Article

Fungal communities colonising empty Cepaea hortensis shells differ according to litter type

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Abstract

Soil and litter fungi can colonise and decompose many natural materials, including highly resilient proteinaceous compounds of animal origin. The shells of terrestrial gastropods are formed from such a compound (conchiolin) combined with inorganic calcium carbonate. In this study, we investigated fungal communities colonising empty shells of the common terrestrial gastropod Cepaea hortensis. Shells were exposed on the surface of litter from four different forest types (alder alluvial, oak-hornbeam, peat-bog pine and scree forest) and the fungi were surveyed and identified in four 3-month periods. We found 27 fungal species, one fungus forming mycelial cords, seven types of sterile mycelium and streptomycetes colonising the shells. The most frequent fungal species identified were common soil fungi. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant effect of the litter type on the fungal community. Humidity and pH at the locality are likely to be more important for fungal communities than the proteinaceous material of the shell.

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... Another reliable indication of shell age is infestation by fungal hyphae; empty shells are frequently overgrown by mycelium, whereas living shells are never infested. Říhová, Janovský & Koukol (2014) showed that fungi are able to colonize the surface of empty shells of Cepaea hortensis within 3 months. ...
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... A possible explanation for the absence of shell sculp- ture in the fossil material we examined is that the outer shell surface is missing, the periostracum and outermost layer of the ostracum having been lost by natural pro- cesses of shell weathering/decomposition (cf. Cad ee 1999;Pearce 2008;R ıhov a et al. 2014) prior to the fossili- zation of the specimens. Study of shell material from two extant, forest-living Northern Vietnamese species (NHMUK 20170132, 20170133, Cuc Phuong National Park, May 2007) supports this view. ...
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... The remaining 1%-5% (Marin and Luquet, 2004) have been excluded given it has an organic matrix (proteins and other organic components such as neutral polysaccharides and lipids) and is therefore subjected to biological decomposition. Even if there is evidence that a quote of shell matrix proteins can persist in fossils (Sarashina et al., 2008), the external periostracum organic layer quickly disappears after the death of the mollusc as recently highlighted for land snails under field condition in forest soils (Říhová et al., 2014;Pearce, 2008). ...
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Patterns of shell damage among snails from a coppice woodland in Sussex, England Fusarium and its near relatives The Fungal Holomorph: Mitotic, Meiotic and Pleomorphic Speciation in Fungal Systematics
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Arthroderma silverae sp. nov. and Chrysosporium vallenarense, keratinophilic fungi from arctic and montane habitats The land snail fauna of a square kilometer patch of rainforest in Southwestern Cameroon: high species richness, low abundance and seasonal fluctuations Land Snails in Archaeology
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Pentaster cepaeophilus gen. et sp. nov. described from surface of empty shells of Cepaea hortensis Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data Using CANOCO
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Shell structure The Mollusca, Form and Function
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Determination of keratin degradation by fungi using keratin azure CANOCO e A FORTRAN Program for Canonical Correlation Ordination by Partial Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis, Principal Components Analysis and Redundancy Analysis (Version 2.1)
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Isolation of a fungus from shell lesions of New Zealand Abalone, Haliotis iris Martyn and H. australis Gmelin
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Die Landchnecken Nord-und Mitteleuropas. Ein Bestimmungsbuch f€ ur Biologen und Naturfreunde
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Lichens and mollusca
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