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Bedreigde en kwetsbare korstmossen in Nederland. Basisrapport met voorstel voor de Rode Lijst

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  • Laboratório de Botânica/Liquenologia
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Bedreigde en kwetsbare korstmossen in Nederland. Basisrapport met voorstel voor de Rode Lijst

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... It seems the description by of the New Forest as an internationally important site for heathland lichens still stands. On current data some of the new records seem anomalous in a British context but comparisons with the Netherlands (Aptroot et al, 1998& BLWG, 2011 shows species such as Cladonia callosa and Micarea leprosula are widespread there. There are interesting differences, however: Cladonia subcervicornis and Icmadophila ericetorum were extinct before 1900 in the Netherlands and I have failed to find any Stereocaulon condensatum, a signature species of lichen rich heathland in the Netherlands, in the New Forest. ...
Technical Report
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The New Forest is well known for its internationally important lichen assemblages in old growth pasture woodland. There is evidence to suggest that the heathlands also have an internationally important diverse lichen community, but little published survey evidence exists.Between 2011 and 2015, field surveys covering 100 1km squares across the New Forest were undertaken. Natural England, Forestry Commission England and the National Trust commissioned this assessment and survey to produce a report to provide evidence and information about the richness, diversity and relative importance of the heathlands of the New Forest for lichens. The findings will be used to inform management of the site. Key Points Remarkably high numbers of new species of conservation interest were found during the survey; many were quite unexpected species. The lichen diversity occurs mainly in discrete hot spots that are found widely through the heathland landscapes of the New Forest. No indication was found of a significant decline in heathland lichens within the New Forest heaths when compared to previous survey data. The survey supports the assessment by Fletcher et al (1984) that the New Forest is of international importance for its heathland lichen assemblage. The most significant group of species in European terms, are those of open damp hard humus surfaces. The survival of the diverse lichen assemblages on the New Forest heathland is associated with the continued practice of traditional management. The most important were varied grazing pressure, some times quite high, rotations controlled burning and erosion and soil disturbance, including from recreational use. The latter mainly unintentional and often viewed as problematic and destructive. The New Forest as baseline: an important aspect of the New Forest is that it has changed less than other heathlands in the lowlands in the last 150 years. As such, it can provide an important baseline for biodiversity conservation against which to measure changes that may have occurred on other heathlands before detailed recording began.
... Alle verspreidingskaartjes uit de Belgische verspreidingsatlas, samen met de korte habitatbespreking per soort en een uitgewerkte bibliografi e, kunnen rechtstreeks worden geraadpleegd op de Saltabel-website (www.saltabel.org). Meer gedetailleerde soortbesprekingen en aanvullende informatie is terug te vinden in de basisrapporten opgesteld voor de Nederlandse Rode Lijst (Odé 1999;Odé et al. 1999;Odé 2004) en in enkele andere referenties (o.a. Brown 1983;Detzel 1998;Couvreur & Godeau 2000). Ook Kleukers et al. (1997a) behandelen de sprinkhanen-en krekelfauna van Nederland bijzonder gedetailleerd en zijn belangrijke referenties voor bedreigingen en te nemen maatregelen. ...
... Thelocarpon pallidum wordt vermeld in de standaardlijst van 1988 (Brand et al. 1988) en heeft daar soortnummer 4606, in het basisrapport voor de Nederlandse Rode Lijst korstmossen uit 1998 (Aptroot et al. 1998) en in een artikel over de internationale betekenis van Nederlandse lichenen (Aptroot & Sparrius 2009). De enige oude waarneming waarop deze vermeldingen betrekking hadden, is echter komen te vervallen. ...
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Thelocarpon pallidum, a colorless Thelocarpon new to The Netherlands In the Renkums Beekdal Thelocarpon pallidum was found on a piece of brick. The species can be distinguished from other Thelocarpon species by the presence of algal cells in the perithecium, the absence of paraphyses and the large ascospores. The species was reported for the Netherlands once before, but was recently removed from the Dutch list again. Similar to other inconspicuous pioneer lichens, T. pallidum is most likely an overlooked species.
... Th ey are included in the red list of species in several European countries (e.g. L ő k ö s and T ó th 1996, Cieslinski et al. 2003, Woods 2010, Aptroot et al. 2012) as there are very few locations where acid-soil dunes remain open in Europe (Van den Boom 2002, Houston 2008, Doody 2013). In the hemi-boreal and temperate regions, open grassland habitats are overgrowing with forest during vegetation succession (Poschlod and WallisDeVries 2002) and natural disturbance (e.g. ...
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A unique, species-rich and endangered lichen biota can be found on European coastal and inland sand dunes. However, it is increasingly affected by natural succession as well as by anthropogenic disturbances. We studied lichen diversity on the grey dunes and dune heaths of coastal and inland regions of Estonia. A total of 28 study plots were investigated; in each 0.1 ha study plot general environmental variables and anthropogenic disturbances were described and all epigeic lichen species were identified. We found 66 lichenized fungus (lichen) species, including several rare and ten red-listed lichens. Multivariate analysis (DCA, CCA) was performed to examine gradients in species composition and to relate variation in species data to environmental factors. In addition, we used redundancy analysis (RDA) to relate variation in species’ trait composition to environmental factors. Species composition on grey dunes differed significantly from that on dune heaths. The characteristic species for grey dunes are, besides several Cladonia species, foliose lichens, e.g. Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata and Peltigera spp. Also species’ traits composition was different for either habitat, indicating that sorediate lichens, foliose lichens, lichens with cyanobacterium as the main photobiont, and sparsely branched Cladonia species dominate on grey dunes, while esorediate, green-algal, crustose and richly branched fruticose lichens are common on dune heaths. Soil pH was the most essential environmental variable for determining both species composition and species’ traits composition. The composition of lichen species was also significantly influenced by forest closeness, soil Mg content and cover of bare sand; the effect of ground disturbances was low compared to the effect of these environmental factors. To protect and conserve the species-rich lichen biota, it is necessary to protect the dune habitats from building activity, to avoid overtrampling in recreation areas and to regularly remove shrubs and trees.
... Changes in both herbal vegetation and mycoflora of Dutch forests during the last decades are mainly due to the eutrophicating effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, which is now considered as the greatest threat to forest biodiversity on sandy soils ( (Aptroot et al 1998), eutrophication through atmospheric N-deposition has not yet resulted in a loss of species. What's more, the total plant species densities in Dutch forests have increased over the last decades. ...
... Bron Verbeteringen in de atmosfeer hebben soms ook al geresulteerd in verbeteringen in de natuur. De eerste tekenen van voorzichtig herstel zijn zichtbaar bij korstmossen, die direct kunnen reageren op een verlaging van de concentratie zwaveldioxide in de lucht (Aptroot et al. 1998;Van Herk 2001;. Soorten die afhankelijk zijn van verbetering in het bovenste deel van de bodem komen langzaam weer terug; daarbij gaat het bijvoorbeeld om bodemkorstmossen en mycorrhizapaddenstoelen (De Vries et al. 2002). ...
Technical Report
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Zure regen ontwikkelde zich begin jaren tachtig van de twintigste eeuw tot een breed ervaren milieuprobleem. De vrees bestond dat grote delen van de natuur, en dan vooral bossen, onherstelbaar zouden worden beschadigd. Nu, dertig jaar later, is de kennis over zure regen en over de effecten ervan aanzienlijk toegenomen. En er is sindsdien in Nederland en Europa veel beleid ontwikkeld. De centrale vraag in deze publicatie is: hoe kijken we met de wetenschappelijke kennis van nu aan tegen dertig jaar verzuringsbeleid? De belangrijkste conclusies van het onderzoek zijn: • De bossen zijn niet doodgegaan, maar ze zijn wel aangetast. De atmosferische depositie van zuur (en stikstof) heeft meetbaar bijgedragen aan veranderingen in de bodemchemie, de grondwaterkwaliteit en het biodiversiteitsverlies in de onder-groei van bossen. Ook in andere ecosystemen zijn effecten opgetreden. • De schade aan de Nederlandse natuur zou aanzienlijk groter zijn geweest als de depositie van zuur (en stikstof) op het hoge niveau van 1980 was gebleven. • De beleidsmaatregelen om de verzuring terug te dringen, zijn terecht genomen. Ook toepassing van het voorzorgsbeginsel blijkt achteraf gezien juist te zijn geweest. Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving, augustus 2010 Beleidsstudies Zure regen Een analyse van dertig jaar verzurings-problematiek in Nederland
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Abstract Scientific information about biodiversity distribution is indispensable for nature conservation and sustainable management of natural resources. For several groups of animals and plants, such data are available, but for fungi, especially in tropical regions like West Africa, they are mostly missing. Here, information for West African countries about species diversity of fungi and fungus-like organisms (other organisms traditionally studied by mycologists) is compiled from literature and analysed in its historical context for the first time. More than 16,000 records of fungi representing 4843 species and infraspecific taxa were found in 860 publications relating to West Africa. Records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) database (2395 species), and that of the former International Mycological Institute fungal reference collection (IMI) (2526 species) were also considered. The compilation based on literature is more comprehensive than the GBIF and IMI data, although they include 914 and 679 species names, respectively, which are not present in the checklist based on literature. According to data available in literature, knowledge on fungal richness ranges from 19 species (Guinea Bissau) to 1595 (Sierra Leone). In estimating existing species diversity, richness estimators and the Hawksworth 6:1 fungus to plant species ratio were used. Based on the Hawksworth ratio, known fungal diversity in West Africa represents 11.4% of the expected diversity. For six West African countries, however, known fungal species diversity is less than 2%. Incomplete knowledge of fungal diversity is also evident by species accumulation curves not reaching saturation, by 45.3% of the fungal species in the checklist being cited only once for West Africa, and by 66.5% of the fungal species in the checklist reported only for a single country. The documentation of different systematic groups of fungi is very heterogeneous because historically investigations have been sporadic. Recent opportunistic sampling activities in Benin showed that it is not difficult to find specimens representing new country records. Investigation of fungi in West Africa started just over two centuries ago and it is still in an early pioneer phase. To promote proper exploration, the present checklist is provided as a tool to facilitate fungal identification in this region and to aid conceptualisation and justification of future research projects. Documentation of fungal diversity is urgently needed because natural habitats are being lost on a large scale through altered land use and climate change.
Chapter
In this chapter, the main ecological factors that characterize the epiphytic environment and which determine the composition of epiphytic communities have been described. In particular, emphasis has been made to focus on epiphytic lichens which, due to their ecophysiological characteristics, represent a set of highly specialized organisms that live in a delicate balance in this habitat. The main threats that affect their survival have been analysed along with the conservation actions that have been undertaken to ensure the maintenance of the populations of the most endangered species. Furthermore, some good practices are suggested that can guarantee greater success of future protection actions.
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telgebied • is honderd hectare groot (één vierkante kilometer); • bevat minimaal drie wateren; • ligt in één landschapstype; • ieder jaar worden precies hetzelfde gebied en dezelfde wateren geïnventariseerd; • alle wateren worden eenmalig genummerd en behouden datzelfde nummer gedurende alle opvolgende jaren; • het gebied met daarbij de genummerde waarnemingen wordt ingetekend op een veldkaart; • betreden van een gebied voor het monitoren vindt plaats met toestemming van de eigenaar of beheerder. bezoeken • het gebied wordt ieder voorjaar minimaal vier keer bezocht; • de bezoekdata zijn afhankelijk van de periode(n) waarin de aanwezige soorten het meest actief zijn; • het gebied wordt tweemaal overdag en tweemaal 's avonds bezocht; • alle aanwezige soorten amfibieën worden gevolgd; • verstoring van het water en de dieren blijft tot een minimum beperkt. waarnemingen • bij elk bezoek worden waarnemingen genoteerd op het veldformulier; • per water wordt aangegeven of een soort er afwezig (0) is dan wel zeldzaam (1), algemeen (2) of zeer algemeen (3) voorkomt. bureauwerk • na het laatste veldbezoek stelt de waarnemer voor elk water vast wat de maximale presentie is waarmee een soort dat jaar is aangetroffen; • de maximale presentie wordt ingevuld in de tabel op de voorkant van het telformulier; • de informatie over het telgebied en de waarnemergegevens worden op het formulier ingevuld; • het ingevulde formulier wordt vóór 31 augustus naar RAVON Werkgroep Monitoring gestuurd.
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Climate change may hamper the preservation of nature targets, but may create new potential hotspots of biodiversity as well. To timely design adequate measures, information is needed about the feasibility of nature targets under a future climate. Habitat distribution models may provide this, but current models have certain drawbacks: they apply indirect empirical relationships between habitat and vegetation, they often disregard spatially explicit information about groundwater, and they are designed for too coarse spatial scales. We introduce a model that explicitly takes into account spatial effects through groundwater and that can easily be adapted to new scientific approaches and the needs of end-users. It combines (spatially explicit) data sources, transfer functions derived from mechanistic models, and robust relationships between habitat factors and plant characteristics. Outputs are maps showing the occurrence probabilities of vegetation types and their associated conservation values, both on a spatial scale that fits the needs of nature managers and spatial planners. The model was applied to a catchment of 270 km2 to forecast, on a 25 m resolution, the effects of a national climate scenario (related to IPCC A2 and A1B). Computation time was a couple of minutes on a standard PC. Severe loss was predicted for wet and mesotrophic species-rich grasslands, while vegetation of dry and acidic soils appeared to profit. The results were not univocal though, and could probably not have been foreseen on the basis of expert judgement and logic alone, especially because of edaphic factors and spatial hydrological relationships.
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Pyienocollema chlorococcum Aptroot & van den Boom is described, a new species from zinc-contaminated soils and wood in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is characterized by a gelatinous thallus with a chlorococcoid photobiont, whereas all previous known species of Pyrenocollema are associated with cyanobacteria.
Chapter
This chapter presents a research carried out as part of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification, which focused on direct and indirect effects of SOx, NOy, and NHx, on “dominant” heathland species—Calluna and grasses— and on “rare” species—Arnica montana, Viola canina. At the ecosystem level, nitrogen input leads to the elimination of slow-growing species by fast-growing species but Calluna will not be crowded out by grasses at nitrogen deposition levels up to 150 kg N ha-1yr-1 if its canopy remains closed. Opening of a Calluna canopy can be caused by stress factors such as frost, drought, heather beetle plagues, or by natural ageing. Under normal conditions in the Netherlands, the canopy would hardly ever be opened by natural ageing. At the individual plant level, nitrogen input causes growth stimulation even at low dosages. In rare heathland species however, changes may occur that make them more sensitive to frost, drought, and plagues. The decline of rare heathland species is probably because of direct effects of gaseous SO2 and soil acidification. Adverse effects of SO2 on more than 5% of the heathland species can be expected at long-term average concentrations above a critical level of 8 μg.m-3.
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The morphology, anatomy, chemistry, ecology and distribution of twenty-three Rinodina species present in the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are discussed. This includes R. archaea, R. aspersa, R. atrocinerea, R. bischoffii, R. calcarea, R. confragosa, R. conradii, R. dubyana, R. efflorescens, R. gennarii, R. griseosoralifera, R. immersa, R. interpolate, R. lecanorina, R. occulta, R. oleae, R. oxydata (incl. R. vezdae), R. pityrea, R. pyrina, R. sicula, R. sophodes, R. teichophila and R. tunicata. New data on the chemistry of R. sicula are given. Some illustrations, distribution maps and a key to the species are provided.
Article
Epiphytic lichens in an agricultural area of c. 400 km 2 in the center of The Netherlands were inventoried in 1973 and 1988. The results of these inventories were compared with herbarium material collected in the same area around the turn of the century. Although the total number of species increased from 56 to 68 between 1973 and 1988, c. half of the 105 species present in the herbarium collection was not found in the inventories. The increase in SO 2 concentration until c. 1970, and the decrease thereafter (from c. 32 μg.m -33 in 1976/77 to c. 15 μg.m -3 in 1987/1988) were the main causes for these changes. Drought may have been an additional cause for the decline. The role of NO 2 was hard to assess on the basis of our data. There were no strong indications for effects of atmospheric NH 3.