Conference Paper

LAEEBA: Link aware and energy efficient scheme for body area networks

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks and, particularly wireless body area networks (WBANs) are the key building blocks of upcoming generation networks. Modern health care system is one of the most popular WBAN application and a hot area of research in subject to present work.In recent years, research has focused on channel modeling, energy conservation and design of efficient medium access control (MAC) schemes. Less attention has been paid to the path-loss performance analysis. In this work, we propose LAEEBA (Link-aware and Energy Efficient scheme for Body Area Networks) which is a reliable, path-loss efficient and high throughput routing protocol for WBANs. The characteristics of single-hop and multi-hop communication schemes have been utilized to reduce path-loss effects and increase network lifetime. A cost function is proposed to select the forwarder node on the basis of has high residual energy and minimum distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes while distance parameter ensures successful packet delivery to sink. Simulation results show that LAEEBA protocol maximizes the network stability period and nodes stay alive for longer time; which contributes to sufficient decrease in the path-losses occurring in the links connecting sensors on a human body and hence transferring of data with much less losses.Results show better performance of our proposed protocol as compared to its given variants.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Hence, the work load for the medical doctors and nurses becomes heavier and heavier. Applying Medical Information and Communication Technology (MICT) to medical and health-care services is one approach to improve the above situation and provide a high quality medical support [1]. Main roles of MICT include the following aspects [1]: 1. Network formation with high security and reliability for data delivery. ...
... Applying Medical Information and Communication Technology (MICT) to medical and health-care services is one approach to improve the above situation and provide a high quality medical support [1]. Main roles of MICT include the following aspects [1]: 1. Network formation with high security and reliability for data delivery. ...
... It is helpful when time, frequency, and spatial diversity through the use of multiple antennas are not feasible. In this paper, we propose a new cooperative routing protocol: Co-LAEEBA which is an extension of LAEEBA protocol [1]. We compare its working with LAEEBA and other existing WBAN protocols M-ATTEMPT [5] and SIMPLE [6]. ...
Article
Performance evaluation of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is primarily conducted in terms of simulation based studies. From this perspective, recent research has focused on channel modeling, and energy conservation at Network/MAC layer. Most of these studies ignore collaborative learning and path loss. In this paper, we present Link-Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (LAEEBA) and Cooperative Link-Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (Co-LAEEBA) routing schemes. Unlike existing schemes, the proposed work factors in December 29, 2014 DRAFT 2 collaborative learning and path loss. Cost functions are introduced to learn and select the most feasible route from a given node to sink while sharing each others distance and residual energy information. Simulation results show improved performance of the proposed protocols in comparison to the selected existing ones in terms of the chosen performance metrics.
... Efficient scheme for Body Area network) Co-LAEEBA protocol [15] is an innovative edition of LAEEBA [16] protocol. This is energy efficient and Cooperative Link-Aware routing protocol for WBANs. ...
... The main objective of this protocol is to avoid redundant transmissions and maximize the network throughput. F. LAEEBA (Link Aware and Energy Efficient Scheme for Body Area Networks) LAEEBA protocol [16] utilizes the single-hop and multi-hop communication schemes to minimize path-loss consequences and maximize network life span. Figure 8 show a systematic structure for LAEEBA protocol that uses eight sensor nodes deployed on a human body obtaining similar power and the sink node is placed at the waist. ...
... Systematic structures for LAEEBA Protocol[16] ...
... Selecting the sender is based on the cost function specified, and this cost function, based on the maximum energy remaining in the sensors and the minimum distance of each sensor with a sink, selects its transmitter in each round. In this method [11], the ECG and glucose sensors communicate directly with the sink, while the other sensors choose a sensor based on the cost function as a relay to send their data. The authors in [12] have benefited priority routing to reduce energy consumption. ...
... All eight sensors used have the same power and computation ability. The positioning of sensors in the human body is shown in Fig. 5 [11]. The coordinates of the sensors in the human body are shown in Table 4 [11]. ...
... The positioning of sensors in the human body is shown in Fig. 5 [11]. The coordinates of the sensors in the human body are shown in Table 4 [11]. The sink sensor's coordinates are located at 0.25 m, 1 m in the human body. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless body area networks are a technology for remote medical care. Because of the limited energy of the sensors, one of the problems of long-distance medical care is the high energy consumption when sending information of sensors to the sink. Choosing the proper route when sending information to the sink will reduce energy consumption and increase network lifetime. The current paper used the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA) to find an appropriate route that can send information of sensors to the lowest energy to the sink or coordinator. Also, to prevent data traffic in the sink, the sensors are divided into two groups of four. With the advent of the Internet of things and increasing use of them among people, the use of this technology has attracted the attention of remote medical care. Smartphones and smartwatches can measure information from different parts of the body, such as the heart, stroll, and glucose, based on their built-in sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and advanced cameras. These two smart devices are used in three different roles (coordinator, sink, and sensor) to improve energy efficiency in remote medical care. The paper is shown an appropriate path to reduce energy consumption in sensors using a smartphone, smartwatch, and the use of SFLA algorithms (REC-SSS). The simulation results show that the network stability increased by 12.5%,132%, and 3.5% compared to SIMPLE, M-ATTEMPT, and EERP, respectively. Also, in the proposed schema, the lifetime of the network is increased by 26% over SIMPLE, M-ATTEMPT, and EERP.
... In chapter 11, we propose a new cooperative routing protocol; Cooperation in Link-Aware and Energy Efficient scheme for WBANs (Co-LAEEBA) which is a successor of Link-Aware and Energy Efficient scheme for WBANs (LAEEBA) protocol [56]. We compare its working with LAEEBA and another existing BAN protocols Mobility aware Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (M-ATTEMPT) and Stable Increased-Throughput Multi-hop Protocol for Link Efficiency (SIMPLE). ...
... Many routing protocols for WBANs are designed by considering some major objectives, such as energy efficiency, quick and reliable delivery of data, bandwidth utilization, efficient use of available resources etc like in LAEEBA protocol [56]. ...
... An optimal value of the weights ratio is 2 : 1 in case of AF technique and 3 : 1 in the case of DF technique [56]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), particularly Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) and Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are important building blocks of upcoming generation networks. Sensor networks consist of less expensive nodes having the features of wireless connectivity, very less transmission power, limited battery capacity and resource constraints. Due to low cost and small size, sensor nodes allow very big networks to be installed at a viable price and develop a link between information systems and the real globe. Cooperative routing exploits the transmission behavior of wireless medium and communicates cooperatively by means of neighboring nodes acting as relays. Prospective relays as well as the destination nodes are chosen from a set of near-by sensors that use distance and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the link conditions as cost functions – this contributes to significant reduction in path-loss and enhanced reliability. In this dissertation, we propose three schemes Link Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (LAEEBA), Incremental relay-based Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static wireless BANs (InCo-CEStat) and Cooperative Link Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (Co-LAEEBA). These protocols are efficient in terms of link-losses, reliability and throughput. Consideration of residual energy balances load among sensors, and separation and SNR considerations entrust reliable data delivery. As a promising technique to mitigate the effect of fading, cooperative routing is introduced in the functionality of LAEEBA and Co-LAEEBA protocols. Similarly, incremental relaying in InCo-CEStat account for reliability. Simulation results show that our newly proposed schemes maximize the network stability period and network life-time in comparison to other existing schemes for WBANs. In Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks, demand of time-critical applications leads to the requirement of delay-sensitive protocols. In this regard, this disserta- tion presents five routing protocols for UWSNs; Cooperative routing protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (Co-UWSN), Cooperative Energy-Efficient model for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (Co-EEUWSN), Analytical ap- proach towards Reliability with Cooperation for Underwater sensor Networks (AR- CUN), Reliability and Adaptive Cooperation for Efficient UWSNs (RACE) and Stochastic Performance Analysis with Reliability and COoperation for UWSNs (SPARCO). In these protocols, physical layer’s cooperative routing is explored for the design of network layer routing schemes that prove to be energy-efficient as well as path-loss aware. The concentration is focused on Amplify-and-Forward (AF) scheme at the relay nodes and Fixed Ratio Combining (FRC) technique at the destination nodes. Nodes cooperatively forward their transmissions taking benefit of spatial diversity to reduce energy consumption. Simulations are conducted to validate the performance of our proposed schemes in comparison to the selected existing ones. Results demonstrate the validity of our propositions in terms of selected performance metrics.
... In [6], the authors proposed a protocol named LAEEBA. The protocol has focused on path-loss and throughput. ...
... (relaying node) is . So if the is in less distance to , path-loss model 1 has to followed mentioned in [6]. Now when is in less distance to sink S, it has to follow path-loss model 2 mentioned in [6]. ...
... So if the is in less distance to , path-loss model 1 has to followed mentioned in [6]. Now when is in less distance to sink S, it has to follow path-loss model 2 mentioned in [6]. = 10 cm and it is the reference distance, standard deviatin is , f shows the frequency, c is light speed and n=3 for Line-of -Sight and 5 to 7 for Non Line-of-Sight. ...
... Most WBAN RPs are conceived taking into account certain key objectives, e.g. energy consumption, rapid and dependable data delivery, bandwidth use, efficient utilization of resources present [24]. Javaid et al. [25] suggested a RP for heterogeneous WBSNs, i.e. ...
... The DARE protocol can be used for the testing of multiple patients in the future. Researchers have introduced a protocol named as the Link Aware and Energy Efficient Scheme (LAEEBA) [24]. Forwarder node concept was introduced in this work. ...
... Ahmed et al. [24] developed an RP with efficient energy draw while supporting mobility of the body. This configuration has temperature awareness, too, and can vary the route when hot-spots are detected. ...
Article
Full-text available
The wireless body area network (WBAN) can effectively modify the health and lifestyle monitoring specifically where multiple body parameters are measured using biomedical sensor devices. However, power consumption and reliability are crucial issues in WBAN. Cooperative Communication usually prolongs the network lifetime of WBAN and allows reliable delivery of bio-medical packets. Hence, the main aim of this investigation is to propose a novel protocol Cooperative Energy efficient and Priority based Reliable routing protocol with Network coding (CEPRAN) to enhance the reliability and energy efficiency of WBAN using cooperative communication method. Firstly, to identify a relay node from the group of sensor nodes for data forwarding, an enhanced Cuckoo search optimization algorithm is proposed. Secondly, Cooperative Random Linear Network Coding approach is incorporated into the relay node to improve the packet transfer rate. CEPRAN is implemented in Ns-3 simulator and the experimental results prove that the proposed protocol outperforms the existing SIMPLE Protocol.
... A link-aware and energy-efficient scheme for BANs, abbreviated as LAEEBA, is presented in [11], which includes four stages of initialization, next-hop selection, routing, and path-loss selection. The scheme chooses the paths with minimum hops to transfer data, where critical and normal data are delivered by single-hop direct and multi-hop indirect communications, respectively. ...
... In the protocol, data is sent Table 1 Performance comparison for the surveyed routing algorithms in BANs. See [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
... An important point to address here is that in the decryption and recovery process in the cloud, we seek for the sparsest solution, which satisfies all the measurements. This solution is obtained by the problem P 0 in Eq. (11), where the zeronorm of the sensed data is minimized. However, the number of samples and the search space in the problem P 0 are very large and consequently, P 0 is NP-Hard. ...
Article
In this study, a priority-aware lightweight secure sensing model for body area networks with clinical healthcare applications in internet of things is proposed. In this model, patients’ data is labeled according to the proposed prioritizing mechanism. This provides a prioritized and delay-less service in the server side for the patients with critical conditions. In the proposed model, the sensed data is monitored in a real time way to calculate its sparsity level. Then, the ,calculated sparsity level is used to determine the number of required measurements for data sampling. This allows to sample the data with the number of measurements proportional to the sparsity level and information content of the data. Moreover, the particular design of the measurement matrix causes the aggregated data to be encrypted and its security be guaranteed. Simulation results show that compared to its counterpart schemes, the proposed sensing model not only provides security but also reduces the average energy consumption of the sensor nodes and the average packet delivery delay. This improvement originates from the reduction of the number of required bits for transferring the sensed data and is due to the consideration of the information content and sparsity level variation in the sensed data.
... In medical field, different sensors are attached to human body that is residing at home or hospital. These sensor nodes detect and monitor different biological parameters of human body like glucose-rate, Electrocardiogram (ECG) temperature, heart-rate, blood-rate, heart beat and blood pressure etc. [8]. The received signals are aggregated or collected by a personal device, e.g. ...
... Authors used a cluster head (CH) to gather the parametric data. Researchers in [8] present another protocol called Effect of Packet Inter-arrival Time on the Energy Consumption of Beacon Enable MAC Protocol for WBASNS. In this protocol, researchers focus on Media Access Control (MAC) to reduce the energy consumption. ...
Article
Full-text available
After successful development in health-care services, WBASN is also being used in other fields where continuous and distant health-care monitoring is required. Various suggested protocols presented in literature work to enhance the performance of WBASN by focusing on delay, energy efficiency and routing. In this research we focus to increase the stability period and throughput, while decreasing end-to-delay. Two sink nodes are utilized and concept of AnyCasting is introduced. In this research, we have presented a scheme AnyCasting In Dual Sink (ACIDS) for WBASN and compared it with existing protocols LAEEBA and DARE. The performance of ACIDS is found to be 51% and 13% efficient than LAEEBA and DARE respectively in throughput. Results show that, the stability period of ACIDS is much greater than LAEEBA and DARE with minimum delay. Energy parameter in ACIDS is in tradeoff with the improved parameters, due to the computation of RSSI which does more processing and utilizes more energy.
... Normal data is forwarded to BNC through multi-hop while emergency data is directly delivered to BNC. Moreover a cost function is introduced to select the forwarder node for multi-hop communication [9,10,11]. The selected forwarder node aggregates the sensing data from other biosensor nodes and forward to BNC, which causes high energy dissipations. ...
... The authors in [9,10,11] proposed the concept of multihop communication between bio-sensor nodes and BNC along with some modifications. To improve energy efficiency, authors introduced the concept of forwarder node through the cost-function. ...
... In medical field, different types of sensors are attached to the patient body which is residing at home or hospital. The main purpose of these sensors is to calculate and detect different types of biological parameters of patient body such as temperature, blood-rate, glucose-rate, blood pressure, Electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart beat etc. [8]. The produced signals are collected by personal device, e.g. ...
... In paper [8] Devices (RFD) and Fully Functional Devices (FFD). Reduced Functional Devices (RFD) work as simple node while Fully Functional Devices (FFD) can be coordinator node or simple node. ...
... Also, distance between the sink node and data forwarder node are taken into consideration to select the minimum distance node. In the paper by Ahmed et al. (2014), the authors proposed the linkaware and energy efficient protocol for wireless body area networks (LAEEBA) protocol. This protocol focusses its attention on throughput and path loss. ...
... The nodes that were nearer to sink were getting more energy, and delay also increased. In a Webbased portal, a system is integrated by a physiological parameter, a monitoring system was increased by the article (Ahmed et al., 2014). This work presents the simulation-based architecture for reducing the disorders in kids or patients by having the disorder of autism (Hassan et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is energy consumption and security. To extend the sensor’s life span, saving the energy in a sensor is important. In this paper, biosensors are implanted or suited on the human body, and then, transposition has been applied for biosensors for reducing the sensor distance from the sink node. After transposition path loss has been calculated, security is maintained and also compared the results with the existing strategies. Design/methodology/approach Nowadays, one of the most emergent technologies is wireless body area network (WBAN), which represents to improve the quality of life and also allow for monitoring the remote patient and other health-care applications. Traffic routing plays a main role together with the relay nodes, which is used to collect the biosensor’s information and send it towards the sink. Findings To calculate the distance and observe the position, Euclidean distance technique is used. Path loss is the main parameter, which is needed to reduce for making better data transmission and to make the network stability. Routing protocols can be designed, with the help of proposed values of sensors locations in the human body, which gives good stability of network and lifetime. It helps to achieve as the less deplete energy. Originality/value This scheme is compared with the two existing schemes and shows the result in terms of parameter path loss. Moreover, this paper evaluated a new method for improving the security in WBAN. The main goal of this research is to find the optimal sensor location on the body and select the biosensor positions where they can get less energy while transmitting the data to the sink node, increasing the life span in biosensors, decreasing memory space, giving security, controlling the packet complexity and buffer overflow and also fixing the damages in the existing system.
... Multi-hop and direct transmission is used for transmitting the emergency and normal data packets. Ahmed et al. [25] selected the route by prioritizing the route having the least number of hops for transmission of the data. This scheme uses a cost function for selecting the best route to the sink. ...
... The proposed model (1) optimally finds the best solution for the proposed scenarios, and (2) studies and evaluates the effect of network parameters and thus, solutions are obtained. IM-SIMPLE [27] EAR [18] TARA [15] DARE [21] LAEEBA [25] ATTEMPT [22] M-ATTEMPT [22] RE-ATTEMPT [24] M-ATTEMPT [22] EAWD [20] CO-LAEEBA [16] SIMPLE [23] OCER [39] IM-SIMPLE [27] Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the modern world, wireless body area networks (WBAN) is projected to play a vital role in biomedical and psychological applications. The practical implementation of WBAN technology surfer from various deployment issues that have to be dealt with. The more serious concern is associated with the energy consumption of these networks. Biosensor nodes continuously sense the signals and send the same to sink. Sending data to sink is an energy-consuming operation, so routing is done to optimize energy utilization in WBAN. The continuous data sensing and the transmission of information over long-distances result in huge energy consumption of these nodes. So, conservation of energy is the need of the hour. The main focus of the current study is to invise a routing mechanism that makes use of particle swarm optimization based on metaheuristic algorithm along with the relay node selection based on distances and residual energies. Experimental results show that the proposed protocol strikes a perfect balance between minimizing the number of relay nodes (to be positioned on subject) along with the energy efficient WBAN.
... Other QoS aware routing protocols for WBANs have been proposed in [14][15][16][17]. LAEEBA [14] and CO-LAEEBA [15] were introduced to support reliable transmission and efficient energy consumption by using the multiple metrics such as residual energy and path loss rate. ...
... Other QoS aware routing protocols for WBANs have been proposed in [14][15][16][17]. LAEEBA [14] and CO-LAEEBA [15] were introduced to support reliable transmission and efficient energy consumption by using the multiple metrics such as residual energy and path loss rate. On the other hand, ARBA [16] uses residual energy and bandwidth as routing metrics to enhance bandwidth utilization and network lifetime. ...
Article
Full-text available
In wireless body area networks, temperature-aware routing plays an important role in preventing damage of surrounding body tissues caused by the temperature rise of the nodes. However, existing temperature-aware routing protocols tend to choose the next hop according to the temperature metric without considering transmission delay and data loss caused by human posture. To address this problem, multiple research efforts exploit different metrics such as temperature, hop count and link quality. Because their approaches are fundamentally based on simple computation through weighted factor for each metric, it is rarely feasible to obtain reasonable weight value through experiments. To solve this problem, we propose an enhanced mobility and temperature-aware routing protocol based on the multi-criteria decision making method. The proposed protocol adopts the analytical hierarchy process and simple additive weighting method to assign suitable weight factors and choose the next hop while considering multiple routing criteria. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed protocol can efficiently improve transmission delay and data loss better than existing protocols by preventing the temperature rise on the node.
... "Linked-Aware Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol (LAEEBA)" is an "energy-efficient link aware routing system for WBAN" presented in [78]. LAEEBA has proven to be a reliable scheme with low path loss and a high total network performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we have reviewed and presented a critical overview of "energy-efficient and reliable routing solutions" in the field of wireless body area networks (WBANs). In addition, we have theoretically analysed the importance of energy efficiency and reliability and how it affects the stability and lifetime of WBANs. WBAN is a type of wireless sensor network (WSN) that is unique, wherever energy-efficient operations are one of the prime challenges, because each sensor node operates on battery, and where an excessive amount of communication consumes more energy than perceiving. Moreover, timely and reliable data delivery is essential in all WBAN applications. Moreover, the most frequent types of energy-efficient routing protocols include crosslayer, thermal-aware, cluster-based, quality-of-service, and postural movement-based routing protocols. According to the literature review, clustering-based routing algorithms are the best choice for WBAhinwidth, and low memory WBAN, in terms of more computational overhead and complexity. Thus, the routing techniques used in WBAN should be capable of energy-efficient communication at desired reliability to ensure the improved stability period and network lifetime. Therefore, we have highlighted and critically analysed various performance issues of the existing "energy-efficient and reliable routing solutions" for WBANs. Furthermore, we identified and compiled a tabular representation of the reviewed solutions based on the most appropriate strategy and performance parameters for WBAN. Finally, concerning to reliability and energy efficiency in WBANs, we outlined a number of issues and challenges that needs further consideration while devising new solutions for clustered-based WBANs.
... In uses of such protocols, normal sensing data is forwarded to BNC through multi-hop while emergency data is directly delivered to BNC [10][11][12]. Furthermore, a cost function has been introduced to select the intermediate (forwarder) node for multi-hop communication [13][14][15][16]. The selected intermediate node aggregates sensed data from other corresponding bio-sensor nodes and forward these data to BNC, which causes high energy dissipation of the forwarder node. ...
Article
In this paper, we have proposed a Relay based Improved Throughput and Energy-efficient Multi-hop Routing Protocol (Rb-IEMRP) for the Intra Wireless Body Sensor Network (Intra-WBSN). Moreover, mathematical analysis has been presented, to calculate the minimum number of relay nodes require to be deployed corresponding to the bio-sensor nodes in Intra-WBSN. Normal sensing data from bio-sensor nodes forwarded to BNC through relay nodes while emergency data is directly transmitted to BNC. Relays nodes are placed in the patients' cloth. It can be easily replaced or recharged that facilitates effective health monitoring. The proposed routing protocol has achieved better network stability, network lifetime, energy efficiency and throughput as compared to Stable Increased Throughput Multi-Hop Protocol for Link Efficiency in Wireless Body Area Networks (SIMPLE) and Reliable Energy Efficient Critical Data Routing in Wireless Body Area Networks (REEC) routing protocols. It has been validated through simulation results. © 2019, Academy and Industry Research Collaboration Center (AIRCC).
... A protocol is proposed in Braem et al. 76 where the information regarding the child nodes is sent to the parent nodes to achieve higher reliability of the network with less delay but the balance of power is not really addressed. An energy-efficient protocol is proposed by Ahmed et al. 77 in which the characteristics of single-and multi-hop schemes are used for the purpose of reducing the path loss so that the network lifetime is increased. In this work, a CF is defined for the selection of forwarder node. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless body area sensor network is a sub-field of wireless sensor network. Wireless body area sensor network has come into existence after the development of wireless sensor network reached some level of maturity. This has become possible due to the tremendous technological advancement leading to easy-to-use wireless wearable technologies and electronic components that are small in size. Indeed, this field has gained significant attention in recent time due to its applications which mostly are toward healthcare sector. Today, tiny-sized sensors could be placed on the human body to record various physiological parameters and these sensors are capable of sending data to other devices so that further necessary actions could be taken. Hence, this can be used for diagnosis of disease and for developing serious health-complication alert systems. Considering this recent hot topic, the intent of this work is to present the state-of-the-art of various aspects of wireless body area sensor network, its communication architectures, wireless body area sensor network applications, programming frameworks, security issues, and energy-efficient routing protocols. We have tried to cover the latest advancements with some discussion on the available radio technologies for this type of network. Future visions and challenges in this area are also discussed.
... The other variant of a SIMPLE protocol known as LAEEBA: Link Aware and Energy Efficient Scheme for Body Area Networks is proposed [8]. Where the forwarding function is modified as: ...
Article
In this modern era, we use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for monitoring parameters in numerous applications such as smart homes, agriculture field monitoring, environment monitoring, habitant monitoring, and battlefield. In various applications, health monitoring is very important and critical. In health monitoring, sensor nodes are deployed on the body of a person, and these nodes send information to the base station (BS) and from here, information is further transmitted to the distant location where the doctor looks into the report and suggest a diagnosis for the patient. In this work, a reliable, stable and throughput routing protocol is discussed, and a secure reversible data hiding method, where at the receiver end, patient information obtained from BS of WBAN can be correctly retrieved from the encrypted watermarked image is suggested. This paper also explores sensors to BS information transfer mechanism. It has been found that in case of WBAN, it is better that each sensor node directly transmits information to BS rather than using some forwarder node due to the energy loss of forwarder nodes. It has been found that using direct transfer; throughput can be increased to massive 139%. This direct transfer of the packet to BS also increases network stability and network lifetime. It is also found that in case of encryption, embedding capacity heavily depends on Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), threshold and number of embedding rounds. In case of Lena image optimum threshold is found to be 0.38, which maximizes both PSNR and bit per pixel (bpp) and error-free data is recovered.
... Researchers in [11], a protocol was introduced and known as Link Aware and Energy Efficient Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks (LAEEBA). In this paper a protocol was used by focusing the path loss between the nodes in both single hope and multi-hop communication. ...
Article
Full-text available
Design of routing protocols has seen remarkable advancement in the field of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs).These protocols work to enhance the performance of WBAN by focusing on routing, energy efficiency and end-to-end delay. As these protocols can be categorized in a variety of ways according to the mechanisms and functionalities they follow, hence it becomes important to understand their principal of operations. In this research, we have selected some recent routing protocols in the field of WBAN and presented a comparative analysis according to the categories on which they rely. Also a detail analysis of their key advantages and flaws are also identified in this research.
... In the same idea of prolonging network lifetime, F.De Rango et al. [15] proposed an energy efficient optimized link state routing (EE-OLSR) by modifying the way the multipoint relays are selected and the route is built so as to offer network scalability and increase network lifetime. Also, LAEEBA (Link-aware and Energy Efficient scheme for Body Area Networks) was proposed [16] as a reliable, path loss efficient and high throughput routing protocol for WBANs. To reduce path-loss effects and increase network lifetime, single-hop and multi-hop communication schemes have been used taking advantages of their characteristics. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a NetBAN which is a concept of network of body area networks (BANs) or wireless body area networks (WBANs) is introduced and a routing solution intending to help a group of WBANs to cooperate for relaying packets according to the energy consumption rate and the communication link quality is proposed. The main goal is to provide to the sensors a technique that helps them deliver their data even when the coordinator's battery is very low or empty or else the connection to the access point is lost, what leads to balancing energy consumption between cooperating coordinators. For this purpose, an energy threshold-based technique is used and energy-aware optimised link state routing (EA-OLSR) is defined and used. Simulation results show interesting performances in terms of network lifetime with a gain of about 30% and data delivery about 20%.
... In the paper, they first presented a system-level energy consumption model associated with transmission distance d and transmission data rate over on-body wireless communication link. S. Ahmed [17] has defined the role of the wireless body network (WBN) and its growth in health service facilities. WBN also helps to improve the human health. ...
... In the same idea of prolonging network lifetime, F.De Rango et al. [11] proposed an energy efficient optimized link state routing (EE-OLSR) by modifying the way the multipoint relays are selected and the route is built so as to offer network scalability and increase network lifetime. Also, LAEEBA (Link-aware and Energy Efficient scheme for Body Area Networks) was proposed [12] as a reliable, path loss efficient and high throughput routing protocol for WBANs. To reduce path-loss effects and increase network lifetime, single-hop and multi-hop communication schemes have been used thanks to their characteristics. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Monitoring systems using Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are becoming more and more popular and widely used to respond to the increasing demand in real time healthcare applications. When operating in group, the WBANed people could form an ad-hoc network remotely monitored via Internet, help each other to relay their data and thus prolong their lifetime. In fact, if a BAN coordinator reaches critical energy level or gets battery depletion or else connection loss, the all WBAN will cope with the data transmission interruption. Fortunately, WBANs cooperation is a promising solution to overcome this issue. In this paper we propose a routing protocol intending to help a group of WBANs to cooperate for relaying packets according to energy and connection issues. The main goal is to provide to WBANs sensors a technique to deliver their data even when the coordinator's battery is very low or depleted or else the connection to the access point is lost or weak while balancing energy consumption between cooperating coordinators. Therefore, the energy threshold technique is used. Simulation results show interesting performances in terms of lifetime about 30% and data delivery about 20% in average.
... Ahmed et al. [8] proposed a link-aware and energy-efficient routing protocol for WBANs (LAEEBA) -to analyze the performance in terms of path loss and energy efficiency. To select a relay node, the authors proposed a cost function based on the residual energy and the distance to the AP. Lee et al. proposed an efficient scheme to manage multiple channels by coordinating beacon-slot and data channel [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to interference from other coexisting wireless body area networks (WBANs), link quality between a particular WBAN and access points (APs) significantly varies. Consequently, the performance of a WBAN varies with the changes in the link quality. Additionally, a WBAN unnecessarily tries to send its real-time data to the sink node, whereas the corresponding link quality drops below a predefined threshold value, to maintain adequate network performance. To address this situation, in this paper, we propose a link-quality-aware resource allocation scheme in WBANs—an effort toward maximizing the overall network performance. The proposed scheme consists of two phases—temporal link quality measurement and subchannel allocation among the WBANs. In the former, we predict correlations among different aspects of link quality. Based on the available correlated link qualities, the subchannel allocation phase divides the available bandwidth into several subchannels to maintain the quality of service of the network. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated based on different performance metrics—path loss, throughput, number of dead nodes, and fairness index of WBANs. The simulation results show that the performance of a WBAN significantly increases, if the link-quality-aware resource allocation is made between a WBAN and available APs.
... Ahmed et al. [13] introduced a routing protocol called Link Aware and Energy Efficient scheme for Body Area network (LAEEBA). In this protocol a path with the minimum number of hops is selected for transmission. ...
Article
Full-text available
An energy efficient protocol for routing and scheduling in wireless body area networks is proposed by considering node energy, path loss, traffic type, and other relevant factors. First, a channel competition procedure is proposed to reduce network flooding, making use of the related information that sensor nodes collected in the initialization phase. Then, energy abundant routes are selected according to the node type and energy consumption in routing setup phase. Finally, an adaptive slot assignment method is designed to meet requirements of data rate and priority in slot assignment phase. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol not only save energy, but also improve the channel utilization.
... However, packet delay is also high. Authors in [21] propose Link-aware and Energy Efficient scheme for Body Sensor Networks (LAEEBA) which is comprised of 4 phases. Initialization Phase, Next Hop Selection Phase, Routing Phase and Path-Loss Selection Phase. ...
Article
Full-text available
The technological advancements in wireless communication and miniaturization of sensor nodes have resulted in the development of Wireless Medical Sensor Networks (WMSNs) which can be effectively used for remote patient monitoring. Remote patient monitoring is one such application of wireless sensor networks which is becoming increasingly prevalent in healthcare. The healthcare applications of WMSNs are delay-sensitive and require timely delivery of patient-critical data. However, the frequent exchange of critical data packets results in higher delays, collisions, packet drop and retransmissions. Consequently, it brings a detrimental impact on the performance of WMSNs. In addition, the implanted biomedical sensor nodes produce electromagnetic radiations, pose a serious threat of damaging sensitive tissues in the human body. Protecting tissue damage requires thermal-aware routing protocols. However, most of the thermal-aware routing protocols developed for WBSNs primarily focused on minimizing temperature, while overlooking the energy conservation goal and optimization of route selection. In this paper, we propose a weighted, QoS-based, energy and temperature-aware routing protocol, referred to as (WETRP), for WMSNs that utilizes a composite routing metric by keeping in view temperature, remaining node energy, and link-delay estimation during route selection decisions. The simulation results presented in the paper demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed scheme in terms of preventing temperature rise, dealing with hotspot nodes, and maximizing network’s lifetime.
... To counter this limitation, various energy-aware routing protocols have been proposed in the past few decades which use multi-hop communication [5,20,22]. Some routing protocols consider a cost function metric (distance and remaining energy) for route selection [5,[21][22][23][24][25]. The least-cost function is used to select a forwarder node to transmit the clustered data towards the sink node. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) are becoming increasing popular in a number of healthcare applications. A particular requirement of WBSNs in a healthcare system is the transmission of time-sensitive and critical data, captured by heterogeneous biosensors, to a base station while considering the constraints of reliability, throughput, delay and link quality. However, the simultaneous communication among various biosensors also raises the possibility of congestion on nodes or transmission links. Consequently, the likelihood of a number of untoward situations increases, such as disruption (high delays), packet losses, retransmissions, bandwidth exhaustion, and insufficient buffer space. The significant level of interference in the network leads to a higher number of collisions and retransmissions. The selection of an optimized route to cope with these issues and satisfy the QoS requirements of a WBSN has not been well-studied in the relevant literature. In this regard, we propose a multi-constraint, Intra-BAN, QoS-Aware Routing Protocol (referred to as MIQoS-RP) which introduces an improved, multi-facet routing metric to optimize the route selection while satisfying the aforementioned constraints. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated in terms of average end-to-end delay, throughput and packet drop ratio. The comparison of MIQoS-RP with the existing routing protocols demonstrates its efficacy in terms of the selected criteria. The results show that the MIQoS-RP achieves improved throughput by 22%, average end-to-end delay by 29% and packet drop ratio performance by 41% as compares to existing schemes.
... Link-aware and energy efficient pattern for body region networks (LAEEBA) [17] is suggested by the authors to achieve reliable, pathloss efficient and high throughput for WBANs. Besides, on the foundation of higher residual vitality as well as bare minimum distance coming from nodes to BS, a price feature continues to be recommended for choosing the forwarder nodes within the community. ...
Article
Continuous remote monitoring of a patient's health condition in dynamic environment imposes many challenges. Challenges further get multiplied based on the size of body area sensor network. One such challenge is energy efficiency of sensors. Maintaining longer life of all nodes, especially who participate in communicating vital signals from one network to another towards the base station is very important. In this work, an energy efficient communication protocol for the wireless body area network (WBAN) is proposed. The essential characteristics of the protocol are: random deployment of nodes, formation of clusters, node with high signal to noise ratio (SNR) as cluster head (CH), random rotation of CHs within each cluster, and so on. The developed algorithm is simulated in MATLAB by varying the number of nodes and networks. Obtained results are compared with some of the recent and most relevant existing works. It is found that there is an enhancement in the network lifetime by 19.5%, throughput by 12.61% and average remaining energy by 57.21%.
... It helps to improve the progress of human health. Through detailed survey it is predicted that there is Virtual Doctor Server which is presented in the architecture of wireless body area network [28]. ...
Thesis
The internet of things (IoT) is one of the physical networks that merges different technologies along Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Cellular on one platform. The IoT for medical health care, is known as internet of medical things (IoMT), needs high data, high speed, and a long battery life along with reliable connectivity. The IoMT plays an important role in improving the healthcare of patients by increasing the accuracy and efficiency. There are many challenges in IoMT due to resource-constrained nature of the sensor driven wearable devices. The main challenge for IoMT is the energy drain and battery charge consumption in tiny size sensor based devices. During charging the charges that are stored in battery and these charges are not fully utilized due to non-linearity of discharging process. The unused charges can be utilized if some idle time is introduced to utilize them and extend battery lifetime. The idle time required to recover these unusable charges is known as recovery effect. The thesis contribution is two-fold. First, four layered architecture of IoMT is proposed. Second, a novel adaptive battery-aware algorithm (ABA) is proposed, which utilizes the charges up to its maximum limit and recover those which are unused. The proposed ABA adopts this recovery effect for enhancing energy efficiency, battery lifetime and throughput. Besides, the transition of states are modelled by deterministic mealy finite state machine. Extensive simulation setup is built by considering convex optimization tool in MALTAB. The proposed ABA is also compared with other state of the art existing method named, BRLE. Finally, the proposed ABA resolve the issue of unplanned outages, energy hole and increase the lifetime of battery powered IoMT devices in pervasive healthcare.
... The major inspiration behind our proposed solution is the protocol presented in [10]. This protocol is called Link Aware and Energy Efficient Scheme for BAN (LAEEBA). ...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and cloud computing brings several advantages. However, one of the main problems with the existing cloud solutions is the latency involved in accessing, storing, and processing data. This limits the use of cloud computing for various types of applications (for instance, patient health monitoring) that require real-time access and processing of data. To address the latency problem, we proposed a fog-assisted Link Aware and Energy E cient Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (Fog-LAEEBA). The proposed solution is based on the already developed state-of-the-art protocol called LAEEBA. We implement, test, evaluate and compare the results of Fog-LAEEBA in terms of stability period, end-to-end delay, throughput, residual energy, and path-loss. For the stability period all nodes in the LAEEBA protocol die after 7445 rounds, while in our case the last node dies after 9000 rounds. For the same number of rounds, the end-to-end delay is 2 seconds for LAEEBA and 1.25 seconds for Fog-LAEEBA. In terms of throughput, our proposed solution increases the number of packets received by the sink node from 1.5 packets to 1.8 packets. The residual energy of the nodes in Fog-LAEEBA is also less than the LAEEBA protocol. Finally, our proposed solution improves the path loss by 24 percent.
... This node relays data of a node to sink. Furthermore, a cast function [10,23,24] is used to select a forwarder node. A node having minimum cast function value is selected as the forwarder node, whereas the residual energy can be computed by current energy and initial energy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wearable computing has a great prospect in smart healthcare applications. The emergence of the internet of things, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), and big data processing open numerous challenges and opportunities. In healthcare, the monitoring is done by placing/implanting sensor nodes (resource-constrained devices) on a patient’s body to communicate data to a resource-rich node called a sink. The data transmission energy consumption is directly proportional to the distance between the sensor and the sink node. Therefore, it is vital to reduce the energy consumption of the sensor node due to data transmission. In this article, a new \emph{Dual Forwarder Selection Technique (DFST)} has been proposed to prolong the network lifetime by reducing energy consumption and ultimately improving the stability period and throughput of the network. The DFST works by grouping sensor nodes on a body where both forwarder nodes have been selected through a cost function for relaying data to the sink. The proposed scheme’s efficiency has been evaluated using simulation results in terms of network stability, lifetime, and throughput. Energy consumption of sensor nodes minimized, which, as a result, increased residual network energy. The number of dead nodes of the DFST is about 50\% less than that of its counterparts RE-ATTEMPT and iM-SIMPLE. The average throughput of the proposed scheme is 51\% and 8\% higher than the methods. Similarly, the residual energy of the DFST is approximately 200\% and 120\% more than iM-SIMPLE and RE-ATTEMPT, respectively.
... Ahmed, Javaid (15) has worked on how to increase the performance of Co-LAEEBA routing protocol with some of the factors which are residual energy, throughput, delay spread, stability period, network lifetime and path-loss. The research proposed some mechanisms, which consider both single and multi-hops to route data over link aware routing protocols in wireless body area networks. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we have investigated some of the most recent energy efficient routing protocols for wireless body area networks. This technology has seen advancements in recent times where wireless sensors are injected in the human body to sense and measure body parameters like temperature, heartbeat and glucose level. These tiny wireless sensors gather body data information and send it over a wireless network to the base station. The data measurements are examined by the doctor or physician and the suitable cure is suggested. The whole communication is done through routing protocols in a network environment. Routing protocol consumes energy while helping non-stop communication in a wireless environment. Because of the very tiny size, energy consumption matters a lot. We have focused on the protocols, which provide energy efficiency and improve network lifetime, through put and minimal path loss. We will be discussing some of the most recent energy efficient routing protocols in this paper; later their comparison with an appropriate table is presented. In addition, recent challenges, possible application and perspectives are discussed.
Article
The use of fuzzy decision-making in datapath selection extends the sensor network lifetime with a uniform distribution of routing load among network nodes. Fuzzy-logic based routing protocols are mostly designed for general wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, such protocols are not compatible with a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) comprised of biosensor nodes. WBAN nodes carry inferior computational, communication and energy resources as compared to general WSN nodes. A WBAN routing protocol needs to be designed as per IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN standards to meet high-end QoS requirements of medical applications. This paper presents a fuzzy-logic-based clustering protocol for data routing in WBANs. Nodes are grouped into clusters and cluster head nodes are selected through a Fuzzy-Genetic Algorithm termed as EB-fg-MADM. EB-fg-MADM makes an assessment of dual attributes of each cluster node in terms of node residual energy and CH selection cost. CH selection cost of a node is the forecasted value of network energy consumption if the node acts as a cluster head. EB-fg-MADM utilizes a fuzzy-TOPSIS function which makes a quantitative comparison of cluster nodes and selects the cluster head node possessing the aforementioned attributes closest to their ideally desired values. A Genetic Algorithm-based optimization process adapts the attribute weights for cluster head selection. EB-fg-MADM provides enhanced network lifetime with a uniform distribution of routing load. Protocol performance is obtained in terms of network lifetime, throughput and latency. Results are compared with existing WBAN routing protocols and are found to be better.
Chapter
An optimization model provides a method to apply behavioral mechanisms in an advanced system to provide quality of service in all activities which is smarter in nature. Optimization means that work can be minimized or maximized according to the problem statement. Wireless sensor systems are utilized to gather information and to send it to a base station, and this domain is also used in the design and analysis routing problems in the network. In addition, the corresponding strength in the sensor system is a crucial challenge to avoiding loss of packets or packet drops, quick power consumption, and degradation in node performance, while increasing the delay in packet delivery across the network. In order to have an effective routing decision, there is an urgent need to check the usage of power of the nodes by maximizing the overall performance of the network using improved machine learning and various types of nature-inspired algorithms. To address these issues, balancing the loads while enhancing the utilization of cluster heads and nodes is one of the essential measures for bunching sensor nodes. To address this problem, the authors discuss various types of optimization technique to achieve the overall routing performance in WSNs.
Chapter
Wireless body area network (WBAN) is growing enormously with the technical development of the Internet of things (IOT). WBAN is one of the types in which sensors are located on the body of the patient. The increasing use of wireless networks and the constant miniaturization of electrical invasive/noninvasive devices have empowered the development of wireless body area networks (WBANs). A WBAN provides a continuous health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal daily life activities. Many technologies have proved their efficiency in supporting WBAN applications, such as remote monitoring, biofeedback, and assisted living by responding to their specific quality of service (QoS) requirements. Due to numerous available technologies, selecting the appropriate technology for a medical application is being a challenging task. In this paper, the different medical applications are presented. The most common technologies used in WBANs are highlighted. Finally, a matching between each application and the corresponding suitable technology is studied.
Chapter
An important application of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) is WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) which is utilized to monitor the health by taking the help of cloud computing and clustering, which is a part of machine learning. The sensors can measure certain parameters of human body, either externally or internally. Sensor Nodes (SNs) normally have very limited resources due to its small size. Therefore, an essential design requirement of WBAN schemes is the minimum consumption of energy. Bio- Sensor Nodes (BSNs) or simply called as SNs are the main backbone of WBANs. It is used to sense health-related data such as rate of heart beat, blood pressure, blood glucose level, electrocardiogram (ECG), and electromyography of human body and pass these readings to real-time health monitoring systems. Examples can include measuring the heartbeat and body temperature or recording a prolonged ECG. Several other sensors are placed in clothes, directly on the body or under the skin of a person, and measure the temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, ECG, EEG, respiration rate, etc. Increasing health monitoring needs and self-awareness of the population motivates the need of developing a low energy and maximum lifetime network-based routing protocol. Medical application of the WBANs provides an efficient way for continuous human body monitoring. For example, the sensor monitors a sudden drop of glucose, and then, a signal can be sent to the actuator in order to start the injection of insulin, and we know this from Figures 11.3 and 11.7. WBAN can also be used to offer assistance to the disabled. A paraplegic can be equipped with sensors determining the position of the legs or with sensors attached to the nerves. In addition, actuators positioned on the legs can stimulate the muscles. Interaction between the data from the sensors and the actuators makes it possible to restore the ability to move.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper a reliable, efficient in terms of power consumption and high stable network is proposed for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks. Eight sensor nodes are used from which two are recording critical data. These two sensors are not apart of multi-hopping but send data direct to the sink. Remaining six sensors are computed to become a forwarder node. Forwarder nodes gathers data from sensors and after aggregating sends ti the sink. Two parameters are set for cost function so that a forwarder node is selected. If a sensor is having minimum distance and maximum energy as compared to the entire nodes then it will be selected as forwarder node. Multi-hopping is used to reduce the distance of data communication and to save energy consumption. Simulation is carried out and shows stable results.
Article
A daunting task in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is still to develop Effective routing techniques. Small-sized nodes are installed on or within the human body to monitor human health conditions which then deliver the data to servers for analysis. During sensing and data transfer, biomedical sensors work continuously and the temperature of the nodes may rise beyond the threshold limit. This temperature rise may damage the human body tissues as well as the routing mechanism in terms of path losses. To keep the temperature at its normal working value, a priority-based selection of routes is required to prevent data loss during transmission. This will ensure safe and accurate data delivery at the destination. A protocol called “Thermal Aware Link Energy Efficient Scheme for WBANs” (TALEEBA) for workers is proposed to monitor the health of workers in factories. One of the four sinks will collect the data of the nearest worker in the field. As the body temperature of any worker is detected to rise, an alarm will be generated and the supervisor of the workplace will ask the worker to be replaced by some other worker. The same mechanism will continue till the task ends. Our proposed TALEEBA (Thermal Aware Link Energy Efficient Scheme for WBANs) scheme is aligned with current LAEEBA and THE-FAME WBAN schemes. In simulations, we analyze our protocol in terms of stability period, network lifetime, residual energy, a packet sent, packet dropped, and throughput. Hence, the results show stability and network life 50%, a packet sent 20% and throughput 23% are improved in comparison with LABEEA and THE-FAME protocols.
Chapter
The Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSN) have witnessed tremendous research interest because of their wide range of applications (medical and non-medical) in order to improve the quality of life. The healthcare applications of WBSN demands dissemination of patient’s data, reliably and in a timely manner. For this purpose, medical teams may use real-time applications for disseminating critical data such as blood pressure, ECG, and EEG. The critical data packets are highly delay sensitive that must reach intended destination within time constraints. Due to the exchange of real-time and multi-media data, some nodes or links may experience the significant level of interference in the network. Consequently, it results in transmission disruption, random number of packet drops, insufficient buffer space and lack of availability of bandwidth. Moreover, interference in the network strains the communication links, reduces the information delivery capacity of the network and leads to high collisions, packet losses, retransmission and energy consumption. Therefore, incorporating interference-awareness in routing decisions is desirable to enhance the performance of WBSN. In this paper, we present an Interference-aware Routing Protocol (I-RP) that makes use of composite routing metric incorporating link quality (in terms of link delay and interference level) and path length. This multi-facet routing strategy makes more informed routing decision regarding route selection in a way that, a route with the minimum level of interference and path length is selected. Moreover, it also increases the link reliability and minimizes the packet losses and retransmission. The simulation results demonstrate the improved performance of proposed scheme when compared to existing routing scheme in WBSN.
Article
The architecture of WBANs consists of small nodes which are fitted on the body of human or it may be implanted inside body to investigate and analyze and sense data like monitoring body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate and glucose level checking etc. For efficient design and development of WBANs, which ensure reliability and efficiency the knowledge of system and its components are necessary. WBANs must be capable to support lower energy, high data rate, reliability, Quality of Service (QoS) and minimum interference for the consideration of vast applications of WBANs. In WBANs there is a need of proactive management because it is related to more reliable communication. In this research work we are trying to provide a comprehensive review of state of the art routing protocols for WBANs. After the thorough analysis and investigation of different routing protocols, we conclude that there are many good schemes to overcome and resolve the issues of routing in WBANs. But still some of the issues need to be resolved. A new routing protocol for WBANs is developed called DSBAN. In this scheme we considered the performance metrics in terms of the already available schemes SIMPLE, and LAEEBA and see the effects in terms of energy efficiency, Networks lifetime and path-loss. The results show that the scheme DSBAN is significantly showing improved performance than the other two schemes under consideration. The reason is that the scheme considers those positive features of SIMPLE and LAEEBA which help us in the design of the new scheme.
Chapter
Wireless sensor applications have resulted in significant advancements in the medical sector known as body area networks. They are being heavily employed by wearable monitoring systems for detection of symptoms and indicators in order to counter harmful medical conditions while they are innocuous. The successful delivery of data whether normal or critical from the patient to his medical practitioner is still a tedious task. Various attempts at designing suitable protocols for WBANs have been made by researchers at different network layers. In this work, we have tried to present an overview of the working methodology of WBAN field, its applications, and various routing protocols designed for WBANs. What should be a suitable number of nodes to be deployed on a human body is still a challenging issue. We have considered three popular routing schemes of WBAN and presented an analysis with varying node deployments to judge their performance. The three schemes considered are SIMPLE, LAEEBA, and EENMBAN.
Article
Introduction A wireless network of biosensor nodes, attached to different parts of the patient body, is termed as Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). WBANs offer a real-time data monitoring platform for biological health parameters like blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose level, etc. Objectives Low-power consumption is an essential WBAN design requirement due to limited power resources of biosensor nodes. Methods Present work proposes the design of low power, clustering based data routing protocol for WBANs. Proposed protocol incorporates a novel “Energy Budget based Multiple Attributes Decision Making Algorithm (EB-MADM)” for dynamic cluster head selection. The algorithm selects an optimum node as cluster head which has the higher residual energy level and performs data routing at the cost of least network residual energy loss. EB-MADM selects a new cluster head for each transmission round and distributes cluster head load evenly among cluster nodes. It results in enhanced network lifetime. Proposed protocol incorporates another low power technique termed as “Cooperative effort of cluster nodes”. This technique saves node transmission energy by prohibiting redundant data from transmission. Results The proposed protocol is simulated using MATLAB tool and the performance results are compared with existing WBAN protocols. Conclusions Proposed protocol shows better performance in terms of network lifetime, stability period, throughput, and propagation delay.
Thesis
Full-text available
Les réseaux sans fil corporels (WBANs) sont l'une des technologies les plus prometteuses. Le faible coût des biocapteurs et leur grande variété permettent une diversité d'applications WBAN qui peuvent améliorer la qualité de vie et les services de soins médicaux. Ces capteurs doivent communiquer entre eux sans fil. Cette communication et les autres activités des capteurs produisent de la chaleur provoquant une élévation de la température. Cette température ne doit pas être très élevée car elle peut endommager les organes sensibles du corps et les tissus environnants. Les protocoles de routage à base de température est la classe de protocoles de routage pour les WBANs proposés pour résoudre ce problème. De nombreux protocoles ont été proposés au cours de la dernière décennie et demie. Dans cette thèse, nous proposons HTTRP, un nouveau protocole de routage pour les WBANs introduisant un nouveau mécanisme de sélection de route qui vise à réduire la surchauffe des capteurs et à équilibrer leur consommation d'énergie. Ce mécanisme est basé sur une fonction qui prend en compte l'énergie résiduelle des noeuds capteurs et leur température lors du choix du prochain noeud relais. Les résultats de la simulation effectuée montrent que notre protocole HTTRP a de meilleures performances en termes de durée de vie du réseau, d'équilibrage de charge, d'élévation de température et de débit par rapport à un représentant de TARP qui est le protocole TARA. Mots-clés : sensible à l'énergie, protocoles de routage, sensible à la chaleur, débit, réseaux sans fil corporels. Abstract Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are one of the most promising technologies. The low cost of the biosensors and their wide variety allow a diversity of WBAN applications that can improve life quality and medical health care services. These sensors need to communicate wirelessly. This communication and other sensors' activities produce heat causing a temperature rise. This temperature should not be very high because it can damage the sensible body organs and the surrounding tissues. The temperature-aware routing protocol is the class of routing protocols for WBANs proposed to address this problem. Many protocols have been proposed in the last decade and a half. In this thesis, we propose HTTRP, a new routing protocol for WBANs introducing a new route selection mechanism that aims to reduce the overheating of sensors and balance their energy consumption. This mechanism is based on a function that considers the residual energy of sensor nodes and their temperature when choosing the next relay node. The carried-out simulation results show that our HTTRP protocol has better performance in terms of network lifetime, charge balancing, temperature rise, and throughput compared to a representative of TARP that is TARA protocol.
Article
Full-text available
Modern health care system is one of the most popular Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) applications and a hot area of research subject to present work. In this paper, we present Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT) for WBASNs. The proposed routing protocol uses fixed deployment of wireless sensors (nodes) such that these are placed according to energy levels. Moreover, we use direct communication for the delivery of emergency data and multihop communication for the delivery of normal data. RE-ATTEMPT selects route with minimum hop count to deliver data which downplays the delay factor. Furthermore, we conduct a comprehensive analysis supported by MATLAB simulations to provide an estimation of path loss, and problem formulation with its solution via linear programming model for network lifetime maximization is also provided. In simulations, we analyze our protocol in terms of network lifetime, packet drops, and throughput. Results show better performance for the proposed protocol as compared to the existing one.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol for heterogeneous Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs); Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (M-ATTEMPT). A prototype is defined for employing heterogeneous sensors on human body. Direct communication is used for real-time traffic (critical data) or on-demand data while Multi-hop communication is used for normal data delivery. One of the prime challenges in WBASNs is sensing of the heat generated by the implanted sensor nodes. The proposed routing algorithm is thermal-aware which senses the link Hot-spot and routes the data away from these links. Continuous mobility of human body causes disconnection between previous established links. So, mobility support and energy-management is introduced to overcome the problem. Linear Programming (LP) model for maximum information extraction and minimum energy consumption is presented in this study. MATLAB simulations of proposed routing algorithm are performed for lifetime and successful packet delivery in comparison with Multi-hop communication. The results show that the proposed routing algorithm has less energy consumption and more reliable as compared to Multi-hop communication.
Article
Full-text available
Advances in wireless communication, system on chip and low power sensor nodes allowed realization of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). WBAN comprised of tiny sensors, which collect information of patient's vital signs and provide a real time feedback. In addition, WBAN also supports many applications including Ubiquitous HealthCare (UHC), entertainment, gaming, military, etc. UHC is required by elderly people to facilitate them with instant monitoring anywhere they move around. In this paper, different standards used in WBAN were also discussed briefly. Path loss in WBAN and its impact on communication was presented with the help of simulations, which were performed for different models of In-Body communication and different factors (such as, attenuation, frequency, distance etc) influencing path loss in On-Body communications.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Self-organization for wireless multi-hop systems can be di- vided into two categories: proactive cluster-based solutions and reactive on-demand solutions. Whereas the former have been studied for ad-hoc networks, the latter seem more adap- ted to low-energy low-trac wireless sensor networks. We show that, despite the relative high cost to build and main- tain a topology, a cluster-based approach is particularly suited for Body Area Networks. We present AnyBody, a self- organization protocol in which sensors attached to a person are grouped into clusters.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Body Area Network (BAN) is considered as a promising technology in supporting medical and healthcare services by combining with various biological sensors. In this paper, we look at wearable BAN, which provides communication links among sensors on body surface. In order to design a BAN that manages biologic information with high efficiency and high reliability, the propagation characteristics of BAN must be thoroughly investigated. As a preliminary effort, we measured the propagation characteristics of BAN at frequency bands of 400 MHz, 600 MHz, 900 MHz, and 2400 MHz respectively. Channel models for wearable BAN based on the measurement results were derived. Our results show that the channel models can be described by using a path loss model for all investigated frequency bands.
Article
Full-text available
Body Area Network (BAN) is considered as a promising technology in supporting medical and healthcare services by combining with various biological sensors. In this paper, we look at wearable BAN, which provides communication links among sensors on body surface. In order to design a BAN that manages biological information with high efficiency and high reliability, the propagation characteristics of BAN must be thoroughly investigated. As a preliminary effort, we measured the propagation characteristics of BAN at frequency bands of 400MHz, 600MHz, 900MHz and 2400MHz respectively. Channel models for wearable BAN based on the measurement were derived. Our results show that the channel model can be described by using a path loss model for all frequency bands investigated.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wireless body area networks (WBANs) form a new and interesting area in the world of remote health monitoring. An important concern in such networks is the communication between the sensors. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. Mobility also has to be supported as the nodes are positioned on different parts of the body that move with regard to each other. In this paper, we present a new cross-layer communication protocol for WBANs: CICADA or Cascading Information retrieval by Controlling Access with Distributed slot Assignment. The protocol sets up a network tree in a distributed manner. This tree structure is subsequently used to guarantee collision free access to the medium and to route data towards the sink. The paper analyzes CICADA and shows simulation results. The protocol offers low delay and good resilience to mobility. The energy usage is low as the nodes can sleep in slots where they are not transmitting or receiving.
Article
With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g, Electro Cardiogram (ECG), Electro Encephalogram (EEG), ElectronyStagmography (ENG) etc. Due to life threatening situations, timely sending of data is essential. For data to reach health care center, there must be a proper way of sending data through reliable connection and with minimum delay. In this paper transmission delay of different paths, through which data is sent from sensor to health care center over heterogeneous multi-hop wireless channel is analyzed. Data of medical related diseases is sent through three different paths. In all three paths, data from sensors first reaches ZigBee, which is the common link in all three paths. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) are connected with ZigBee. Each network (WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS) is setup according to environmental conditions, suitability of device and availability of structure for that device. Data from these networks is sent to IP-Cloud, which is further connected to health care center. Delay of data reaching each device is calculated and represented graphically. Main aim of this paper is to calculate delay of each link in each path over multi-hop wireless channel.
Article
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of large number of randomly deployed energy constrained sensor nodes. Sensor nodes have ability to sense and send sensed data to Base Station (BS). Sensing as well as transmitting data towards BS require high energy. In WSNs, saving energy and extending network lifetime are great challenges. Clustering is a key technique used to optimize energy consumption in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering based routing technique: Enhanced Developed Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering scheme (EDDEEC) for heterogeneous WSNs. Our technique is based on changing dynamically and with more efficiency the Cluster Head (CH) election probability. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol achieves longer lifetime, stability period and more effective messages to BS than Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC) in heterogeneous environments.
Conference Paper
This paper presents conditional probabilistic modeling suitable to characterize the temporal variation of links in wireless body area networks (BAN); according to short, medium and long term fading characteristics. The approach captures first and second order statistics appropriately; and using conditional probabilities, predicts what signal power levels can be expected from 10ms ahead to many seconds into the future in the context of typical channel coherence times. Hundreds of hours of link measurements, in "Everyday" mixed activity BAN, are used to generate these conditional models. We show that such modeling has an important effect to higher level simulation results (e.g., packets received at the application layer) for different simulation scenarios. Moreover we show that the model is computationally efficient as its introduction adds only 8% of simulation time on average. It is also shown that short and medium-term conditional modeling can vary considerably from long-term modeling, particularly given lower instantaneous path loss.
Article
In this work, we propose a reliable, power efficient and high throughput routing protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). We use multi-hop topology to achieve minimum energy consumption and longer network lifetime. We propose a cost function to select parent node or forwarder. Proposed cost function selects a parent node which has high residual energy and minimum distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes while distance parameter ensures successful packet delivery to sink. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol maximize the network stability period and nodes stay alive for longer period. Longer stability period contributes high packet delivery to sink which is major interest for continuous patient monitoring.
Article
In this paper, we first presented an analytically discussion about energy efficiency of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). For this purpose, different energy efficient MAC protocols with their respective energy optimization techniques; Low Power Listening (LPL), Scheduled Contention and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), are elaborated. We also analytically compared path loss models for In-body, On-body and Off-body communications in WBASNs. These three path loss scenarios are simulated in MATLAB and results shown that path loss is more in In-body communication because of less energy level to take care of tissues and organs located inside human body. Secondly, power model for WBASNs of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) and beacon mode is also presented. MATLAB simulations results shown that power of CSMA/CA mode is less as compared to beacon mode. Finally, we suggested that hybrid mode is more useful to achieve optimization in power consumption, which consequently results in high energy efficiency.
Conference Paper
Wireless body area sensor networks will revolutionize health care services by remote, continuous and non-invasive monitoring. Body area sensor networks (BASN) should monitor various physiological parameters of a person for a long period of time. Thus, efficient energy usage in sensor nodes is essential in order to provide a long life time for the network. This paper investigates the effect of adding a relay network to the network of body sensors to reduce energy consumption of sensor nodes when transmitting data to the sink.
Conference Paper
This paper presents a location based store-and-forward packet routing algorithm for wireless body area networks (WBAN) with frequent postural partitioning. A prototype WBAN has been constructed for experimentally characterizing on-body topology disconnections in the presence of ultra short range radio links, unpredictable RF attenuation, and human postural mobility. A location based packet routing protocol is then developed. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated experimentally, and is compared with a generic probabilistic routing protocol and a specialized on-body packet flooding mechanism that provides the routing delay lower-bounds. It is shown that via successfully leveraging the node location information, the proposed algorithm can provide better routing delay performance compared to existing probabilistic routing protocols in the literature.
Ieee standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 15.6: Wireless body area networks: Ieee std 802.15. 6-2012
  • A Astrin
A. Astrin et al., "Ieee standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 15.6: Wireless body area networks: Ieee std 802.15. 6-2012,"The document is available at IEEE Xplore, 2012.
Channel model for body area network (ban)
  • K Y Yazdandoost
  • K Sayrafian-Pour
K. Y. Yazdandoost, K. Sayrafian-Pour, et al., "Channel model for body area network (ban)," IEEE P802, vol. 15, 2009.
Energy efficient mac protocols in wireless body area sensor networks
  • S Hayat
  • N Javaid
  • A Khan
  • A Shareef
  • A Mahmood
  • S Bouk
S. Hayat, N. Javaid, A. Khan, Z, A. Shareef, A. Mahmood, and S. Bouk, "Energy efficient mac protocols in wireless body area sensor networks," in J. Basic Appl. Sci. Res. 2013 3(4): 770-781.