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This paper describes a teacher knowledge framework for technol- ogy integration called technological pedagogical content knowl- edge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge). This framework builds on Lee Shulman’s (1986, 1987) construct of pedagogical content knowl- edge (PCK) to include technology knowledge. The development of TPACK by teachers is critical to effective teaching with technology. The paper begins with a brief introduction to the complex, ill- structured nature of teaching. The nature of technologies (both analog and digital) is considered, as well as how the inclusion of technology in pedagogy further complicates teaching. The TPACK framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail as a com- plex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: content, peda- gogy, and technology. The interaction of these bodies of knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.
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Letter from the Editor
Roselmina Indrisano
Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching
Lee S. Shulman
What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)?
Matthew J. Koehler, Punya Mishra, and William Cain
The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework
on Research on Preservice Teacher Education
Storey Mecoli
The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework on Research
in Mathematics Education: A Review Across Grade Bands
Mary Elizabeth Matthews
Disciplinary Literacy and Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Michelle Carney and Roselmina Indrisano
Strategic Selection of Children’s and Young Adult Literature
Laura M. Jiménez and Kristin K. A. McIlhagga
Laura Callis
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Volume 193 • Number 3 • 2013 Boston Universit
School of Education
Boston University School of Education
Journal of Education
Boston University School of Education
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Boston, MA 02215
Founded in 1875
Volume 193 • Number 3 • 2013
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Founded in 1875
Volume 193 • Number 3 • 2013
Boston University School of Education
Roselmina Indrisano, Editor
Lynne Larson, Managing Editor
Editorial Assistants
Michelle Carney
Laura Callis
Daniel Osborn
Faculty Advisers
Donna Lehr
Jeanne R. Paratore
Scott Seider
volume 193, number 3, 2013
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Letter from the Editor v
Roselmina Indrisano
Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching 1
Lee S. Shulman
What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)? 13
Matthew J. Koehler, Punya Mishra, and William Cain
The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework on Research on
Preservice Teacher Education 21
Storey Mecoli
The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework on Research in Mathematics Education:
A Review Across Grade Bands 29
Mary Elizabeth Matthews
Disciplinary Literacy and Pedagogical Content Knowledge 39
Michelle Carney and Roselmina Indrisano
strategic selection of children’s and young adult literature
Laura M. Jiménez and Kristin K. A. McIlhagga
Laura Callis
This paper describes a teacher knowledge framework for technol-
ogy integration called technological pedagogical content knowl-
edge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology,
pedagogy, and content knowledge). This framework builds on Lee
Shulman’s (1986, 1987) construct of pedagogical content knowl-
edge (PCK) to include technology knowledge. The development of
TPACK by teachers is critical to effective teaching with technology.
The paper begins with a brief introduction to the complex, ill-
structured nature of teaching. The nature of technologies (both
analog and digital) is considered, as well as how the inclusion of
technology in pedagogy further complicates teaching. The TPACK
framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail as a com-
plex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: content, peda-
gogy, and technology. The interaction of these bodies of
knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types
of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology
use into teaching.
As exciting trends in educational technology and teacher develop-
ment continue to emerge and evolve, it is useful to revisit the arti-
cle on TPACK we published in Contemporary Issues in Technology and
Teacher Education in 2009 (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). This article
entitled, “What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
(TPACK)?” serves as a concise introduction to the TPACK frame-
work, first introduced in 2006 in the Teachers College Record under
the title “Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A
Framework for Teacher Knowledge” (Mishra & Koehler, 2006).
Work on TPACK continues worldwide. Currently, Google
Scholar indicates the 2006 article has been cited 1897 times in
scholarly publications. The TPACK community is now an interna-
tional one, with scholars from around the globe studying theoreti-
cal issues and practical applications of the framework (Voogt,
Fisser, Pareja Roblin, & van Braak, 2013). The TPACK framework
itself has prompted the creation of a professional guide, The Hand-
book of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge for Educators
(2008), in recognition of its rapidly developing network of schol-
arship and research. At, the TPACK user community
has compiled a growing bibliography of TPACK-related literature
(443 articles as of this writing). The publications indicate that inter-
est in the TPACK framework spans a multitude of content areas
(mathematics, science, social studies, history, etc.), and engages a
broad spectrum of researchers and education professionals who are
working to understand its theoretical and practical implications.
As educators know, teaching is a complicated practice that requires
an interweaving of many kinds of specialized knowledge. In this
way, teaching is an example of an ill-structured discipline, requir-
ing teachers to apply complex knowledge structures across differ-
ent cases and contexts (Mishra, Spiro, & Feltovich, 1996; Spiro &
Jehng, 1990). Teachers practice their craft in highly complex,
dynamic classroom contexts (Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) that
require them to constantly shift and evolve their understanding.
Thus, effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-
organized, and integrated knowledge from different domains
(Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman, 1986, 1987),
including knowledge of student thinking and learning; knowledge
of subject matter; and increasingly, knowledge of technology. This
article is the result of revising and updating the original piece to
reflect current work in the area of TPACK.
Teaching with technology is complicated further when the chal-
lenges newer technologies present to teachers are considered. In
our work, the word technology applies equally to analog and digi-
tal, as well as new and old, technologies. As a matter of practical
significance, however, most of the technologies under considera-
tion in current literature are newer and digital and have some
inherent properties that make applying them in straightforward
ways difficult.
Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by
specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for view-
ing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums, and chalkboards
have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of func-
tion (the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple
and directly related to their function) (Simon, 1969). Over time,
these technologies achieve a transparency of perception (Bruce &
Hogan, 1998); they become commonplace and, in most cases, are
not even considered to be technologies. Digital technologies—
such as computers, handheld devices, and software applications—
by contrast, are protean (usable in many different ways) (Papert,
1980), unstable (rapidly changing), and opaque (the inner work-
ings are hidden from users) (Turkle, 1995). On an academic level,
it is easy to argue that a pencil and a software simulation are both
What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)?
matthew j. koehler, punya mishra, and william cain, michigan state university
technologies. The latter, however, is qualitatively different in that
its functioning is more opaque to teachers and offers fundamen-
tally less stability than more traditional technologies. By their very
nature, newer digital technologies, which are protean, unstable,
and opaque, present new challenges to teachers who are struggling
to use more technology in their instruction.
Also complicating teaching with technology is an understanding
that technologies are neither neutral nor unbiased. Rather, particu-
lar technologies have their own propensities, potentials, affor-
dances, and constraints that make them more suitable for certain
tasks than others (Bromley, 1998; Bruce, 1993; Koehler & Mishra,
2008). Using email to communicate, for example, affords (makes
possible and supports) asynchronous communication and easy stor-
age of exchanges. Email does not afford synchronous communica-
tion in the way that a phone call, a face-to-face conversation, or
instant messaging does. Nor does email afford the conveyance of
subtleties of tone, intent, or mood possible with face-to-face com-
munication. Understanding how these affordances and constraints
of specific technologies influence what teachers do in their class-
rooms is not straightforward and may require rethinking teacher
education and teacher professional development.
Social and contextual factors also complicate the relationships
between teaching and technology. Social and institutional contexts
are often unsupportive of teachers’ efforts to integrate technology
use into their work. Teachers often have inadequate (or inappro-
priate) experience with using digital technologies for teaching and
learning. Many teachers earned degrees at a time when educa-
tional technology was at a very different stage of development
than it is today. Thus, it is not surprising that they do not consider
themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the class-
room and often do not appreciate its value or relevance to teach-
ing and learning. Acquiring a new knowledge base and skill set can
be challenging, particularly if it is a time-intensive activity that
must fit into a busy schedule. Moreover, this knowledge is unlikely
to be used unless teachers can conceive of technology uses that are
consistent with their existing pedagogical beliefs (Ertmer, 2005).
Furthermore, teachers have often been provided with inadequate
training for this task. Many approaches to teachers’ professional
development offer a one-size-fits-all approach to technology inte-
gration when, in fact, teachers operate in diverse contexts of
teaching and learning.
Faced with these challenges, how can teachers integrate technol-
ogy into their teaching? What is needed is an approach that treats
teaching as an interaction between what teachers know and how
they apply this knowledge in the unique circumstances or contexts
within their classrooms. There is no “one best way” to integrate
technology into curriculum. Rather, integration efforts should be cre-
atively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific
classroom contexts. Honoring the idea that teaching with technology
is a complex, ill-structured task, we propose that understanding
approaches to successful technology integration requires educa-
tors to develop new ways of comprehending and accommodating
this complexity.
At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core
components: content, pedagogy, and technology, plus the relation-
ships among and between them. The interactions between and
among the three components, playing out differently across
diverse contexts, account for the wide variations in the extent and
quality of educational technology integration. These three knowl-
edge bases (content, pedagogy, and technology) form the core of
the technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK)
framework. An overview of the framework is provided in the fol-
lowing section, though more detailed descriptions may be found
elsewhere (e.g., Koehler & Mishra, 2008; Mishra & Koehler,
2006). This perspective is consistent with that of other researchers
and approaches that have attempted to extend Shulman’s pedagog-
ical content knowledge (PCK) construct to include educational
technology. (A comprehensive list of such approaches can be
found at
The TPACK framework builds on Shulman’s (1986,1987) descrip-
tions of PCK to explain how teachers’ understanding of educa-
tional technologies and PCK interact with one another to produce
effective teaching with technology. Other authors have discussed
similar ideas, though often using different labeling schemes. The
conception of TPACK described here has developed over time and
through a series of publications, with the most complete descrip-
tions of the framework found in Mishra and Koehler (2006) and
Koehler and Mishra (2008).
In this model (see Figure 1), there are three main components
of teachers’ knowledge: content, pedagogy, and technology.
Equally important to the model are the interactions between and
among these bodies of knowledge, represented as PCK (pedagog-
ical content knowledge), TCK (technological content knowledge),
TPK (technological pedagogical knowledge), and TPACK (tech-
nology, pedagogy, and content knowledge).
Content Knowledge
Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject
matter to be learned or taught. The content to be covered in mid-
dle school science or history is different from the content to be cov-
ered in an undergraduate course in art appreciation or a graduate
seminar in astrophysics. Knowledge of content is of critical impor-
tance for teachers. As Shulman (1986) noted, this knowledge
includes concepts, theories, ideas, organizational frameworks, evi-
dence and proof, as well as established practices and approaches
toward developing such knowledge. Knowledge and the nature of
inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should under-
stand the deeper knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines they
teach. In the case of science, for example, this would include
14 J O U R N A L O F E D U C A T I O N • V O L U M E 1 9 3 • N U M B E R 3 • 2 0 1 3
knowledge of scientific facts and theories, the scientific method,
and evidence-based reasoning. In the case of art appreciation, such
knowledge would include art history, famous artists, paintings and
sculptures, and their historical contexts, as well as aesthetic and
psychological theories for appreciating and evaluating art.
The cost of not having a comprehensive base of content knowl-
edge can be prohibitive; for example, students can receive incor-
rect information and develop misconceptions about the content
area (National Research Council, 2000; Pfundt & Duit, 2000). Yet
content knowledge, in and of itself, is an ill-structured domain,
and as the culture wars (Zimmerman, 2002), the Great Books
controversies (Bloom, 1987; Casement, 1997; Levine, 1996), and
court battles over the teaching of evolution (Pennock, 2001)
demonstrate, issues relating to curriculum content can be areas of
significant contention and disagreement.
Pedagogical Knowledge
Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about
the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning.
They encompass, among other factors, overall educational pur-
poses, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to
understanding how students learn, general classroom management
skills, lesson planning, and student assessment. It includes knowl-
edge about techniques or methods used in the classroom, the
nature of the target audience, and strategies for evaluating student
understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge
understands how students construct knowledge and acquire skills,
and how they develop habits of mind and positive dispositions
toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an
understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of
learning and how they apply to students in the classroom.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) is consistent with and
similar to Shulman’s (1986, 1987) idea of knowledge of pedagogy
that is applicable to teaching specific content. Central to Shulman’s
conceptualization of PCK is the notion of the transformation of
the subject matter for teaching. Specifically, according to Shulman
(1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the
subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and
tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and
students’ prior knowledge. PCK covers the core business of teach-
ing, learning, curriculum, assessment, and reporting, such as the
conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum,
assessment, and pedagogy. An awareness of common misconcep-
tions and ways of looking at them, the importance of forging con-
nections among different content-based ideas, students’ prior
knowledge, alternative teaching strategies, and the flexibility that
comes from exploring alternative ways of looking at the same idea
or problem are all essential for effective teaching.
Technology Knowledge
Technology Knowledge (TK) is always in a state of flux—more so
than the other two core knowledge domains in the TPACK frame-
work (pedagogy and content). Thus, defining it is notoriously dif-
ficult. Any definition of technology knowledge is in danger of
becoming outdated by the time this text has been published. That
said, certain ways of thinking about, and working with, technol-
ogy can apply to all technological tools and resources.
The definition of TK used in the TPACK framework is close to
that of Fluency of Information Technology (FITness), as proposed
by the Committee of Information Technology Literacy of the
National Research Council (NRC, 1999). They argue that FITness
goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require
that persons understand information technology broadly enough
to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives, to rec-
ognize when information technology can assist or impede the
achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in
information technology. FITness, therefore, requires a deeper,
more essential understanding and mastery of information technol-
ogy for information processing, communication, and problem
solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy.
Acquiring TK in this manner enables a person to accomplish a vari-
ety of different tasks using information technology, and to develop
different ways of accomplishing a given task. This conceptualiza-
tion of TK does not posit an “end state,” but rather sees it develop-
mentally, as evolving over a lifetime of generative, open-ended
interaction with technology.
Technological Content Knowledge
Technology and content knowledge have a deep historical relation-
ship. Progress in fields as diverse as medicine, history, archeology,
W H A T I S T E C H N O L O G I C A L P E D A G O G I C A L C O N T E N T K N O W L E D G E ( T PA C K ) ?
Tec h n o logic a l
Pedagog ical
Tec h n o logic a l
Pedagogical Content
Pedagog ical
Tec h n o logic a l
Figure 1. The TPACK Framework and Its Knowledge Components
and physics have coincided with the development of new technolo-
gies that afford the representation and manipulation of data in new
and fruitful ways. Consider Roentgen’s discovery of X-rays or the
technique of carbon-14 dating and the influence of these technolo-
gies in the fields of medicine and archeology. Consider also how the
advent of the digital computer changed the nature of physics and
mathematics and placed a greater emphasis on the role of simula-
tion in understanding phenomena. Technological changes have also
offered new metaphors for understanding the world. Viewing the
heart as a pump, or the brain as an information-processing machine
are just some of the ways in which technologies have provided new
perspectives for understanding phenomena. These representational
and metaphorical connections are not superficial. They often have
led to fundamental changes in the natures of the disciplines.
Understanding the impact of technology on the practices and
knowledge of a given discipline is critical to developing appropri-
ate technological tools for educational purposes. The choice of
technologies affords and constrains the types of content ideas that
can be taught. Likewise, certain content decisions can limit the
types of technologies that can be used. Technology can constrain
the types of possible representations, but also can afford the con-
struction of newer and more varied representations. Further-
more, technological tools can provide a greater degree of
flexibility in navigating across these representations.
Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), then, is an under-
standing of the manner in which technology and content influence
and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the
subject matter they teach; they must also have a deep understand-
ing of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of rep-
resentations that can be constructed) can be changed by the
application of particular technologies. Teachers need to under-
stand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing
subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dic-
tates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) is an understanding
of how teaching and learning can change when particular technolo-
gies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the peda-
gogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological
tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropri-
ate pedagogical designs and strategies. To build TPK, a deeper
understanding of the constraints and affordances of technologies
and the disciplinary contexts within which they function is needed.
For example, consider how whiteboards may be used in class-
rooms. Because a whiteboard is typically immobile, visible to
many, and easily editable, its uses in classrooms are presupposed.
Thus, the whiteboard is usually placed at the front of the class-
room and is controlled by the teacher. This location imposes a par-
ticular physical order in the classroom by determining the
placement of tables and chairs and framing the nature of student-
teacher interaction since students often can use it only when called
upon by the teacher. However, it would be incorrect to say that
there is only one way in which whiteboards can be used. One has
only to compare this classroom practice to a brainstorming meet-
ing in an advertising agency setting to see a rather different use of
this technology. In the latter setting, the whiteboard is not under
the purview of a single individual. It can be used by anyone in the
group, and it becomes the focal point around which discussion and
the negotiation/construction of meaning occur. An understanding
of the affordances of technology and how they can be leveraged
differently according to changes in context and purposes is an
important part of understanding TPK.
TPK becomes particularly important because most popular
software programs are not designed for educational purposes.
Software programs such as the Microsoft Office Suite (Word,
PowerPoint, Excel, Entourage, and MSN Messenger) are usually
designed for business environments. Web-based technologies such
as blogs or podcasts are designed for purposes of entertainment,
communication, and social networking. Teachers need to reject
functional fixedness (Duncker, 1945) and develop skills to look
beyond most common uses for technologies, reconfiguring them
for customized pedagogical purposes. Thus, TPK requires a for-
ward-looking, creative, and open-minded seeking of technology
use, not for its own sake but for the sake of advancing student
learning and understanding.
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is an
emergent form of knowledge that goes beyond all three “core”
components (content, pedagogy, and technology); it is an under-
standing that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy,
and technology knowledge. Underlying truly meaningful and
deeply skilled teaching with technology, TPACK is different from
knowledge of all three concepts individually. Instead, TPACK is
the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an
understanding of the representation of concepts using technolo-
gies, pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive
ways to teach content, knowledge of what makes concepts diffi-
cult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of
the problems that students face, knowledge of students’ prior
knowledge and theories of epistemology, and knowledge of how
technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to
develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.
Finally the outer-dotted circle labeled “contexts” emphasizes
the realization that technology, pedagogy, and content do not exist
in a vacuum, but rather, are instantiated in specific learning and
teaching contexts. For instance, consider two different class-
rooms—one where each and every learner has a laptop or a
mobile device with access to the Internet and another, which is
equipped with just one desktop machine at the front of the class.
Clearly the kinds of instructional moves the teacher has to come
up with would be very different in these two contexts. Similarly,
school and national policies that allow or block certain websites
(such as Facebook or YouTube) change how teachers can structure
their lessons and activities.
16 J O U R N A L O F E D U C A T I O N • V O L U M E 1 9 3 • N U M B E R 3 • 2 0 1 3
By simultaneously integrating knowledge of technology, peda-
gogy, content, and the contexts within which they function,
expert teachers bring TPACK into play any time they teach. Each
situation presented to teachers is a unique combination of these
three factors, and accordingly, there is no single technological
solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view
of teaching. Rather, solutions lie in the ability of a teacher to flex-
ibly navigate the spaces defined by the three elements of content,
pedagogy, and technology, and the complex interactions among
these elements in specific contexts. Ignoring the complexity inher-
ent in each knowledge component or the complexities of the rela-
tionships among the components can lead to oversimplified
solutions or failure. Thus, teachers need to develop fluency and
cognitive flexibility not just in each of the key domains (T, P, and
C), but also in the manner in which these domains and contextual
parameters interrelate, so that they can construct effective solu-
tions. This is the kind of deep, flexible, pragmatic, and nuanced
understanding of teaching with technology we involved in consid-
ering TPACK as a professional knowledge construct.
The act of seeing technology, pedagogy, and content as three
interrelated knowledge bases is not straightforward. As written
. . . separating the three components (content, pedagogy,
and technology) . . . is an analytic act and one that is difficult
to tease out in practice. In actuality, these components exist
in a state of dynamic equilibrium or, as the philosopher
Kuhn (1977) said in a different context, in a state of ‘essen-
tial tension’’ . . . Viewing any of these components in isola-
tion from the others represents a real disservice to good
teaching. Teaching and learning with technology exist in a
dynamic transactional relationship (Bruce, 1997; Dewey &
Bentley, 1949; Rosenblatt, 1978) between the three compo-
nents in our framework; a change in any one of the factors
has to be ‘‘compensated’’ by changes in the other two.
(Mishra & Koehler, 2006, p. 1029)
This compensation is most evident whenever using a new edu-
cational technology suddenly forces teachers to confront basic
educational issues and reconstruct the dynamic equilibrium among
all three elements. This view inverts the conventional perspective
that pedagogical goals and technologies are derived from content
area curricula. Things are rarely that simple, particularly when
newer technologies are employed. The introduction of the Inter-
net, for example—particularly the rise of online learning—is an
example of the arrival of a technology that forced educators to
think about core pedagogical issues, such as how to represent con-
tent on the Web and how to connect students with subject matter
and with one another (Peruski & Mishra, 2004).
Teaching with technology is difficult to do well. The TPACK
framework suggests that content, pedagogy, technology, and teach-
ing/learning contexts have roles to play individually and together.
Teaching successfully with technology requires continually creat-
ing, maintaining, and re-establishing a dynamic equilibrium among
all components. It is worth noting that a range of factors influences
how this equilibrium is reached.
Theory and Practice
Given both the broad positive and critical reception of the TPACK
framework, it is natural that efforts have been made to assess the
current state of its research and development. Voogt and col-
leagues (2013) conducted a review of articles and book chapters
published between 2005 and 2011 that addressed the concept of
TPACK. They noted that, “The purpose of the review was to inves-
tigate the theoretical basis and the practical use of TPACK” (p. 1).
From a final, vetted selection of 61 peer-reviewed publications,
the authors traced the development of the framework from its
earliest conceptions to its first appearance in scholarly journals.
The review found two major categories of research and scholarly
focus underpinning the literature: those discussing and refining the
theoretical basis of TPACK, and those addressing practical issues of
measurement and teachers’ professional development. In addition,
there has been some significant work in the area of empirically
driven strategies for developing TPACK in teachers.
Measurement and Instruments
Researchers, teacher educators, and practitioners alike have
sought to measure or assess the levels of TPACK in teachers to
help determine the impact of interventions and, professional
development programs, or to descriptively characterize the cur-
rent state of teacher knowledge. A snapshot of the field in 2011
(Koehler, Shin, & Mishra, 2011) documented 141 separate
instances of measurement research and application. Despite the
varied attempts to measure TPACK, five main categories emerged
from the analysis, with varying degrees of usage by the TPACK
community. Table 1 shows the results of this analysis.
W H A T I S T E C H N O L O G I C A L P E D A G O G I C A L C O N T E N T K N O W L E D G E ( T PA C K ) ?
Table 1. Categories of TPACK Measurement and
Assessment Instruments
Type of Measurement Number
of Uses Description
Self-reports 31
Asking participants to rate the
degree to which they agree to a
given statement regarding the
use of technology in teaching
Open-ended questionnaires 20
Surveys that prompt participants
to expand on their experiences
with educational technology
Performance assessments 31 Directly evaluating performance
on specific tasks to assess TPACK
Interviews 30
Using a set of pre-determined
questions to uncover evidence of
participants’ TPACK
Observations 29
Observing participants in
classrooms or similar settings
for evidence of TPACK
This analyses, however, also revealed limited attention to relia-
bility and validity properties important to establishing rigorous
measurements, concerns echoed by other researchers (e.g.,
Archambault & Crippen, 2009; Graham, 2011). More recently,
Cavanaugh & Koehler (in press) have argued that researchers use a
seven-criterion framework to guide empirical investigations using
the TPACK framework to help develop a more rigorous approach
to research involving TPACK measurements.
Approaches to Teacher Development
Researchers and practitioners have also begun investigating the
question of “where to start” when formulating approaches to devel-
oping TPACK in pre- and in-service teachers. Several approaches
have been proposed for teachers’ development of technological
pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Two of these approaches
(“PCK to TPACK” and “TPK to TPACK”) build on teachers’ prior
knowledge and experience with one or more of the core knowl-
edge bases. The third, “Developing PCK and TPACK simultane-
ously,” is a holistic approach to professional TPACK development
that centers on teachers’ experiences with defining, designing, and
refining educational artifacts to solve particular learning chal-
lenges. Table 2 presents descriptions of three approaches for devel-
oping TPACK, including representative articles for each approach.
Since the late 1960s a strand of educational research has aimed at
understanding and explaining “how and why the observable activi-
ties of teachers’ professional lives take on the forms and functions
they do” (Clark & Petersen, 1986, p. 255) (Jackson, 1968). A pri-
mary goal of this research is to understand the relationships between
two key domains: a) teacher thought processes and knowledge, and
b) teachers’ actions and their observable effects. The current work
on the TPACK framework seeks to extend this tradition of research
and scholarship by bringing technology integration into the kinds of
knowledge that teachers need to consider when teaching. The
TPACK framework seeks to assist the development of better tech-
niques for discovering and describing how technology-related pro-
fessional knowledge is implemented and instantiated in practice. By
better describing the types of knowledge teachers need (in the form
of content, pedagogy, technology, contexts, and their interactions),
educators are in a better position to understand the variance in lev-
els of technology integration that occurs.
In addition, the TPACK framework has offered several possibil-
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options for looking at a complex phenomenon like technology
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Table 2. Approaches for Developing TPACK
Approaches for
Developing TPACK Description
Teachers draw upon their existing pedagogical
content knowledge (PCK) to form insights into
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Developing PCK
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Authors’ Note
The authors would like to thank the editors of Contemporary Issues in Tech-
nology and Teacher Education for giving permission to update our 2009 arti-
cle. We would also like to thank the editor of the Journal of Education for
the original idea of reprinting the article, and thus giving us a reason to
revise it. The first two authors made equal contributions to this article,
but they rotate the order of authorship in their publications.
Matthew Koehler is a Professor of Educational Psychology and Educational
Technology at Michigan State University. He can be reached at (email) or (website).
Punya Mishra is a Professor of Educational Psychology and Educational Tech-
nology at Michigan State University. He can be reached at
(email) (website).
William Cain is a graduate student in the Educational Psychology and Educa-
tional Technology program at Michigan State University. Mr. Cain can be reached
at (email) and (website).
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... Este saber hacer del docente debe correlacionar el conocimiento tecnológico, pedagógico y de contenido (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). Mishra y Koehler teorizaron y propusieron otros tipos de conocimientos mediante las conexiones entre los tres conocimientos, lo cual dio lugar a otras tres fuentes de conocimiento y al TPACK, como se indica en la figura 2. ...
... Uno de los principales problemas cuando se intenta generalizar TPACK son los diferentes tipos de contenidos y destrezas que se desea enseñar; no se pueden usar las mismas aplicaciones o plataformas tecnológicas para enseñar, por ejemplo, ciencias de la tierra, matemáticas, artes, tecnologías de información o lenguaje, es decir, la tecnología a utilizar depende en gran medida de los contenidos y también de la pedagogía. Fuente: (Koehler & Mishra, 2009) En un estudio mediante una encuesta en línea a 596 docentes de los Estados Unidos, se examina la naturaleza y aplicabilidad del modelo TPACK a través del uso del factor de análisis, los resultados sugieren que el TPACK puede ser usado desde el punto de vista organizacional, y es dificultoso separar cada uno de los ámbitos, así, se pone en duda su uso en la práctica (Archambault & Barnett, 2010). ...
... En este capítulo se presenta un modelo de implementación de nube social para enseñanza práctica de TI. La propuesta relaciona e interactúa cada uno de los componentes y dimensiones que definen a los ecosistemas e-learning mediante el modelo TPACK (Koehler & Mishra, 2009), (Fisser et al., 2015), (Archambault & Barnett, 2010). ...
La educación está en un proceso de reflexión constante, empeñada en educar mejor a más estudiantes con el menor costo, en este escenario, el rol de la enseñanza en línea desempeña un papel esencial, por lo que es necesario emplear nuevos modelos para la implementación de ecosistemas que vinculen de forma efectiva los contenidos con aspectos pedagógicos y tecnológicos. Las redes sociales y la computación en la nube son tecnologías que están influenciando la educación por su adopción y uso, que configura un nuevo ecosistema e-learning denominado nube social, que permite a una comunidad virtual compartir y colaborar toda clase de recursos y servicios bajo demanda con acceso masivo, ubicuo y abierto. Para obtener enseñanza práctica de tecnología de información (TI) en línea, tal como ocurre en un laboratorio de computación de un campus universitario, es necesario utilizar varias herramientas que formen ecosistemas que satisfagan los nuevos conceptos de educación inmersiva y global, los cuales cumplan con los pilares educativos y no presenten barreras tecnológicas. Teniendo en cuenta todo ello, en esta tesis, se desarrolló un ecosistema de nube social para enseñanza práctica de TI, mediante un modelo de implementación, el cual cumpla con los cuatro pilares educativos, basados a su vez en tres modelos de servicios de la computación en la nube, conocidos como Software como Servicio (SaaS), Plataforma como servicio (PaaS) e Infraestructura como Servicio (IaaS).
... The authors used a four-step inverted pedagogical approach [(1) Asynchronous; (2) Synchronous; (3) Face-to-face and (4) Hybrid feedback]. This includes the flipped classroom approach (FLN, 2014), distance learning techniques (Koutsoupidou, 2014) and Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPACK) (Koehler, et al., 2013), including multicultural or culturally specific music teaching methods. In the following, each of the steps of the method used is described: ...
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... On the other hand, teachers' attitude toward technology use needs improvement. For instance, trainings should enable teachers to realize how integrat-ing technology with teaching can help them teach disciplinary content in a constructive manner and improve students' understanding (Mishra & Koehler, 2006;Koehler et al., 2013). Furthermore, our study finds that teachers' technology self-efficacy and attitude toward use have a chain mediating effect on the influence of their TPACK on their behavioral intention. ...
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A growing number of studies are focusing on the effect of teachers’ knowledge on their behavioral intention to use technology in teaching. This study aims to explore the influence of teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) on their behavioral intention to use technology by including their technology self-efficacy and attitude toward use in a chain mediation model. Based on a thorough literature review, this study establishes a theoretical model. Then, data are collected from 314 in-service teachers in primary and secondary schools in two provinces in China and analyzed using structural equation modeling and effect analysis. Results show that (1) the teachers’ technology self-efficacy and attitude toward technology play a crucial independent mediating role in the influence of TPACK on their behavioral intention to use technology, and (2) the teachers’ technology self-efficacy and attitude toward use have a chain mediating effect on the influence of their TPACK on their behavioral intention to use technology. On the basis of the results, this study presents some implications to effectively understand how teachers’ behavioral intention to use technology in teaching can be improved.
... It demonstrates how teachers can effectively use digital storytelling to deliver educational content in their pedagogical practices. (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). ...
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This study explores middle-school students' perceptions of using digital storytelling to enhance English vocabulary acquisition. A focus group methodology engaged 30 out of 136 female second-grade students, representing 22% of the community. Content analysis, following Merriam's (2015) steps, revealed two main categories: using digital stories for vocabulary acquisition and their effectiveness in improving language skills. Participants found digital storytelling enjoyable and memorable, with visual images aiding vocabulary retention and word comprehension. It also improved dictionary usage. The study concludes that digital storytelling enhances vocabulary, language proficiency, and grammatical understanding. Practical implications include integrating digital storytelling into English teaching for better vocabulary learning, providing clear context in stories, and including dictionary-related tasks for an engaging language learning experience. These insights contribute to the growing body of research supporting the value of digital storytelling in educational contexts. Based on the study, a key recommendation is to integrate digital storytelling into English language teaching with a focus on providing clear context within digital stories. This promises to enhance the language learning experience for middle school students seeking to improve their English vocabulary and language skills. Received: 09 August 2023 / Accepted: 22 September 2023 / Published: 5 November 2023
... Over the years, the TPACK framework has become one of the leading theories regarding edtech integration, edtech research, and professional development (Alqurashi et al., 2017;Baran et al., 2019;Chai et al., 2013;Dong et al., 2015;Hofer & Grandgenett, 2012;Koehler et al., 2017;Mishra & Koehler, 2009;Pamuk et al., 2013;Phuong et al., 2018;Voithofer et al., 2019). Throughout, the framework remained dynamic and adaptable to change to account for evolving contexts of edtech learning, modes of instructional delivery, and advances in digital technologies transforming the ways teachers teach and students learn, alone, in groups, in person, online, offline, across time and space-the latter being a much complex and confounding variable that is indeed difficult to unpack wholly absent of cogent arguments for or against its presence as the "new normal" no matter the time and effort we invest in doing so. ...
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Digital pedagogy has been used for as long as there are digital technologies and multimedia resources. However, the field continues to be defined and redefined by researchers and practitioners alike who continue to explore and discover new ways to teach and learn with and without such technologies and resources across diverse faceto-face, online, or hybrid/blended learning environments. The methodology and process of how second or foreign language educators approach teaching and learning using a preferred mode of delivery undergirds the nucleus of a digital pedagogy construct featuring explicit high-tech skills, techniques, knowledge, and abilities. This chapter makes the theoretical framework of Digital Pedagogy the primary focus of the discussion. It begins with a short introduction to the two terms comprising “digital pedagogy”—digital + pedagogy. It then juxtaposes two similar but different frameworks—Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) and Epistemological Knowledge of Digital Pedagogy (EKODP)—to ensure a better understanding of how digital tools can support English as a foreign language teaching and learning process in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) environments. This is done purposefully so in order to reconceptualize the axiology of digital pedagogy whilst transitioning the discussion from “theorizing practice” to “practicing theory.” The digital ways learners can actually use multimedia technologies and associated resources to express themselves authentically with a purpose and for a purpose are covered in Chapter 9, in which the pedagogical means by which the apposite transformation of the digital philosophy and practice of meaningful teaching and learning may be realized de novo irrespective of the delivery mode. Said plainly, “Digital Pedagogy: A Look Back” is but a ‘short walk down memory lane,’ the first half of our ‘journey of a thousand miles’ awaiting digital exploration and discovery. Key Words: Digital Pedagody, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK), Epistemological Knowledge of Digital Pedagogy (EKODP), Open and Distance Learning (ODL), English As a Foreign Language Teaching
... This need aligns with the ongoing reforms in English language education (ELE) in the Arab States, which involve the integration of technology (Almofadi, 2021;Gobert, 2019). Teacher education programs must take complete accountability for equipping aspiring teachers with the essential competencies in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) (Koehler & Mishra, 2009;Mishra & Koehler, 2006). These programs should also consider the specific specialization of the teachers so that they can stay up-to-date with the latest trends that impact ELT at both national and international levels, including the integration of CALL (Baser et al., 2016;Sarıçoban et al., 2019). ...
This chapter presents the current situation of English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching and learning across the Arab world. It highlights the central role that English language teacher education (ELTE) plays in EFL development in Arab settings. Then, it discusses some English language teaching challenges and the need for urgent changes in ELTE programs regarding technology training. Besides describing a generic CALL training model for ELTE, it provides an overview of contemporary trends in CALL teacher education. Further, it elaborates on current CALL research across Arab-world ELTE programs, echoing the significance of integrating EFL TPACK to develop student teachers' knowledge and skills for prospective professional practice. Moreover, it highlights major issues of CALL integration in the Arab context and proposes suggestions for effective CALL integration. Additionally, it elaborates on the CALL curriculum, dissecting guidelines for developing a CALL course in ELTE programs and putting forward a syllabus for an ELTE CALL course.
... 15 The most influential of these is the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge model that highlights the three major prerequisite capabilities for educators to integrate technologies into teaching: technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge. 16 This model has been successfully applied to identify medical educators' professional development needs. 17 The last cluster focuses directly on the function of learning technologies in relation to pedagogical change, which we consider closely related to the central task of this paper: the transformative capacity of the technologies. ...
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Context: Technology is being introduced, used and studied in almost all areas of health professions education (HPE), often with a claim of making HPE better in one way or another. However, it remains unclear if technology has driven real change in HPE. In this article, we seek to develop an understanding of the transformative capacity of learning technology in HPE. Methods and outcomes: We first consider the wider scholarship highlighting the intersection between technology and pedagogy, articulating what is meant by transformation and the role of learning technology in driving educational transformation. We then undertake a synthesis of the current high visibility HPE-focused research. We sampled the literature in two ways-for the five highest impact factor health professional education journals over the past decade and for all PubMed indexed journals for the last 3 years-and categorised the extant research against the Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition model. We found that the majority of research we sampled focussed on substituting or augmenting learning through technology, with relatively few studies using technology to modify or redefine what HPE is through the use of technology. Of more concern was the lack of theoretical justification for pedagogical improvement, including transformation, underpinning the majority of studies. Conclusions: While all kinds of technology use in learning have their place, the next step for HPE is the robust use of technology aiming to lead transformation. This should be guided by transformational educational theory and aligned with pedagogical context. We challenge HPE practitioners and scholars to work thoughtfully and with intent to enable transformation in education for future health professionals.
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Although the conditions for successful technology integration finally appear to be in place, including ready access to technology, increased training for teachers, and a favorable policy environment, high-level technology use is still surprisingly low. This suggests that additional barriers, specifically related to teachers' pedagogical beliefs, may be at work. Previous researchers have noted the influence of teachers' beliefs on classroom instruction specifically in math, reading, and science, yet little research has been done to establish a similar link to teachers' classroom uses of technology. In this article, I argue for the importance of such research and present a conceptual overview of teacher pedagogial beliefs as a vital first step. After defining and describing the nature of teacher beliefs, including how they are likely to impact teachers' classroom practice I describe important implications for teacher professional development and offer suggestions for future research.
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In this study, we followed three faculty members' experiences with designing and teaching online courses for the first time. In order to complete the activity, the faculty members had to work collaboratively with others across the university. Activity theory provided a framework within which to study faculty members' collaborative activities with members of different activity systems that had different goals, tools, divisions of labor and accountabilities. In concordance with activity theory, such differences led to contradictions, disturbances, and transformations in thinking and work activities. The results of the study have implications for individuals and systems undertaking technology integration in teaching.
In this chapter we reviewed a wide range of approaches to measure Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). We identified recent empirical studies that utilized TPACK assessments and determined whether they should be included in our analysis using a set of criteria. We then conducted a study-level analysis focusing on empirical studies that met our initial search criteria. In addition, we conducted a measurement-level analysis focusing on individual measures. Based on our measurementlevel analysis, we categorized a total of 141 instruments into five types (i.e., self-report measures, open-end questionnaires, performance assessments, interviews, and observations) and investigated how each measure addressed the issues of validity and reliability. We concluded our review by discussing limitations and implications of our study.