Conference Paper

An Energy Consumption Analysis of Beacon Enabled Slotted CSMA/CA IEEE 802.15.4

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Abstract

Due to low power consumption and low duty cycle, IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely used for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR − W P AN s). It works in Beacon Enabled (BEn) and Non Beacon Enabled (N BEn) mode. In BEn mode, it has Contention Access Period (CAP) and an optional Contention Free Period (CFP). During CAP, nodes contend to access the medium for communication while CFP period provides Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) for low latency and applications requiring specific bandwidth. In this paper, we evaluate the comprehensive energy consumption of slotted CSMA/CA algorithm of IEEE 802.15.4 standard during idle and backoff periods. Simulation results with acknowledgment frame are given at the end of the paper. Index Terms—Slotted CSMA/CA; GTS; IEEE 802.15.4 ; MAC Layer; LR-WPANs.

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... Basic PHY and MAC layer modelling of beacon-enabled 802. 15.4 have been discussed in [4] while the PHY layer error performance is presented in [2]. In [5], the author provides a simulation model for evaluating the performance of slotted CSMA/CA protocol. ...
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For data frame transmissions in beacon-enabled mode, an IEEE 802.15.4 node performs two consecutive clear channel assessments (CCAs) to sense the channel after back off. Here, the authors study what would happen if the medium access control (MAC) layer performs only one CCA instead. Although it is apparent that the frame transmission cycle would be shortened with single CCA, it is not straightforward to assess the effect of single CCA on the overall transmission energy. A Markov chain-based MAC operation model is therefore constructed to analyse single-CCA-based MAC layer parameters. A combined physical (PHY) and MAC layer energy model is formulated next. It was found that the single CCA-based MAC outperforms its standard double CCA-based counterpart from the energy efficiency perspective.
... The basic energy consumption breakdown between the different phases of a packet transmission is presented (Bougard et al. 2005). In Rasheed et al. (2014), a simple MAC layer energy model for beacon-enabled operation is simulated for Crossbow MICAz sensor nodes but no analytical model was developed. Various energy efficiency aspect of 802.15.4 has been discussed in Rosas and Oberli (2012). ...
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... I. Rhee at al [24] have proposed a hybrid MAC protocol such as the R. K Patro at al [25] also presented the analysis correctly for contention access period, but they do not consider about defer transmission if the current superframe is not enough to accommodate transmission. M.B Rasheed at al [26] have proposed an analysis for slotted CSMA/CA for energy consumption, but they only consider about idle condition for the standard and do not propose a new scheme. B-H Lee at al [27] have presented an analytical invorder to improvement performance star networks by using extra carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4. ...
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... In [24], the authors present the analysis correctly for contention access period, but they do not consider about defer transmission if the current superframe is not enough to accommodate transmission. The authors of [25] propose an analysis for slotted CSMA/CA for energy consumption, but they only consider about idle condition for the standard and do not propose a new scheme. The authors of [26] propose an enhanced backoff (EB) mechanism shifts the range of backoff period (BP) to reduce redundant backoff and clear channel assessments (CCAs). ...
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In the contention mechanism used to slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) on IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Device nodes will perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects as busy condition. The challenge of CSMA/CA as following: first, when the device nodes detect the channel in busy condition, the device nodes have to increase the value of backoff exponent (BE) which cause range of blind backoff process also increase. Second, when the device nodes detect the channel in busy condition, the device nodes have to increase number of backoff stage which cause more energy consumptions for entering next backoff stage. This article proposes a scheme to improve IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control, called adjustment delay scheme (ADES). ADES not only reduce probability of collision but also reduce probability of going to next backoff stage. The validity of study is proven by simulation experiments. ADES performs better than IEEE 802.15.4 standard in term of the probability of successful packet transmission, network goodput, bandwidth utilization as well as energy consumption in the networks.
... However, idle listening is caused due to listening to all slots before sending data and therefore energy consumption is higher. Authors in Rasheed et al. (2014) evaluate the energy consumption of slotted CSMA/CA algorithm of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in idle and backoff periods. However, they have not studied how collision affects the energy consumption. ...
... In coexisting WBANs, packet loss is inevitable due to collisions and bits errors which are sensitive to the interference from the neighboring node [20,21]. CSMA performs CCA which employ a threshold to determine if the channel busy or not, and transforms the complex interference(i.e., continuous values of SINR) to be a simple problem(i.e., collision or not) [22]. ...
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... On the other hand, in Brante et al. [11] a comparison between dual-hop transmission schemes for WSNs was presented. In [12] the basic PHY and MAC layer modelling of 802.15.4 in Beacon-enable mode was discussed. ...
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