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Evaluating the conservation impact of an innovative zoo-based educational campaign: ‘Don't Palm Us Off’ for orang-utan conservation: ‘Don't Palm Us Off’ Evaluation

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With significant biodiversity loss occurring presently, increased emphasis is being placed upon the capacity of zoos to contribute to species conservation. This paper evaluates an innovative conservation education campaign 'Don't Palm Us Off' implemented at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. This sought to address a lack of public awareness regarding palm oil (the product most threatening the survival of the orang-utan) and to create public support for mandatory labeling of palm oil on food products, allowing for informed consumer purchasing. Communication tools utilized included an educational video presentation played on-site, as well as You Tube video, celebrity ambassadors, and social media. Evaluation took place across four time-points: baseline, mid-point, conclusion (12 months), and follow-up. Zoo visitors (N = 403) were randomly selected whilst visiting the orang-utan exhibit, completing a questionnaire regarding knowledge about orang-utans, attitudes toward orang-utans, support for palm oil labeling, previous conservation behavior, and intentions for future behavior. Results revealed significant increases in palm oil awareness; attitudes toward orang-utans; support for palm oil labeling; and indicating labeling would influence purchasing behavior, at all times relative to baseline (P < 0.01). There were also significant increases in self-reported conservation behavior at the end of the campaign and follow-up (P < 0.05). In excess of 160,000 people additionally signed an associated petition for mandatory palm oil labeling. Overall the findings support the efficacy of this multi-faceted initiative; highlighting the importance of continued innovation in zoo-based conservation education and practice (including the integration of emerging technologies with traditional on-site education) to maximize contributions to species conservation. Zoo Biol. XX:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Evaluating the Conservation Impact of an Innovative
ZooBased Educational Campaign: Don't Palm Us
Offfor Orangutan Conservation
Elissa L. Pearson,
1
* Rachel Lowry,
2
Jillian Dorrian,
1
and Carla A. Litcheld
1
1
School of Psychology, Social Work & Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
2
Zoos Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
With signicant biodiversity loss occurring presently, increased emphasis is being placed upon the capacity of zoos to
contribute to species conservation. This paper evaluates an innovative conservation education campaign Dont Palm Us Off
implemented at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. This sought to address a lack of public awareness regarding palm oil (the product
most threatening the survival of the orangutan) and to create public support for mandatory labeling of palm oil on food
products, allowing for informed consumer purchasing. Communication tools utilized included an educational video
presentation played onsite, as well as You Tube video, celebrity ambassadors, and social media. Evaluation took place across
four timepoints: baseline, midpoint, conclusion (12 months), and followup. Zoo visitors (N¼403) were randomly selected
whilst visiting the orangutan exhibit, completing a questionnaire regarding knowledge about orangutans, attitudes toward
orangutans, support for palm oil labeling, previous conservation behavior, and intentions for future behavior. Results revealed
signicant increases in palm oil awareness; attitudes toward orangutans; support for palm oil labeling; and indicating labeling
would inuence purchasing behavior, at all times relative to baseline (P<0.01). There were also signicant increases in self
reported conservation behavior at the end of the campaign and followup (P<0.05). In excess of 160,000 people additionally
signed an associated petition for mandatory palm oil labeling. Overall the ndings support the efcacy of this multifaceted
initiative; highlighting the importance of continued innovation in zoobased conservation education and practice (including
the integration of emerging technologies with traditional onsite education) to maximize contributions to species conservation.
Zoo Biol. XX:XXXX, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords: orangutan; palm oil; conservation; education; zoo
INTRODUCTION
Environmental issues are one of the most pressing
challenges facing humanity at present [Clayton and
Brook, 2005]. Human actions are directly contributing to
climate change, overconsumption of the earths limited
resources, and a loss of biodiversity [Stern, 1992; Saunders,
2003; Clayton and Myers, 2009; Wich et al., 2011]. The
impacts of human behavior and population expansion on
other animal species have been particularly signicant
[McKee, 2009]. The International Union for the Conservation
of Nature (based on evaluations of nearly 56,000 different
species) suggests that 33% of animal life on earth is presently
threatened [IUCN, 2010]. Some have even argued that
humans have entered a new geological epoch, the Anthro-
pocene, in recognition of the immense human impacts on the
planet and ecology since the industrial revolution [Steffen
Conict of interest: The authors wish to declare that Rachel Lowry is
Zoos Victorias Director of Wildlife Conservation and Science.
Correspondence to: Elissa L. Pearson, School of Psychology, Social
Work & Social Policy, Room C121, Magill Campus, St Bernards Road,
University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South
Australia 5001, Australia. Email: elissa.pearson@unisa.edu.au
Received 10 December 2012; Revised 06 December 2013; Accepted 15
January 2014
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons
AttributionNonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and
is not used for commercial purposes.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21120
Published online XX Month Year in Wiley Online Library
(wileyonlinelibrary.com).
© 2014 The Authors. Zoo Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zoo Biology 9999 : 113 (2014)
et al., 2007]. One challenge in addressing these issues and
seeking to minimize the environmental impact of human
actions is education.
Environmental issues are often poorly understood by
the general public, due in part to their invisible nature [i.e., it
is difcult to perceive the absence of a species from a
traditional habitat and impossible to directly view greenhouse
gases being emitted into the atmosphere; Moser and
Dilling, 2011] and beyond the school or university setting
there may be scarce formal opportunities to learn about
environmental challenges and the environmental impacts of
an individuals actions [Tilbury, 1995; Ballantyne and
Packer, 2005]. Increasingly, attention is being placed upon
the role of freechoice learning experiences in lling these
voids and providing new knowledge and understandings over
the life course [Falk, 2005]. In relation to biodiversity loss
specically, much emphasis has been placed upon the
potential of reputable zoological parks and aquaria to serve
this role in society [AZA, 2011]. Beyond places for
entertainment and leisure, zoos are increasingly seeking to
build their capacity to educate the public and contribute to a
conservation ethic [Ballantyne et al., 2007; Falk et al., 2007].
Learning Opportunities Within the Zoo
Environment
Historically, the education and conservation roles of
zoos were expected to take place through visits to animal
exhibits, where observing animals and their behavior was
hoped to inspire appreciation for, and connectedness to, other
species [Whitehead, 1995; MacDonald and Gavin, 2010].
Educational outcomes were anticipated as a result of visitors
actively reading the signage and viewing the animal displays
provided at these exhibits [Andersen, 2003]. Such signage
information usually covers aspects of animal biology,
taxonomy, lifespan, and sometimes the conservation threats
they face in the wild [Fraser et al., 2009]. Evidence for the
efcacy of these approaches however is inconclusive, with
inconsistent previous research ndings. Some authors
suggest there is little or no data supporting the educational
benets of zoos [Mazur and Clark, 2001; Tribe and
Booth, 2003; Marino et al., 2010], while others emphasize
the need for continued improvement in educational practices
and evaluation [i.e., Broad and Weiler, 1998]. On the basis of
a recent evaluation of visitor understanding about orang
utans and the conservation challenges they face, following a
visit to orangutan exhibits at several Australian zoos
[Pearson et al., 2013], the current authors concur with the
latter perspective.
In particular, previous studies have suggested tradi-
tional zoo signage is often poorly attended to and may miss
the most important information required by visitors; not that
there is a problem, but what visitors can actually do to help
[Falk, 2005]. In response to these challenges, and to enhance
traditional approaches, zoos are continually developing
new educational techniques and practices, to complement
their existing signage and animal displays, and enhance their
conservation outcomes. One technique with growing
support for its efcacy is the combination of animal displays,
onexhibit animal training and keeper presentation. In a study
of visitors to an otter exhibit, it was demonstrated that training
and training with interpretation resulted in greater satisfaction
ratings and longer view times than passive viewing or the
keeper talk in isolation [Anderson et al., 2003]. Although
learning was not directly assessed, it follows logically that
longer viewing times provide more learning opportunities.
Children have shown similar knowledge benets from the
combination of these processes, with the group who viewed
training with an interactive keeper presentation far outscoring
children who heard a factual presentation alone or passively
viewed an animal training session [Vischer et al., 2009]. This
is consistent with the ndings of Weiler and Smith [2009]
that more layers of interpretation (and different interpretive
experience opportunities, i.e., walking along the trail with
static displays, attending a keeper talk, interacting with/
asking questions of a volunteer guide, or participating in a
behindthescenes tour) are associated with greater learning.
Comparable positive impacts have also been seen through
the use of zoo theatre performances or placing costumed
interpreters at selected exhibits to provide information to
the public and answer questions arising from the viewing
experience [Penn, 2009].
Different styles of exhibits are another strategy which
may produce increased learning outcomes. Broad and Weiler
[1998] compared visitor learning at a traditional tiger zoo
exhibit (Western Plains Zoo) with learning at the tiger exhibit
at Dreamworld. The former contains a single tiger on exhibit
accompanied by a sign providing basic facts about tigers and
the specic tiger displayed. The exhibit within the Dream-
world theme park differs greatly, housing multiple tigers in an
exhibit with several keepers also present who interact with the
tigers and provide information during keeper talks, public
interaction, and regular animal behavior shows throughout the
day. Results indicated that while three quarters of visitors to
each zoo reported learning something from their visit, the
depth of understanding was far greater at Dreamworld.
From these ndings, it is evident that change and
evolution are an important component of enhancing zoobased
education and conservation outcomes into the future. The rest
of this paper will discuss an innovative campaign launched at
Melbourne Zoo in 20092010, which combined zoo
experiences and resources with social networking and media
in the interests of public education and species conservation.
The Don't Palm Us Off[DPUO] Campaign
The orangutan is one of the closest living human
relatives, yet human actions are currently pushing this species
toward extinction [Payne and Prudente, 2008; Wich
et al., 2011]. The rainforest habitat of the orangutan in
Borneo and Sumatra is being cleared to produce timber
products and plant palm oil crops [Ancrenaz et al., 2010]. As
people around the globe purchase these products, they
2Pearson et al.
Zoo Biology
indirectly (and often unknowingly) contribute to driving
greater demand and accelerated habitat loss through their
actions as consumers [Goodall and Berman, 2003; Koh and
Wilcove, 2007]. In response to these issues, in 2009,
Melbourne Zoo launched a conservation campaign named
Dont Palm Us Off.There were three goals of this initiative.
The rst was to use the zoo experience to raise public
awareness about what palm oil is, the many products it is
contained in, and the impact on rainforests and orangutans.
This and the associated conservation implications are the
focus of the present paper. Other goals were to change the
food labeling laws in Australia and New Zealand to make
palm oil labeling compulsory and to subsequently drive a
market need for certied sustainable palm oil.
One of the primary tools utilized to raise awareness was
a video which described the links between palm oil and
orangutan habitat destruction, as well as the prolic use of
palm oil in food products sold within Australia. The 1 min
video was played on a constant loop on a large television
screen within the visitor center for the duration of the
campaign, ensuring all visitors through the exhibit had an
opportunity to learn about this issue. The video was narrated
by a prominent Australian TV presenter (Kim Watkins) and
featured other TV celebrities (George Calombaris from
Masterchef and Claire Hooper from Good News Week) as
well as everyday Australian families proclaiming we want
the choice.Petition cards were provided at the exhibit for
visitors to sign in support of mandatory palm oil labeling.
The campaign also extended beyond Zoos Victoria,
with several other Australian Zoos launching their own
awareness campaigns and the video being made publicly
available on YouTube (this can be seen at: http://www.
youtube.com/watch?v¼oRQWj4H9nH0) and screening on
freetoair television in Australia on Channel Ten during the
campaign. Awareness was further enhanced by a Melbourne
Zoo website, which provided information about the palm oil
issue, links to conservation organizations, and an online
petition which could be signed by zoo visitors and other
members of the public alike. Palm oil wallet cards were also
made available to visitors to the Zoo or the Zoo website in
hard and/or softcopy which explained to consumers the
common product names under which palm oil can be listed
(i.e., sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate). Social
networking was additionally utilized with pages established
on Facebook to further disseminate the message. The
campaign received national media coverage with segments
on the 7 PM Project (a television news program in Australia)
and national radio.
As this campaign is the rst of its kind within Australia,
the research sought to explore its effectiveness. Specically,
groups of visitors were sampled at four different time points
to evaluate changes in visitor responses as the campaign
progressed. Outcome variables included:
Visitor satisfaction with their experience.
General knowledge about orangutans.
Specic knowledge about the main threats to wild orangutan
populations.
Attitudes toward orangutans.
The subjective norm (visitors rating of the importance of
orangutan conservation to friends and family).
Support for palm oil labeling.
Palm oil purchasing.
General commitments to support orangutan conservation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research received ethics approval from the
University of South Australia Human Research Ethics
Committee (P029/09) and the research/ethics panel at Zoos
Victoria.
Procedure
Four data collection sessions took place at Melbourne
Zoo to evaluate the impact of the campaign. The rst of these
was a baseline measure and took place 6 months prior to the
campaign commencing. The second took place at 6 months
(or halfway) into the campaign. The third was held nearing
12 months into the campaign, to evaluate the full impact as
the campaign reached its conclusion. The fourth and nal
session was then conducted 6 months after the campaign
ended to determine whether there was any lasting inuence.
For each session the data collection procedure was held
constant. Data were alwayscollected on a Friday and Saturday
to balance the different visitor demographics expected on
weekdays compared with weekends and there was no extreme
weather during the data collection periods. All surveys were
distributed at the orangutan exhibit at Melbourne Zoo
between 10 AM and 4 PM on data collection days.
Participation was voluntary and for eligibility in the
research visitors were required to be above 18 years of age
and have adequate English prociency. Visitors were also
required to have at least paused momentarily and oriented
their gaze toward the orangutan exhibit (i.e., they stopped to
view the exhibit). Visitors were selected upon entering the
enclosed visitor viewing area, which provided viewing to
three distinct enclosures as well as a TV monitor and
interactive touchscreen computers. It is important to note the
Dont Palm Us Offvideo only screened within the visitor
center during the campaign (i.e., at data collection times two
and three). Visitors were then monitored to ensure they had
viewed one of the orangutan exhibits and were approached
for participation in the research as they turned to exit or after
several minutes had elapsed. Upon completing the anony-
mous surveys, visitors placed these in a clearly marked
returnbox, which was located within the visitor center.
Materials
Upon volunteering to take part in the research,
participants were provided with a survey pack. This
Don't Palm Us OffEvaluation 3
Zoo Biology
contained an information sheet as well as several separate
survey sections, discussed below as relevant to this study.
Visitor satisfaction
Visitors were asked to indicate their satisfaction with
their visit to the orangutan enclosure across three individual
items. Responses ranged from (1) dissatised to (5) satised
and considered: (a) their satisfaction with the overall
experience; (b) their satisfaction with the activity level of
the orangutans; and (c) their satisfaction with the size and
features of the exhibit.
Knowledge about orangutans
General knowledge about orangutans was assessed
using a 10item multiple choice quiz. This covered basic
aspects of orangutan behavior and ecology, as well as
understanding of conservation threats, consistent with the
type of information often provided on zoo signage. Two
specic items were expected to be particularly inuenced
by the Dont Palm Us Offcampaign: Question 8 which
assessed understanding of the major threat to wild orangutan
populations (habitat loss); and Question 10 which explored
knowledge of the product most threatening the survival of the
orangutan (palm oil). As such, these items were considered
individually, as well as the overall knowledge scores.
Attitudes toward orangutans
Attitudes toward orangutans were measured using a
10item adaptation of the Animal Attitude Scale [Herzog
et al., 1991]. While the original scale assesses general
attitudes toward animals, the modied scale was designed to
capture attitudes toward orangutans specically. The scale
has acceptable psychometric properties and has been used
previously in research exploring and documenting changes in
attitudes toward orangutans and their conservation [Pearson
et al., 2011]. Participants responded on a 5point Likert scale
ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).
Negatively worded items were reversed prior to analysis such
that a higher score indicates more positive attitudes toward
orangutans. Possible scores range from 10 to 50.
Subjective norm
As the campaign sought to widely disseminate
information about the plight of orangutans in the wild and
the consequences of the growing palm oil industry, it was
expected this may inuence the level of concern about orang
utan conservation in the wider community. Subsequently, a
subjective norm measure was included to track these changes
over time and since theoretical models (such as the theory of
planned behavior) link norms around an issue to intentions
for future behavior [Ajzen, 1991]. Participants were asked to
indicate how important they felt the issue of orangutan
conservation was to their friends and family [the groups
expected to exert the greatest social inuence; Terry
et al., 2000]. Possible responses ranged from unimportant
(1) through to highly important (4), with an unsure response
category also provided.
Support for palm oil labeling
Participants were asked two questions to directly assess
their support for palm oil labeling: (1) At present it is not
compulsory for palm oil products to be labeled, would you
prefer the government to change legislation to mandate
labeling of palm oil products? (2) If palm oil products were
labeled would this inuence your purchasing decisions as a
shopper? Participants provided a yes, no, or unsure response.
Previous behavior and commitments to support orangutan
conservation
Participants were asked to report whether in the
previous 12 months they had engaged in any behaviors to
support orangutan conservation (donations, avoiding palm
oil products, or purchasing behind the scenes zoo tours with
proceeds supporting conservation projects). This was
included to gain a baseline for prior conservation support.
Following their zoo visit, participants were asked whether
they would be willing to change their future behavior to
support orangutan conservation (yes, no, or unsure) and
whether they felt their visit would directly impact on their
future conservation behavior (yes or no). During the
campaign (i.e., data sessions two and three) participants
were also asked whether they had/would complete a Dont
Palm Us Offpetition postcard during their visit. The card
image is depicted in Figure 1 below along with the banner of
support from the campaign launch. Petition cards were self
addressed to Melbourne Zoo and could be placed in a return
box or mailed back. On the back of the card participants were
asked to tell Food Standards Australia and New Zealand they
wanted a choice regarding what they purchased. A space was
Fig. 1. Dont Palm Us OffPetition Postcards (left) and the
Dont Palm Us Offbanner of support (right) which was displayed
at the exhibit during the campaign.
4Pearson et al.
Zoo Biology
provided for their name and address to indicate their support
for mandatory palm oil labeling.
Demographic information
Visitors also provided background and demographic
information including: age category (1830, 3150, or 51
years old); gender; education level (whether participants had
completed an undergraduate university degree); whether they
identied as vegetarian; and whether they were a pet owner,
from a rural location, had visited a zoo in the previous
12 months, or had visited orangutans in their natural habitat.
This information was important to determine the compara-
bility of the visitors at different sampling time points across
the campaign and, as conceptually or on the basis of previous
research, these were considered likely to inuence proanimal
attitudes and/or behavior [i.e., Plous, 1991; Driscoll, 1992;
Pifer, 1996; Lukas and Ross, 2005; Signal and Taylor, 2007;
Ross and Gillespie, 2009; MacDonald and Gavin, 2010]. As
the campaign did not run in every Australian state or in other
countries, visitors were also asked to indicate if they were an
interstate or overseas visitor.
Participants
A total of 403 participants took part in the research (92
during the baseline, 103 at DPUO 6 months, 100 at DPUO
12 months, and 108 during the followup). The survey
acceptance and return rate was very high across all data
collection sessions, suggesting the sample is representative of
typical Melbourne Zoo visitors (93%, 94%, 94%, and 91%,
respectively). The exhibit structure at Melbourne Zoo is
likely an important factor in this high acceptance and return
rate, with a large visitor center where participants could sit in
a sheltered area and complete the survey, while still viewing
the orangutans or the adjacent siamang exhibit. A full
demographic prole of each sample is provided in Table 1
below. Consistent with zoo visitor characteristics reported at
other Australian Zoos [Frede, 2008] and by the Association of
Zoos and Aquariums [AZA, 2011], the majority of visitors at
all time points were female. Approximately three quarters
were pet owners and while approximately onefth of visitors
were zoo members, a high proportion also came to visit
Melbourne Zoo from interstate and overseas [relatively high
levels of international zoo visitation to Australian Zoos were
also reported in Smith, 2013].
Analysis of Data
As the purpose of this research was to identify the
inuence of the Dont Palm Us Offcampaign on a range of
knowledge, attitudinal, and behavioral measures it was
necessary to ensure any differences between time points were
due to campaign effects rather than differences in sample
characteristics. As reected in Table 1, chi square analysis
was used to determine whether there were signicant
differences in visitor characteristics across time points.
Where this difference was signicant (i.e., visitors from a
rural location and international visitors), these variables were
controlled for consistently in all statistical analysis. Visitor
satisfaction variables which differed signicantly across time
points were also controlled for in the analysis of data (i.e.,
satisfaction with orangutan activity level; see section below).
Statistical analysis was performed using ANCOVA and
binary logistic regression. Only signicant predictors and
time are included and reported in nal models. For behavioral
variables which had a yes, no, or unsure response, the
regression predicts yes responses, with no and unsure pooled
together.
Visitor satisfaction
Visitor satisfaction scores with their overall experience,
orangutan activity levels, and the size and features of the
exhibit were consistently high at Melbourne Zoo across the
data collection periods. As reected in Table 2, mean scores
for all satisfaction variables were above four on a vepoint
scale. There was no signicant difference in overall
experience satisfaction between time points (F
3,396
¼0.35,
P>0.05). A small signicant difference between time points
TABLE 1. Participant characteristics across time
Baseline DPUO 6 months DPUO 12 months Followup x
2
(3)
Gender (female) 67.4% 68% 65.3% 76.2% 3.31
University education 49.5% 41.9% 53.8% 49.0% 2.82
Age (1830) 44.6% 38.0% 50.5% 38.1%
Age (3150) 44.6% 46.0% 35.1% 38.1% 9.89
Age (51þ) 10.9% 16.0% 14.4% 23.8%
Vegetarian 12.1% 11.1% 10.4% 3.8% 5.16
Pet owner 75.8% 75.8% 77.3% 77.1% 0.11
Zoo member 19.8% 26.3% 13.5% 19.2% 5.00
Zoo visit <12 months ago 48.4% 51.5% 52.6% 61.5% 3.86
Visited natural habitat 7.6% 10.9% 8.2% 3.7% 3.98
Reside/d in a rural location 34.1% 43.4% 47.9% 27.6% 10.64
a
International visitors 6.6% 6.1% 10.3% 1.0% 8.15
a
Interstate visitors 30.8% 22.2% 26.8% 23.8% 2.11
a
Denotes there was a signicant difference in the proportion of visitors within the given category across the four timepoints (P<0.05).
Don't Palm Us OffEvaluation 5
Zoo Biology
was observed for satisfaction with orangutan activity
(F
3,396
¼3.13, P¼0.026) and satisfaction with the size and
features of the exhibit (F
3,396
¼2.89, P¼0.035). As the
assumption of homogeneity of variances was violated,
Dunnett T3 post hoc tests were conducted. The mean
score for satisfaction with orangutan activity levels was
signicantly higher (P¼0.023) at DPUO 12 months
(M¼4.58, SD ¼1.10) than in the baseline (M¼4.18,
SD ¼0.76). All other comparisons were nonsignicant
(P>0.05).
RESULTS
Knowledge About Orangutans
Zoo visitor scores on the global knowledge about
orangutans 10item multiple choice quiz remained relatively
stable (between 5.82 and 6.16) across each time point (as seen
in Fig. 2A). An ANCOVA was conducted to determine
whether there was an effect of time on scores. The covariate,
being an international visitor, was signicantly related to
knowledge levels, with international visitors scoring lower on
TABLE 2. Mean scores and standard deviations for satisfaction variables by time
Baseline DPUO 6 months DPUO 12 months Followup
Overall experience 4.6 (0.80) 4.67 (0.68) 4.71 (0.75) 4.70 (0.69)
Orangutan activity 4.18 (1.10) 4.41 (0.93) 4.59 (0.76) 4.43 (0.86)
Size and features of the exhibit 4.45 (0.93) 4.62 (0.77) 4.76 (0.52) 4.71 (0.64)
Fig. 2. Changes in attitudes toward orangutans and knowledge about orangutans across time (bars represent standard error).
6Pearson et al.
Zoo Biology
average (F
1,376
¼4.80, P¼0.029). There was no signicant
effect of time on overall knowledge about orangutans
controlling for international visitors (F
3,376
¼1.30,
P¼0.274). The two items from the overall knowledge
measure most relevant to the campaign are also depicted in
Figure 2C, D. There were small increases observed in the
amount of visitors who correctly answered habitat loss as the
greatest threat to wild orangutans; however baseline scores
indicated many visitors (87%) were already aware of this
issue. A logistic regression, controlling for the inuence of
international visitors revealed there was no signicant effect
of time (P¼0.437) on the odds of answering this question
correctly (for the full model summary and summaries of all
subsequent regression analyses, please refer to Table 3).
Visitor understanding that palm oil was the product most
responsible for this habitat loss was comparatively lower at
baseline, with only 54% of visitors answering correctly. A
logistic regression revealed time signicantly contributed to
the prediction of correct responses to this question, model
x
2
(3) ¼55.11, P<0.001. The odds of visitors correctly
identifying palm oil as the major product impacting on orang
utans were signicantly higher during both points of the
campaign and during the followup compared to the baseline.
The odds of participants answering correctly (compared to
baseline) were 26.9 times higher 6 months into the campaign
(as only 3% of visitors answered incorrectly at this time point
see Fig. 2D), 3 times higher 12 months into the campaign, and
2.5 times higher in the followup. The 95% condence
TABLE 3. Logistic regression summaries
Odds ratio Exp (B) 95% CI lower 95% CI upper Wald df Sig.
Habitat loss question correct
Baseline (ref) 2.72 3 0.437
DPUO 6 months 1.20 0.48 3.03 0.15 1 0.697
DPUO 12 months 2.31 0.82 6.54 2.49 1 0.115
Followup 1.51 0.57 3.99 0.70 1 0.403
International 0.13 0.05 0.35 16.00 1 <0.001
Palm oil question correct
Baseline (ref) 34.47 3 <0.001
DPUO 6 months 26.88 7.94 91.06 27.95 1 <0.001
DPUO 12 months 3.04 1.61 5.73 11.82 1 0.001
Followup 2.55 1.40 4.67 9.25 1 0.002
Prefer mandatory labeling
Baseline (ref) 18.04 3 <0.001
DPUO 6 months 3.95 1.74 8.95 10.82 1 0.001
DPUO 12 months 3.80 1.69 8.55 10.39 1 0.001
Followup 3.25 1.49 7.08 8.74 1 0.003
International 0.17 0.06 0.43 13.49 1 <0.001
Labeling would influence purchases
Baseline (ref) 22.09 3 <0.001
DPUO 6 months 3.29 1.57 6.88 9.96 1 0.002
DPUO 12 months 5.20 2.26 11.96 15.04 1 <0.001
Followup 3.54 1.68 7.50 10.95 1 0.001
International 0.29 0.11 0.77 6.22 1 0.013
Willing to change future behavior
Baseline (ref) 18.86 3 <0.001
DPUO 6 months 2.90 1.47 5.74 9.37 1 0.002
DPUO 12 months 3.74 1.81 7.72 12.76 1 <0.001
Followup 3.18 1.60 6.33 10.87 1 0.001
International 0.17 0.07 0.44 13.29 1 <0.001
Visit impacted specifically on future conservation behavior
Baseline (ref) 9.44 3 0.024
DPUO 6 months 2.26 1.26 4.06 7.41 1 0.006
DPUO 12 months 2.18 1.21 3.95 6.63 1 0.010
Followup 1.70 0.96 3.01 3.35 1 0.067
Have engaged in at least one of the conservation behaviors in the previous 12 months
Baseline (ref) 9.16 3 0.027
DPUO 6 months 1.39 0.77 2.51 1.19 1 0.275
DPUO 12 months 2.16 1.20 3.91 6.54 1 0.011
Followup 2.11 1.19 3.76 6.43 1 0.011
Perception of the subjective norm as highly important
Baseline (ref) 15.70 3 0.001
DPUO 6 months 1.73 0.94 3.20 3.08 1 0.079
DPUO 12 months 3.12 1.67 5.82 12.82 1 <0.001
Followup 2.68 1.47 4.90 10.25 1 0.001
International 0.25 0.08 0.77 5.88 1 0.01
Don't Palm Us OffEvaluation 7
Zoo Biology
interval for the odds ratio for DPUO at 6 months was however
very large, again as a result of the very high proportion
of correct answers at this time point, with a lower estimate
of 7.9 and an upper estimate of 91.1.
Attitudes Toward Orangutans
Attitudes toward orangutans also increased across the
campaign period and this was sustained into the followup (as
seen in Fig. 2B). Mean scores at baseline were already very
positive (above 42 on a 50 point scale) and rose further to over
45 at the conclusion of the research. An ANCOVA was
performed to examine whether these increases over time
were signicant. Due to signicant negative skew in the
attitude variable the data were reected and a square root
transformation applied. The ANCOVA revealed the covari-
ate, satisfaction with orangutan activity levels was signi-
cantly related to more positive attitudes toward orangutans
(F
1,381
¼6.59, P¼0.011). The effect of time on attitudes
toward orangutans was also signicant controlling for
activity level satisfaction (F
3,381
¼5.25, P¼0.001). Planned
contrasts (based on adjusted marginal means) revealed that
attitudes 6 months into the Dont Palm Us Offcampaign
(P¼0.008), 12 months into the campaign (P¼0.016) and at
the followup (P<0.001) were all signicantly higher than
baseline attitudes toward orangutans.
Support for Palm Oil Labeling
Support for palm oil labeling increased from the
baseline (69.6% reporting they would like mandatory
labeling) through to 6 months into the campaign (90%
reporting they would like mandatory labeling). As seen in
Figure 3A, this increase remained quite stable over time. A
Fig. 3. Support for palm oil labeling and behavioral intentions over time.
8Pearson et al.
Zoo Biology
logistic regression revealed time (P<0.001) signicantly
predicted whether visitors would prefer mandatory palm oil
labeling, model x
2
(4) ¼29.89, P<0.001. The odds of
visitors responding they would like mandatory labeling
were over three times greater during the campaign and
followup relative to baseline. The odds of reporting support
for mandatory labeling were signicantly lower for interna-
tional visitors (P<0.001, refer to Table 3 for further detail).
There were also marked increases in participant
responses to whether mandatory labeling would inuence
their purchasing decisions (this rose from 66.3% at baseline to
87% 6 months into the campaign, as seen in Fig. 3B). This too
remained quite stable for the remainder of the campaign and
into the followup. Logistic regression, model x
2
(4) ¼27.43,
P<0.001, revealed there was a signicant effect of time
(P<0.001) on whether visitors responded labeling would
inuence their purchasing behavior, controlling for the effect
of international visitors. The odds ratio indicates the odds of
visitors responding yes were 3.3 times higher at DPUO
6 months, 5.2 times higher at DPUO 12 months, and still 3.5
times higher in the followup (compared with the baseline).
Again international visitors had reduced odds of answering yes.
Previous Behavior and Commitments to Support
Orangutan Conservation
At baseline 60.9% of visitors responded they would be
willing to change their behavior to support orangutan
conservation. This increased over the campaign and remained
high in the follow up (as seen in Fig. 3C). Time was a
signicant predictor of whether participants reported being
willing to change their future behavior (P<0.001), control-
ling for international visitors, model x
2
(4) ¼31.87,
P<0.001. The odds of visitors reporting willingness to
change their future behavior were approximately three times
higher at all subsequent time points relative to baseline.
When asked whether the visit to the orangutan exhibit
specically would impact on future conservation behavior,
visitors most often answered yes during the Dont Palm Us
Offcampaign (refer to Fig. 3D). A logistic regression
revealed time (P¼0.024) was a signicant predictor of
responding yes, model x
2
(3) ¼9.55, P¼0.023. The odds of
visitors indicating the visit would impact their future behavior
were 2.3 and 2.2 times higher during the campaign
respectively, compared with the baseline. The follow up
did not differ signicantly from baseline (P>0.05).
There were also changes evident regarding actual
behavioral action. At baseline, 18.5% of visitors reported
having donated to a wildlife charity supporting orangutans in
the previous year. This increased to 23.8% 6month into the
campaign and 27.8% 12 months into the campaign. This
reduced slightly in the follow up to 22.2%. A similar pattern
was observed for intentional purchasing of palm oil free
products. Only 18.7% of visitors reported avoiding palm oil
products at baseline, compared with 28.7% 6 months into the
campaign, 38.1% 12 months into the campaign and 38.9% at
the followup.
Participant responses to these two items were combined
with participation in behind the scenes zoo tours to create a
composite measure of orangutan conservation behavioral
support in the previous 12 months (yes was recorded for
engaging in any of the three selected behaviors, while no was
recorded if participants answered no to all three questions).
The combined conservation behavior data revealed 33% of
visitors had engaged in at least one conservation behavior at
baseline. This increased to 40.6%, 51.5%, and 50.9% at
DPUO 6 months, 12 months, and the followup, respectively.
Logistic regression analysis indicated time contributed
signicantly to previous conservation behavior (yes com-
pared to no), model x
2
(3) ¼9.39, P¼0.025. While there was
no signicant difference between DPUO 6 months and the
baseline (P¼0.275); by the end of the campaign and in
the followup, there were signicant increases in the odds
people had supported orangutan conservation through one of
the target behaviors (P¼0.011). This was twice as high at the
end of the campaign and at the followup compared with at
baseline.
A majority of visitors also demonstrated behavioral
support for palm oil labeling by completing a Dont Palm
Us Offcard during the campaign. At the midpoint of the
campaign (6 months) 73.3% of visitors surveyed reported
already completing or intending to complete a petition card
during their visit. This was similar at the end of the campaign
(12 months) with 74.5% of those surveyed completing or
intending to complete a card. Behavioral observations by the
researcher conrm a majority of these visitors did complete
a card.
Subjective Norm
Following the changes in attitudes and increases in
behavioral support for orangutan conservation, there were
also pronounced shifts in visitor perceptions of the impor-
tance of orangutan conservation to their friends and family.
The changes are depicted in Figure 4. Visitor perceptions that
friends and family felt orangutan conservation to be highly
important increased from 28% at baseline to 54% at the end of
the campaign and remained stable at the follow up (53%).
Decreases were also seen in the unimportant and unsure
categories. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed
there was a signicant effect of time on highly important
responses (compared with all other categories), model
x
2
(4) ¼23.8, P<0.001. The odds of visitors rating the
subjective norm as highly important were signicantly
different 12 months into the campaign (P<0.001) and at
the followup (P¼0.001) compared with baseline; 3.1 times
and 2.7 times higher respectively at these time points.
DISCUSSION
Visitor Satisfaction
With mean scores above four on all satisfaction
variables, the data suggest visitors generally rated their
Don't Palm Us OffEvaluation 9
Zoo Biology
experience at Melbourne Zoo very favorably and were happy
with the activity of the orangutans on display and the zoo
environment. There were also slight (although nonsigni-
cant) increases in overall experience satisfaction at baseline
through to the campaign period. This suggests there was no
negative impact of the campaign and the targeted educational
messages provided at the exhibit on visitor satisfaction levels.
This complements the view of Packer [2006] that people can
learn for funin the context of the zoo environment. In fact,
the highest levels of visitors reporting the visit would directly
impact on their conservation behavior (64%) occurred during
the campaign. This reinforces that zoo experiences can be
highly satisfying and enjoyable for visitors, while also
providing education which encourages conservation action
[Ballantyne et al., 2007].
Knowledge About Orangutans
Overall knowledge about orangutans was quite low at
baseline (below 6 on a 10point scale). Perhaps unsurpris-
ingly, given the tailored focus of the campaign to the palm
oil issue, there were no signicant increases in overall
knowledge across the campaign. There was a marked
difference in palm oil awareness however, with the odds of
participants answering the question about the product most
threatening the orangutan correctly signicantly higher
during the campaign than at baseline. Importantly, this
knowledge was sustained at the followup, even after the
campaign had ended and focus was drawn away from this
issue.
It is pertinent to note that at DPUO 12 months there was
some maintenance work occurring at the exhibit for a portion
of the data collection period, with the campaign television
advertisement not playing on the exhibit screen at this time.
This likely accounts for the reduction in correct responses
from DPUO 6 to 12 months (although still signicantly
higher than baseline). This commercial was not played at all
during the followup, hence the higher proportion of correct
responses at this time compared with the baseline provides
tentative support for the widereaching effects of the
campaign in educating the broader public about this issue
(i.e., correct responses at this time reect preexisting
knowledge about palm oil rather than onexhibit learning).
This is likely a result of the media coverage the campaign
received and the creation of social networking sites
supporting the mandatory labeling cause. However, an
important limitation to acknowledge of the present research
is that this study sought to explore the effectiveness of the
campaign as a whole, and subsequently does not have the
ability to determine which specic elements of the campaign
had the strongest impacts on visitor learning or conservation
intentions/behaviors. A key direction for any future research
will be to explicitly ask where people have acquired their
knowledge from, such that onsite and offsite learning
facilitated by zoos can be accurately assessed, as well as other
sources of conservation understanding (e.g., media, books,
the internet).
In combination, the ndings suggest that although there
is still a need for improvement in the broader educational
outcomes of a visit to the orangutan exhibit, highly tailored
messages with conservation relevance can be delivered
effectively to zoo visitors on exhibit and the wider public
alike. This is of signicance given the paucity of such
evidence to date [Mazur and Clark, 2001; Marino et al., 2010]
and the importance of such education in helping to address
the rapid loss of biodiversity occurring at present [IUCN,
2010]. The lasting educational effect of the campaign
6 months after its conclusion also provides encouragement
for zoos that such investments are worthwhile, with the
knowledge about palm oil retained and the public able to
make more informed purchasing decisions into the future.
Attitudes Toward Orangutans
Attitudes toward orangutans were very positive at
baseline and across the Dont Palm Us Offcampaign these
were observed to rise signicantly higher than these baseline
levels. The mean score at followup (45.48) has important
practical signicance, as it represents a majority of strongly
agree responses to all items and demonstrates evaluations of
this species are extremely positive, nearing the maximum
possible on the scale. There are several potential explanations
for these rises. It may be that increased awareness of the
palm oil issue, and the knowledge that human actions are
contributing to marked decreases in orangutan populations,
promoted greater empathy and concern for orangutans,
Fig. 4. Visitor ratings of the subjective norm across time.
10 Pearson et al.
Zoo Biology
which is reected in the attitude scores. It could reect the
wider effects of the campaign with media coverage providing
more footage of orangutans and discussion of their
intelligence and genetic relatedness to humans, which also
may foster more positive attitudes. Or the increases may stem
from shifts in the social norms surrounding this issue. Over
the campaign, the perception of orangutan conservation as
highly important to friends and family increased signicantly,
whilst marked reductions were seen for the indifferent or
unimportant categories. Given the association between social
norms and attitudes, it seems attitudes may also have
increased as a result of social inuences [Terry et al., 2000].
Regardless of the specic cause, these increases in attitudes
are an important change associated with the campaign, in: (a)
demonstrating public support and concern for the plight of
this species; and (b) since attitudes often shape intentions for
related behaviors [Ajzen, 2001; Armitage and Conner, 2001].
Support for Palm Oil Labeling and Behavioral
Impacts
As knowledge of the palm oil issue grew and attitudes
increased, so did support for palm oil labeling. Although a
majority of visitors indicated they would prefer mandatory
labeling at baseline (70%), this increased signicantly once
the campaign commenced to 90%. The odds of visitors
responding yes to this question were three times greater at all
time points once the campaign commenced, relative to
baseline, reecting a pronounced impact of the campaign on
public support for mandatory labeling. These increases in
support for labeling were echoed in participant responses to
whether labeling would change their purchasing behavior.
The odds of participants responding yes were signicantly
higher at all three time points relative to baseline, with the
odds of participants at the followup indicating labeling
would inuence their purchases still 3.2 times greater than at
baseline. Taken together, these results suggest that when
educated about the impacts of human behaviors on other
animal species, people would prefer to be able to make an
informed choice about their actions and a majority would try
to reduce their impact where possible [Harrison et al., 2005].
Consistent with this interpretation, increases were seen
in charitable donations during the campaign and there was a
particularly pronounced rise in the proportion of visitors
reporting they were intentionally avoiding unsustainably
sourced palm oil products over time. At baseline, less than
one in ve visitors reported avoiding unsustainably sourced
palm oil products (18.7%). A 10% increase occurred 6 months
into the campaign and a further 9.4% through to the end of the
campaign (38.1%). This gure even increased slightly at the
followup to 38.9%, which provides support the behavioral
effects of the campaign and education may also be lasting.
Although the sample size represents a small minority of the
wider Australian public, the evidence that education does
inuence consumer action in this context is noteworthy
[Stern, 1999]. If similar shifts occurred across the broader
population (i.e., an increase following the campaign such that
nearly 40% of the population is avoiding unsustainably
sourced palm oil products where possible) this has the
potential to send a very strong message to industry, and to
encourage shifts to certied sustainable palm oil or to
alternate products.
The power of consumers and importance of maintain-
ing a positive brand perception has already been demonstrat-
ed by several major companies in Australia, with Cadbury
and KFC recently making transitions away from palm oil use
due to environmental and health concerns [Sydney Morning
Herald, 2009; Cadbury Australia, 2011]. As such, it seems
public interest in this issue may help drive a market for
certied sustainable palm oil for use in Australian markets
should companies wish to continue using this product (an
explicit goal of the campaign and something Zoos Victoria
are currently seeking to promote through another new
initiative in 2013the Zoopermarket”—which allows
visitors onexhibit to scan common grocery products and
determine whether the company uses, or has made a time
bound commitment to, certied sustainable palm oil
products). A high proportion of visitors also suggested
they would be willing to change their future behavior to
support orangutan conservation in some way (over 80% of
visitors during the campaign and the followup). A signicant
barrier at present is the lack of labeling laws surrounding the
use of palm oil, however if mandatory labeling of palm oil as
an ingredient in food products becomes compulsory (a bill
which was recently under parliamentary consideration but did
not proceed
1
) this may lead to even greater consumer impacts
in the future.
GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Across the prole of outcomes, from knowledge, to
attitudes, to behaviors, and even social norms, there is robust
evidence in support of the effectiveness of this innovative
campaign by Melbourne Zoo. Through onexhibit informa-
tion, social networking/new media (i.e., Zoos Victoria Dont
Palm Us Offwebsitewith >138,000 unique views during
the campaign, Facebook cause siteswith >33,000 members
following the campaign, and the You Tube video), and
broader media coverage, it seems the campaign was
successful in educating zoo visitors and the general public
alike about the palm oil issue. This in turn, led to more
concern about the species, marked shifts in social norms
surrounding the importance of the conservation of orang
utans, and subsequently also higher attitudes toward this
Great Ape cousin.Unsurprisingly, these changes were
1
Coinciding with the Dont Palm Us Offcampaign, in 2009, a bill was introduced to Australian Parliament titled the Truth in Labeling Billto make listing
palm oil as an ingredient on food products compulsory. Data from Melbourne Zoo (petition signatures) as well as preliminary ndings of this research were
provided to members of parliament in the generation of the bill.
Don't Palm Us OffEvaluation 11
Zoo Biology
associated with support for mandatory palm oil labeling and
saw increases in selfreported donations to conservation
organizations supporting orangutans and decreases in
selfreported unsustainably sourced palm oil purchasing.
Collectively these demonstrate the successful nature of the
campaign and reinforce the role zoos can play as agents for
education and conservation in society, consistent with their
shifting organizational purpose [Patrick et al., 2007]. More
broadly, they also attest to the importance of continued
innovation in zoo education practices [Broad and Weiler,
1998; Andersen, 2003; Penn, 2009; Vischer et al., 2009] and
highlight how zoos can complement traditional education
(i.e., signage and animal displays in isolation) with focused
conservation education messages, which cover both the cause
of conservation threats as well as what people can do to help
[Falk, 2005]. Furthermore, the use of new media in this
campaign (i.e., disseminating the campaign video on You
Tube as well as screening it at the exhibit; providing an online
petition; and developing a Facebook page and dedicated web
page through the Zoos Victoria website) demonstrated how
traditional and newer forms of educational mediums can be
combined to enhance dissemination and efcacy [Lievrouw
and Livingstone, 2002; Kahn and Kellner, 2004; Pearson
et al., 2011].
Future research can build upon the current ndings
through documenting and evaluating other zoobased
educational campaigns and building a knowledge base to
enable comparison of the efcacy of different campaigns and/
or innovative educational strategies. Similarly, given the
success of this campaign based on the data available, larger
scale studies should be conducted for subsequent campaigns
which utilize bigger samples of zoo visitors, complemented
with samples from the wider public, to track changes across
the campaign duration. The addition of direct behavioral
measures would also strengthen the evaluation of future
educational initiatives, although it is pertinent to note that in
excess of 160,000 people returned petitions for mandatory
palm oil labeling during the campaign period, with just over
50% of these onsite at the zoo and the remainder from
engagement with the Zoos Victoria website, reecting wide
spread communitylevel behavioral action and support.
Furthermore, the Zoo received some 45,000 supportive
enquiries from the community during the campaign period,
which is indicative of the ability of the campaign to evoke
thought and promote understanding and action. Given the
negative relationship between international visitors and
outcome variables in this study, exploration of geographic
and cultural variations in palm oil awareness/support/use and
conservation issues will be another important area for future
research. Unfortunately, further exploration within this
sample was not possible due to the small total number of
international visitors (N¼23). On the basis of this study
however, it seems zoos do have a signicant role to play in
education for species conservation through such initiatives
and the continued development of cuttingedge visitor
education practices. In the current Anthropocene,this
advancement and focus upon visitor education and conser-
vation could not be more timely, for accurate information
gives individuals the power to evaluate the consequences of
their actions, and to make informed decisions about future
behavior, consistent with personal values and ethical
frameworks [Clayton and Myers, 2009]. As emphasized by
Jane Goodall, Let us remember, always, that we are the
consumers. By exercising free choice, by choosing what to
buy, what not to buy, we have the power, collectively, to
change the ethics of business, of industry. We have the power
to exert immense power for good…” [Goodall and Berman,
2003, p. 240].
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We wish to thank Melbourne Zoo for their partnership
in this research.
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Don't Palm Us OffEvaluation 13
Zoo Biology
... If utilised correctly, charismatic vertebrates can be combined with creative educational messaging programmes to result in behaviour change amongst visitors. This is exemplified by the "Don't Palm Us Off" campaign run by Melbourne Zoo which in conjunction with a living Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) exhibit, highlighted the threat of palm oil to orangutan habitat in the wild, promoting public awareness and mandatory labelling of palm oil products (Pearson et al. 2014). This campaign not only raised awareness about the threats to orangutan habitat in the wild, but also resulted in a significant increase in self-reported pro-conservation behaviour amongst visitors. ...
Thesis
Despite the best efforts of conservation practitioners global biodiversity is continuing to decline. The role of zoos and aquariums in conserving global biodiversity ex situ has become increasingly important as more species become threatened with extinction. As ex situconservation resources are limited, evidence-based decision making is required to identify, and prioritise, the management actions necessary to increase the potential of ex situ conservation efforts. The efficacy of ex situ conservation efforts is currently hindered by 1) entrenched taxonomic biases in collection planning and the prioritisation of large, charismatic vertebrates, 2) the unsustainability of ex situ populations due to limited space availability and management practices, and 3) limited considerations of the potential for ex situ collections to conserve and reintroduce genetic variation into populations using biological samples and advanced reproductive technologies. In this thesis I explore the multifaceted contribution of ex situ collections to global biodiversity conservation. I focus on the importance of standardised, globally shared ex situ records, and their potential to inform collection planning, population sustainability and genetic conservation decision-making.
... Third, alligators in captivity offer excellent educational opportunities. Education on wildlife conservation is very commonly taught to the public in zoos and aquariums, with particular programs increasing awareness, avoidance of harmful behaviors towards animal species conservation, and supportive behaviors towards species conservation [44]. Hands-on educational intervention in conservation-related education within zoos and related institutions have been found to retain information learned after an initial educational experience [45,46]. ...
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Understanding how the behavior of captive American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) congregations compares to wild congregations is essential to assessing the welfare of alligators in captivity. Wild alligator congregations perform complex social behaviors, but it is unknown if such behaviors occur in captive congregations as frequently. We observed the behaviors of a captive and wild congregation of American alligators in Florida, USA in January 2021. Social behaviors were, on average, 827% more frequent in the wild congregation than the captive, and the wild congregation had a richer repertoire of social behaviors, with growling and HOTA (head oblique tail arched) behaviors being particularly common. High walking, a nonsocial behavior, dominated the behavioral repertoire of the captive congregation (94% of behaviors, excluding feeding) and may be a stereotypy that can be used as an indicator of welfare. Both congregations experienced human disturbance and displayed flushing as a species-specific defense reaction. Captive environments differ from the wild with respect to size, structure, stocking density, resource availability, and human presence. These differences translate into behavioral differences between wild and captive congregations. We identified important behavioral differences between wild and captive alligator congregations that can serve as a platform for more detailed investigations of alligator welfare in captivity.
... The strengthening of positive environmental attitudes by a visit to a zoo is consistent with previous research. For example, it has been shown that (repeated) environmental education programs at the zoo can improve attitudes toward conservation [76,77]. Even a visit without an additional education program can result in reinforcing positive environmental attitudes [42,78]. ...
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In recent decades, zoos have been increasingly transformed into education centers with the goal of raising awareness about environmental issues and providing environmental education. Probably the simplest and most widespread environmental education program in the zoo is the guided tour. This study therefore aims to test whether a one hour zoo tour has an influence on the participants’ connection to nature and attitude towards species conservation. For this purpose, 269 people who had voluntarily registered for a zoo tour were surveyed before and after the tour. In addition to the regular zoo tour, special themed tours and tours with animal feedings were included. The results show a positive increase in connection to nature and a strengthening of positive attitudes towards species conservation for all tour types. For nature connectedness, in particular, people with an initial high connection to nature benefitted from the special themed tours and the tours, including animal feedings. For attitudes towards species conservation, no difference was found between the tour types. The results prove the positive influence of a very simple environmental education program, even for people with a preexisting high level of connection to nature and positive attitude towards species conservation.
... The Campaign to Protect the Sichuan Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (DeWan et al., 2013) inspire communities to protect forest habitat in the reserve pre-and post-campaign surveys, monitoring fuelwood consumption, monitoring forest destruction Don't Palm Us Off (Pearson et al., 2014) raise public awareness about what palm oil is, the many products it is contained in, and the impact on rainforests and orangutans pre-, mid-and post-campaign survey Ambon Bay beach litter clean-up (Uneputty et al., 1998) decrease of litter on beaches after beach cleaning event count of litter before, immediately following, and 6 months after the beach cleanup event, interviews Give Swordfish a Break (Brownstein et al., 2003) convince key seafood gatekeepers and seafood eating public to take a stop serving, selling, or eating swordfish to pressure the government into adopting more sustainable swordfish fishery laws monitoring swordfish populations in the North Atlantic Manatee Watch (Morris et al., 2007) increase boater knowledge of manatees, increase attitudinal support for manatee protection, increase conservation intentions post-campaign evaluation of intervention participants compared to socioeconomically equivalent control group of boaters. Save the Hainan Gibbon (Qian et al., 2021) improve conservation knowledge about the critically endangered Hainan gibbon post-campaign interviews DEFRA water saving campaign (Appelboom, 2009) educate citizens that water is a valuable resource that needs to be conserved, encourage consumers to change their behavior and adopt water saving measures pre-and post-campaign survey Macau Energy Conservation Week (Song et al., 2017) encourage both residents and enterprises to learn to read and interpret energy labels and to practice energy conservation in their daily lives post-campaign survey ...
Article
Conservation first appeared as a role for zoos and aquariums in the late 20th century, and over the past few decades has evolved to be central to the mission of modern, accredited zoos and aquariums (henceforth zoos). More recently, promoting proenvironmental behavior is increasingly recognized as an essential means for zoos to achieve their shared conservation mission. To support continued progress throughout the field, there is a need for greater clarity and confidence regarding successful approaches for promoting proenvironmental behavior. A growing body of research into the conservation-related outcomes of zoo experiences, along with findings from behavioral and social sciences, provides a basis for understanding how the relationship zoos have with their audiences can translate into measurable conservation results. By shifting the balance between motivation to act and barriers to actions so that motivation is the greater force, zoos can tip the behavior balance to successfully promote action on behalf of nature and wildlife. Zoo audiences are, on average, more intrinsically motivated to take action on behalf of wildlife than the public at large. By introducing extrinsic motivators and reducing barriers, zoos can set up the circumstances that move motivated individuals to take conservation action. Even individuals who lack intrinsic motivation can be moved to action through sufficiently attractive extrinsic benefits and low barriers. In this paper we present a framework that synthesizes this study and theory on environmental behavior change and offers actionable approaches for zoo and aquarium practitioners.
Chapter
Seven percent of world palm oil (PO) production comes from Latin America (LATAM), 15% certified as sustainable PO with the adoption of the Round Table model for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), pointing to sustainable agriculture that contributes to hunger reduction and a reduction of dependence on hydrocarbons for energy. Colombia is the fourth global producer of PO and the first one in LATAM and expects to produce over two million tons in 161 municipalities and 21 departments in 2021. This document will focus on the Colombian PO industry. The contribution of this study is twofold: First, it provides a more comprehensive review of the PO industry technology literature based on Scopus and Clarivate Analytics, using the reporting checklist of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta‐analyses (PRISMA). Second, as far as the authors know, this is one of the first studies to address the technological solutions applied by Colombia's PO producers and aims to help fill this research gap. Evidence for the use of Internet of Things (IoT), big data (BD), and cloud computing in the Colombian PO industry was found in the extraction plants, in crop and pest management, in the use of seeds with smart tags, and in biofuel generation from PO, positioning it as a country with multiple lessons to offer to the PO industry.
Article
A fundamental objective of modern zoos is promoting pro-environmental behaviors. This study experimentally assessed the contribution of zoo rangers (staff employed to engage visitors) in delivering a behavior change campaign promoting sustainable palm oil use. The campaign was delivered in a dedicated area in a walk-through animal exhibit, with rangers either "present" or "absent" in the campaign space. Questionnaires assessing awareness, knowledge, and purchasing intentions were completed by 1032 visitors. Two analyses were conducted: (1) comparing the impact of ranger presence versus absence (to assess the overall impact of having rangers present regardless of whether they talked to visitors) and (2) comparing the impact of talking to a ranger against demographically matched individuals visiting when rangers were absent (to assess the specific impact of talking to a ranger). Visitors who talked to rangers were more aware of palm oil, had more knowledge, and greater intentions of purchasing sustainable palm oil. However, as only one-quarter of visitors talked to a ranger, fewer differences were found comparing ranger presence versus absence. These findings suggest that rangers can be instrumental in communicating complex conservation issues and delivering zoo-based behavior change campaigns, but their impact is limited by low engagement rates.
Article
Communicating the topic of conservation to the public and encouraging proenvironmental behaviors can mitigate loss of biodiversity. Thus, the evaluation of educational efforts is important to ascertain the educational effects and provide high-quality conservation education. The learning outcomes of conservation education are diverse (e.g., attitudes, knowledge, and behavior). Considering the specific characteristics of these different outcomes and the factors that influence them is crucial to delivering successful conservation education. We reviewed 29 peer-reviewed articles published in English from January 2011 to April 2020 on empirical studies of learning outcomes of on-site conservation education in zoos and aquaria, institutions that seek to educate the public about conservation. We examined the range of learning outcomes, their definitions, and factors that influenced them. Cognitive outcomes were most frequently investigated (37%) in comparison with other outcomes (e.g., affective outcomes, 31%). The articles did not use explicit definitions for learning outcomes, and implicit or explorative definitions provided were inconsistent. Outcomes were influenced by various factors (e.g., prior experiences, staff interaction, animal behavior). Our results suggest the agenda of conservation education research should be broadened by examining all learning outcomes relevant to behavior change. Educational and behavior change theories should be used as a background for conservation education research to ensure clear and consistent definitions, derive appropriate instruments to measure learning outcomes, and relate learning outcomes to influencing factors. We recommend conservation education researchers and practitioners to treat conservation education holistically and acknowledge its learning outcomes' full complexity.
Thesis
The demand for wildlife products around the world is growing rapidly according to various researches. As a result, trade in, and consumption of, wildlife products has become a major threat to global biodiversity. Pangolins are currently recognised as one of the most trafficked mammalian taxa globally, due to the high international and local demand for their products. Many recognize China as one of the biggest markets for pangolin products. Thus, its role in tackling illegal pangolin trade is a crucial responsibility for China globally. However, pangolin trade and markets in China have been little investigated in any holistic and in-depth way. My study uses social science approaches and aims to provide insights on pangolin trade and markets in China to help suggesting more effective conservation interventions. Literature, regulations, and seven online trade platforms related to pangolin trade and conservation were searched and relevant data were collected to provide background knowledge of current pangolin trade and markets in China. Fieldwork was conducted in the two Chinese provinces of Henan and Hainan from Sept 2016 to Apr 2017. Questionnaire surveys, semi-structured interviews, in-depth discussions with stakeholders along the pangolin trading chain were the main social science methods used in this research. Market Reduction Approaches (Schneider 2008) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen 1991) were used as theoretical frameworks to design the research questions. One pangolin hunter, 131 individual villagers, four villager groups (four to ten people per group), 34 reserve workers, two pangolin meat dealers, four pangolin meat consumers, five restaurant owners, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners in 41 hospitals, sellers in 134 pharmaceutical shops, two TCM wholesalers, and 2168 members of the general public were interviewed or surveyed in this study. Results show that illegal pangolin trade is widespread in the two study provinces of mainland China, especially in TCM markets, which were active both online and offline. The wild pangolin populations on Hainan Island still face threats from poaching and local demand for wildmeat. The main contributors to the widespread illegal trade were the lack of adequate law enforcement; poor awareness of trade related regulations among public and some key stakeholders; and the absence of certain key stakeholders in pangolin conservation process, such as the TCM community. Through this study, I suggest enforcement could be strengthened through increasing public participation in the process, in ways of reporting illicit trade and products. This requires enhancing public knowledge and awareness on pangolin trade and related regulations. On the other hand, to deal with the lack of representation of TCM community in pangolin conservation, their unique function and role in the overall conservation blueprint needs to be highlighted and targeted interventions are needed. In summary, achieving effective pangolin conservation in China needs close collaboration between all key stakeholders to correspondingly address the multiple types of demand on pangolin products. Methodology and insights from this study can also contribute to helping conservation in China or globally, and not only for pangolins, but for other threatened species as well.
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Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.
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This article explains the behaviour of communications that have been taking place in the context of climate change and how fruitful they have been so far. It states that important insights can be gained from better understanding the way climate change has been communicated to date and how this communication has been received and interpreted. This article reveals further that communication of climate change has been less effective than one might wish for several reasons. It offers more detailed diagnoses of those reasons and makes suggestions for potential remedies based on the extant literature. Furthermore, it articulates a role for communication that is broader than some communicators might assume. It also suggests that people in a democratic society, are best served by actively engaging with an issue, making their voices and values heard, and contributing to the formulation of societal responses.
Article
Identification labels remain an important aspect of interpretation in zoos and aquariums, and although studies exist documenting results of specific exhibit labels, the field lacked a formal, general, multi-institutional study on visitor preference regarding label content. Researchers conducted a survey across five institutions (two aquariums, three zoos) to determine what kinds of information visitors thought was most interesting or important to include on exhibit signs using both closed-ended (N=367) and open-ended (N=372) instruments. Researchers found that visitor preferences for kinds of information were generally consistent regardless of animal type and institution. Overall, visitors preferred to see the following kinds of information on an exhibit label: odd facts/behaviors, endangered status of the animal, where they live in the world, and the number of years they live. Participants expressed the least interest in the animal's scientific name, length of pregnancy, and phylogeny.
Article
The growing recognition that the social sciences play a key role in conservation requires more efficient ways for working together toward a common mission. A new field of conservation psychology is proposed to create stronger connections between the natural and social sciences, between research and practice, and between psychology and the other social sciences. The purpose of such a network is to conduct psychological research that is directly oriented toward the goal of environmental sustainability. To better understand the promise of conservation psychology, it is compared to other fields, such as conservation biology and environmental psychology. Potential conservation psychology research topics are discussed in relation to two broad outcome areas: a) motivating people to act in more environmentally-friendly ways and b) encouraging people to care about the natural world and their role in it. Within these outcome areas, research can be focused at the individual or the group level. The type of research will range from more theoretical approaches to more applied, and examples are provided for such a continuum. The dynamic process by which social scientists and practitioners identify high-priority research questions is another important aspect of conservation psychology.