Conference Paper

CEMob: Critical Data Transmission in Emergency with Mobility Support in WBANs

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Abstract

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are playing promising role in healthcare field by allowing remote monitoring of patients. In such networks, designing a energy efficient routing topology is of main concern. For this purpose, we propose CEMob; Critical data transmission in Emergency with Mobil-ity support in WBANs, as a routing layer protocol. CEMob avoid continuous transmission of information, thereby, preserving nodes' energy. Simulation results of CEMob are compared with that of contemporary routing protocols i.e. ATTEMPT and RE-ATTEMPT. Comparison justify that CEMob has reduced energy consumption and is more efficient than the compared protocols.

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... Nevertheless, uniterrupted information communication resulted extra energy consumption. [13] proposed CeMob which enhances M-ATTEPT and RE-ATTEMPT by infrequent transmission of information. The improvement was arrived at by comparing the non-emergency data to the previously sense non-emergency data and if there is a diffence, the data is sent, if there is no difference, the transmission is ignored. ...
... This section analyzes the performance of NEAT protocol in terms of performance metrics such as Network lifetime and Throughput. Firstly, the performance was analyzed with MATLAB computing environment whereby our work was compared with the works of [12] and [13]. The performance metrics used in the comparison are Network lifetime, stability period and Throughput. ...
... Network lifetime is referred to as the active period of the network all through which it can accomplish the dedicated task(s) and stability duration is typically described as the time when the network starts operating to the time the first node in the network dies. Fig. 3 shows that NEAT has a higher stability duration than the works proposed in [13] and [12]. This is as a result of ignoring of regular-data transmission and avoidance of continuous transmission which are implemented in our proposed protocol. ...
... Nevertheless, uniterrupted information communication resulted extra energy consumption. [13] proposed CeMob which enhances M-ATTEPT and RE-ATTEMPT by infrequent transmission of information. The improvement was arrived at by comparing the non-emergency data to the previously sense non-emergency data and if there is a diffence, the data is sent, if there is no difference, the transmission is ignored. ...
... This section analyzes the performance of NEAT protocol in terms of performance metrics such as Network lifetime and Throughput. Firstly, the performance was analyzed with MATLAB computing environment whereby our work was compared with the works of [12] and [13]. The performance metrics used in the comparison are Network lifetime, stability period and Throughput. ...
... Network lifetime is referred to as the active period of the network all through which it can accomplish the dedicated task(s) and stability duration is typically described as the time when the network starts operating to the time the first node in the network dies. Fig. 3 shows that NEAT has a higher stability duration than the works proposed in [13] and [12]. This is as a result of ignoring of regular-data transmission and avoidance of continuous transmission which are implemented in our proposed protocol. ...
... A.Ahmad et al, [10] proposed a routing protocol for delivery of normal data and emergency data using single and multihop communication. ...
... Energy consumed in multi-hop communication is given as: (10) In eq. 10, number of hops denoted by h and d enotes energy consumed in data aggregation. denotes energy consumed in receiving data. ...
Conference Paper
In wireless body area networks (WBANs), movement of nodes plays a very important role in designing an energy efficient routing algorithm. The topology of a BAN changes due to the movement of nodes, the distance between the nodes and sink varies and also energy consumption of the nodes also changes. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient threshold based data transmission using forwarder node technique based on mobility of nodes for heterogeneous wireless body area networks. Data transmission takes place only if threshold conditions applied for the data to be transmitted and required energy for data transmission are satisfied, thereby individual nodes energy is preserved. Child node selects parent node as a forwarder node based on cost function metric with high residual energy and less distance node for a successful data transmission to sink. Comparison results are obtained using MATLAB tool, justifies that MT-SIMPLE has less energy consumption, path loss, propagation delay and is more efficient in terms of stability, residual energy and throughput compared to existing protocols.
... Authors in [9] proposed a routing protocol with mobility support called CEM ob. The proposed routing strategy is based on a minimum hop counts metric. ...
... EAWD does not consider different traffic classes as done in [9]. Then, in Enhanced EAWD we will explicitly express the traffic class in the model, by considering both normal and emergency traffic. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have gained increasing interest in the research community and become an emerging technology, especially in healthcare services. This position paper focuses on the energy optimization issue and the joint routing and MAC protocols in WBANs. We extend upon our previous model on the Energy-Aware Topology Design for WBANs (EAWD), so as to include PHY and MAC-layer WBAN specifications. Indeed, EAWD model considered the topology constraints by minimizing the number of relay nodes, in order to reduce the total energy consumption, as well as the total network installation cost. Yet, EAWD involved quite rough assumptions, omitting overhead considerations, due to MAC routing and physical clear channel assessment problems. Therefore, we first introduce the EAWD model and discuss its limitations. Then, we present our proposal, the Enhanced EAWD (EEAWD), and assess its performance through a synthesis comparison with EAWD and related proposals in the literature.
... Single-hop (star) and multihop (mesh) topologies can be both used for intra-WBAN. Although single-hop strategy could be basically sufficient considering the supported range and human body dimensions, multi-hop strategy, even if more complex in realization, might be however necessary for reliability reasons especially in outdoor settings [7], moreover, it was reported that multi-hop in addition to possibly reducing diffraction-caused path losses, contributes in the well-distribution of power consumption among sensors [25], as it was done for the energy-efficient routing protocol in [26]; a comparison between single and multi hop topologies can be consulted in [25]. For this, adaptation of short range communication technology for such situations as previously seen might need the implementation of additional protocols through advanced features, as it was done for 802.15.1 LE in [27] for example. ...
... If for example, in a given application, some of the data historization at remote side is not used while their processing is not complex, this latter can be performed at the base station and only emergency data or alerts are transmitted such as in [2], whereas for the rest of data, a periodic transmission can still be performed. Another examples are to proceed to the transmission only if values changed, or also to differentiate between in-home and outdoor communications in the way that in in-home where remote connectivity can be costless, all data can be transmitted periodically while in outdoor where transmission's cost is more important, thresholds can be for example used and only data exceeding this latter are sent [26,35]; or, only data that might need a remote processing for computing power needs for example are transmitted. Appropriate transmission scheme would therefore depend on data processing, prioritization and real-time requirements. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to investigate main techniques and technologies enabling user's mobility in wearable health monitoring systems. For this, design requirements for key enabling mechanisms are pointed out, and a number of conceptual and technological recommendations are presented. The whole is schematized and presented into the form of a design framework covering design layers and taking in consideration patient context constraints. This work aspires to bring a further contribution for the conception and possibly the evaluation of health monitoring systems with full support of mobility offering freedom to users while enhancing their life quality
... Results showed higher throughput and minimum energy consumption. In extension to the previous work, Yousaf et al. (2014b) proposed a data communication technique for mobile nodes in the WBAN. The number of neighbour nodes in the path is limited. ...
... Results showed higher throughput and minimum energy consumption. In extension to the previous work, Yousaf et al. (2014b) proposed a data communication technique for mobile nodes in the WBAN. The number of neighbour nodes in the path is limited. ...
... The main drawback of this protocol is when a node is disconnected from its current parent, it will be affected a new parent which will introduce extra energy consumption and delay. In [224], authors propose a routing protocol with mobility support CEMob which is an improvement of [93]. The proposed routing strategy is based on a minimum hop counts metric. ...
Thesis
The rapid advances in sensors and ultra-low power wireless communication has enabled a new generation of wireless sensor networks: Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). In WBAN, tiny devices, deployed in/on or around human body, are able to detect and collect the physiological phenomena of the human body (such as: temperature, blood pressure, ECG, SpO2, etc.), and transmit this information to a collector point (i.e Sink) that will process it, take decisions, alert and reply. WBAN is a recent challenging area. There are several concerns in this area ranging from energy efficient communication to designing delay efficient protocols that support nodes dynamic induced by human body mobility. Links have a very short range and a quality that varies with the wearer’s posture. The transmission power is kept low to improve devices autonomy and to reduce wearers electromagnetic exposition. Consequently, the effect of body absorption, reflections and interference cannot be neglected and it is difficult to maintain a direct link (one-hop) between the Sink and all WBAN nodes. Thus, multi-hop communication represents a viable alternative. In this work we investigate energy-efficient multi-hop communication protocols in WBAN. We are interested in WBAN where sensors are placed on the body. We focus on two communication primitives: broadcast and converge-cast. We analyze several strategies inspired from the area of DTN and WSN. These investigations open new and challenging research directions to design novel protocols for multi-hop communication including a cross-layer approach.
... Results showed a higher throughput and minimum energy consumption. A data communication technique for mobile nodes in the WBAN is proposed in [24]. The amount of neighbor nodes in the path is limited and the emergency information was transmitted by the use of data comparison techniques. ...
Article
In current study and design, the technology used in wireless body area networks has revolutionized the future of healthcare systems by remote and personalized monitoring to improve diagnosis and evolution of many pervasive diseases at early stages. In this paper, we proposed an energy-efficient computing technique to transmit the emergency data during critical conditions using bio-sensors and highly advanced nodes. During transmission and communication, energy consumption is minimized by applied threshold values to the sensed data and found the most efficient path using the cost value metric to decrease the energy consumption of the entire network. For optimizing energy constraints and to maintain a balance throughout the network lifetime, a suitable transceiver characteristic is selected and used in the design. Obtained results exhibit an increased stability period, network lifetime, throughput, remaining energy after data communication and a reduction in path loss, propagation delay compared to existing advanced node direct and multi-hop routing techniques. © 2018
... Small and smart sensors are attached to the human body as a result of the development of microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems. These devices collect vital signs of patient and send them to medical personnel such as pharmacists and nurses for more experiments and analysis [2,3]. ...
Article
Due to increasing developments of medical science, early detection and receiving exact information in treatment of diseases and even preventing them are very important. Body Area Networks (BANs), a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), can deliver vital signs of patients to physician by collecting and analysis of patients' data and with applying different types of medical sensors. In this paper, a new link aware and energy efficient routing algorithm is introduced. In this algorithm, packets are divided into two categories: high-priority and low-priority packets and used for efficient next hop selection node. Selecting the next hop node based on the parameters such as the number of hops, delay and path loss is carried out. Results of simulation show that proposed algorithm improve average energy consumption and throughput compared to the similar routing algorithm.
... In addition to them, there is still remaining research work to address the other issues such as unbalanced energy consumption. [28] to prevent duplicated data transmission by taking priority of packets. In CEMob, two types of communications, single-hop and multi-hop communications, are adaptively selected according to a person's movement. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have attracted research interests from the community, as more promising healthcare applications have a tendency to employ them as underlying network technology. While taking design issues, such as small size hardware as well as low power computing, into account, a lot of research has been proposed to accomplish the given tasks in WBAN. However, since most of the existing works are basically developed by assuming all nodes in the static state, these schemes therefore cannot be applied in real scenarios where network topology between sensor nodes changes frequently and unexpectedly according to human moving behavior. However, as far as the authors know, there is no survey paper to focus on research challenges for mobility support in WBAN yet. To address this deficiency, in this paper, we present the state-of-the-art approaches and discuss the important features of related to mobility in WBAN. We give an overview of mobility model and categorize the models as individual and group. Furthermore, an overview of networking techniques in the recent literature and summary are compiled for comparison in several aspects. The article also suggests potential directions for future research in the field.
Chapter
In the current era of wireless body area network (WBAN), pervasive computing technology brings healthcare to a new level of personalization. Integrating this kind of energy‐efficient routing protocol networks with the more advanced and emerging technologies like mobile phones and personal digital assistance devices (PDAs) makes the network more fascinating and advanced toward the growth and rapid delivery of critical data with less amount of energy during data transmission. In this chapter, we proposed a novel energy‐efficient computing method called threshold‐based routing protocol to route the critical data in WBANs during emergency condition. Biosensors are deployed to fixed locations on the human body to measure important vital signs and perform computing in a regular and continuous manner. Different threshold values are assigned for heterogeneous biosensors, based on the values assigned data is generated for transmission to the sink in case of critical health condition. During transmission, energy condition has to be satisfied to reach the sink. Based on the changes in threshold condition, data is generated and forwarded to the sink. Cost function parameter is used for the selection of intermediate node/forwarder node (FN) based on the maximum residual energy and less distance between the nodes. Thus, there is a balance between energy consumption among the nodes and successful packet distribution to the sink. Simulation is performed using MATLAB tool and obtained results exhibit that our proposed work enhances the stability period, network lifetime, throughput to sink, and residual energy of nodes.
Thesis
Full-text available
Energy efficient and reliable communication is extremely crucial in most of the applications of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). Communication between sensor nodes is the major cause of energy consumption that limits the network lifetime, and hence, disrupts WBAN's operation. Moreover, unreliability in wireless communication caused by the channel impairments, such as shadowing and fading, further exacerbate the situation. In this thesis, we investigate a multi-hop and three cooperative routing schemes to improve Energy Efficiency (EE) and reliability of WBANs. Firstly, we propose a protocol; Critical data transmission in Emergency with Mobility support in WBANs (CEMob), which utilizes both single-hop and multi-hop communication modes and avoids continuous data transmission to preserve energy of sensor nodes. Performance comparison of CEMob is made with contemporary routing protocols, Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (ATTEMPT) and Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT). Simulation results show that CEMob is 71% and 55% more energy efficient than ATTEMPT and RE-ATTEMPT, respectively. Later on, to improve the achieved throughput by CEMob, we introduce the concept of cooperative routing in Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static WBANs (Co-CEStat). In this protocol, network throughput is enhanced by propagating independent signal through different paths. Simulation results reveal that Co-CEStat has 51% and 52% more throughput than its counterpart protocols, RE-CEStat (static CEMob) and RE-ATTEMPT, respectively. Availability of multiple links, for the propagation of same data, increases reliability of network at the cost of extra energy consumption by cooperative nodes. To improve EE and Packet Error Rate (PER) of Co-CEStat, we further analyze incremental cooperative communication schemes with different number of relays. We propose a new incremental cooperative communication scheme with 3- stage relaying and compare it with already existing incremental cooperative schemes in literature. Taking into account the effect of PER, analytical expressions for EE of proposed 3-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived. Our proposed scheme proves to be more reliable with less PER at the cost of some extra energy consumption. In the last, 3-stage incremental relaying and contemporary 2-stage incremental relaying schemes are implemented in two routing protocols; Incremental Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static WBANs (InCo-CEStat) and Enhanced InCo-CEStat (EInCo-CEStat), respectively. Simulation results of incremental cooperative protocols are compared with Co-CEStat and it is observed that incremental cooperation is more energy efficient than cooperation approach utilized in Co-CEStat. Results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable than InCo-CEStat with 12% more throughput and has less PER by providing three redundant links for a source node. Whereas, InCo-CEStat proves to be more energy efficient with 24% more stability period than EInCo-CEStat, by utilizing two cooperative links for a single source node.
Chapter
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This paper presents an energy efficient routing algorithm for heterogeneous Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). A prototype is defined for employing heterogeneous sensors on human body. Direct communication is used for real-time traffic (critical data) and on-demand data while multi-hop communication is used for normal data delivery in this proposed routing algorithm. One of the prime challenges in WBASNs is sensing of heat generated by implanted sensor nodes. The proposed routing algorithm is thermal-aware which sense the link Hot-spot and routes the data away from these links. Continuous mobility of human body causes disconnection between previous established links. We introduce mobility support and energy-management to overcome the problem of disconnection due to continuous mobility of human body. MATLAB simulations of proposed routing algorithm are performed for lifetime and reliability in comparison with multi-hop communication. The results show that the proposed routing algorithm has less energy consumption and more reliable as compared to multi-hop communication.
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Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multi-hop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. In this work, we present a reliable transmission protocol based on anycast routing for wireless patient monitoring. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an anycast group as a destination to reduce the transmission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor positioning and ECG monitoring. When the tri-axial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmitted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, four-second ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation technology of wireless wide area network, WiMAX, to achieve real-time patient monitoring.
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Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multihop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both the schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. In this paper, we present a reliable transmission protocol based on anycast routing for wireless patient monitoring. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an anycast group as a destination to reduce the transmission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor positioning, and ECG monitoring. When the triaxial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmitted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, 4-s ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation technology of wireless wide area network, worldwide interoperability for microwave access, to achieve real-time patient monitoring.
Nikolidakis and Dimitrios D. Vergados, Energy-Efficient Routing protocols in Wireless Sensor networks:A Survey
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NiklasA. pantazis, Steanos A. Nikolidakis and Dimitrios D. Vergados, Energy-Efficient Routing protocols in Wireless Sensor networks:A Survey, IEEE Communications Sureveys and Tutorials, 2013
Ubiquitos healt-care in wireless Body Area Networks-asurvey, arXive preprint arX-ive:1303
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N. javaid, N. Khan, M. shakir, M. Khan, S. Bouk,Ubiquitos healt-care in wireless Body Area Networks-asurvey, arXive preprint arX-ive:1303.26062