Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets in Infants Presenting with Hypocalcaemic Convulsions
Hypocalcaemia evaluation of the clinical, biochemical and radiologicalfeatures of 91 infants with rickets who presented as hypocalcaemic convulsions.
Ninety-one hypocalcaemic infants who were brought to hospital with convulsion and diag-nosed with rickets related to vitamin D deficiency according to their clinical, biochemical and radio-logicalfeatures were retrospectively reviewed.
Mean values of the laboratory data were as follows: calcium 5.55 +/- 0.79 mg/dL, phosphorus 4.77 +/- 1.66 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 1525.5 +/- 925.4 U/L and parathormone 256.8 +/- 158.3 pg/mL. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were below normal (< 20 ng/mL) in 37 infants.
Vitamin D deficiency should be considered in infants presenting with hypocalcaemia. To avoid complications such as convulsions, clinicians should give vitamin D supplementation to such infants.
Available from: Eugen Trinka
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ABSTRACT: In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage.
Available from: Tom D Thacher
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Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are common worldwide, causing nutritional rickets and osteomalacia, which have a major impact on health, growth, and development of infants, children, and adolescents; the consequences can be lethal or can last into adulthood. The goals of this evidence-based consensus document are to provide health care professionals with guidance for prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional rickets and to provide policy makers with a framework to work toward its eradication.
A systematic literature search examining the definition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nutritional rickets in children was conducted. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system that describes the strength of the recommendation and the quality of supporting evidence.
Thirty-three nominated experts in pediatric endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and health economics evaluated the evidence on specific questions within five working groups. The consensus group, representing 11 international scientific organizations, participated in a multiday conference in May 2014 to reach a global evidence-based consensus.
This consensus document defines nutritional rickets and its diagnostic criteria and describes the clinical management of rickets and osteomalacia. Risk factors, particularly in mothers and infants, are ranked, and specific prevention recommendations including food fortification and supplementation are offered for both the clinical and public health contexts.
Rickets, osteomalacia, and vitamin D and calcium deficiencies are preventable global public health problems in infants, children, and adolescents. Implementation of international rickets prevention programs, including supplementation and food fortification, is urgently required.
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