Article

Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids

Abstract

Apple cider vinegar has been traditionally used since many years ago to treat a certain number of diseases including hyperlipidemia which is known as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Early prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis can prevent complications of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the present study aimed to review the influence of apple cider vinegar consumption on reducing blood lipid levels. This quasi-experiment study(time series design) was carried out on 19 patients with hyperlipidemia. The subjects had been referred to a cardiologist and agreed to consume apple cider vinegar. At baseline, blood samples were obtained to measure cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL). The tests were repeated at two, four, and eight weeks of vinegar consumption. The results were analyzed using repeated measurement analysis. There were significant reduction in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.020), and LDL (p = 0.001) after eight weeks of consuming apple cider vinegar and with an increased HDL levels but the trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.200). Consumption of apple cider vinegar over a 8 week period had a beneficial effect in significant reductions in harmful blood lipids and is recommended as a simple and cost-effective treatment for hyperlipidemia. Introduction Plasma lipoprotein abnormalities and lipid metabolism disorder are known and proved risk factors for atherosclerosis. 1 Besides their impact on mortality, they have substantial, and in some cases modifiable, influences on disability rates.
Life Science Journal 2012;9(4) http://www.lifesciencesite.com
2431
Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood lipids
Zahra Beheshti1 , Yiong Huak Chan2, Hamid Sharif Nia*3, Fatemeh Hajihosseini 4, Rogheyeh Nazari5
, Mohammad shaabani 6, Mohammad Taghi Salehi Omran7
1- MScN, BScN. Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Amol, Mazandaran University of
Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2- PhD of Mathematics, Head, Biostatistics Unit, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National
University Health System, Singapore.
3- Candidate of PhD, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Amol, Mazandaran University of
Medical Sciences, Sari,Iran. PhD Student of Nursing at Baqiyatallah University of Medical
Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Candidate of PhD, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Amol, Mazandaran University of
Medical Sciences, Sari,Iran. PhD Student of Nursing at Shahid Beheshti University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5- Candidate of PhD, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Amol, Mazandaran University of
Medical Sciences, Sari,Iran. PhD Student of Nursing at Tarbiat-e- modarres University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6- BScN, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
7- MD, Department of cardiology and echocardiography, Babol University of Medical Sciences,
Babol, Iran.
*Corresponding author: Hamid Sharif Nia Email: h.sharifnia@mazums.ac.ir
Tel: +981212221919 Fax: +98(0121) 2151220
Abstract: Apple cider vinegar has been traditionally used since many years ago to treat a certain
number of diseases including hyperlipidemia which is known as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Early
prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis can prevent complications of cardiovascular diseases.
Hence, the present study aimed to review the influence of apple cider vinegar consumption on
reducing blood lipid levels. This quasi-experiment study(time series design) was carried out on 19
patients with hyperlipidemia. The subjects had been referred to a cardiologist and agreed to consume
apple cider vinegar. At baseline, blood samples were obtained to measure cholesterol, triglyceride,
low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL). The tests were repeated at two,
four, and eight weeks of vinegar consumption. The results were analyzed using repeated measurement
analysis. There were significant reduction in the serum levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.001),
triglyceride (p = 0.020), and LDL (p = 0.001) after eight weeks of consuming apple cider vinegar and
with an increased HDL levels but the trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.200). Consumption
of apple cider vinegar over a 8 week period had a beneficial effect in significant reductions in harmful
blood lipids and is recommended as a simple and cost-effective treatment for hyperlipidemia.
[Zahra Beheshti , Yiong Huak Chan, Hamid Sharif Nia, Fatemeh Hajihosseini, Rogheyeh Nazari,
Mohammad shaabani, Mohammad Taghi Salehi Omran. Influence of apple cider vinegar on blood
lipids. Life Sci J 2012;9(4):2431-2440]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 360
Keywords: Apple cider vinegar, Hyperlipidemia, Atherosclerosis
Life Science Journal 2012;9(4) http://www.lifesciencesite.com
2432
Introduction
Plasma lipoprotein abnormalities and lipid
metabolism disorder are known and proved
risk factors for atherosclerosis.1 Besides their
impact on mortality, they have substantial, and
in some cases modifiable, influences on
disability rates.2 Modifiable factors have
greater impact on cardiovascular diseases
(CVDs). In fact, dyslipidemia, hypertension,
smoking, and diabetes increase the risk of
CVDs by approximately 80-90%.3 Increased
low density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major
factor in the development of coronary heart
disease (CHD), i.e. every 1 mg/dL increase in
LDL can increase the risk of CVD by 1%.4
Treatment of dyslipidemia alone will
significantly reduce the prevalence of CVDs.
Thus, lipid-lowering treatment is currently
recommended for individuals at risk of CVDs.5
Many studies have suggested that lowering
blood lipids such as cholesterol, triglyceride,
and LDL and simultaneous increase of high
density lipoprotein (HDL) might reduce the
risk of CVDs, particularly atherosclerosis.2,3
The prevalence of hyperlipidemia varies in
different communities. The prevalence of
hypercholesterolemia and
hypertriglyceridemia in Brazil has been
reported as 4.1% and 17.1%, respectively.6
Cholesterol and triglyceride levels greater than
200 mg/dL have been found among 56.7% and
8.9-33.9% of the Portuguese population,
respectively.7 Azizi et al. evaluated 6246
individuals in Tehran, Iran, and indicated that
about 31% of the subjects had cholesterol
levels of 200-239 mg/dL. In addition,
cholesterol levels greater than 240 mg/dL were
detected among 24% of the studied
population.8 On the other hand, the prevalence
of hyperlipidemia among 611 Iranian patients
with acute coronary syndrome was over 80%
during 2003-04.9
However, widespread application of chemical
drugs causes complicated side effects that are
sometimes even more dangerous than the
disease itself. As a result, some drugs may be
eliminated or prescribed with extreme
caution.10 Fear of drug side effects brings
about their inappropriate use and rejection.
Therefore, the disease will not be desirably
controlled.11
Because of the above mentioned issues, a large
number of studies have been performed
concerning the influence of herbs such as
garlic,11 Allium ampeloprasum,12 basil,13
tarragon,14 barberry,15 fenugreek,16 and Apium
graveolens,17 sour orange juice,18 acetic acid,19
and apple cider vinegar20 on blood lipids. The
influence of apple cider vinegar has been
investigated for hundreds of years. It was in
fact first used about 5000 years ago. In the
year 400 B.C., Hippocrates, the father of
modern medicine, prescribed the mixture of
honey and apple cider vinegar for treatment of
various diseases.21 It has been particularly used
during the American Civil War for disinfecting
the wounds of soldiers.21 More valuable
properties of apple cider vinegar and its
ingredients, suggesting their therapeutic
effects, have been recently discovered.19,22-24
Apple cider vinegar contains polyphenolic
compounds that have beneficial health
effects.24,25 Its antioxidant flavonoid content
can reduce the harmful effects of high-
cholesterol diets.23 Acetic acid is the main
ingredient of apple cider vinegar. It is
consumable at concentrations of 3-9%. It is
used not only as a seasoning but also as a
common a traditional medicine.19 However, a
study on blood lipid profile of healthy
individuals following a high-fat meal failed to
show the positive impacts of apple cider
vinegar on serum lipids and lipoproteins.26
Apple products are widely used in the world.22
Nevertheless, scientific information about the
biological effects of apple cider vinegar as a
traditional medicine is inadequate.20 Apple
cider vinegar is a very light vinegar that is
sometimes used in Iranian foods. Very few
studies, mostly animal studies, have assessed
its impact on patients with hyperlipidemia.
Hence, the present study aimed to review the
influence of apple cider vinegar on serum lipid
levels and prevention of lipid disorders.
Methods
This quasi-exeriment study (time series
design) was performed on 19 patients with
hyperlipidemia, i.e. cholesterol levels greater
than 200 mg/dL and/or triglyceride levels
greater than 150 mg/dL.3 A cardiologist
confirmed the absence of uncontrolled
diabetes, hypothyroidism, drug-induced
hyperlipidemia, uremia, nephrotic syndrome,
pancreatitis, pregnancy, and coronary artery
diseases (CADs) in all subjects. In addition,
the participants were not receiving treatments
which could influence blood lipid metabolism.
At the beginning of the study, blood lipids of
eligible individuals were tested. All
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2433
participants were asked not to modify their
diet or physical activity pattern. However, they
had to consume 30 ml of apple cider vinegar
4% (made in Septico Co., Mashhad, Iran)
twice a day (morning and afternoon) for eight
weeks. At the end of the second, fourth, and
eighth weeks, 5 ml blood samples were
obtained after 14 hours of fasting. Cholesterol,
triglyceride, HDL, and LDL levels were then
determined using enzymatic methods in the
laboratory of Shahid Beheshti Hospital
affiliated with Babol University of Medical
Sciences. A Pars Azmoon Kit (Hitachi
Analyzer 902, Germany) was employed to
perform the tests. LDL was calculated as the
sum of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)
and HDL. Cholesterol levels were calculated
by dividing triglyceride levels by five. The
permission of conducting this study was issued
within the 23rd meeting of the ethics committee
of Babol University of Medical Sciences (23
August 2009).
Analyses were performed using SPSS for
Windows 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Trends of change over the 8-week period was
assessed using repeated measurement analysis.
Subgrouped analysis by gender is performed
and the comparison of 2-week, 4-week and 8-
week with baseline..
Results
19 subjects, 14 (73.7%) men, with mean(sd)
age of 42(8.2), range 25 to 59 years old with
regular exercise were enrolled. The mean(sd),
range age for the men and women were
42(9.5), 25-29 and 42(2.7), 39-46 years old
respectively.
There were significant reduction in cholesterol
levels (p < 0.001), triglyceride levels (p =
0.020) and LDL levels (p = 0.001) when all
subjects were analysed. The total cholesterol
trend persisted for both male (p < 0.001) and
female (p = 0.040) but LDL was only
significantly reduced for male (p = 0.001) and
triglyceride for the female (p = 0.030), see
charts 1 to 4. Table 1 shows that there is a high
possibility that total cholesterol / LDL will be
significantly reduced by week 2 for the men.
This reduction by week 2 still holds after
bonferroni adjustment of inflating the p-value
by 3 for multiple comparisons. For the
females, by week 2, there is a suggested
reduction in triglyceride and total cholesterol
with an increase in HDL; but the significance
was lost after accounting for multiple
comparisons.
Discussion
The results of the present study indicated that
8 weeks of apple cider vinegar consumption
significantly reduced harmful lipids, i.e. total
cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride, in blood
samples of hyperlipidemic individuals who
had never used any lipid-lowering drugs. In a
study on rats receiving a high-cholesterol diet,
Fushimi et al. observed significant reductions
in cholesterol and triglyceride after consuming
acetic acid. They reported that the acetic acid
of vinegar decreased fatty acid oxidation,
inhibited lipogenesis in the liver, and
eventually decreased triglyceride and
cholesterol concentrations. They
recommended the impacts of acetic acid to be
investigated on hamsters that are similar to
humans in terms of lipid metabolism.19
Similarly, Mansouri et al. found that
consuming apple cider vinegar 6% for four
weeks improved lipid profiles of healthy and
diabetic rats.27
Setorky et al. detected the benefits of apple
cider vinegar consumption on reducing the
harmful effects of a high-cholesterol diet,
including atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta,
among rabbits with hypercholesterolemia.
They attributed the results to the influence of
components, particularly flavonoids, of apple
cider vinegar.28 Various amounts of
flavonoids, as subtypes of polyphenols, are
found in certain foods and consumed by
different communities. For instance, their daily
consumption has been calculated as
approximately 20 mg in the U.S., Denmark
and Finland, 70 mg in the Netherlands, and 63
mg in Japan.29
There is an inverse correlation between
flavonoids intake and concentration of serum
total cholesterol. Since flavonoids have
protective effects against atherosclerosis, their
regular consumption will reduce CAD
mortality rate among elderly men.30 This
protective effect involves several mechanisms
such as prevention of LDL oxidation, platelet
aggregation, and improvement of endothelial
functioning. Studies have indicated that
flavonoids interfere with the activity of
hepatocytes in the synthesis and secretion of
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2434
lipoproteins containing triglyceride.31
Epidemiologic studies have also shown an
inverse relationship between the intake of
dietary flavonoids and mortality caused by
CHD. The reason is the strong antioxidant
properties of flavonoids that prevent LDL
oxidation.32
Although an increase in serum HDL of the
study subjects was observed after the intake of
apple cider vinegar, this difference was not
statistically significant. Likewise, Panetta et al.
evaluated the effectiveness of apple cider
vinegar on increasing HDL levels. After eight
weeks of consuming 30 ml vinegar daily, HDL
levels were not increased compared to the
control group and no evidence of beneficial
properties of apple cider vinegar in controlling
LDL, triglyceride, and total cholesterol was
found.33 In contrast, many other studies have
reported increased HDL levels following apple
cider vinegar consumption.22,27 Shishehbor et
al. suggested the efficacy of apple cider
vinegar on modification of plasma
lipoproteins, including HDL, in diabetic and
healthy rats.20 The difference between these
studies and the present research can be due to
both the type of the study subjects (animals vs.
humans) and low number of participants (19
people). Hence, further studies on a larger
group of people with hyperlipidemia are
recommended.
Conclusion
In general, the present study indicated that
consumption of apple cider vinegar can reduce
the LDL, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in
patients with hyperlipidemia. Besides, given
that hyperlipidemia is a known risk factor for
atherosclerosis, apple cider vinegar can be
used to prevent and even treat this
complication and probably other heart
problems.
Acknowledgments
Many thanks go to the research deputy of
Babol University of Medical Sciences (Iran)
who financially supported this study. Hereby,
the authors appreciate all participants for their
cooperation. We also thank Septico Co.
(Mashhad, Iran) and especially Mr. Amir Reza
Sobati for supplying apple cider vinegar.
Life Science Journal 2012;9(4) http://www.lifesciencesite.com
2435
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Chart 1. Trend of Total Cholesterol levels over 8 weeks stratified by gender
P<0.001
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Chart 2. Trend of triglyceride levels over 8 weeks stratified by gender
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Chart 3. Trend of low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels over 8 weeks stratified by gender
Chart 4. Trend of high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels over 8 weeks stratified by gender
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2440
Table 1. p-value table comparing the second, fourth, and eighth weeks with baseline stratified by gender
Male
Female
2
nd
week
4
th
week
8
th
week
2
nd
week
4
th
week
8
th
week
Total cholesterol
0.012
0.001
0.001
0.009
0.182
0.029
Triglyc
eride
0.258
0.138
0.052
0.047
0.042
0.048
Low density
lipoprotein
0.080
0.007
0.008
0.324
0.482
0.086
High density
lipoprotein
0.441
0.928
0.560
0.028
0.895
0.175
Note : p values were LSD (not inflated)
... Vinegar is used in traditional medicine to treat dyslipidemia, which promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases [91]. The administration of apple vinegar during ...
... Vinegar is used in traditional medicine to treat dyslipidemia, which promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases [91]. The administration of apple vinegar during 8 weeks ameliorates lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides) [91]. ...
... Vinegar is used in traditional medicine to treat dyslipidemia, which promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases [91]. The administration of apple vinegar during 8 weeks ameliorates lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides) [91]. Additionally, mice fed with a hyper-fat diet and treated with synthetic acetic acid vinegar or nipa vinegar reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and leptin lev-els [92]. ...
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... These cover the different situations that can occur in allocation problems regardless of the sector. The first case study concerns the supply chain of apple cider vinegar, a product that has been consistently consumed over the years for different uses (Beheshti et al. 2012). It, therefore, deals with a process that results in a single product with controlled volumes but with two different qualities, one of which is waste. ...
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Purpose As sustainability has become an important asset for production systems, it is important to conduct life cycle assessment (LCA) studies. When conducting an LCA of products derived from a multi-product process, the common challenge of impact partitioning arises. This is referred to as the allocation problem. Many allocation methods have been introduced in the literature, leading to a variety of results depending on the choice of allocation method. The purpose of this paper is to provide LCA practitioners with an operational approach that helps them choose the allocation method when evaluating co-products. Methods The extensive literature review carried out in the study allows identification of the main allocation methods available to practitioners. A cross-analysis also points out a strong link between allocation choices and decision-makers’ objectives. A decision-aid tool is introduced and tested on two case studies involving co-products. Results and discussion The resulting decision-aid tool helps guide the allocation choice in the two case studies through multi-level reasoning. Depending on the objective of the LCA study and the co-product being analyzed, a multi-level decision tree proposes a set of recommended allocation methods. The first level consists in identifying the purpose of the study, after which yes-or-no questions start to guide the path toward the right allocation method. In the most complex cases, the LCA practitioner is presented with a table containing all the allocation methods defended by other LCA practitioners for specific industries and contexts. This decision-aid tool complements the guidelines presented by ISO 14044 2006. Conclusion The presented tool creates a strong correlation between the aims of the study and the allocation choice, thus allowing practitioners to both justify their choice and to discuss the results with alternative scenarios for sensitivity analysis.
... Pineapple juice showed decreased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol on Wistar rats. It also has an anti-obesity effect [10]. Apple cider vinegar intake for more than eight weeks also showed the same effect on hyperlipidemic patients in Iran [11]. ...
... The first case study is about the supply chain of apple cider vinegar, which is a product that has been consistently consumed over the years for different uses [34]. The production of apple cider vinegar involves many delicate steps that have not been assessed before from an environmental perspective in the literature. ...
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... Studies regarding the antilipidemic effect of vinegar are more recent and primarily focused in animal-based experiments, while only limited results from human trials are available. These studies have shown that chronic administration of a specified amount of acetic acid or vinegar can significantly reduce the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and increase the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) [90,[103][104][105]. ...
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