Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: Cause or bystander

World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 01/2014; 20(3):613-629. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i3.613
Source: PubMed


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research.

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Available from: Dimitrios Petrou Bogdanos, Jun 20, 2015
    • "Similar approaches have been attempted in numerous studies that evaluated prior infections by H. pylori as a cause of different autoimmunity conditions, focusing on HPU and several of the other known virulence factors produced by this pathogen. However, as recently reviewed bySmyk et al., 2014, more studies are still necessary to reconcile conflicting data before conclusions can be drawn. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ureases are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. They were the first enzymes to be crystallized and, with them, the notion that enzymes are proteins became accepted. Novel toxic properties of ureases that are independent of their enzyme activity have been discovered in the last three decades. Since our first description of the neurotoxic properties of canatoxin, an isoform of the jack bean urease, which appeared in Toxicon in 1981, about one hundred articles have been published on "new" properties of plant and microbial ureases. Here we review the present knowledge on the non-enzymatic properties of ureases. Plant ureases and microbial ureases are fungitoxic to filamentous fungi and yeasts by a mechanism involving fungal membrane permeabilization. Plant and at least some bacterial ureases have potent insecticidal effects. This entomotoxicity relies partly on an internal peptide released upon proteolysis of ingested urease by insect digestive enzymes. The intact protein and its derived peptide(s) are neurotoxic to insects and affect a number of other physiological functions, such as diuresis, muscle contraction and immunity. In mammal models some ureases are acutely neurotoxic upon injection, at least partially by enzyme-independent effects. For a long time bacterial ureases have been recognized as important virulence factors of diseases by urease-producing microorganisms. Ureases activate exocytosis in different mammalian cells recruiting eicosanoids and Ca(2+)-dependent pathways, even when their ureolytic activity is blocked by an irreversible inhibitor. Ureases are chemotactic factors recognized by neutrophils (and some bacteria), activating them and also platelets into a pro-inflammatory "status". Secretion-induction by ureases may play a role in fungal and bacterial diseases in human and animals. The now recognized "moonlighting" properties of these proteins have renewed interest in ureases for their biotechnological potential to improve plant defense against pests and as potential targets to ameliorate diseases due to pathogenic urease-producing microorganisms.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Toxicon
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    • "Individuals positive for H. pylori infection at the enrollment time were 2.7 times more prone to develop diabetes than seronegative individuals [9]. There are several reports describing an association between H. pylori infection and autoimmune diseases [10]; however, evidence of a link with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is conflicting. For example, Pocecco et al. reported increased prevalence of H. pylori with age in young diabetics [11], while according to other studies the frequency of H. pylori infection in T1D was comparable to healthy controls [12] [13] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been linked to Helicobacter pylori infection, although results are conflicting. No previous study addressed a possible link between H. pylori infection and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). In this study, a correlation among H. pylori infection and the risk of autoimmune diabetes in comparison with T2D was investigated. Methods. Sera from 234 LADA patients, 105 patients with late-onset T1D, and 156 patients with T2D were analyzed for anti-H. pylori and the cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA) IgG antibodies. Results. H. pylori seroprevalence was comparable in LADA (52%), late-onset T1D (45%), and T2D (49%) with no gender differences.The seroprevalence of CagA IgG was significantly higher in autoimmune diabetes (late-onset T1D: 45%, LADA: 40%) compared to T2D (25%; 𝑝 <0.028). Conclusions. Although H. pylori seroprevalence was similar in LADA, T1D, and T2D, anti-CagA positivity was significantly increased among patients with autoimmune diabetes, suggesting that more virulent H. pylori strains might be a trigger for immune mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Diabetes Research
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection contributes to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) onset in gerbils. Methods: A total of 135 Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into two groups: an H. pylori infection group and a control group. Both groups were fed the same diet and the same amount of food. Each group was then divided into three subgroups, which were sacrificed at 6, 12, or 18 mo for analysis. At each time point, arterial blood was collected from the abdominal aorta and a complete blood cell count was analyzed in the clinical laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. Results: There were no significant differences in platelet counts (938.00 ± 270.27/L vs 962.95 ± 162.56 × 10(9)/L), red blood cell counts (8.11 ± 1.25/L vs 8.44 ± 1.48 × 10(12)/L), or hemoglobin levels (136.9 ± 8.76 g/L vs 123.21 ± 18.42 g/L) between the control and the H. pylori groups, respectively, at 18 mo. With the exception of the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), all other indicators, including white blood cell counts, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte count percentage, showed no significant differences between the control and H. pylori infection groups at each time point. The MCV in the H. pylori infection group (52.32 f/L ± 2.86 f/L) was significantly lower than the control group (55.63 ± 1.89 f/L) at 18 mo (P = 0.005), though no significant differences were observed at 6 (54.40 ± 2.44 f/L vs 53.30 ± 1.86 f/L) or 12 mo (53.73 ± 2.31 f/L vs 54.80 ± 3.34 f/L). Conclusion: A single H. pylori infection is insufficient to cause onset of ITP or IDA and other factors may be required for disease onset.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
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