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The behavior, attitudes and social strategies associated with Machiavellian personality traits are well studied in psychology. Still, developmental origins of Machiavellianism have gained little attention so far, especially from a family system perspective. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Machiavellianism and family functioning in adolescence. A sample (N = 366) of adolescents completed the Mach-IV and FACES IV. High-Mach and low-Mach individuals differed in their perception of family functioning. High-Machs perceived their families as more disengaged, more chaotic, less rigid, less cohesive, and less flexible. High-Machs also reported poorer family communication and less satisfaction with family life. Results are discussed mainly from the perspectives of attachment theory and early maladaptive schemas.
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... Research on environmental etiological factors associated with the DT has been mostly focusing on parenting issues. Machiavellianism is consequently linked to parental neglect (Láng & Lénárd, 2015) and to disengaged and chaotic family functioning (Láng & Birkás, 2014). Narcissism -at least in its grandiose form -is hypothesised to be rooted in unconditional positive parental feedback (Horton et al., 2006). ...
... Empirical studies suggest that attachment style shows correlation with the development of DT traits as well. Machiavellianism, for instance, is connected to both parental neglect (Jonason et al., 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015) and disengagement of family members (Láng & Birkás, 2014), whereas the level of narcissism is correlated with parental feedback (Horton et al., 2006) and with the quality of maternal care (Jonason et al., 2014). Beside genetic factors, a stressful family environment in childhood (Frazier et al., 2019), and avoidant attachment (Jonason et al., 2014), contribute to the development of psychopathic traits. ...
... In the Introduction ("The role of parents in the development of personality" section) we have already referred to studies showing that dark traits can be associated with relations with parents as well (Frazier et al., 2019;Horton et al., 2006;Jonason et al., 2014;Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Tajmirriyahi et al., 2021). Based on these results and that of Study 1, in our subsequent studies, in addition to the aspects of sibling relationship quality that were associated with the Dark Triad, we also examined the role of parental treatment. ...
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Currently our understanding of environmental factors that influence the development of dark personality traits (DT) is limited. Therefore, we conducted three studies using online questionnaires, each examining a different aspect of the relation between dark personality traits and family environment. In Study 1, 117 adults (mean age: 30.36 years, SD = 10.19) filled out questionnaires regarding their childhood relationship with siblings and their own DT traits. We found that the amount of conflicts with siblings during adolescence correlated positively with Machiavellianism and psychopathy. The feeling of closeness towards the siblings showed negative correlation with Machiavellianism. Parental partiality towards the other sibling was positively correlated with narcissism. In Study 2, 111 adolescents (mean age: 15.92, SD = 1.24) reported their perceptions of the rearing style of their parents, in addition to their sibling relationships and DT traits. Perceived parental emotional warmth was negatively associated, whereas both rejection and overprotection were positively correlated with psychopathy. Parental warmth was positively, while rejection negatively associated with narcissism. Machiavellianism was positively associated with the amount of conflicts with siblings, but negatively with closeness to siblings. In Study 3, 110 adults (mean age: 32.62 years, SD = 12.25) reported their levels of the Vulnerable Dark Triad that included measures of primary and secondary psychopathy, maladaptive covert narcissism, and borderline personality organization. Results indicated that sibling relation quality had a significant effect on primary psychopathy and borderline traits. Parental rejection and overprotection correlated with borderline traits and vulnerable narcissism. The results of these studies shed some light on how environmental impulses, particularly the quality of relationships between family members, affect the development of personality.
... The dark triad (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism; Paulhus and Williams, 2002) depicts a constellation of subclinical and malevolent personality traits, sharing a common core in terms of antisocial and aversive behaviors, including a tendency to deceive, manipulate, and exploit others (Paulhus and Williams, 2002). Machiavellianism lays on cynical behaviors and the inability to recognize the emotions of others (Láng and Birkás, 2014). In turn, psychopathy relies on callous affect, erratic lifestyle, and antisocial behavior (Neumann et al., 2007), whereas narcissism incorporates a blend of vanity, egocentric admiration, and a desire for superiority that negatively impacts social relationships (Kauten and Barry, 2016). ...
... H1: Machiavellianism, characterized by cynical behaviors and the inability to recognize emotions (Láng and Birkás, 2014), was found negatively associated with prosocial practices and TEI (Woodley and Allen, 2014;Miao et al., 2019); thus, TEI negatively mediates the interplay between Machiavellianism and both altruism and equity. H2: Psychopathy, characterized by callous affect, erratic lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors (Neumann et al., 2007), was found negatively related to prosocial practices and TEI (Miao et al., 2019;Papageorgiou et al., 2020); thus, TEI negatively mediates the interplay between psychopathy and both altruism and equity. ...
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Adolescence involves a profound number of changes in all domains of development. Among others, adolescence yields an enhanced awareness and responsibility toward the community, representing a critical age to develop prosocial behaviors. In this study, the mediation role of Trait Emotional Intelligence (TEI) was detected for the relationship between the dark triad and prosocial behavior based on altruism and equity. A total of 129 healthy late adolescents filled in the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, measuring Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism; the Altruistic Action Scale, evaluating behaviors directed at helping others; the Equity Scale, assessing behaviors directed at equity in different forms; and the TEI Questionnaire-Short Form. Results showed that TEI mediated the negative effects of the three dark triad traits on both altruism and equity. This finding suggests that TEI, which relies on a set of dispositions (e.g., emotional management of others, social competence, and empathy), might reduce the malevolent effects of the dark triad on altruism and equitable behavior in late adolescence. This led to assume that intervention programs focused on improving emotional skills, also in late adolescence, can promote prosociality.
... However, individuals with different personality traits have different perceptions of family support (Nakayama, 2010;Láng and Birkás, 2014). Studies have argued that high emotional intelligence individuals could perceive more social support and have better social relationships (Salovey et al., 2002). ...
... In contrast, those who score high on dark personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism and psychopathy) are emotionally deficit (Jonason and Krause, 2013). Therefore, individuals with high Machiavellianism and high psychopathy are not likely to feel social support from their family members (Láng and Birkás, 2014). Meanwhile, narcissists, who tend to seek outside attention and recognition and have higher emotional intelligence, emphasize the importance of family support and thus perceive more of it (Nakayama, 2010;Jonason and Schmitt, 2012). ...
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Although numerous studies have focused on personality traits related to well-being, the relationship between the Dark Triad Traits and eudaimonic well-being is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to explore how the Dark Triad Traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) affect eudaimonic well-being. Further, this study also aimed to explore the mediation effect of family support and hedonic wellbeing. The results showed that the present model had a good model fit (χ ² /df = 1.91, p < 0.001, comparative-fit-index (CFI) = 0.96, tucker-lewis-index (TLI) = 0.95, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.04). There is a significant association between the Dark Triad Traits and eudaimonic wellbeing. Specifically, narcissism directly predicts eudaimonic wellbeing, while the effects of Machiavellianism and psychopathy on eudaimonic wellbeing are serial two-mediator models, which are mediated by family support and hedonic wellbeing. The results would enrich theoretical studies on personality while providing some practical evidence on how to improve the subjective well-being of individuals.
... The study showed that individual self-support mediated the relationship between family function and school belonging, suggesting that family function increase junior high school students' self-support which in turn increases their school belonging. Healthy families are characterized by stability and can adapt to the challenges of the environment to the greatest extent (Láng and Birkás, 2014). The family is a place to live together, and everyone shares and grows up together. ...
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Some previous studies have explored the impact of family function on school belonging. However, little is known about the parallel mediating relationship underlying them. This study aims to investigate the formation mechanism of school beginning in a sample of Chinese adolescents and examined the parallel mediating role of interpersonal self-support and individual self-support in the link between family function and school belonging. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four schools of the district of Hunan province in China, and 741 students were surveyed using cluster sampling. Family cohesion and adaptability scale ( FACES ), Adolescent students self-supporting personality scale ( SSPS-AS ), School belonging scale were applied. The results indicated that interpersonal self-support and individual self-support, together, and uniquely, parallel mediated the relationship between family function and school belonging. It can be concluded that family function not only has direct effects on school belonging but also has indirect effects through interpersonal self-support and individual self-support.
... Egy serdülőkorúakkal (16-19 év) végzett kutatás során a magas machiavellisták kaotikusabb és rigidebb családi működésről, szegényesebb családi kommunikációról számoltak be, valamint kevésbé voltak elégedettek családi életükkel, mint az alacsonyan machiavellista kortársaik (Láng & Birkás, 2014). Egy másik tanulmány felnőtt adatközlőket használva azt találta, hogy a machiavellizmus kapcsolatban áll a gyermekkorban tapasztalt negatív családi atmoszférával és szülői elhanyagolással (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). ...
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E vizsgálat célja annak alátámasztása, hogy a Sötét Triád vonások (machiavellizmus, szubklinikus pszichopátia, szubklinikus nárcizmus) átfedéseik ellenére különálló konstruktumok. Az elemzés feltevései szerint a Rövid Sötét Triád kérdőívvel mért három személyiségvonás a Zimbardo Időperspektíva Kérdőív és a Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Személyiségkérdőív változóival egyedi összefüggéseket mutat. Az adatok a normál populációból származnak, a kérdőíveket 18 és 88 év közötti egyének töltötték ki, a minta 580 fős volt. A vizsgálat eredményei szerint a Sötét Triád tagjai egyedi idő-és személyiségprofillal rendelkeznek. A machiavellizmus személyiségvonás pozitív együttjárást mutat a jelenfatalista és jövőorientált időperspektívákkal, az aktivitás és agresszió személyiség-faktorokkal, valamint a verbális agresszió, alacsony önbecsülés és munkamánia alfaktorokkal. Ezen kívül negatív kapcsolatban áll az extraverzió vonással és a szociális melegség alfaktorral. A szubklinikus pszichopátiára jelenhedonista és múltnegatív idő-perspektíva, valamint az agresszió és a szenzoros élménykeresés jellemző. A ZKA alfaktorok közül a fizikai agresszió, az ellenségesség, a gátlástalanság, az izgalom és él-ménykeresés és a verbális agresszió mutatnak pozitív együttjárást a személyiségvonás-sal. Ezzel szemben a jövőorientált időperspektíva, az extraverzió személyiségvonás, va-lamint a pozitív érzelmek és a szociális melegség alfaktorok negatív összefüggésben áll-nak a pszichopátiával. A szubklinikus nárcizmus jellemző időperspektívája a jelenhedonizmus, jellemző személyiségfaktorai az extraverzió, a szenzoros élménykere-sés és az aktivitás, alfaktorai pedig az exhibicionizmus, a szociabilitás, a munkamánia és a gátlástalanság. Ugyanakkor negatív irányú összefüggésben áll a jelenfatalista idő-perspektívával, a neuroticizmus személyiségvonással, és az alacsony önbecsülés alfaktorral. Kulcsszavak: Sötét Triád, machiavellizmus, pszichopátia, nárcizmus, időperspektíva, Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja személyiségkérdőív, Alernatív Öt Faktoros Modell, nárcizmus, epidemizmusa
... These features enable them to have better social functioning and interpersonal relationships, such as being appreciated and loved by teachers and peers (Hawley, 2003). In contrast, Machiavellianism, a maladaptive trait by which individuals hold negative beliefs about others (Láng, 2015), primarily pertains to dysfunctional interpersonal consequences, such as peer relationship problems (Zhu et al., 2019), loneliness (Zhang et al., 2015), aggression and interpersonal indifference (Aghababaei & Błachnio, 2015;Kerig & Stellwagen, 2010), even estrangement from their families (Láng & Birkás, 2014) and ostracism by peers (Hawley, 2003;Wei & Chen, 2012). Forasmuch as Machiavellianism is marked by distrust in others (Christie & Geis, 1970), which is the core feature of strong ties or stable relationships (Small, 2013), Machiavellians might be less likely to have intimate friends, obtain emotional support, and perceive a sense of closeness. ...
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Background Machiavellianism (MACH) has repeatedly been proven to have a significant adverse impact on physical and mental health. Greater insight into the mechanism of this effect obtained using large samples is crucial to further understand the link between MACH and quality of life (QoL). This study explored the potential mechanism underlying the association of MACH and QoL in Chinese adolescents and undergraduates. Methods A total of 6258 adolescents (age: 9 to 15) and 1161 young adults (age: 17 to 23) were recruited to complete questionnaires concerning MACH, lifestyle, social support, and QoL. Results In both samples, MACH and some of its components negatively affected QoL indirectly through lifestyle. Age, gender and social support moderated the association between MACH and lifestyle in adolescents. Social support moderated the relationship between lifestyle and QoL only in adolescents. In undergraduates, gender moderated only the relationship of MACH and QoL, and social support moderated only the association between MACH and lifestyle. Conclusion MACH and QoL showed similar age and gender tendencies in young Chinese students. We powerfully illustrated the deleterious consequences of MACH on QoL and initially uncovered the potential mechanisms. Notably, MACH's distrust dominates the negative impact on QoL, and social support overrides age and gender in affecting the MACH-QoL associations.
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