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Zakat as a Poverty Reduction Mechanism Among the Muslim Community: Case Study of Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia


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Poverty reduction remains the most important challenge for policy makers in Islamic communities. The World Bank (2010: Poverty profile in Muslim world, from estimates that approximately 3 billion people are living in poverty and 46 million more people will come under the income level of US$1.25 a day due to the recent global economic meltdown and slow economic growth rates. Thirty-five percent of these people are Muslims from Islamic countries. The global Muslim community has an essential role to play in addressing the injustice of global poverty through zakat. Zakat is an Islamic faith-based institution and is being underutilized for poverty reduction in many of these poor Muslim countries. Since zakat constitutes one of the pillars of Islam, it is logical to assume that policy makers among Muslims should pay serious attention to it. However, that is not the case for many Muslim countries and this paper will show that not all Muslim countries are seriously applying zakat in its strategy of combating poverty. This paper will specifically examine the role and effect of zakat in three Muslim countries (Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia) providing the facts of countries that practise zakat in comparison with those that do not.
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Zakat as a Poverty Reduction Mechanism
Among the Muslim Community: Case Study
of Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia
Isahaque Ali
and Zulkarnain A. Hatta
Department of Sociology and Social Work, Gono University, Dhaka, Bangladesh;
Department of Social Work, School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Poverty reduction remains the most important challenge for policy makers in Islamic communities.
The World Bank (2010: Poverty profile in Muslim world, from
estimates that approximately 3 billion people are living in poverty and 46 million more people will
come under the income level of US$1.25 a day due to the recent global economic meltdown and
slow economic growth rates. Thirty-five percent of these people are Muslims from Islamic coun-
tries. The global Muslim community has an essential role to play in addressing the injustice of glo-
bal poverty through zakat.Zakat is an Islamic faith-based institution and is being underutilized for
poverty reduction in many of these poor Muslim countries. Since zakat constitutes one of the
pillars of Islam, it is logical to assume that policy makers among Muslims should pay serious atten-
tion to it. However, that is not the case for many Muslim countries and this paper will show that
not all Muslim countries are seriously applying zakat in its strategy of combating poverty. This
paper will specifically examine the role and effect of zakat in three Muslim countries (Bangladesh,
Malaysia and Indonesia) providing the facts of countries that practise zakat in comparison with
those that do not.
Keywords Bangladesh; Indonesia; Malaysia; poverty; spirituality; zakat
Zakat is a mechanism and social work is the practice of assisting people to solve poverty
and make social change at the community, organizational, and international levels. This
paper contends that zakat should be incorporated into the Muslim community, while
social work provides knowledge for poverty reduction and the overall development strat-
egies. Drawing distinct a dichotomy between these two, they can play an important role
in wealth redistribution to enable as well as empower the poor to be more independent
and to generate income.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Isahaque Ali, Department of Sociology and Social
Work, Gono University, Mirzanogor, Savar, Dhaka 1344, Bangladesh. E-mail:
©2014 The Authors
Asian Social Work and Policy Review ©2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd 59
Asian Social Work and Policy Review 8(2014) 59–70
Poverty in the majority of Muslim countries is severe, with more than 50% of their
populations being extremely poor. Islamic countries with over 1.2 billion people com-
prise six regions: North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia,
South Asia, and South-East Asia. Except for a handful of countries in South-East Asia
and the Middle East, there are high and rising poverty levels among them. Part of the
explanation for the poverty is unequal income distribution and low productivity. In
Indonesia alone, over half of the population (about 129 million) are poor or vulnerable
to poverty with incomes less than US$2 a day. The following are percentages of poverty
among the poorest Muslim countries: Burkina Faso (46.4%), Chad (64.0%), Guinea
(70.1%), Gambia (61.3%), Mali (63.8%), Mozambique (74.7%), Mauritania (46.3%),
Niger (63.0%), Nigeria (64.4%), Sierra Leone (70.2%), and Uganda (51.5%). The inci-
dence of poverty in Bangladesh (45%), Benin (47.3%), Comoros (46.1%), Guinea-Bissau
(48.8%), and Uzbekistan (46.3%) is also very high (World Bank, 2010). Bangladesh
and Pakistan account for 122 million Muslims who live below the poverty line (Islamic
Development Bank, 2011).
The above statistics underestimate the percentage of poverty in all these countries
compared with their national poverty lines, which indicates the real picture of poverty in
the respective countries.The World Bank (2010) report overestimates the percentage of
poor population (under $1.25 a day) in Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, and
Uganda compared with their national poverty lines.
Against the global benchmarks, 400 million of the 1 billion people estimated to be in
absolute poverty live in 31 of the 56 members of the Organization of Islamic Countries
(OIC); i.e. 40% of the world’s poor live in Muslim countries. In relative terms, out of 975
million people living in these countries, 400 million or 40% are below the absolute pov-
erty line. In other words, the incidence of poverty in these 56 OIC member countries is
twice the average of the developing world (Khan, 2010).
Poverty scenario in Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia
Each of the abovementioned countries has a different scenario of poverty. Although
some are relatively better off than others, poverty still remains in all of the three coun-
tries. In Bangladesh, poverty is one of the major social problems. Poverty has multidi-
mensional characteristics in Bangladesh. The level of poverty is relatively high due to the
fact that employment opportunities are limited and average income level is low. Poverty
in Bangladesh is not only a phenomenon of low income, but also a phenomenon of the
poor quality of and limited access to basic services such as food, education, adequate
healthcare and sanitation, proper housing, and pure drinking water. In terms of poverty
and inequality, large differences exist between rural and urban areas (Islam, 2004). Pres-
ently, nearly 45% of the population are living below the poverty line (Bangladesh Bureau
of Statistics, 2011). Poverty reduction remains the most daunting challenge for Bangla-
Although Malaysia is not facing the severity of poverty in Bangladesh, the country
still has pockets of poverty. Severe poverty was reduced from 1.2% in 2004 to 0.7% in
©2014 The Authors
Asian Social Work and Policy Review ©2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
2010. The incidence of overall poverty fell from 5.7% in 2004 to 3.7% in 2011 (Ministry
of Finance Malaysia, 2011). The global financial crisis of 2008 brought enormous ramifi-
cations for the world economy. Like many economies in South-East Asia, Malaysia cur-
rently faces a number of challenges that could have a significant impact on its economic
growth, development, and poverty reduction.
Unlike Malaysia and Bangladesh, the poverty performance in Indonesia reveals a
different scenario. In the case of Indonesia, poverty and inequality still exist on a large
scale, and are pronounced in rural areas and in the eastern part of Indonesia. In 2004,
with a population of 220 million, the poverty rate in Indonesia was 16.7%. The tsunami
and earthquake in Aceh and North Sumatra has affected at the end of 2004, and created
new poor to the country. To assist authorities combat poverty, Indonesia joined and
signed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) global agenda of poverty reduction
and agreed to accomplish MDGs targets by 2015. The agenda of MDGs has been incor-
porated into the National Medium-Term Development Plan.
The historical path of poverty reduction and the social protection agenda in Indone-
sia were influenced by the impacts of the financial crisis of 2008. The country’s develop-
mental programs took a severe beating and the nation suffered both economically and
socially. The financial crisis affected all sectors of Indonesia’s development, and predomi-
nantly extended unemployment in rural and urban areas (Suharto, 2008). In addition,
1.2 million new poor affected by the disaster were added to the number of poor people in
Indonesia. The hike in food and oil prices in 2005 also created new poor people. With all
the mishaps that Indonesia has faced during the last few years, the poverty rate in 2006
increased to 17.8%.
Using the World Bank’s standard of poverty line, which is US$1.25 per day, the total
number of poor people in Indonesia who are still under the poverty line was about 40
million people in 2008 (CBS, 2009). The path to recovery is difficult, and Indonesia is
slowly recovering from the setbacks of the world economic crisis and natural disasters.
In 2010 the poverty rate dropped to 13%, which bodes well for the country.
In summary, the three countries present different scenarios. In Bangladesh, apart
from the phenomenon of low income, there exist also the poor quality of and limited
access to basic services. In Malaysia, while poverty has been reduced dramatically, due to
the global economic downturn, the impact on its economic growth has negative ramifica-
tions on poverty reduction efforts. Indonesia on the other hand encounters double chal-
lenges of trying to combat existing poverty while at the same time adding the new poor
to its already heavily populated pool of poverty-stricken people.
Principles of zakat
The religion of Islam has a mechanism, which is called zakat, to assist in mitigating
against poverty. Zakat is an important institution in the socioeconomic framework of
Islam. Zakat is an Arabic word which means “purity” and “cleanliness”, and it is an act
of giving away part of one’s wealth to the poora contribution paid once a year on
savings of at least 2.5%. In doing so, one purifies one’s wealth and soul.
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Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
Zakat is one of the five pillars
in Islam; hence, it is obligatory on every Muslim who
has the financial means (nisab). Nisab is considered an amount equal to the essential
needs of a person or family for 1 year. Basic needs refer include any or all of the follow-
ing: food, clothing, housing, medical treatment, and transportation for oneself and one’s
dependants. Dependants include spouses, children who are unable to earn a living, and
parents who are in need. In many modern societies, nisab is considered equivalent to a
governmentally determined poverty threshold.
Islam has a code of life which includes, among other things, the economic side of life.
Consequently, the religion has its own scheme of mitigating poverty (see Fig. 1). Zakat is
one of the basic principles of the Islamic economy, based on social welfare and fair distri-
bution of wealth.
It is the right of the poor who do not have enough to take care of their basic needs,
the needy whose basic needs are met but their income does not take care of other impor-
tant needs, for those whose sole job is to collect and distribute the zakat funds, for freeing
a Muslim person from bondage (whether a slave in the old times, or a prisoner of war in
our times), for those who are indebted and cannot pay their debts, and for the wayfarer
(ibn as-sabil) who is stranded in a foreign land and cannot get enough money to go back
to their homeland, even though he might be rich but is cut off from their wealth.
Religion and social work practice
The helping profession has been in existence universally from time immemorial. Prior to
the advent of mainstream religion, communities have been helping each other. With the
coming of various religions, mosques, temples, churches, and synagogues have been the
major institutions in these endeavours. Many associated with various religions are active
in assisting the community at large and their specific constituents in getting aid, subsidies,
Poverty Reduction Scheme in Islam
Positive Measures Preventive Measures Corrective Measures
Income Growth
Functional Distribution
of Income
Equal Opportunity
Control of Ownership
Prevention of
Transfer: Zakat
Transfer: Charity
State Responsibility
Figure 1 Poverty reduction scheme in Islam. Source: Hassan, 2010.
There are five pillars in Islam, namely, shahadah (testimony of faith), solah (five daily prescribed
prayers), siyam (fasting in the month of Ramadan), zakat (giving of charity), and hajj (performing
a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime if one can afford it).
©2014 The Authors
Asian Social Work and Policy Review ©2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
community work, and counselling. These organizations have been delivering their ser-
vices based on their respective religious values. Their social support and services include
providing shelter and care to orphans, people with a physical or mental disability, elderly
people, the poor, problem children, women, and disaster victims, to name some.
Social work as it is understood now emerged in the West during late 19th century
as a charity-based practice and today has been transformed into a rights-based practice
(Hatta & Saad, 2010). Practising social workers, however, appear to have little training
in religious issues and values (Sheridan, Bullis, Adcock, Berlin & Miller, 1992), and a
number of scholars advocate a greater presence of religion in the social work curriculum
and the origin of the definition of social work from religious values (Netting, Thibault &
Ellor, 1990; Sheridan, Wilmer & Atcheson, 1994).
The ultimate goals of zakat are to reduce inequality and to establish human rights,
social justice, and empowerment the poor by poverty reduction in Muslim communi-
ties. This sense of collective responsibility is further reinforced by how Muslims view
their place within society. Islam, it should be emphasized, is not concerned with the
welfare of the individual alone; it seeks to achieve a wider societal well-being. While
ensuring the individual’s freedom, it places equal stress on mutual responsibility. This
principle, in turn, is two-dimensional. The individual achieves balance between
thought and action (internal), while caring for the collective welfare of society (exter-
nal) (Azmi, 1991).
On the other hand, the primary mission of the social work profession is to enhance
human well-being and help meet the basic human needs of all people, with particular
attention on the needs and empowerment of people who are vulnerable, oppressed, and
living in poverty. A historic and defining feature of social work is the profession’s focus
on individual well-being in a social context and the well-being of society. Fundamental
to social work is attention to the environmental forces that create, contribute to, and
address problems in living. Social workers promote social justice and social change with
and on behalf of human beings. The term “human beings” is used inclusively to refer to
individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social workers are sensi-
tive to cultural and ethnic diversity and strive to end discrimination, oppression, poverty,
and other forms of social injustice. These activities may be in the form of direct practice,
community organization, supervision, consultation, administration, advocacy, social and
political action, policy development and implementation, education, and research and
evaluation. Social workers seek to enhance the capacity of people to address their own
needs. Social workers also seek to promote the responsiveness of organizations, commu-
nities, and other social institutions to individuals’ needs and social problems for poverty
reduction (NASW, 2008).
Religious forms of charity or “financial worship” have historically played a key role
in funding charity and philanthropy at the individual and institutional levels in South
Asia, with zakat being the largest source of such funding in Muslim communities (Kir-
mani, 2012). The religious values and beliefs could play an important role in motivating
social workers, individuals and organisations to respond to people’s immediate needs
and partially filling social services that have been left by the state (Kirmani, 2012).
©2014 The Authors
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Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
Zakat and poverty reduction in the Muslim community
In most contemporary Muslim countries, zakat is collected through a decentralized and
voluntary system, where eligible Muslims are expected to pay the zakat. Under the volun-
tary system, zakat committees are established which are tasked with the collection and
distribution of zakat funds. In a handful of Muslim countries, zakat is obligatory, and is
collected in a centralized manner by the state. Ideally the zakat institution should be
under the responsibility of the government or it also can be under the special Muslim
supervisory body that has been appointed by a government (Lubis, Yaacob & Omar,
2011). The governments of Muslim countries should be accountable in collecting and dis-
tributing zakat funds for a few reasons. Zakat distribution by the government will ensure
the dignity of the needy and poor people.
Zakat constitutes the basic institution and addresses the needs of the poor and needy
in the form of a permanently working social and economic security system. Zakat, how-
ever, is not only an institution for the purpose of poverty eradication. Poverty can be
tackled through other means such as sadaqah (Hassan & Khan, 2007). Zakat is different
from sadaqah. The term sadaqah refers to non-obligatory actions, where it is left to a
man’s faith and charitable nature to give without being asked believing that the Creator
will compensate him, and hoping for a greater reward. It is the act of voluntarily spending
one’s resources with one’s closest relatives or next of kin, as well as with other members
of the human community, including those of other faiths, and also includes charitable
deeds aimed at providing continuous flow of reward after one’s death (Haq, 1996).
By having a centralized body to disburse zakat funds makes the process systematic
(Yusuf, 2000). Countries such as Indonesia, Brunei, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia
already have compulsory zakat administration, while other countries such as Malaysia,
Egypt, Jordan, and Kuwait have voluntary zakat administration (see Table 1) (Sadeq,
Zakat and poverty reduction in Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia
In countries such as Bangladesh, foreign aid from donors contributes a significant por-
tion of the development budget. If zakat funds are properly managed, these funds could
reduce foreign aid and significantly reduce the debt burden (Hassan & Khan, 2007). Sev-
eral economists projected that, in 20042005, potential zakat funds could have contrib-
uted up to 43% of the annual development plan of Bangladesh. For example, the GDP
of Bangladesh was US$163.72 billion (using purchasing power parity, PPP) in 2005, and
the Muslim population was 88%; therefore, the adjusted GDP for the purpose of zakat
estimation was US$144.08 billion (Shirazi & Amin, 2009).
In the private sector, there are a number of volunteer organizations mostly associated
with religious associations. However, many of these associations do not have transpar-
ency in zakat funds management. In the absence of transparency and accountability,
people are weary and reluctant to contribute to zakat. These ineffective institutions and
©2014 The Authors
Asian Social Work and Policy Review ©2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
practices have an adverse effect on the poor as they are denied access to the benefits of
zakat. In addition, the planners of poverty alleviation strategies, both in the public and
private sectors, are not seeing the urgency to adopt zakat in poverty reduction policies.
Part of the reason could be their lack of proper Islamic understanding and faith in zakat,
and their perception that any religious ideas be seen as “non-progressive”.
Although the government of Bangladesh is very keen to alleviate poverty, it has never
seriously looked at the institution of zakat as a national strategy for poverty reduction.
For the fiscal year 20122013, the government of Bangladesh did not include zakat as
one of the poverty reduction programs (Bangladesh Ministry of Finance, 2012).
Malaysia does not have a compulsory zakat law, but the collection system that is in exis-
tence is systematic. Nonetheless, the total zakat collection remains small compared with
the number of the Muslims, who represent 61% of the population. For example, zakat
collection in 2009 was US$0.4 billion compared with US$37.27 billion total tax collection
and US$54 billion in total government revenue (Departments of Statistics Malaysia,
2011). An integrated approach is required to strengthen the presence of the zakat system
in Malaysia’s socioeconomic development. First, similar to tax deduction on salaries,
perhaps there is a need to pass a law to make zakat deductions compulsory on the
incomes of all “zakatable” Muslims.
Zakat management in Malaysia is under the authority of state government. The
roles of zakat institution are not only to collect the zakat dues but also to distribute the
zakat funds to the zakat recipients, so called asnaf.Zakat is being collected from variety
of sources such as individuals as well as corporate companies, while later on is distributed
to the eight groups of recipients (asnaf) mentioned above” (Lubis et al., 2011: 3). Malay-
sia’s authorities have created zakat institutions for zakat contributors and zakat recipi-
ents in collecting and distributing zakat efficiently. Presently, the development of zakat
institutions in Malaysia is constantly improving in terms of zakat collection (Hairunni-
zam & Radiah, 2010). Additionally, Yaumidin (2009) established the resources needed
Table 1 Poverty of compulsory zakat and non-compulsory of zakat collection in Muslim countries
Compulsory zakat
collection by state
People living below
poverty line (%)
zakat collection by state
People living
below poverty line (%)
Saudi Arabia N/A Sierra Leone 70.2
Brunei N/A Chad 64.0
Libya N/A Mali 63.8
Indonesia 13 Niger 63.0
Pakistan 24 Gambia 61.3
Sudan 40 Burkina Faso 46.4
Yemen 40.2 Bangladesh 45.0
Malaysia 3.7
Source: World Bank, 2010.
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Asian Social Work and Policy Review ©2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd 65
Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
for poverty reduction and potential zakat collection for Malaysia and Indonesia. She also
mentioned that Malaysia performs better than Indonesia. The total of zakat collection in
Malaysia has been increased drastically in every year. In Malaysia, the zakat manage-
ment authority is called the Center of Zakat Collection (Pusat Urus ZakatPUZ) and is
under the supervision of each state and territory (Malaysia has 13 states and one federal
The system will be able to generate up to approximately US$1.617 billion zakat on
income alone calculated by multiplying the estimated average zakat of US$365 per per-
son per year (Osman, 2011). According to the Departments of Statistics Malaysia (2011),
there are 17.4 million Muslims between the ages of 1564, of which 64.5% participate in
the labour force, and only the highest income earners (60%) are “zakatable.” US$1.617
billion zakat on income alone is sufficient to bring about major poverty reduction or
finance a large-scale and comprehensive community development project (Shariff, Man-
sor, Hazlina & Jusoff, 2011). Zakat will be effective as a supplement to eradicate poverty
if the zakat collected is equal to at least 3.1% of national GDP. By using these funds, it is
fully expected that the number of poor can be enormously mitigated (Shariff et al.,
2011). Malaysia can be considered as one of the outstanding and excellent countries in
managing and distributing zakat compared with other Islamic countries. The result of
peace and national development helps to reduce poverty successfully (Lubis et al., 2011).
As far as Indonesia is concerned, it has embarked on incorporating zakat into the devel-
opment plan for effective poverty reduction. It has two entities called LAZNAS and
BAZNAS to administer zakat collection and distribution. Unfortunately, the grievance
from the masses is the existence of corruption in those entities which leads to many not
wanting to use their services. However, with improvements in efficiency and rooting out
corruption within the administration, public confidence will return.
Zakat is now one of the most important instruments for increasing the wealth of the
poor in contemporary Indonesia, albeit the problem of mismanagement within the two
institutions entrusted. As the collection of funds grows significantly, the utilization of
zakat funds has now been transformed from a charity purpose into social empowerment
and economic development. Nationally, the amounts of zakat funds that have been
collected by all the zakat institutions have risen significantly for several years. Collected
zakat funds increased from approximately 80 billion rupiah (US$8.4 million) in 2002 to
414 billion rupiah (US$43.9 million) in 2006, or an average annual growth of 51.65%
during the period 20022006. The financial experts of the country as well as the world
have forecast that the financial status of Indonesia is expected to be rosy in coming years.
Indonesian GDP continued to grow strongly at 6.5% during 2011, when GDP per capita
was US$4325. In addition, GNI per capita was US$2500 in 2011.
In Islam, zakat plays an important role in poverty alleviation and socioeconomic devel-
opment. Zakat is an act of piety through which one expresses concern for the well-being
©2014 The Authors
Asian Social Work and Policy Review ©2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
of fellow Muslims, as well as preserving social harmony between the wealthy and the
poor. It attempts to promote an equitable redistribution of wealth, and fosters a sense of
solidarity among members of the community. It is believed if the zakat system is enforced
in letter and spirit then extreme poverty can be eliminated.
As a consequence of giving zakat, notwithstanding that it is an altruistic and benevo-
lent act, there are spiritual dynamics involved. Those who pay zakat are enhanced spiri-
tually, and, at the worldly level, their wealth is cleansed. By “cleansing” wealth, barakah
(grace) descends on both the giver and receiver. Barakah is the beneficent force or energy
from God that flows through the physical and spiritual spheres as prosperity, protection,
and happiness. As can be seen in the three countries, the Muslims of Malaysia and Indo-
nesia are giving zakat. In Malaysia, their zakat funds are being handled by a responsible
competent body and the poverty rate is relatively much lower than those in Indonesia
and Bangladesh. People in Indonesia are eager to give zakat, but the problem lies within
the less than ideal situation with the administration. Unfortunately, the system of han-
dling zakat in Bangladesh leaves much room for improvement. There are no government
initiatives to collect the zakat funds. Due to the corruption and non-existence of an
administrative body, zakatable people are reluctant to give. Consequently, the barakah
as promised by God is not manifesting to those countries.
The zakat system that has been established and practised in Malaysia, and Indonesia
to a lesser extent, can become a role model to other Muslim countries around the world.
In the age of transparency and accountability, people need to be assured that their contri-
butions benefit the target group. If majority are not giving, by the logic of how barakah
operates, the Creator is not cleansing the wealth nor making it grow (see Fig. 2). This
article has attempted to present circumstantial evidence of the relationship and correla-
tion between giving of zakat as government policy and the poverty of the country.
For societies such as Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia where the majority are
Muslims, zakat has to play a major role in the process of poverty reduction through poli-
cies and programs. Muslims in these three countries are believers in the power of spiritu-
ality, and it is thus logical to integrate zakat, which has spiritual implications on the
country’s poverty situation. Once a community and government begin to recognize and
acknowledge the role and the importance of zakat institutions as part of Islamic financial
institutions, it is the contention of this article that poverty can be mitigated.
“Faith-based organisations” (FBOs) are gaining increasing attention within development
circlesamong practitioners, funders, and policymakers as well as academics. It is
argued that zakat should be incorporated into poverty reduction programs. The success-
ful implementation of zakat collection and distribution is expected to reduce poverty and
improve living standards of poor citizens in Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia and
become a model for many other similar countries. Zakat is a spiritual tax paid by every
Muslim under any circumstances. Therefore, the acceptance of zakat funds is relatively
stable. This will ensure the sustainability of poverty reduction programs, which typically
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Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
require a relatively long period of time. Because of these characteristics, the presence of
zakat in the socioeconomic framework of Islam will become a strong basis for sustain-
able poverty reduction. Therefore, social workers could use of zakat as a model for pov-
erty reduction. In a responsible government ruled by Muslims, it is incumbent upon the
government to implement zakat. Muslim social workers have to acquaint themselves with
the principle of zakat from both the material and spiritual aspects of zakat. The needy
are the recipients of zakat (asnaf). Hence, Muslim social workers must be active advo-
cates of zakat. They have to find ways to influence poverty reduction policies to include
zakat. As researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and social workers should be dele-
gates in the society for the antipoverty work. Social workers should be familiar with the
basic beliefs, values, and rituals of Islam as it is practised in the client’s milieu. Social
workers could learn the manner from the religion which could be integrated into a help-
ing relationship for social work profession. In conclusion, the multi-faceted nature of
poverty requires a multi-dimensional approach to poverty reduction based on the devel-
opment of human potential, creativity, and resourcefulness of the poor, building upon
their resources, capabilities, and survival skills.
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Figure 2 The symbiotic relationship between barakah and zakat.
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Isahaque Ali and Zulkarnain A. Hatta Zakat and Poverty Reduction
... In addition, the reduction of poverty is not just increasing household income but also improving human ability. Poverty is not only about the scarcity of basic needs but also the lack of equivalent chances, participation, and social justice (Ali & Hatta, 2014;Ali & Hatta, 2010). ...
... Income poverty cannot measure poverty properly due to overlooking non-food items, such as fuel, housing, and healthcare (Sydunnaher, Islam, & Morshed, 2019 (Sydunnaher, Islam, & Morshed, 2019). When forming a definition of poverty based on capability deprivation, they considered not only income but also the lack of education, unemployment, ill health, vulnerability, social exclusion, and powerlessness (Ali et al., 2017;Ali & Hatta, 2014. Poverty has been measured and calculated in Bangladesh based on the Food Energy Intake (FEI) and Cost of Basic Needs (CBN), including rice, wheat, milk, edible oil, meat, sweet, freshwater fish, potato, sugar, vegetables, and fruits, and Direct Calorie Intake (2,122 calories a day) (DCI) since the mid-1990s (GOB, 2010). ...
Poverty has been measured and calculated in Bangladesh based on the Food Energy Intake (FEI), Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) and Direct Calorie Intake (2122 calories a day) (DCI) since the mid-1990s (GOB, 2010). Currently, it is one of the principal weakness of the measurement of poverty in Bangladesh. Poverty cannot be calculated from a single dimension as it is multidimensional in nature. The absence of the Multidimensional Poverty (MDP) measurement of Bangladesh means that attempts have thus far failed to capture poverty from a holistic view. In Bangladesh, DCN, CBN and FEI indicators generally neglect the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) of poverty. Those under the poverty level experience deprivation in terms of health, education and livelihood. The MPI shows important progress in internationally comparable measurements of poverty. This portrait of poverty is more effective by shifting from income factors with other dimensions that are inherently important such as education facilities, proper health care and living standard. The study recommends the MPI technique of assessing poverty in Bangladesh that is considered a more effective method.
... (I. Ali & Hatta, 2014;Owoyemi, 2020;Government of India, 2021;Ashurov et al., 2022). Both Zakat and Indian taxation systems have the potential to promote social welfare and economic development by providing public goods and services, funding social programs, and stimulating investment and growth. ...
... Zakat is collected and managed by religious institutions and organizations, such as mosques and Zakat committees, while Indian taxation is collected and managed by government agencies, such as the Central Board of Direct Taxes and the Goods and Services Tax Council (I. Ali & Hatta, 2014;Owoyemi, 2020;Government of India, 2021;Ashurov et al., 2022).. Zakat is based on a fixed rate of 2.5% for certain types of assets, such as cash, gold, and livestock, while Indian taxation has a more complex and varied tax structure that includes income tax, corporate tax, indirect taxes, and other forms of levies (Auda, 2008;Government of India, 2019). ...
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As society considers it, it is scattered with distinct differences. If we highlight this issue, this gap is due to economic instability. Religion never differs between the rich and the poor, but the people who follow the religion will do, so as the fundamental thoughts, religion itself guides on the matter of removing the imbalance in religion in particular and society at large, for which we can find the taxing system in India. At the same time, Islam also proposes the idea of zakat to remove the gap between those who have and those who do not. To examine the idea of which the study was conducted by considering the Karnataka Zakat Trust of Mangaluru City of Karnataka state, as it is a donation that people are making out of their wealth. The information was gathered using a structured interview method, and for the remaining randomly selected 75 samples mail questionnaire was distributed, out of which 62 respondents responded to the study, so the total respondents of the study were 87 beneficiaries of Mangaluru City. This study shows that in the potential and globally recognized Mangaluru City, zakat is working effectively through Karnataka Zakat and Charitable Trust. Here, it is also proposed to claim the rebate for the relief of Islamic followers to make a difference in the country’s policy.
... Thus, this study recommends that policymakers give the needy legislative assurance or technology upgrades to help them grow their incomes. Isahaque and Hatta (2014) investigate the role of zakat as a poverty-reduction mechanism in three countries, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The study reveals that Bangladesh lacks systematic management to collect and distribute zakat, unlike Malaysia, which ranks among the best in zakat management. ...
... As a result, the poverty rate in Sabah decreased significantly from 8.1% in 2012 to 4% in 2014. This result is consistent with previous studies, such as Nadzri et al. (2012), Mahmud et al. (2014), Isahaque and Hatta (2014), Abdullah et al. (2015), and Ahmed et al. (2017), which discuss the role of zakat in poverty alleviation. Besides the poverty groups (hardcore poor and poor), wayfarers were ranked first by some states in Malaysia, such as Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Johor, and Melaka, which fall under high-income states. ...
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Manuscript type: Research paper Research aims: A key objective of zakat institutions is to distribute funds efficiently and effectively. Despite its critical role in alleviating poverty, the distribution of zakat appears to have been overlooked by previous studies. Recognising such a gap, this study examines the distribution priorities of zakat funds in Malaysia. Design/Methodology/Approach: Our study relies upon secondary data on the distribution of zakat funds between 2007 and 2015. We analyse the data using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique (pair-wise technique analysis), which involves ranking zakat recipients and comparing them across all states in Malaysia. Research findings: This study demonstrates that zakat funds were distributed to beneficiaries as mentioned in the Quran: hardcore poor (fakir), poor (miskin), zakat operator (amil), inclined to Islam (muallaf), slave (riqab), debtors (gharimin) wayfarer (fisabilillah) and stranded in path (Ibnu Sabil). The poverty groups and wayfarers were the top priority of Malaysian zakat institutions. Meanwhile, debtors, slaves, and those stranded in path were given the least importance. Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study addresses the gap in the zakat literature by adding empirical evidence on the zakat distribution practices amongst all states in Malaysia in remedying the long-standing issue of poverty. The output of this study contributes to enhancing society's understanding of the role of zakat institutions in combating poverty in Malaysia.
... Previous studies on the role of zakat and price stability in reducing poverty have been conducted by previous researchers such as Akram and Afzal [7], Ali and Hatta [8], Nabi et al. [9], Sohag et al. [10], which measured the role of zakat in reducing poverty in Muslim majority countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh. These studies showed that Islam offers a comprehensive solution for poverty alleviation through zakat that is based on income distribution from the rich to the poor. ...
Conference Paper
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This study explores the contribution of zakat and price stability to poverty reduction in Indonesia from January 2011 to June 2021. Specifically, this study empirically explores the short-term and long-term relationships between zakat, gold prices, exchange rates, oil prices, and poverty in Indonesia. Using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), this study recorded that zakat and gold price stability contribute to short- and long-term poverty reduction. On the other hand, the stability of exchange rates and oil prices have reduced poverty in the long-term. These findings suggest the Indonesian government's importance in enhancing zakat management by implementing good zakat governance principles and ensuring prices of gold, oil, and exchange rate stability through proper macroeconomic policies to alleviate poverty.
... Zakat plays an important role for the smooth consumption patterns of the poor (Khan, 2007). Zakat is one of the foundations of Islamic economics which is based on social welfare and a fair distribution of wealth to the poor (Ali & Hatta, 2014). The aim of the distribution of zakat is to reduce inequality, to uphold human rights, to eradicate social injustice, to bring about empowerment of the poor people of the Muslim community. ...
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This study examines the influence of religiosity, legal awareness, and education on tax reduction zakat, with profit quality as a moderator. The data was collected from 70 respondents, and the statistical analysis was conducted using multiple regression analysis and moderated regression analysis. The results show that religiosity, legal awareness, and education have a significant positive effect on tax reduction zakat. Furthermore, the study finds that profit quality moderates the relationship between religiosity and tax reduction zakat. However, the study finds no significant moderation effect for legal awareness and education on the relationship between tax reduction zakat and profit quality. This study provides insights into the factors that influence tax reduction zakat and the role of profit quality in moderating the relationship between religiosity and tax reduction zakat. The findings may be useful for policymakers, tax authorities, and companies in developing strategies to improve tax compliance and zakat payment.
... Balinese Local Wisdom has the concept of Asta Brata which describes the character that must be possessed by a leader. Religious principles and beliefs can play an important role in inspiring business firms to respond to people's immediate needs and partially filling social needs left unfilled by the authorities in South Asia (Ali & Hatta, 2014). Again, leadership and HR are crucial to preserving the optimal SME success standard during crisis events. ...
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This study observes the leadership role of Asta Brata which is one of the local wisdoms in Bali towards improving the performance of MSMEs during pandemic. Some researchers usually use leadership style variables that are adopted from outside, so there is a need for reinterpretation and adaptation to local culture. This study also uses financial literacy as moderation. This study aims to determine the influence of Asta Brata's leadership on the performance of MSMEs in Badung Regency during the pandemic with Financial Literacy as moderation. The survey was conducted on 100 people MSME in Badung Regency. The data were collected through online form. The validity and reliability had been met. Data analysis was carried out by partial least square in structural equation model approach (SEM-PLS). The results showed that Asta Brata's Leadership positive and significant effect on MSME performance. Financial Literacy has a positive and significant effect on the performance of MSMEs. Financial Literacy is able to moderate the relationship between Asta Brata Leadership and the Performance of MSMEs in Badung Regency during the Pandemic.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengelolaan zakat dan wakaf di Malaysia dan Turki. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis deskriptif-komparatif untuk mendeskripsikan persamaan dan perbedaan pengelolaan zakat dan wakaf antara Malaysia dan Turki. Hasil penelitian ini antara lain bahwa zakat di Malaysia adalah wajib, sedangkan zakat di Turki bersifat sukarela. Zakat di Malaysia dan Turki sama-sama dikurangkan dari pajak. Pemerintah Malaysia terlibat dalam pengelolaan zakat, sedangkan Pemerintah Turki tidak ikut serta dalam pengelolaan zakat. Pemerintah Malaysia dan Turki sama-sama berpartisipasi dalam pengelolaan wakaf. Kementerian yang terlibat dalam pengelolaan wakaf di Malaysia adalah kementerian agama, sedangkan kementerian yang terlibat dalam pengelolaan wakaf di Turki adalah Kementerian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata. Sekularisme memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap praktik wakaf di Malaysia dan Turki. Masalah wakaf yang seharusnya ditangani di pengadilan syariah, ternyata ditangani oleh pengadilan sipil. Sementara itu, perubahan istilah wakaf menjadi ta'sis di Turki berdampak pada penurunan jumlah penghimpunan wakaf.
In this paper, we present the results of a scoping review in which we examined the scientific literature (2010-2021) on faith-based organizations (FBOs) working within the field of poverty alleviation, focusing on the way studies define and use the term FBO. Fifty-two relevant studies were identified and included. Our research shows that the term FBOs is primarily used in American studies. Moreover, there is no broad consensus on the exact definition or meaning of the term nor on its scope. Because of this lack of consensus and the inherent shortcomings of the term, we suggest to replace the term FBO by the term "religion-based solidarity initiatives" (RSIs), We define RSIs as: "Initiatives that, from a religious inspiration, aim at organizing collective action for and/or providing support or services to people in vulnerable positions." These initiatives can range from small scale ad hoc initiatives till large scale formal organizations.
Purpose Previous studies described the professional zakat had been limited. Generally, the past authors conducted a quantitative method with general results and did not focus on the behaviour of people who pay the professional zakat. As a result, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of how the general public can pay their zakat using Bloom’s theory. Design/methodology/approach This research uses primary data with in-depth interviews from five informants, including civil servants (PNS) and private employees. Spiral analysis was used to analyse the data, arrange it, read it frequently, take brief notes, find categories, interpret and summarise it. Findings The results show Bloom’s theory can accommodate muzakki’ s behaviour by paying professional zakat. It can be seen from the following conclusions: firstly, in the cognitive domain, muzakki ’s behaviour of paying the professional zakat was motivated by their memories (experiences), the ability to interpret, the ability to understand the principles of zakat, the ability to understand the relations and the ability to understand the role of zakat from its norms. Secondly, in the affective domain, muzakki ’s behaviour in paying the professional zakat was motivated by their ability to receive, give positive value, call others and dare to take risks. Thirdly, in the psychomotor domain, guided practice, mechanised practice and adoption drive muzakki ’s behaviour of paying zakat. Research limitations/implications This study has limitations regarding the number of samples (informants). In addition, the results of the research are designed to be very subjective so that they cannot be generalised to phenomena that exist in other places and countries that also require zakat in the profession. In the future, the results of this study can be used as a variable development with quantitative methods so that it can involve more samples to get maximum and a broader result. Practical implications This research has a valuable managerial impact on the zakat management institutions, particularly in Langsa, Aceh, Indonesia and all zakat institutions worldwide. Therefore, the central government can evaluate the zakat gap through various socialisation activities by promoting the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Socialisation should improve people’s behaviour to pay zakat so that the amount of zakat collected will be higher and will reduce the gap between the potency of zakat and the zakat in reality which has been unequal so far. Originality/value This research will contribute to the significant development of zakat in terms of studying the behaviour of muzakki paying the professional zakat. Although the theory of planned behaviour was dominated by previous research, this research reveals other aspects of muzakki behaviour using Bloom’s model by elaborating on cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.
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আমার নানা একজন সম্মানিত মাওলানা ছিলেন এবং অসুস্থ মা-কে কোনদিন দেখি নাই কোন সালাত কাযা করতে, তাই আমি পারিবারিক ভাবে সুন্নি মাজহাবের মানুষ। এই মাজহাবের কেউ আমার শত্রু নয়। তবে মহান আল্লাহ আমাকে যতটুকু জ্ঞান দিয়েছেন তা অপব্যবহার না করে, একজন একাডেমিক স্বীকৃত গবেষক হিসাবে নিরপেক্ষ দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি নিয়ে পবিত্র কুরআন নিয়ে চিন্তা ও গবেষণা করার চেষ্টা করি। সেই ক্ষেত্রে আমার চিন্তা, গবেষণা ও লেখায় ভুল থাকতে পারে, যা নিতান্ত-ই স্বাভাবিক। আশাকরি মহান আল্লাহ সেই ভুলের জন্য ক্ষমা করবেন এবং কারো দৃষ্টিতে কোন ভুল দেখা গেলে আমাকে অবহিত করা হলে (ইমেইল এর মাধ্যমে) আমি নিজেকে সংশোধন করে নিব এবং এই লেখাকে পুনঃসংস্করণ করব, ইনশাআল্লাহ (যদি বেঁচে থাকি) । জন্মের পর থেকেই শুনেছি ইসলামের পাঁচ স্তম্ভ অর্থাৎ কলেমা, নামাজ, রোজা, হজ্জ্ব ও যাকাত। জীবিকার জন্য যে শিক্ষা আমরা অর্জন করি তার ক্ষেত্রে আমরা যেভাবে পড়াশুনা করি, তেমন করে কোনদিন পবিত্র কুরআন পড়াশুনা করি নাই, তাই এই পাঁচ স্তম্ভ সহ সামগ্রিক পবিত্র কুরআন সম্পর্কে রয়েছে জ্ঞানের বিশাল শূন্যতা। ফলে এই শূন্যস্থান পূরণ করে দিচ্ছে আমাদের চিরশত্রু শয়তান এবং তার দলবল। ইসলামের এই পাঁচ স্তম্ভকে নিয়ে অধ্যায়ন করতে করতে তেমনিটি-ই অনুধাবন করছি, তাই এই প্রকাশনার উদ্দেশ্য হচ্ছে নিজেকে সংশোধন করার এবং খুব সহজে একজন মানুষ বুঝতে পারেন সেই ব্যবস্থা। প্রথমেই এই পাঁচ স্তম্ভের ধারণার সাথে কঠিন আপত্তি করছি অর্থাৎ ইসলামের স্তম্ভ পাঁচিটি নয়, তা কেবলমাত্র একটি তা হচ্ছে মহান আল্লাহর পবিত্র কুরআন। এই কিতাবের একটি শব্দ-কে অমান্যতো দূরের সন্দেহও করা যাবে না। তাই ইসলামের একমাত্র স্তম্ভ হচ্ছে পবিত্র কুরআন। যাই হউক বহুল প্রচলিত এই পাঁচ স্তম্ভের মধ্যে প্রথমেই আসে ঈমান। ঈমান আনার জন্য মুখে কলেমা পড়তে হয় এবং অন্তরে তা বিশ্বাস করতে এটা-ই প্রচলিত রীতিনীতি। এই নীতিতে পাঁচটি বর্তমানে আরো ২টি বেড়ে মোট সাতটি কলেমা এবং ২টি ঈমানের বাক্য রয়েছে, যা বিশ্বের বিখ্যাত ও অখ্যাত সকল ধর্ম প্রচারকগণ প্রচার করছেন এবং সেই অনুযায়ী-ই ভিন্ন ধর্মের মানুষকে মুসলিম হিসাবে স্বীকৃতি দিচ্ছে। এখানে প্রথম অধ্যায়: ঈমান, কলেমা ও ঈমানদার: পবিত্র কুরআনের আলোকে বিস্তারিত তুলে ধরা হয়েছে। মূল কথা হচ্ছে ৭টি বাক্য পবিত্র কুরআনের কোথাও তার যেমন কোন অস্তিত্ত্বতো নেই তেমনি তা পবিত্র কুরআনের নীতি বিরুদ্ধ, সাংঘর্ষিক এবং পবিত্র কুরআনের সাথে যুদ্ধ ঘোষণার সামিল। তাই আমি নিজে এই (৭+২) অর্থাৎ ৯টি বাক্যকে ইসলামের কলেমা ও ঈমান হিসাবে প্রত্যাখ্যান করলাম এবং ইসলামের বিশ্বজনীন কলেমা (২:১৩৬) ও (৩:৮৪) কে পাঠ করে পবিত্র কুরআনে উল্লেখিত সকল কলেমাকে-ই ঈমান ও জীবন হিসাবে মেনে নিলাম, মহান আল্লাহ যেন কবুল করেন। তাছাড়া আমি সেখানে যে ৫৩২টি আয়াতের কথা উল্লেখ করেছি, তাই শেষ কথা নয় অন্যের গবেষণায় তা তারতম্য হতে-ই পারে। প্রচলিত দ্বিতীয় স্তম্ভের যে নামাজ রয়েছে তা কখনও পবিত্র কুরআনে বর্ণিত সালাতের সাথে কোন সম্পর্ক নেই। মহান আল্লাহ পবিত্র কুরআনে কোথাও প্রত্যক্ষ বা পরোক্ষভাবে এভাবে পাঁচ বার ১৭ রাকাত বাধ্যতামূলক সালাতের বিধান দেন নাই। সালাত (নামায) শব্দটি পবিত্র কোরআনে সরাসরি ৮৯ টি আয়াতে ৯৬ বার, আর আলাদা আয়াতে তাহাজ্জুদ ১ বার, রূকু-সেজদা ১ বার, দন্ডায়মান ১ বার এবং তাসবীহ ৩ বার অর্থাৎ মোট ১০২ বার এসেছে। সেখানে ৯৫টির অধিক চলক রয়েছে এবং এই চলকের সমষ্টি-ই হচ্ছে সালাত আর সালাত কায়েম হচ্ছে ঐ সকল চলকগুলিকে বাস্তব জীবনে প্রয়োগ। তবে শারীরিক সালাতের যে বিবরণ উল্লেখ করেছেন তাতে সর্বনিম্ন রাকাত হচ্ছে একটি (১) যারা সালাত পড়বেন এবং যিনি পড়াবেন তার জন্য ২ রাকাত সুনির্দিষ্ট সালাতের সময়ে, তবে সর্বোচ্চ রাকাতের কোন সীমাবদ্ধতা মহান আল্লাহ নির্ধারণ করে দেন নাই। তাই প্রচলিত সালাতের বিধিবদ্ধ রীতিনীতি বর্জন করতে বাধ্য হয়েছি। আশা করি দ্বিতীয় অধ্যায়: "পবিত্র কুরআন অনুযায়ী সালাত (নামাজ) পদ্ধতি" গবেষণা প্রবন্ধটি নিরপেক্ষতা বজায় রেখে এবং মনযোগের সহিত পাঠ করলে সহজে-ই বুঝতে সক্ষম হবেন। তৃতীয় অধ্যায়: "যাকাতের প্রচলিত পদ্ধতি বনাম পবিত্র কোরআন: দাতা ও গ্রহীতার একটি আর্থ-সামাজিক মডেল" এই গবেষণা প্রবন্ধটি ৪০টি মুসলিম প্রধান দেশের সমসাময়িক তথ্য ও উপাত্ত সংগ্রহ করে বিশ্লেষণ করা হয়েছে। ফলাফলে দেখা গেল যে সকল দেশ-ই পবিত্র কুরআনের মূলনীতি বহির্ভুত পন্থায় যাকাতের বিধি-বিধান ও প্রথায় বিশ্বাসী। প্রচলিত পদ্ধতিতে যাকাতের ক্ষেত্রে রয়েছে সর্বনিম্ন পরিমান (নিসাব) ও হার ২.৫%। এই দুটি মৌলিক উপাদান, যার অস্তিত্ব পবিত্র কুরআনের কোথাও উল্লেখ নেই। তাছাড়া দেখা যাচ্ছে যে, যাকাতকে কেবলমাত্র অর্থনৈতিক বিবেচনায় সকল প্রকার ব্যবস্থাপনা তৈরি হয়েছে, অর্থাৎ সামাজিক দিকটি সম্পূর্ণভাবেই প্রত্যাখ্যান করা হয়েছে। আরো দেখা যায় যে, কিছু কিছু দেশ সরকারি ভাবে এই যাকাত আদায় করে এবং ব্যয় করা হয় পবিত্র কুরআনের অন-অনুমোদিত উপায়। উপরন্ত, বর্তমান মুসলিম বিশ্বে মাযহাবের দ্বন্ধে যুদ্ধের মত ধ্বংসাত্মক পথে জড়িত হয়ে গেলেও, যাকাতের ব্যাপারে এক মাযহাবের অনুসারী। এখানে উল্লেখ যে পবিত্র কুরআনের ফসল কাটার নীতি ও খুমুস (যা হচ্ছে লভ্যাংশের ১/৫) নীতি যাকাত গ্রহণকারী শ্রেণী চিহ্নিত করা হলেও, বাস্তবে যাকাত বা ভিন্ন কোন উপায়ে ঐ শ্রেণীর মধ্যে এই ধরণের কোন বন্টনের ব্যবস্থাও নেই। মূলত একাদশ শতাব্দী মতান্তরে অষ্টাদশ শতাব্দীর সংকলিত বিভিন্ন লাহওয়াল হাদিস থেকে যাকাতের বিধিবিধান প্রণয়ন করা হয়েছে। প্ৰচলিত চতুর্থ ও পঞ্চম স্তম্ভকে একই সাথে চতুর্থ অধ্যায়: হজ্জ্ব ও সিয়াম (রোজা): পবিত্র কুরআনের আলোকে এই শিরোনামে আলোচনা করা হয়েছে। পবিত্র কুরআন অনুযায়ী উভয় ক্ষেত্রে নির্ভরশীল চাঁদের উপর অর্থাৎ আল্লাহর নির্দেশিত দিন, মাস, ও বছর গণনা পদ্ধতির উপর কিন্তু বাস্তবে তার কোন অস্তিত্ত্ব নেই। ইসলামী বর্ষপঞ্চিটি সম্পূর্ণ আবেগতাড়িত যার সাথে পবিত্র কুরআনের কোন ধরণের সম্পৃক্ততা নেই। পবিত্র কুরআনে স্পষ্ট হজ্জের মাস সমূহের কথা উল্লেখ থাকলেও তা বাস্তবে নেই। হজ্জের সাথে সম্পৃক্ত সকল বিষয়গুলিকে বিভ্রান্তিকর অনুবাদ ও ব্যাখ্যা করা হয়েছে। ফলে হজ্জের মূলনীতি এবং উদ্দেশ্যকে অংকুরে-ই বিনষ্ট করেছে। পবিত্র কুরআন হজ্জ্বকে কোথাও কেবলমাত্র মুসলিমদের জন্য সীমাবদ্ধ রাখেন নাই বরং পৃথিবীর সকল মানুষকে আহ্ববানে করা হয়েছে। তাই হজ্জ্বকে মুসলিমদের জন্য ফরজ ইবাদত বলে একটি স্তম্ভ হিসাবে দাঁড় করিয়ে দেয়া পবিত্র কুরআন সম্পর্কে অজ্ঞতা ছাড়া আর কিছু নয়। সিয়াম (রোজা) যে হিসাবে মাসকে গণনা করা হয় তা বিভ্রান্তিকর এবং ইফতার ও সেহরির সময় সম্পর্কে লাহওয়াল হাদিস থেকে যে মতবাদ নেয়া হয়েছে তা সম্পূর্ণ পবিত্র কুরআন পরিপন্থী। পরিশেষে যে কথাটি দিয়ে শেষ করব তা হচ্ছে ইসলাম কোন পঞ্চ স্তম্ভের উপর নির্ভরশীল নয়। ইসলামের কেবলমাত্র একটি স্তম্ভ তা হচ্ছে পবিত্র কুরআন। মহান আল্লাহ পবিত্র কুরআনকে বিশ্বের সকল মানুষের জন্য পাঠ্য বই হিসাবে রচনা করে দিয়েছেন। অনেকবার আল্লাহ বলেছেন যারা জানে আর যারা জানে না তারা সমান নয়। অনেক আয়াতে বলেছেন যেখানে জ্ঞানীদের জন্য রয়েছে চিন্তার বিষয়। অর্থাৎ মহান আল্লাহ সকল মানুষকে একরকম মেধা শক্তি দেন নাই। তাই একজন কম মেধার মানুষকে প্রথমেই বলে দিলেন ঈমান আনার জন্য। এখন ঈমান অধ্যায় দেখলাম ঈমান রাখতে হলে ৫১টি চলক মেনে চলতে হবে। আর এই ৫১টি চলকের রয়েছে নিজস্ব চলক সমূহ, যেমন ঈমানদারকে সালাত কায়েম করতে হবে আর সালাতের পেয়েছি ৯৫টি চলক। বাকি ৫০টির সাথে এভাবেই চক্রটি গড়ে উঠে। আর এভাবেই একজন ঈমানদার পবিত্র কুরআনের একটি শব্দের বাইরে যেতে পারবেন না। তাই সম্পূর্ণ পবিত্র কুরআন হচ্ছে একটি মাত্র স্তম্ভ। ড. কাজী আব্দুল মান্নান আগষ্ট ২০২৩ Email:
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This paper is the extended and updated version of Shirazi (2006), which covers 38 OIC-member countries. The paper estimates the resource required and potential zakat collection for poverty elimination. The paper employed the poverty gap index based on US $ 1.25 a day and US$ 2.0 a day estimated by the World Bank (2009). Zakat potential has been estimated by employing Kahf (1989) method of estimation with some modifications. The paper finds that half of the sample countries not only meet their resource shortfall by potential zakat collection but also generate surplus funds which are sufficient for the resource deficit countries. The paper suggests pooling of zakat funds from the zakat surplus countries and providing for the resource deficit countries to eliminate the poverty. Keywords: Poverty Alleviation, Resource Shortfall, Zakat Collection. OICMember Countries
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This study attempts to investigate the perceptions of zakat recipients (the end user) and the amil (the implementer) on whether localization of zakat distribution would be a possible solution to address the problem of zakat management in Malaysia. The study is motivated by the findings of previous studies that the Muslim society is still not satisfied with management of zakat distribution. Research questions include the perceptions of amils and zakat recipients on; (a) the localization concept of zakat distribution; (b) the main determinants of zakat localization; (c) the relationship between zakat localization and the quality of life; and the influence of religiosity on the quality of life of zakat recipients;(d) the factor determinants that amils agreed to implement localization, as well as (e) the potential role of the mosque in implementing localization. Data collected using purposive random sampling on a sample of amils and zakat recipients in Malaysia. The respondents were selected from the states of Selangor, Penang, Federal Territory Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, Terengganu and Kedah. The collected data was analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression (LR). The findings of this study show that majority of respondents strongly support the concept of localization of zakat distribution, especially the amils compared to zakat recipients. It also indicates that all variables, namely trust in Islamic institution (input factor), perceived zakat management (process factor), asnaf’s attitude to change and asnaf’s quality of life (output factor) as well as the proposed localization of zakat distribution (opinion factor) have significant relationship amongst the variables. This finding also indicates that the successful implementation of localization is dependent on the importance of the role of the mosque. Finally, this study recommends the role of the mosque should be strengthened from the outset and then, it would facilitate the implementation of the localization of zakat management
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As one of the fundamental tenets in Islam and central to Islamic economy, zakah, theoretically, has a wide and profound impact on socio-economic development of a nation. This paper attempts to examine the current zakah system in Malaysia particularly its contributions towards poverty alleviation as well as drawbacks that are limiting its overall impact on the country's development. A comparison is made on zakah collection and distribution between two states in Malaysia each at two different extreme of the poverty line. This paper further introduces a model of zakah system as a way forward towards a more holistic and wide-reaching implementation of zakah in Malaysia. INTRODUCTION attempts to examine the current practice of Malaysian
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Poverty alleviation has become a buzzword in Bangladesh over the last three decades. Bangladesh has so far implemented five Five-Year Plans and one Two-Year Plan and a Three-Year PRSP Rolling Plan to accelerate economic growth and poverty reduction. Although the intensity of poverty has lessened to some extent, its depth and severity still persist. Instruments such as Micro credit and Safety Net Program have been contributing to poverty alleviation, but it has proved around the globe that these two instruments are not successful in reducing Income Inequality. This call for a new strategy which can reduce poverty and income inequality. In this context, Waqf can be one of the vital alternatives alongside Zakah because early history indicates free education, scholarship, orphanage, free treatment, and inns for nomads as provided by Waqf based institutions. In fact, Zakah and Waqf played the key role in reducing poverty in Islam. At present Waqf based institutions are not growing at a considerable level. But if we really want to do something for the needy and the poor, we have to revive this much needed institution. Therefore, starting a worldwide Waqf movement is indispensable. This paper tries to assess the role of Waqf in reducing poverty in the context of Bangladesh and finally attempts to present an insight as to how it can be revised.
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This article presents findings from a study that examined the attitudes and behaviors toward religion and spirituality held by 328 randomly selected Virginia licensed clinical social workers, psychologists, and professional counselors. Significant differences were found among the three groups, with social workers generally holding a middle position in comparison with psychologists and professional counselors. As a whole, respondents were found to value the religious or spiritual dimension in their own lives, to respect the function it serves for people in general, and to address, to some extent, religious and spiritual issues in practice. Limited professional training in this area was reported, however, with 79% (n = 259) of the respondents stating that religious or spiritual issues were rarely or never addressed during the course of their graduate education and training. Implications for social work education and practice are discussed.
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This paper estimates the impact of Zakat funds on the annual development plan of Bangladesh. While the Government of Bangladesh has been very keen on alleviating poverty, it has never looked at the institution of Zakat as a national strategy for poverty alleviation. We have shown that Zakat funds can replace government budgetary expenditures in amounts ranging from 21 percent of Annual Development Plan (ADP) in 1983/1984 to 43 percent of ADP in 2004/2005. This amounts to TK.30683 million in 1983/1984 to TK. 220000 million in 2004/2005. The government can utilize this money for other developmental or social expenditures. Zakat funds can increase the taxation potential of the government through the improvement of productivity, employment and output. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), on the other hand, is a lucrative issue as the governments of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) or Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) are due to get more funds from the Aid Clubs that ultimately increase the dependence of our economy on the externally driven prescriptions. Though Bangladesh currently falls in the category of LDC, the country's increasing external debt burden may move it to an HIPC classification. The Domar Debt Model shows that the dynamic debt burden is 5.4% of GDP. Individuals behind the PRSP have some pious hopes of eradicating poverty. Unfortunately, neither the government nor the International Monetary Fund/World Bank see the need to include Zakat as a poverty alleviating instrument.
'Faith-based organisations' (FBOs) are gaining increasing attention within development circles - amongst practitioners, funders, and policymakers as well as academics. While some discussion has taken place over the meaning of the term 'FBO' in academic circles, little empirical research has been conducted as to the relevance and interpretation of the term in different contexts and what role religion plays within organisations engaged in development-related activities. This paper contributes to this discussion by comparing a range of organisations engaged in charitable and development-related activities in the city of Karachi and elsewhere in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The findings reveal a broad distinction between local charities, which depend on individual donations for their funding, and for which religious values and beliefs are intertwined to differing degrees in their work, and professional development organisations, which rely on domestic and international institutional funding and have no apparent relationship with religion. However, not all organisations fit neatly into these two categories, demonstrating that religion operates in complex and varied ways within organisations engaged in development-related activities in Pakistan.
This paper examines organized religion as a driving force within the social welfare state and looks at religious organizations as human service providers. Following a brief historical overview, the contemporary significance of organized religion for special population groups is discussed. Information is presented on religious institutions, religiously affiliated organizations, and religious congregations for incorporation into existing courses in social work policy, organization, administration, and community practice.