Demographic Description of the Presentation and Treatment of Lower Extremity Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Secondary to Skin Popping in Intravenous Drug Abusers
The Journal of foot and ankle surgery: official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (Impact Factor: 0.85). 03/2014; 53(2):156–159. DOI: 10.1053/j.jfas.2013.12.017
Skin popping refers to the act of subcutaneous injection of intravenous drugs, a practice that often results in the development of cellulitis and the formation of soft tissue abscesses. Although the foot and ankle represent common injection sites, few data have described the presentation and natural history of this pathologic entity. The objective of the present study was to retrospectively assess the descriptive demographic data of a patient cohort admitted for lower extremity skin and soft tissue infection caused by intravenous drug abuse. Fifty skin popping lesions in 49 patients were identified during a 733-day data collection period (August 1, 2010 to August 31, 2012) that had been treated by the in-patient podiatric surgical service for lower extremity infection caused by intravenous drug abuse at an urban, level-one trauma center. With respect to patient race, our hospital has a typical in-patient census of 55% black patients and 25% white patients. The present patient cohort consisted of 12% black patients and 65% white patients. The mean length of stay was 5.71 ± 3.56 days, and 42 patients (85.71%) underwent some form of surgical debridement, with 31 (63.27%) having undergone a formal procedure in the operating room. Six patients (12.24%) left the hospital against medical advice or refused intervention at some definitive point of care, and 36 (73.47%) did not return for scheduled outpatient follow-up visits. Three cases (6%) resulted in minor amputation. The microbiologic culture data and common antibiotic prescriptions used in the diagnosis and treatment, respectively, of these patients have been summarized. We hope these original descriptive data can be used by other physicians treating patients at similar urban practices to improve the care of these sometimes difficult-to-treat patients and better serve this population as a whole.
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ABSTRACT: Presented is a rare case of tibial and fibular osteomyelitis and a case of fibular periositis, both a direct consequence of a peculiar drug use technique. The osseous manifestations secondary to presentation of necrotic wounds with indurated rim and serous drainage with associated cellulitis, both resulting from "skin popping." Due to the complex treatment plan required, the importance of a motivated patient, a strong social support system, a controlled environment, and a multidisciplinary team cannot be overstated. Despite comprehensive efforts, devastating consequences may be unavoidable as individuals plunge downward, victimized by their addiction. 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The extent of intentional or accidental subcutaneous and intramuscular injections and the factors associated with these have rarely been studied among people who inject drugs, yet these may play an important role in the acquisition bacterial infections. This study describes the extent of these, and in particular the factors and harms associated with accidental subcutaneous and intramuscular injections (i.e. 'missed hits'). Methods: People who inject drugs were recruited using respondent driven sampling. Weighted data was examined using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. Results: The participants mean age was 33 years (31% aged under 30-years), 28% were women, and the mean time since first injection was 12 years (N=329). During the preceding three months, 97% had injected heroin, 71% crack-cocaine, and 16% amphetamines; 36% injected daily. Overall, 99% (325) reported that they aimed to inject intravenously; only three aimed to inject subcutaneously and one intramuscularly. Of those that aimed to inject intravenously, 56% (181) reported ever missing a vein (for 51 this occurred more than four times month on average). Factors associated with 'missed hits' suggested that these were the consequence of poor vascular access, injection technique and/or hygiene. 'Missed hits' were twice as common among those reporting sores/open wounds, abscesses, or redness, swelling and tenderness at injection sites. Conclusion: Intentional subcutaneous and intramuscular injections are rare in this sample. 'Missed hits' are common and appear to be associated with poor injection practice. Interventions are required to reduce risk through improving injecting practice and hygiene.
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