Conference Paper

ATCEEC: A new energy efficient routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

In this paper, we propose an Application-aware Threshold-based Centralized Energy Efficient Clustering (ATCEEC) protocol for routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The proposed protocol assumes that each wireless sensor (node) is capable of sensing two types of environmental dynamics; temperature and humidity. Operation of ATCEEC is based on an advanced central control algorithm, where, Base Station (BS) is responsible for the selection of Cluster Heads (CHs). This selection is carried out on the bases of nodes' residual energy, average energy of the network, and relative distance between nodes and BS. ATCEEC achieves significant stability, extended network lifetime and better control over the network operation. Our hybrid protocol is suitable for both proactive and reactive networks. Simulation results show that ATCEEC yields maximum network lifetime and stability period as compared to the selected protocols.

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... Recently, implementation of WSNs has been extended to industrial level in both civil and military applications [3]. The modern tiny sensor devices are intelligent enough to utilize different components of sensing units, data processing units, and transmission techniques that enhance the attractions in WSNs [4]. In given network area, random deployment of sensor nodes is executed along with centralized coordinator called Base Station (BS). ...
... During transmission, routing algorithms are utilized to adopt the most energy efficient routes between sensor nodes and BS. Routing protocols contain path-planning algorithms, which are primarily responsible for effective data delivery to central controller of BS [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. In study of different clustering protocols, some novel techniques are investigated to understand their performance during network operations in WSNs. ...
... In this paper we propose a clustering algorithm which produces very intelligent clustering according to the remaining resources with their historical energy consumption rate and services as CHs. Now the CHs selected in both regions should be equal to the desired percentage set by the network administrator which is 10% in most of the cases [1][2][3][4][5]. Total Desired Percentage of CHs (TDPCHs) can be calculated as ...
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Effective utilization of energy resources in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has become challenging under uncertain distributed cluster-formation and single-hop intercluster communication capabilities. So, sensor nodes are forced to operate at expensive full rate transmission power level continuously during whole network operation. These challenging network environments experience unwanted phenomena of drastic energy consumption and packet drop. In this paper, we propose an adaptive immune Multihopping Multilevel Clustering (MHMLC) protocol that executes a Hybrid Clustering Algorithm (HCA) to perform optimal centralized selection of Cluster-Heads (CHs) within radius of centrally located Base Station (BS) and distributed CHs selection in the rest of network area. HCA of MHMLC also produces optimal intermediate CHs for intercluster multihop communications that develop heterogeneity-aware economical links. This hybrid cluster-formation facilitates the sensors to function at short range transmission power level that enhances link quality and avoids packet drop. The simulation environments produce fair comparison among proposed MHMLC and existing state-of-the-art routing protocols. Experimental results give significant evidence of better performance of the proposed model in terms of network lifetime, stability period, and data delivery ratio.
... Although this eethod efficiently reduces collisions in traditional networks, in WSN, the use of RTS/CTS increases the energy consueption and supports only unicast transeissions. Hence, several variants of these contention based protocols like T-MAC [10], S-MAC [8], WiseMAC [15] were proposed for WSN. Eeail: rajendran_te@yahoo.coe ...
... Timeout MAC (T-MAC) [10] improves the energy efficiency of S-MAC by reducing the listening period of sensor node during variable traffic conditions, as the nodes closer to the sink must relay more traffic. Accordingly, a node ends its listen period when no activation event has occurred for a time threshold TA. ...
... Although T-MAC [10] improves energy efficiency under variable traffic conditions, the synchronization of the listen periods within a virtual cluster is broken resulting in early sleeping problem. Figure 9 shows that T-MAC uses less energy than S-MAC for linear topology network ...
... Rate adaptation results in the energy consumption reduction of networks by scaling the power consumption of a network element to the amount of traffic it carries. The power down approach conserves energy by switching off unused network elements, which operate either at the full rate or zero rate [4,16,17]. ...
... Energy consumption in mobile sensor nodes is drastic, and the duty cycling technique of SDWN enables some energy savings with the help of advanced data aggregation. In [16,17], centralized routing protocols for conventional WSNs include Application-aware Threshold-based Centralized Energy-Efficient Clustering (ATCEEC) and Multi-hop Centralized Energy-Efficient Clustering (MCEEC) protocols, which display energy efficiency and load-balancing for heterogeneous WSNs. Both protocols show considerable improvement, but still lack a real-time management system to deal with the practical implementations. ...
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Smart reconfiguration of a dynamic networking environment is offered by the central control of Software-Defined Networking (SDN). Centralized SDN-based management architectures are capable of retrieving global topology intelligence and decoupling the forwarding plane from the control plane. Routing protocols developed for conventional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) utilize limited iterative reconfiguration methods to optimize environmental reporting. However, the challenging networking scenarios of WSNs involve a performance overhead due to constant periodic iterative reconfigurations. In this paper, we propose the SDN-based Application-aware Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SACFIR) routing protocol with the centralized SDN iterative solver controller to maintain the load-balancing between flow reconfigurations and flow allocation cost. The proposed SACFIR's routing protocol offers a unique iterative path-selection algorithm, which initially computes suitable clustering based on residual resources at the control layer and then implements application-aware threshold-based multi-hop report transmissions on the forwarding plane. The operation of the SACFIR algorithm is centrally supervised by the SDN controller residing at the Base Station (BS). This paper extends SACFIR to SDN-based Application-aware Main-value Centralized adaptive Flow Iterative Reconfiguring (SAMCFIR) to establish both proactive and reactive reporting. The SAMCFIR transmission phase enables sensor nodes to trigger direct transmissions for main-value reports, while in the case of SACFIR, all reports follow computed routes. Our SDN-enabled proposed models adjust the reconfiguration period according to the traffic burden on sensor nodes, which results in heterogeneity awareness, load-balancing and application-specific reconfigurations of WSNs. Extensive experimental simulation-based results show that SACFIR and SAMCFIR yield the maximum scalability, network lifetime and stability period when compared to existing routing protocols.
... Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) [5] is the first routing protocol based on hierarchical clustering and a classical hierarchical routing protocol in WSNs. After LEACH, a great deal of solution proposals exist for energy-efficient clustering [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. In Ref. [6], Mahmood et al. proposed a routing protocol called MODLEACH, cluster will not change in the next round if the residual energy of the head node is more than a threshold, so the energy consumed in cluster formation can be saved. ...
... In Multi-hop LEACH proposed by Fan et al. [9], each CH selects the nearest CH in one hop range as its next hop, energy efficiency has been improved since multi-hop routing consumes less energy than send data to the BS directly, especially in large sensor networks. But the main drawback of multi-hop LEACH and some other solutions which adaptively combined clustering and multi-hop communication [10][11] is that CHs around the sink comes to have high relay traffic and those nodes will die soon, thus shortening the lifetime of the network. Besides the effort to reduce energy consumption, there are also some solutions that aim at maximizing the time until the first node runs out of energy [12][13]. ...
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are emerging as essential and popular ways of providing pervasive computing environments for various applications. Unbalanced energy consumption is an inherent problem in WSNs, characterized by multi-hop routing and a many-to-one traffic pattern. This uneven energy dissipation can significantly reduce network lifetime. In multi-hop sensor networks, information obtained by the monitoring nodes need to be routed to the sinks, the energy consumption rate per unit information transmission depends on the choice of the next hop node. In an energy-aware routing approach, most proposed algorithms aim at minimizing the total energy consumption or maximizing network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel energy aware hierarchical cluster-based (NEAHC) routing protocol with two goals: minimizing the total energy consumption and ensuring fairness of energy consumption between nodes. We model the relay node choosing problem as a nonlinear programming problem and use the property of convex function to find the optimal solution. We also evaluate the proposed algorithm via simulations at the end of this paper.
... Simulation results showed improvement over LEACH in terms of time till first node dies and reduction in average residual energy. [9] proposed an application aware and heterogeneity aware routing protocol in WSNs called Application-aware Threshold-based Centralized Energy Efficient Clustering (ATCEEC). Results from simulation showed ATCEEC performed better than LEACH, Stable Election-based routing Protocol (SEP), Enhanced-SEP and Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) protocol in terms of stability period, network lifetime, instability period, number of CHs and the number of packets delivered to the BS. ...
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... Timeout MAC (T-MAC) [22] is also an energy-efficient MAC protocol designed to maximize sleep opportunities and builds on the successes of S-MAC. T-MAC obtains additional sleep time at the expense of increased throughput and latency. ...
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... A lot of works have been devoted to the problems of sensor networks but not for the high data rates encountered in 802.11 networks as in our work. These works looked at topology control [9,10], power management [11,12], energy awareness and optimal routing [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. Recent focus has shown concentration in multichannel assignment [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. ...
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Improvement on LEACH protocol of wireless sensor network
An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks
  • Heinzelman
Heinzelman, et al., " An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks" IEEE Trans on Wireless Communications, 2002.