Methode: Auf Basis der wissenschaftlichen Literatur wird zunächst ein Modell zu den Einflüssen auf das Körperbild bei AN entwickelt und für die einzelnen Einflussgrößen die Berechnung des personalisierten Körperbildscores anhand eines Werts im Bereich zwischen 0-100 vorgenommen (in Anlehnung an eine T-Wert Skala). Die Berechnung der Scores der Einflussgrößen sowie im Ergebnis des Körperbildscores erfolgt mittels normalisierter gewichteter Summen unter Verwendung eines eigenen Algorithmus. Das Modell wird anschließend einer zweistufigen Plausibilitätsprüfung unterzogen: Die erste Überprüfung erfolgt anhand von 3 Biografien Betroffener einer AN, indem mittels qualitativer Inhaltsanalyse (κ = 1) teilsynthetische Fälle zur Berechnung eines Körperbildscores auf Basis des erstellten Körperbildmodells abgeleitet werden. Daran schließen sich zur zweiten Überprüfung 4 vollstrukturierte Interviews mit Expertinnen und Experten aus dem Bereich der Psychotherapie für eine klinische Urteilsbildung an. Körperbildmodell Anorexia nervosa. Auf Grundlage eines eigenen Fragebogens, welcher die Einflussfaktoren des entwickelten Körperbildmodells verkürzt abfragt, geben die Expertinnen und Experten in den Interviews insgesamt 6 Fälle von Betroffenen an. Zu jedem Fall erfolgt eine Schätzung des Körperbildscores, welchen der Algorithmus berechnen müsste. Die anschließende Berechnung der Fälle zur Modellüberprüfung beinhaltet ebenfalls den Vergleich der Angaben zum Körperbildscore der Expertinnen und Experten zum Ergebnis des Algorithmus. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt 9 Einflussfaktoren auf das Körperbild wurden anhand der gesichteten Literatur identifiziert, welche sich auch gegenseitig beeinflussen können und jeweils eigene Abhängigkeiten besitzen. Die Überprüfungen der Plausibilität des entwickelten Körperbildmodells und Algorithmus anhand der 3 ausgewerteten Biografien von Betroffenen einer AN und den 6 Fällen, basierend auf den Angaben von Expertinnen und Experten, zeigen, dass die Ergebnisse des Modells in Form eines Körperbildscores plausibel sind. Es findet jeweils die richtige Zuordnung eines negativen, durchschnittlichen oder positiven Körperbilds statt. In 3 Fällen der Expertinnen und Experten stimmte die Berechnung mit dem vermuteten Körperbildscore überein, in 3 Fällen beträgt die Differenz eine Standardabweichung (weit unterdurchschnittliches Körperbild vs. unterdurchschnittliches Körperbild). Das Körperbildmodell kann die angenommenen individuellen Einflüsse auf das Körperbild bei Betroffenen einer AN berechnen und mittels personalisierten Körperbildscore zwischen einem negativen, durchschnittlichen oder positiven Körperbild unterscheiden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird daher die Machbarkeit der Entwicklung und Berechnung eines datenbasierten Körperbildmodells und in der Folge eines individuellen Körperbildscores gezeigt. Ausblick: Das entwickelte Körperbildmodell kann als eine Grundlage für die Reflexion des individuellen Verlaufs einer AN in der psychotherapeutischen Behandlung verwendet und weiterentwickelt werden. Diskutiert wird in diesem Zusammenhang die Unterstützung von Verstehensprozessen in der Behandlung des Körperbilds bei AN anhand datenbasierter Erkenntnisse sowie die Grenzen des hier gewählten Ansatzes. Weitere Forschung sollte die Weiterentwicklung des Körperbildmodells in Form eines Machine Learning (ML) Ansatzes beinhalten, um diesen in einer klinischen Studie zu überprüfen.
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The authors conducted a study to examine women’s body dissatisfaction, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalization in relation to exposure to social networking sites. Additionally, women’s body dissatisfaction, social comparison, thin-ideal internalization, and exposure to social networking sites were examined in relation to their ethnic backgrounds. A survey was completed by 725 females enrolled in undergraduate programs at California State University. Participants showed higher body dissatisfaction, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalization if they were more exposed to social media sites. Differences were also found based on ethnic backgrounds; results showed that African American and Middle Eastern/Arab women’s body satisfaction was not as low as that of white and Asian women.
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Social platforms aggravate social appearance anxiety (SAA). Therefore, identifying groups with high levels of SAA on social media is critical. Psychological indicator classification and modelling by using social media data can be performed without intrusion. Furthermore, accurate psychological portrayal of social desirability can be obtained using social media data. The study extracted 9 Weibo features related to SAA based on theoretical basis. A support vector machine was used to establish a relationship between the Weibo user data and SAA scale. The results revealed that the accuracy (ACC) of using the activity history of Weibo users to identify SAA was approximately 73.8%. The high-ACC automatic classification of users' SAA can be directly accomplished by analysing users' social media behaviour data. The results of the study can be used to distinguish for SAA and help users develop a positive and reasonable body image.
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Introduction: Anabolic androgenic steroid use is an uncommon but important cause of male infertility. As paternal age and anabolic steroid use increases, providers are more likely than ever to encounter men with infertility and prior or concurrent anabolic steroid use. In this review, we outline the background, epidemiology and pathophysiology of anabolic steroid induced male infertility and provide recommendations regarding the diagnosis, management, and future prevention of this condition. Areas covered: Male reproductive physiology is a tightly regulated process that can be influenced by exogenous sources such as anabolic steroids and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Data suggest that a combination of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) may lead to spermatogenesis recovery. Expert opinion: Anabolic steroid and SARM users continue to exhibit lack of understanding regarding the potential side effects of their use on male fertility. Current literature suggests that spermatogenesis can be safely recovered using a combination of SERMs, hCG, AIs and rFSH although additional studies are necessary. While anabolic steroid prevention strategies have largely been focused on the individual level, further investigation is necessary and should be approached in a socioecological manner.
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Transhumanism is a movement that explores the possibilities that arise from integrating technology in the human body. Neurostimulators and smart prosthetics are some of the technologies that may soon change the way Humans interact with their surrounding environment and enhance their well-being. The current paper presents a framework for stakeholder well-being through transhumanism and engagement-facilitating technologies on four major blocks, namely: reality-virtuality continuum as stimuli, from stimuli to adoption of transhumanism at individual level, stakeholder engagement and technologies at firm level and stakeholder well-being and technologies. Finally, we propose a future research agenda for exploring such changes in society.
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The role of traditional media (television and magazines) in creating eating disorder risk has long been a topic of discussion and research, but the proliferation of social media and rapid increase in the use of the Internet by adolescents generates new dynamics and new risks for the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Recent research describes the relationship between Internet and social media use and eating disorders risk, with the greatest associations found among youth with high levels of engagement and investment in photo-based activities and platforms. Here, we review different types of online content and how they are relevant to eating disorders and consider the theoretical frameworks predicting relationships between Internet and social media and eating disorders, before examining the empirical evidence for the risks posed by the online content in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. We describe proeating disorder content specifically and examine the research related to it; we then consider the implications of such content, highlight directions for future research, and discuss possible prevention and intervention strategies.
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The sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk of young athletes at competitive level is higher compared to non-athletes but sports are trigger in the presence of a cardiovascular anomaly rather than a risk factor itself. So, the pre-participation screening (PPS) is crucial but the health system in Turkey is still insufficient. It is important for that the coaches understand the importance of PPS and recognize the symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge of the coaches on SCD and PPS. This is a descriptive online-survey study for the youth league coaches in Turkey. At the end of the survey, a bullet-point type info sheath was provided to the participants. Knowledge of the participants were evaluated by true/false (T/F) and multiple-choice questions. Number of correct answers to 6 T/F questions is calculated as the T/F score and was a major outcome. Scores greater than 4 accepted as successful. Knowing the timing and frequency of PPS was the other major outcome. There were participants 335 from 47 cities and 22 branches (16.42% female, mean age was 36.56). 50.15% claimed being educated on the subject. Both the T/F score, and success rate in T/F questions were higher for coaches from universities other than sports sciences which is surprising (p=0.001). Correct answer rate for the timing and frequency of PPS was higher for the coaches who had further education after high school (p=0.016). Referral rate even for the cardiac symptoms such as chest pain was less than 90%. Referral to a physician for possibly risky symptoms is low, showing the lack of awareness. Knowledge is better for coaches’ form universities other than sports sciences. Education on SCD and PPS should be implemented at all stages of coach education and the higher education of the coaches should be supported.
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Three hundred and eighty-five girls ages 10 through 14 years were surveyed about eating behavior, body satisfaction, concern with being slender, and cues from parents, peers, and magazines in regard to weight management techniques and the importance of slenderness. A majority reported receiving a clear message from fashion magazines and peers or family members that slenderness is important and attainable through dieting and other methods. Two strong correlates of drive for thinness and disturbed patterns of eating were (a) reading magazines that contain information and ideas about an attractive body shape and about weight management, and (b) weight/shape-related teasing and criticism by family. This study indicates that body dissatisfaction and weight concerns reflect adoption of a socially approved female role. It also raises the possibility that some young adolescent girls live in a subculture of intense weight and body-shape concern that places them at risk for disordered eating behavior:
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Research supports both concurrent and prospective associations between peer behaviors and disordered eating levels in late adolescent and young adult men and women. However, no study has examined peer influence after a follow-up duration over which peer groups change dramatically. This study examined how college roommates' dieting predicted disordered eating levels in women (n = 566) and men (n = 233) at 10-year follow-up. For women, college roommates' dieting significantly predicted Eating Disorder Inventory Drive for Thinness and Bulimia scores and purging at 10-year follow-up. Findings highlight the potential for school-based, peer-led interventions to have long-term benefits in women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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To identify predictors of becoming eating disordered among adolescents. Prospective cohort study. Self-report questionnaires. Girls (n = 6916) and boys (n = 5618), aged 9 to 15 years at baseline, in the ongoing Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Main Exposures Parent, peer, and media influences. Onset of starting to binge eat or purge (ie, vomiting or using laxatives) at least weekly. During 7 years of follow-up, 4.3% of female subjects and 2.3% of male subjects (hereafter referred to as "females" and "males") started to binge eat and 5.3% of females and 0.8% of males started to purge to control their weight. Few participants started to both binge eat and purge. Rates and risk factors varied by sex and age group (<14 vs > or =14 years). Females younger than 14 years whose mothers had a history of an eating disorder were nearly 3 times more likely than their peers to start purging at least weekly (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-5.9); however, maternal history of an eating disorder was unrelated to risk of starting to binge eat or purge in older adolescent females. Frequent dieting and trying to look like persons in the media were independent predictors of binge eating in females of all ages. In males, negative comments about weight by fathers was predictive of starting to binge at least weekly. Risk factors for the development of binge eating and purging differ by sex and by age group in females. Maternal history of an eating disorder is a risk factor only in younger adolescent females.
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Research suggests that young men's body dissatisfaction increases when they see images of attractive muscular men. This article provides the first extensive review of experimental studies exposing men to advertisements or commercials featuring idealized male bodies. Impacts on body dissatisfaction were evaluated by calculating and analyzing effect sizes from 15 studies. The effect sizes indicate that exposure to images of idealized male bodies has a small but statistically significant negative impact on men's body dissatisfaction. Three studies suggest that young men who are dissatisfied with their bodies are at increased risk for negative self-evaluations when exposed to idealized images. Two studies suggest that men who are satisfied with their bodies may be protected against negative impacts from seeing such images.
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Previous research has found concurrent and prospective associations between negative mood and body dissatisfaction; however, only experimental research can establish causal relationships. This study utilized an experimental design to examine the influence of negative mood on body dissatisfaction. Undergraduate women were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Participants in the experimental condition (n=21) completed a negative mood induction procedure. Participants in the control condition (n=24) completed a neutral mood procedure. All participants completed visual analog scales regarding their mood and satisfaction with weight and shape before and after each manipulation. Body dissatisfaction increased following the procedure for experimental but not control participants, suggesting that negative mood caused increased body dissatisfaction. In cultures that idealize thinness, body dissatisfaction may arise from funneling general feelings of dysphoria into more concrete and culturally meaningful negative feelings about the body.
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We compared the prevalence and age of onset of adult and childhood anxiety disorders relative to the primary diagnosis in 68 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 116 women with bulimia nervosa (BN), 56 women with major depression with no eating disorder (MD) and 98 randomly selected controls (RC) in order to determine whether antecedent anxiety disorders are plausible risk factors for AN and BN. Comorbid anxiety disorders were common in all three clinical groups (AN, 60%; BN, 57%; MD, 48%). In 90% of AN women, 94% of BN women and 71% of MD women, anxiety disorders preceded the current primary condition (P = 0.01), although panic disorder tended to develop after the onset of AN, BN or MD. In multivariate logistic regressions, the odds ratios (ORs) for overanxious disorder (OR = 13.4) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OR = 11.8) were significantly elevated for AN. The ORs for overanxious disorder and social phobia were significantly elevated for BN (OROAD = 4.9; ORSP = 15.5) and MD (OROAD = 6.1; ORSP = 6.4). These data suggest that certain anxiety disorders are non-specific risk factors for later affective and eating disorders, and others may represent more specific antecedent risk factors.
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Eating disorder (ED) research is increasingly focusing on the proximal antecedents to disordered eating behavior. Such antecedents may include cognitions, environmental stimuli, social interactions, and affective states. Current ED theories suggest that the relationships between antecedents and eating behavior may be complex, including interaction associations, time-lagged effects, and associations that persist only for brief periods of time. Similarly, these theories often include the consequences of behavior-influencing variables of interest (e.g., short-term reductions in negative affect). Careful examination of such theories, however, has been limited by a reliance on data collection methods not appropriate for testing these effects. This study examines alternative methods for data collection and analysis that overcome previously noted limitations, using data collected in several studies with eating-disordered participants. The development of a technique called ecological momentary assessment (EMA) allows the ongoing study of behavior in its natural context and reduces biases associated with retrospective recall. The development of technology that allows the sophisticated collection and storage of such data (e.g., palm-top computers), along with statistical procedures for analyzing hierarchically nested, repeated measures data, allow precise testing of complex theoretical models. We demonstrate several important features of this research: (1) patients are willing and able to engage in EMA studies, (2) data not possible to collect using other designs are obtainable, (3) complex theoretical models can be evaluated using these data and appropriate statistical methods, and (4) the collection and analysis of EMA data present unique difficulties to ED researchers. Finally, we endorse and provide recommendations for the use of EMA in future ED research and practice.
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Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have emerged as the predominant eating disorders. We review the recent research evidence pertaining to the development of these disorders, including sociocultural factors (e.g., media and peer influences), family factors (e.g., enmeshment and criticism), negative affect, low self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Also reviewed are cognitive and biological aspects of eating disorders. Some contributory factors appear to be necessary for the appearance of eating disorders, but none is sufficient. Eating disorders may represent a way of coping with problems of identity and personal control.
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This meta-analytic review of prospective and experimental studies reveals that several accepted risk factors for eating pathology have not received empirical support (e.g., sexual abuse) or have received contradictory support (e.g.. dieting). There was consistent support for less-accepted risk factors(e.g., thin-ideal internalization) as well as emerging evidence for variables that potentiate and mitigate the effects of risk factors(e.g., social support) and factors that predict eating pathology maintenance(e.g., negative affect). In addition, certain multivariate etiologic and maintenance models received preliminary support. However, the predictive power of individual risk and maintenance factors was limited, suggesting it will be important to search for additional risk and maintenance factors, develop more comprehensive multivariate models, and address methodological limitations that attenuate effects.
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The article describes a 20-year longitudinal study of body weight, dieting, and disordered eating in women and men. Body weight increased significantly over time in both women and men. However, women's weight perception and dieting frequency decreased over time, whereas men's weight perception and dieting frequency increased, and disordered eating declined more in women than in men from late adolescence to midlife. In both women and men, changes in weight perception and dieting frequency were associated with changes in disordered eating. In addition, adult roles such as marriage and parenthood were associated with significant decreases in disordered eating from late adolescence to midlife in women, whereas few associations were observed in men. Despite different developmental trajectories, women demonstrated more weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and disordered eating compared with men across the period of observation.
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Weight-related problems, including obesity, eating disorders, and disordered eating, are major public health problems in adolescents. The identification of shared risk and protective factors for these problems can guide the development of relevant interventions to a broad spectrum of weight-related problems. This paper examines the prevalence and co-occurrence of overweight, binge eating, and extreme weight-control behaviors (vomiting, diet pills, laxatives, and diuretics) in adolescents and identifies shared risk and protective factors from within the socioenvironmental, personal, and behavioral domains for these three adverse weight-related outcomes. Data were collected at Time 1 (1998-1999) and Time 2 (2003-2004) on 2516 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Data were analyzed in 2006-2007. Weight-related problems were identified in 44% of the female subjects and 29% of the male subjects. About 40% of overweight girls and 20% of overweight boys engaged in at least one of the disordered eating behaviors (binge eating and/or extreme weight control). Weight-teasing by family, personal weight concerns, and dieting/unhealthy weight-control behaviors strongly and consistently predicted overweight status, binge eating, and extreme weight-control behaviors after 5 years. Family meals, regular meal patterns, and media exposure to messages about weight loss were also associated with weight-related outcomes, although the strength and consistency of associations differed across outcomes and gender. Weight-specific socioenvironmental, personal, and behavioral variables are strong and consistent predictors of overweight status, binge eating, and extreme weight-control behaviors later in adolescence. These findings support the need for research to determine if decreasing weight-related social pressures, personal weight concerns, and unhealthy weight-control behaviors can contribute to reductions in obesity in children and adolescents.