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Two new species of Exallonyx Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae) from China, with a key to the Chinese species

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Two new species, Exallonyx strictus and Exallonyx pingbianensis, are described and illustrated herein from China. Both species belong to the formicarius-group of subgenus Exallonyx Kieffer. A key for the Chinese formicarius-group is given.
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1142
Accepted by J. Pitts: 2 Feb. 2006; published: 8 Mar. 2006 35
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2006 Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1142: 3541 (2006)
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Two new species of Exallonyx Kieffer (Hymenoptera:
Proctotrupidae) from China, with a key to the Chinese species
JINGXIAN LIU1, JUNHUA HE2 & ZAIFU XU1*
1Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, The People’s Republic
of China. E-mail: jxliu1979@yahoo.com.cn
2Institute of Applied Entomology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, The People’s Republic of China. E-
mail: jhhe@zju.edu.cn
*Correspondence author. E-mail: xuzaifu@scau.edu.cn
Abstract
Two new species, Exallonyx strictus and Exallonyx pingbianensis, are described and illustrated
herein from China. Both species belong to the formicarius-group of subgenus Exallonyx Kieffer. A
key for the Chinese formicarius-group is given.
Key words: Hymenoptera, Proctotrupidae, Exallonyx, new species, China
Introduction
Exallonyx Kieffer, 1904 includes two subgenera: Eocodrus and Exallonyx. Species of the
subgenus Exallonyx Kieffer are divided into 11 species groups (Townes et al., 1981). The
formicarius-group has a worldwide distribution and includes 67 species, of which 6 are
known from China (Townes et al., 1981; Johnson, 1992; Fan et al., 2003; He et al., 2004).
In this paper, we described two additional species belonging to the formicarius-group of
subgenus Exallonyx Kieffer from China.
Material and methods
The descriptions follow the terminology used by Townes & Townes (1981) and He et al
(2004). The type specimens are deposited into the Hymenopteran Collection of Zhejiang
University, Hangzhou, China.
LIU ET AL.
36 © 2006 Magnolia Press
1142
ZOOTAXA Exallonyx strictus Liu, He & Xu, new species
(Figs. 1–6)
Diagnosis of Male
Temple 0.65 as long as eye in dorsal view; the second and tenth flagellar segments
each 2.7, 2.0 as long as wide; tyloids absent; abdominal petiole as long as deep in lateral
view, upper margin straight, distinctly contracted at base, without distinct transverse
wrinkles at under side, its posterior half with six diagonal longitudinal ridges in lateral
view.
Description of Male (holotype)
Front wing 2.0 mm long. Body black. Antenna black brown. Labrum, apical half of
mandible, palpus and tegula fulvous. Leg blackish brown to black, except fore femur, base
and apex of mid femur, apex of hind femur fulvous. Wing hyaline, stigma and strong veins
light brown; weak veins indistinct. Temple 0.65× as long as eye in dorsal view. Gena 0.3×
as long as long diameter of eye. Clypeus 3.0× as wide as long, weakly convex; its apex
truncate with weak transverse ridges on subapical declivity. Second flagellar segment 2.7×
as long as wide. Tenth flagellar segment 2.0× as long as wide. Last segment of antenna
1.6× as long as penultimate segment. Tyloids absent. Area between antennal sockets with
weak ridge. Occipital carina distinct. Pronotum with 4–5 transverse wrinkles on collar.
Epomia strong. Pronotum smooth laterally, without setae behind epomia, but with setae
behind carina on collar. Upper margin of pronotum with single row of setae. Lower corner
of pronotum with two pits. Upper half of mesopleuron nearly asetose except front edge of
mesopleuron with group of setae on upper corner and upper 0.3 of speculum with sparse
setae. Lower half of mesopleuron mostly with long sparse setae except for median area
asetose; lower corner without parallel wrinkles posteriorly. Smooth area of metapleuron
with sparse punctures, 0.5× as long as metapleuron and 0.8× as deep as metapleuron.
Remainder of metapleuron weakly reticulate. Upper margin of propodeum arcuate in
lateral view. Pair of smooth areas present on upper face of propodeum reaching far behind
propodeal spiracle; some small punctures present along median ridge and lateral margin.
Median ridge incomplete, reaching to middle of posterior face. Posterior face of
propodeum irregularly reticulate, with strong transverse ridge at its middle. Lateral areas
of propodeum areolate. Hind femur 4.2× as long as deep. Longer spur of hind tibia 0.6
as long as hind basitarsus. Stigma 1.7× as long as deep receiving radius nearly at middle.
Anterior side of radial cell 0.6× as long as depth of stigma; posterodistal margin of stigma
weakly convex. First radial vein approximately straight, 1.1× as long as wide. Second
radial vein straight, meeting first radial vein without projection. Posterior margin of hind
wing with shallow notch at basal 0.35. Abdominal petiole 1.2× as long as wide in dorsal
view with five strong parallel longitudinal carinae and four longitudinal grooves.
Abdominal petiole as long as deep in lateral view; upper margin straight, distinctly
© 2006 Magnolia Press 37
TWO NEW EXALLONYX
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contracted at base; anterior half weakly striae without transverse ridge, posterior half with
six diagonal strong longitudinal ridges. Base of syntergite with median groove reaching
0.75 to space between thyridia, each side with two short lateral grooves, 0.33× as long as
median groove. First thyridium 2.2× as wide as long, separated from each by 0.33 width of
one thyridium. Setae on syntergite short and sparse; sockets of lowest setae separated from
lower margin of syntergite by 1.6 to 2.0× setal lengths. Paramere triangular, very short and
straight, sharp at tip.
Female. Unknown.
Type material
Holotype male, China, Henan Province: Song County (34.08°N, 112.05°E), Baiyun
Mountain, 19.VII.1996, coll. Ping CAI, No.973066. Paratypes: 1 male, China, Shaanxi
Province: Qinling (34.14°N, 106.54°E), 3.IX.1999, coll. Junhua HE, No.990204; 1 male,
China, Shaanxi Province: Zhouzhi (34.10°N, 108.12°E), 2–3.VI.1998, coll. Yun MA,
No.981455; 1 male, China, Gansu Province: Dangchang County (34.04°N, 104.21°E),
31.VII.2004, coll. Qiong WU, No.20047022.
Distribution
China (Henan, Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces).
Etymology
The specific epithet is derived from the Latin adjective strictus (narrow) which refers
to the fact that basal portion of abdominal petiole is distinctly contracted.
Remarks
This species is easily separated from all other species by having the basal portion of
the abdominal petiole distinctly contracted and the underside without a transverse ridge.
Also, the posterior half of abdominal petiole has six longitudinal ridges.
Exallonyx pingbianensis Liu, He & Xu, new species
(Figs. 7–11)
Diagnosis of Male
Temple 0.83 as long as eye in dorsal view; the second and tenth flagellar segments
each 3.4, 2.6 as long as wide; tyloids absent; abdominal petiole 2.0 as long as deep in
lateral view, upper margin straight, distinctly contracted at base, with four weak transverse
wrinkles at under side, its posterior half with four diagonal longitudinal ridges in lateral
view.
LIU ET AL.
38 © 2006 Magnolia Press
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FIGURES 111. 1–6. Exallonyx strictus, new species; 1. antenna; 2. fore wing; 3. thorax in lateral
view; 4. hind leg; 5. abdominal petiole in dorsal view; and 6. abdominal petiole in lateral view.
7–11. Exallonyx pingbianensis, new species; 7. antenna; 8. fore wing; 9. thorax in lateral view; 10.
abdominal petiole in dorsal view; and 11. abdominal petiole in lateral view.
© 2006 Magnolia Press 39
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Description of Male (holotype)
Front wing 2.3 mm long. Body black. Antenna black brown. Labrum, apical half of
mandible and tegula reddish brown. Palpus pale brown. Fore leg light brown, except upper
side of femur greyish yellow. Mid leg light brown, except coxa and trochanter black and
upper side of femur grayish yellow. Hind leg black, except base and apex of femur redish
brown. Wing hyaline, stigma and strong veins black brown, weak veins colorless. Temple
0.83× as long as eye in dorsal view. Gena 0.4× as long as long diameter of eye. Clypeus
2.5× as wide as long, weakly convex; its apex truncate with distinct transverse ridges on
subapical declivity. Second flagellar segment 3.4× as long as wide. Tenth flagellar
segment 2.6× as long as wide. Last segment of antenna 1.6× as long as penultimate
segment. Tyloids absent. Area between antennal sockets with weak ridge. Occipital carina
distinct. Pronotum with 4–5 transverse wrinkles on collar. Epomia strong. Pronotum
smooth laterally, without setae behind epomia; setae present behind carina on collar.
Upper margin of pronotum with single row of setae. Lower corner of pronotum with two
pits. Front edge of mesopleuron with patch of setae at upper corner and another just above
horizontal groove; bare area between these two patches 1.3× as long as tegula; speculum
with sparse setae on upper 0.47. Lower half of mesopleuron mostly with sparse setae
except for median area asetose; anterior portion and lower corner of horizontal groove
with parallel fine wrinkles. Smooth area of metapleuron 0.55× as long as metapleuron and
0.8× as deep as metapleuron. Remainder of metapleuron with irregular fine wrinkles.
Upper margin of propodeum arcuate in lateral view. Upper face of propodeum smooth
with weak wrinkles on posterolateral margin. Median ridge incomplete and reaching to
middle of posterior face. Posterior face of propodeum weakly rugose with strong
transverse ridge medially. Lateral areas of propodeum with irregular reticulate wrinkles.
Hind femur 4.5× as long as deep. Longer spur of hind tibia 0.6× as long as hind basitarsus.
Stigma 2.0× as long as deep receiving radius nearly at middle. Anterior side of radial cell
0.5× as long as depth of stigma; posterodistal margin of stigma weakly convex. First radial
vein oblique, 1.5× as long as wide. Second radial vein straight, meeting first radial vein
with projection. Posterior margin of hind wing with shallow notch at basal 0.35.
Abdominal petiole 1.5× as long as wide in dorsal view with five strong parallel
longitudinal carinae and four longitudinal grooves. Abdominal petiole 2.0× as long as
deep in lateral view; upper margin straight, contracted at base; anterior half with four weak
transverse ridges, behind that with four strong diagonal longitudinal ridges. Base of
syntergite with median groove reaching 0.8 to space between thyridia, each side with one
short lateral groove, 0.3× as long as median groove. First thyridium 2.0× as wide as long,
separated from each by 0.35 width of one thyridium. Setae on syntergite short and sparse,
far from lower margin. Paramere triangular, not decurved, sharp at tip.
Female. Unknown.
LIU ET AL.
40 © 2006 Magnolia Press
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ZOOTAXA Type material
Holotype, male, China, Yunnan Province: Pingbian County (22.58°N, 103.41°E),
Dawei Mountain, 18.VII.2003, coll. Tingjing LI, No.20045268.
Dirtibution
China (Yunnan Province).
Etymology
The specific epithet is derived from the Latin adjective pingbianensis (inhabiting
Pingbian), in reference to the collecting locality.
Remarks
This new species is very similar to E. strictus sp. nov., because both have the
abdominal petiole contracted basally, and due to the strong transverse ridge at middle of
posterior face of propodeum. These two features are unique to these two new species of
Exallonyx. Exallonyx pingbianensis differs from E. strictus by having the second flagellar
segment 3.4× as long as wide, the tenth flagellar segment 2.6× as long as wide, the
abdominal petiole 1.5× as long as wide in the dorsal view, but 2.0× as long as deep in
lateral view, and with four diagonal longitudinal ridges on its posterior half in lateral view.
Key to the Chinese species of formicarius-group of Exallonyx
1. Flagellum with tyloids .........................................................E. laevigatus Fan and He
- Flagellum without tyloids..........................................................................................2
2(1). Abdominal petiole contracted at base........................................................................3
- Abdominal petiole not contracted at base..................................................................4
3(2). Second flagellar segment 2.7× as long as wide; abdominal petiole 1.0× as long as
deep in lateral view with six diagonal longitudinal ridges..............E. strictus sp. nov.
- Second flagellar segment 3.4× as long as wide; abdominal petiole 2.0× as long as
deep in lateral view with four diagonal longitudinal ridgesE. pingbianensis sp. nov.
4(2). First thyridium 1.8–2.0× as wide as long...................................................................5
- First thyridium 2.5–3.5× as wide as long...................................................................6
5(4). Clypeus 3.1× as wide as long; median groove on syntergite reaching 0.5 to space
between tyridia, with two lateral grooves 0.67× as long as median groove ...............
..............................................................................................E. ejunicidus He and Fan
- Clypeus 2.5× as wide as long; median groove on syntergite reaching 0.7 to space
between thyridia, with two lateral grooves 0.2× as long as median groove................
.............................................................................................E. fujianensis Fan and He
6(4). First thyridium 2.5× as wide as long........................... E. chiuae Townes and Townes
- First thyridium 3.1–3.5× as wide as long...................................................................7
© 2006 Magnolia Press 41
TWO NEW EXALLONYX
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7(6). Upper margin of pronotum with 2 rows of setae ....................E. fuliginis He and Fan
- Upper margin of pronotum with single row of setae......... E. nigricornis He and Fan
Acknowledgements
We thank Prof. Xuexin CHEN and Associate Prof. Yun MA of the Institute of Applied
Entomology, Zhejiang University, for their kind help during the study. We are indebted to
Dr. James Pitts and two anonymous reviewers whose suggestions improved the
manuscript. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of
China (No. 30370173, 30499341).
References
Fan, J.J. & He, J.J. (2003) Hymenoptera: Serphidae. In Huang, B. K. (chief ed.) Fauna of Insects in
Fujian Province of China, Fujian Science Press, Fuzhou, 7, 716–723.
He, J.H. & Fan, J.J. (2004) Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae. In: He, J. H et al. (ed.) Hymenopteran
Insects Fauna of Zhejiang, Science Press, Beijing, 326–345.
Johnson, N.F. (1992) Catalog of world species of Proctotrupoidea exclusive of Platygasteridae
(Hymneoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 51, 1–693.
Kieffer, J.J. (1904) Nouveaux proctotrypides myrmcophiles. Bulletin of the Society Historical
Nature of Metz, 23, 34.
Kieffer, J.J. (1914) Fam. Serphidae (=Proctotrupidae) et Calliceratidae (=Ceraphronidae). Das Tier-
reich, 42, 254pp.
Lin, K.S. (1988) Two new genera of Serphidae from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Serphidae). Journal of
Taiwan Museum, 41(1), 15–33.
Townes, H. & Townes, M. (1981) A revision of the Serphidae (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the
American Entomological Institute, 32, 1–541.
... On the metasoma of all ceraphronoid wasps, there are pairs of translucent patches of cuticle on the syntergite and synsternite, referred to as the syntergal and synsternal translucent patches (stp) (Mikó and Deans 2009) (Fig. 1). These translucent patches may be similar to the smooth patches of cuticle found on the metasoma of in Orussidae and Xiphydriidae (Vilhelmsen 2003), the gastrocoelus and thyridium of Ichneumonidae and Proctotrupidae, and the pseudothyridium which occurs widely across Hymenoptera (Liu et al. 2006;Townes 1969). In addition to these translucent patches, all Ceraphronoidea possess patches of setae on the synsternite near the synsternal translucent patches, known as the synsternal setiferous patches (smp) (Mikó and Deans 2009) (Fig. 1). ...
... Even though translucent and setiferous patches have been observed in several hymenopteran taxa, little work has been done to investigate their morphology and potential functions. The translucent cuticle in the gastrocoelus, thyridium and pseudothyridium has never been studied before, even though differences in the thyridium have been used to distinguish between proctotrupid species (Liu et al. 2006). Translucent cuticle is found in many different insects and is associated with different functions, from light dispersal in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) (Kim et al. 2012) to glandular activity in giant silk moths (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). ...
... Both patches of setae (Masner and Huggert 1989;) and patches of translucent cuticle (Liu et al. 2006) have been used to distinguish between species and even genera in other Hymenoptera (Vilhelmsen 2003). The same is true within Ceraphronoidea. ...
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All Ceraphronoidea have metasomal patches of translucent cuticle and setae that have never been investigated before, despite their potential behavioral and phylogenetic relevance. To understand the internal and external morphology of these structures, specimens were examined using a broad array of histology-based methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM). For the first time, the setiferous patches are shown to be associated with exocrine glands in Ceraphronoidea. The proposed glandular function is the secretion of pheromones, with the setae above the pore openings serving as a surface for evaporation. The translucent cuticle is morphologically distinct from the setiferous patches; structures resembling lamellar bodies were found underneath the translucent cuticle, and may be associated with photoreceptors or endocrine glands. The locations of translucent cuticle on the metasoma are unique to different families and genera within Ceraphronoidea, and could be useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships. The character distribution suggests that the genera Trassedia and Masner are more closely related to Ceraphronidae than Megaspilidae. We found similar structures containing translucent cuticle in Orussidae and Ichneumonoidea, indicating that these structures are potentially a rich character system for future phylogenetic analysis in Hymenoptera.
... Afterward, two new genera were described from China (Fan and He, 1993;He and Xu, 2007). In the years following, several species were identified and described by Kolyada ( , 1997Kolyada ( , 1999Kolyada ( , 2012b, Fan & He (2003), He & Fan (1991, 2004, He & Xu (2004a, 2004b, 2011a, 2011b, He et al. (2006), Liu et al. (2006aLiu et al. ( , 2006bLiu et al. ( , 2006cLiu et al. ( , 2011, Xu et al. (2007aXu et al. ( , 2007b, , Choi et al. (2012). The number of species in this family reached 403 in 2013 (Aguir et al., 2013). ...
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As a result of this study on proctotrupid wasps in Iran, 15 species belonging to seven genera were identified. Among them, seven species are new records for the Iranian fauna: Mischoserphus obesus Townes, 1981, Pschornia minora Townes, 1981, Exallonyx certus Townes, 1981, Exallonyx longicornis (Nees, 1834), Exallonyx confusus (Nixon, 1938), Exallonyx pallidistigma Morley, 1922 and Exallonyx subserratus Kieffer, 1908. The genus Pschornia Townes, 1981 is recorded from Iran for the first time and Pschornia persica Izadizadeh, Kolyada & Talebi sp. nov. is described as new for science. The number of species of Proctotrupidae in Iran is now raised from 18 to 26. Diagnostic characters of the newly recorded species are provided along with illustrations. A key to all genera and species of Proctotrupidae known in Iran, as well as a distribution map of all species throughout the world, is presented.
... The family Proctotrupidae is quite well studied in the West and East Palearctic Regions (Pschorn-Walcher, 1971;Wall, 1986;Fan and He, 1991;He and Fan, 1991;Wall, 1991;Zettel, 1991;Fan and He, 1993;Wall, 1994;Kolyada, 1996Kolyada, , 1997Kolyada, , 1998Kolyada, , 1999Fan and He, 2003;He and Fan, 2004;Xu, 2004a, 2004b;He et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2006aLiu et al., , 2006bLiu et al., , 2006cHe and Xu, 2007;Hedqvist, 2007;Xu et al., 2007aXu et al., , 2007bHe and Xu, 2010;Xu and He, 2010;Xu, 2011a, 2011b;Liu et al., 2011;Wall, 2011;Choi et al., 2012;Kolyada, 2012) and about 60 species belonging to 15 genera are reported from the West Palearctic ( Townes and Townes, 1981;Wall, 1986Wall, , 1991Wall, , 1994Kolyada, 1996;Buhl, 1998;Kolyada, 1998;Hedqvist, 2007;Wall, 2011;Choi et al., 2012). There are no records of Proctotrupidae from Iran. ...
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This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of the family Proctotrupidae in Iran. The specimens were collected using Malaise traps from northern Iran during 2010 and 2011. The family Proctotrupidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) is recorded from Iran for the first time. Five species belonging to four genera were identified: Proctotrupes gravidator (Linnaeus, 1758); P. brachypterus (Schrank, 1780); Cryptoserphus aculeator (Haliday, 1839); Disogmus obsoletus Brues, 1905; and Mischoserphus arcuator (Stelfox, 1950). All genera and species are new records for the fauna of Iran. An identification key for the genera of Proctotrupidae is provided.
... The tribe Proctotrupini consists of nine genera and about 270 species in the world (Xu and He, 2010; He and Xu, 2010, 2011a, b; Liu et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2012; Kolyada, 2012). The genus Exallonyx Kieffer, 1904 with about 200 species is the largest genus of the family Proctotrupidae and has a worldwide distribution (Townes and Townes, 1981; Fan and He, 2003; He and Fan, 2004; Kolyada et al., 2004; He et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2006a, b, c; Xu et al., 2007 a, b). Species of this genus are larval parasitoids of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (Hedqvist, 1963; Hoebeke, 1978; Townes and Townes, 1981). ...
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A survey on the genus Exallonyx Kieffer, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae) was conducted in northern Iran. The specimens were collected using Malaise traps during 2010–2011. The genus Exallonyx and six species were collected and identified for the first time from Iran: Exallonyx ater (Gravenhorst, 1807), E. brevicornis (Haliday, 1839), E. formicarius Kieffer, 1904, E. ligatus (Nees, 1834), E. minor Townes, 1981 and E. nixoni Townes, 1981. A key is presented for identification of Exallonyx species occurring in northern Iran.
Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae
  • J H He
  • J J Fan
He, J.H. & Fan, J.J. (2004) Hymenoptera: Proctotrupidae. In: He, J. H et al. (ed.) Hymenopteran Insects Fauna of Zhejiang, Science Press, Beijing, 326–345.
Fam. Serphidae (=Proctotrupidae) et Calliceratidae (=Ceraphronidae). Das Tierreich
  • J J Kieffer
Kieffer, J.J. (1914) Fam. Serphidae (=Proctotrupidae) et Calliceratidae (=Ceraphronidae). Das Tierreich, 42, 254pp.
Nouveaux proctotrypides myrmcophiles
  • J J Kieffer
Kieffer, J.J. (1904) Nouveaux proctotrypides myrmcophiles. Bulletin of the Society Historical Nature of Metz, 23, 34.
Catalog of world species of Proctotrupoidea exclusive of Platygasteridae (Hymneoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute
  • N F Johnson
Johnson, N.F. (1992) Catalog of world species of Proctotrupoidea exclusive of Platygasteridae (Hymneoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 51, 1-693.
Hymenoptera: Serphidae) Fauna of Insects in Fujian Province of China
  • J J Fan
  • J J He
Fan, J.J. & He, J.J. (2003) Hymenoptera: Serphidae. In Huang, B. K. (chief ed.) Fauna of Insects in Fujian Province of China, Fujian Science Press, Fuzhou, 7, 716–723.
E. fuliginis He and Fan -Upper margin of pronotum with single row of setae
  • ............... . Rows Of Setae
Upper margin of pronotum with 2 rows of setae.................... E. fuliginis He and Fan -Upper margin of pronotum with single row of setae......... E. nigricornis He and Fan References Fan, J.J. & He, J.J. (2003) Hymenoptera: Serphidae. In Huang, B. K. (chief ed.) Fauna of Insects in Fujian Province of China, Fujian Science Press, Fuzhou, 7, 716-723.
Bulletin of the Society Historical Nature of Metz
  • J J Kieffer
Kieffer, J.J. (1904) Nouveaux proctotrypides myrmcophiles. Bulletin of the Society Historical Nature of Metz, 23, 34.