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An assessment of local people’s participation in natural resources conservation in southern Zimbabwe

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Abstract

We assessed the participation of local people in community-based natural resources management under the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in southern Zimbabwe. We focused on four randomly selected CAMPFIRE communities surrounding Gonarezhou National Park. Data were collected in October 2013 through semi-structured questionnaires administered through interviews. Our results showed that there were significantly more men than women in the CAMPFIRE committees. Surprisingly, we recorded that no youths, those below the age of 25 years, were part of the CAMPFIRE committees. CAMPFIRE committee members across the study area were within the age range of 25–60 years. We therefore recommend that: (i) youths should be deliberately included in management committees focussing on natural resources conservation, and (ii) conservation awareness and education needs to be streamlined and enhanced to improve attitudes of both the elderly and youths toward community-based natural resources management initiatives.
E3 Journal of Environmental Research and Management Vol. 5(2). pp. 042-046, February, 2014
Available online http://www.e3journals.org
ISSN 2141-7466 © E3 Journals 2014
Short communication
An assessment of local people’s participation in natural
resources conservation in southern Zimbabwe
Edson Gandiwa1*, Patience Zisadza-Gandiwa2, Clayton Mashapa3, Elias Libombo4 and Never
Muboko1
1School of Wildlife, Ecology and Conservation, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Private Bag 7724, Chinhoyi,
Zimbabwe
2Transfrontier Conservation Areas Unit, Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, P.O. Box CY 140,
Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe
3Department of Natural Resources and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Africa
University, P. O Box 1320, Mutare, Zimbabwe
4Scientific Services, Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, Private Bag 7003,
Chiredzi, Zimbabwe
Accepted 18 February, 2014
We assessed the participation of local people in community-based natural resources management under the
Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in southern Zimbabwe. We
focused on four randomly selected CAMPFIRE communities surrounding Gonarezhou National Park. Data were
collected in October 2013 through semi-structured questionnaires administered through interviews. Our results
showed that there were significantly more men than women in the CAMPFIRE committees. Surprisingly, we
recorded that no youths, those below the age of 25 years, were part of the CAMPFIRE committees. CAMPFIRE
committee members across the study area were within the age range of 25–60 years. We therefore recommend
that: (i) youths should be deliberately included in management committees focussing on natural resources
conservation, and (ii) conservation awareness and education needs to be streamlined and enhanced to improve
attitudes of both the elderly and youths toward community-based natural resources management initiatives.
Key words: CAMPFIRE, community-based natural resource management, Gonarezhou National Park, local people,
sustainable utilization
INTRODUCTION
The role of government and the peoples’ demographic
pattern in regulating community-based natural resources
management is being questioned, both from pragmatic
and ethical viewpoints of sustainability of enhancing
natural resources management (Muchapondwa, 2003;
Mugabe, 2004). Devolution over local natural resource
management is clearly crafted in the case of wildlife in
Zimbabwe, through the Communal Area Management
Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE)
(Jones and Murphree, 2001; Muboko and Murindagomo,
2014), a programme which grants appropriate authority to
rural district councils underpinned by Zimbabwe’s Parks
*Corresponding authors: E-mail: egandiwa@gmail.com
And Wildlife Act (1975) and its subsequent amendments.
CAMPFIRE aims to ensure that revenue derived from
wildlife, i.e., hunting concessions, trophies, safaris and
eco-tourism, directly reaches rural communities, rural
district councils and not just the central national treasury
(Hasler, 1999; Alexander and McGregor, 2000).
Under Zimbabwe’s Parks and Wildlife Act of 1975,
hunting and ranching of non-endangered wildlife is
allowed in both communal and commercial farming
areas, under the logic of sustainable utilization
philosophy (ZPWMA, 2011). CAMPFIRE seeks to have
national government, primarily through the Zimbabwe
Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, work in
conjunction with local communities and rural district
authorities to broaden local ownership and management
of wildlife and other natural resources (Logan and
Moseley, 2002). The CAMPFIRE program also stipulates
about 55% of benefits which result from local custody and
exploitation of natural resources should accrue to the
local community directly (Hasler, 1999; Jonga, 2011).
The institutional structure for the management of wildlife
and other natural resources is centred on rural district
councils, ward development committees, village
development committees and local traditional leaders
(Murphree, 2001). CAMPFIRE, as described by its
supporters, is targeted at financially aiding local people
who live in constant contact with potentially dangerous,
albeit potentially lucrative, wildlife (Bond, 2001; Muir-
Leresche et al., 2003).
Under CAMPFIRE, all community members become
shareholders in the cooperative. Ideally, they receive
benefits from income, employment, production and
community development generated by tourism, ivory
culling, meat marketing and problem animal control. Our
study aimed at examining the nature and extent of local
people’s participation in natural resources management,
i.e., CAMPFIRE in southern Zimbabwe. Recent studies in
southern Zimbabwe suggest that the active involvement
of local people in decision making regarding community-
based natural resources management is important in the
perceived effectiveness and success of CAMPFIRE
programs (Gandiwa, 2013; Gandiwa et al., 2013).
Therefore, one possible hypothesis is that the CAMPFIFE
program could be less attractive to the youths, i.e., those
aged between 15 and 24 years. If such a hypothesis
holds, then what are the chances for the youths to
provide an efficient, innovative and productive labour
force for rural development, food security and livelihoods
restoration through sustainable natural resources
management within the CAMPFIRE program in
Zimbabwe and elsewhere in sub-Sahara Africa?
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area
Our study focused on four randomly selected CAMPFIRE
communities (i.e., Chibwedziva, Muhlanguleni,
Chibhava/Hlengwe, and Ndali) adjacent to Gonarezhou
National Park in southern Zimbabwe. The four study sites
are all communal areas under Chiredzi District.
CAMPFIRE programs were implemented in the study
area in the early 1990s. More details about the
administrative structure of CAMPFIRE are provided by
Gandiwa (2013). Gonarezhou National Park (lying
between 21° 00´–22° 15´S and 30° 15´–32° 30´ E) is the
second largest protected area in Zimbabwe, with a spatial
extent of 5,053 km2. Gonarezhou National Park borders
Mozambique and South Africa, and is part of the Great
Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area. The park is
endowed with diverse animal, plant, bird and fish species
(ZPWMA, 2011; Gandiwa et al. 2012).
Gandiwa et al 043
Data collection
Within the four randomly selected communities, following
the method outlined by Gandiwa et al. (2013), interviews
with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire were
conducted with CAMPFIRE committee secretaries in
October 2013 since these had good knowledge of
CAMPFIRE programs. Pre-testing was conducted in two
CAMPFIRE committees, outside of the study
communities to ensure that all questions were clear, and
a final version of the questionnaire was prepared for
sampling. Interview dates were communicated to the four
selected CAMPFIRE committees one or two days in
advance. Before conducting the interviews, the general
purpose of the study was explained. Interviews were
conducted in English language. We specifically
addressed the following topics: (i) number of people in
the CAMPFIRE committee, (ii) gender composition in the
CAMPFIRE committee, (iii) ages of the CAMPFIRE
committee members, (iv) reasons for the involvement or
non-involvement by the youths, and (v) suggestions for
further improving the involving of the youth in natural
resources management. Interviews took approximately
35 minutes to complete.
Data analysis
Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the
property of the interview response data. The median as a
measure for central tendency and the range to represent
the variability in response data were computed for some
of the interview response data. We used Chi-square
goodness-of-fit tests to analyse data on the (i) number of
people in the CAMPFIRE committees, and (ii) gender
composition in the CAMPFIRE committees using
STATISTICA version 7 for Windows (StatSoft, 2001). A P
value < 0.05 was deemed significant. Moreover, data on
the reasons for the involvement or non-involvement by
the youths, and suggestions for further improving the
involving of the youth in natural resources management
were qualitatively analysed.
RESULTS
Our study showed that there were no significant
differences in the number of CAMPFIRE committee
members across the four study communities (median = 9,
range = 7–10; χ2 = 0.77, df = 3, P = 0.857). There were
significantly more men (median = 6; range = 5–7) than
women (median 2.5; range = 2–4) in CAMPFIRE
committees across the four study communities (Table 1;
χ2 = 4.12, df = 1, P = 0.042). Moreover, CAMPFIRE
committee members across the study area were within
the age range of 25–60 years.(Table 1)
044 E3. J. Environ. Res. Manage.
Table 1: Composition of the CAMPFIRE committees across the study area
Attribute
Co
mmunity
Total
Chibwedziva
Muhlanguleni
Chibhava/Hlengwe
Ndali
Number of CAMPFIRE committee members 10 7 10 8 35
Number of men in CAMPFIRE committee 7 5 6 6 24
Number of women in CAMPFIRE committee 3 2 4 2 11
Our results showed that no youths were part of the
CAMPFIRE committees in the four study communities.
This was attributed to the following: (i) a higher proportion
of the youths were engaged and/or preferred employment
in which they got a monthly salary mostly outside their
rural communities, and (ii) youths were not mostly voted
for and/or elected by local people. Apart from being left
out in CAMPFIRE programs, the local readily available
youths were reported to be pre-occupied by educational
activities, cross-border trading, and sporting activities.
Interestingly, the respondents suggested that: (i) there
was need for communities to involve the youths through
selecting them in the CAMPFIRE committees, and (ii)
local CAMPFIRE constitutions needed to be amended to
ensure that youths participate in CAMPFIRE committees
through having a set quota the number of youths.
However, it was highlighted that the youths benefit from
CAMPFIRE program proceeds since these are directed
to family groups and/or community infrastructural
developments.
DISCUSSION
We recorded fewer women than men in the four sampled
CAMPFIRE committees in southern Zimbabwe. This
situation can be explained by two main reasons. First,
community-based natural resources management is
relatively more easily fitted into African men's daily
chores. Second, as stated by Goodwin (2009), men in
African households dominate natural resources
management activities because they continue to bear
primary responsibility for household sustenance and well-
being. It is important for rural communities in natural
resources management and development programs like
CAMPFIRE to promote gender equality so that both men
and women have an equal opportunity to benefit from
and contribute to economic, social, cultural, and political
development (United Nation, 2013). This means that the
local people involved in CAMPFIRE ought to take into
consideration: (i) how the different roles, responsibilities,
and status of men and women affect the work of natural
resources management; and (ii) how the expected
CAMPFIRE outputs and impact affect men and women.
Similarly, in some socially conservative communities,
particularly in Africa, men and women participation in
developmental projects is heavily influenced by social
norms (Beach, 1980). It is well-understood that men have
more access to and control over natural resources and
decision making largely due to traditional and/or cultural
values, and societal expectations (Berry, 1989).
Addressing these concerns takes into account not only
the different roles of men and women, but also the
relationship between men and women, and the broader
institutional and social structures that support them
(Berkes, 2004).
Our study revealed that CAMPFIRE committees in
southern Zimbabwe is founded on a gender and age-
based division of labour, reminiscent of what is found
throughout sub-Sahara Africa, wherein the middle-aged
and elderly men and women (25–60 years) are actively
involved in community-based natural resources
management activities than their youth counterparts
(Gumbo, 1993; Matowanyika, 1997). This is likely linked
to the fact that youth unemployment have developed into
a cultural phenomenon, i.e., many of the unemployed
urban youths are in fact of rural origins, and are hanging
on in the cities to avoid returning to their villages, where
they will be expected to help in agriculture and natural
resources management, and experience subordination to
the older generations (White, 2012). Fundamentally, it
appears as if the diversifying modern economy in the
African context, makes community-based natural
resource management under CAMPFIRE less attractive
as an economic pursuit, and makes dwelling in rural
areas less desirable as a lifestyle choice for the youth.
Honey (1999) articulated best practices and guiding
principles of ecotourism, one of which was the need for
communities to genuinely benefit from the ecotourism
activity and to be provided a means of influencing
protected area management to embrace the youth. To do
the latter, Phillips (2003) argued that protected area
managers in mostly developing countries must be skilled
in engaging local communities in dialogue, and identifying
win-win management scenarios for protected areas, and
the youthful local people. Previous research has
demonstrated the success of such community-based
natural resources management participation in numerous
developing countries around the world, including Ecuador
(Becker et al., 2005), Cameroon (Bauer, 2003), and
South Africa (Farrell and Marlon, 2002). These benefits
range from economic opportunity for the youth, and the
wider population structure to mutual appreciation for
protected areas and community-based natural resources
management.
In 2011, the Australian Government announced an
Indigenous Ranger Cadetship Programme targeting the
youths (DEEWR, 2011). The aim of the programme was
to provide indigenous young people with the necessary
skills and knowledge to become rangers. This
government initiative has the potential to significantly
influence youth engagement within the natural resources
management sector. Zimbabwe and other African
countries could take a leaf from the Australian Indigenous
Ranger Cadetship Programme that empowers the youth
towards community-based natural resources
management. Thus, the lack of engagement of youths in
natural resources management is a priority concern that
needs to be addressed. This engagement is vital to
meeting the demands of the natural resources
management sector given the emerging international
environmental issues and modern technological
developments (Aslin and Brown, 2004). Importantly,
greater youth’s engagement could gradually replace the
‘ageing’ group of natural resources management
practitioners in some communities, where a strategic
approach to succession planning is necessary. Moreover,
engagement in natural resources management is also
seen as a means of improving youth’s self-esteem and
an alternative to less desirable social activities.
While indigenous youth engagement is seen as a
priority, it cannot be assumed that indigenous youths are
readily attracted to a career in natural resources
management. In a study of employment outcomes for the
Indigenous Ranger Cadetship Programme in Australia, a
majority of graduates of the programme subsequently
gained employment in other industries (Fordham et al.,
2010). It is essential to acknowledge that this does not
detract from the importance of these programmes; indeed
it emphasises the value of investing in youth engagement
to enhance job readiness for indigenous youth across a
range of employment opportunities. Rather than focusing
solely upon contemporary wildlife science, training should
recognise and incorporate indigenous ecological
knowledge as an integral part of the overall set of skills
and knowledge that can be applied to land management
by indigenous youths. These complementarities of
contemporary science and indigenous ecological
knowledge in natural resources management have been
well documented in the literature (e.g., Henry, 2006;
Fordham et al., 2010; DEEWR, 2011; Gandiwa, 2012). In
view of the ongoing rural poverty, the relatively high
levels of unemployment in Zimbabwe (ZimVac, 2012),
and ‘ageing’ local people involvement in community-
based natural resources management, the African
governments could be urged to advocate for policy
enactments that should pay more attention to promote
attractive viable relationships among women, young
people, and community-based natural resources
management (Berkes, 2004). Benefits like direct income
including roadwork, entertainment centres, college
buildings, and other rural modern infrastructure
Gandiwa et al 045
improvements related to CAMPFIRE programs which
enhance rural life, provide employment, and
entrepreneurial opportunities for youths could be a pull
factor for the active young workforce to play their role as
anticipated in community-based natural resources
management within the CAMPFIRE program.
CONCLUSION
Our study recorded that the youths and women in
southern Zimbabwe like elsewhere in Africa, have a low
level of participating in community-based natural
resources management. The African youths workforce
tends to prefer to engage in formal employment where
individual income are guaranteed as compared to family
group and/or community benefits derived from
CAMPFIRE programs. The transaction costs of
institutional set-up and operations for community-based
natural resources management may be high with little
direct individual benefit disbursement, to the point where
the CAMPFIFE program could be less attractive to the
youths. Moreover, our results show that there is a gender
bias in preference of men over women in CAMPFIRE
committee membership selection. Thus, for the women
and youths to provide an efficient, innovative and
productive labour force for rural development, and food
security through sustainable community-based natural
resources management within CAMPFIRE programs, we
recommend the following: (i) decisions and actions
regarding community-based natural resources
management need to include the women and youths in
management structures, and (ii) conservation awareness
and education need to be streamlined and enhanced to
improve attitudes of both the elderly and youths towards
collective appreciation linked to attractive benefits of
community-based natural resources management
initiatives.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife
Management Authority, Chiredzi Rural District Council,
and CAMPFIRE committees in communities adjacent to
Gonarezhou National Park for supporting this study. We
also thank an anonymous reviewer for the constructive
comments and suggestions, which helped improve the
manuscript.
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... Weather station data are considered uniform and representative of an area within a radius of 20 km (Yeh et al., 2000;Gaugris and van Rooyen, 2008), and because our study strata stretches across less than 40 km from north to south the entire study area would be encompassed within one such climate zone (Vincent and Thomas, 1960;Rukuni et al., 2006;Mhuriro-Mashapa et al., 2017). Edaphic factors were ruled out due to the remarkable uniformity in soils and their water retention abilities across the study area (Nyamapfene, 1991;Rukuni et al., 2006 in several other ecological outcomes regardless of disturbance regimes (Guy, 1989;Kiviat et al., 2010;Gandiwa et al., 2014). ...
... Human encroachment into protected areas like Save Valley Conservancy (SVC) in southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe is perceived to have increased due to the Zimbabwe Land Reforms programme over the past decades and is attributed to extirpation of species, particularly the large mammals and woody plants (e.g., Eltringham, 1990;Williams et al., 2011). Human encroachment into the SVC was reported heightened in 2000 following the onset of the Zimbabwe's fast track land reform programme which started in 2000 with a record of incremental changes in human density and spatial extent of human settlement in protected areas in southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe (Williams et al., 2011;ZimStats, 2013;Gandiwa et al., 2014;Kahuni et al., 2014). These human encroachment into protected wildlife areas are perceived to be threatening the woody vegetation and its provision of ecosystem services to wildlife and mankind. ...
... Conservancy (Kahuni et al., 2014;Zisadza-Gandiwa et al., 2014;Gandiwa et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The response of woody vegetation dynamics to human and herbivory disturbances across land use categories (communal lands of Mutema-Musiakavanhu, buffer zone and Save Valley Conservancy (SVC)) were assessed in Save Valley, southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe. Disturbance regimes, such as excessive herbivory and anthropogenic activities in the study area likely influence state-and-transition dynamics in woodland ecosystems. A stratified random design was used with the study strata divided based on three defined land use categories, where data was collected from November 2016 to December 2017. The study employed mixed methods approach including household questionnaire survey (n = 400), key informant interviews (n = 20) and focus group discussions (n = 80) to collect data on anthropogenic activities based on woodland resource utilization and the impact of human-wildlife conflicts. To measure woody vegetation attributes, herbivory and human disturbances, a total of 45 plots measuring 50 m x 20 m were assessed with 15 plots randomly placed in each of the three defined study strata. Specifically, changes occurring in land use and land cover were determined based on random land classification of LANDSAT images (1990 to 2015) and ancillary data. This study further used the Markov-cellular automata model to predict the land use and land cover changes across SVC for the period 2020 to 2040. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. In communal lands, a combination of agricultural land expansion, harvesting for firewood, timber and livestock grazing have modified the status of woody vegetation. The study recorded that woodlands contributed a range of 0.04% to 12.82% to the global annual income (GAI) of about US$1600 per household based on user rights discrimination around the woodland resources. However, the majority of farmers (86%, n = 258) had incurred annual economic loss of about US$800 per household due to human-wildlife conflicts as wild animals raid crops and prey on livestock. Furthermore, the study results recorded significant differences on the status of woody vegetation across the three defined land use categories. The human and herbivory disturbances decreased in intensity within the buffer zone with maximum species diversity of woody plants, thus confirming to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Model simulations predicted that by the 2040s, woodland and grassland cover in SVC will decrease by 46.73% and 10.54%, respectively, with at least over 6, 000% expansion of agricultural land use and bare land cover as compared to the 1990 land use and land cover categories. It was concluded that, human and herbivory induced disturbances were the main drivers of consistent woody vegetation dynamics across the study area. The study also revealed that both formal and informal institutions in the study area do not adequately implement policy pronouncements related to sustainable woodland management as they focus more on agricultural land use management and socio-economic use of woodland resources for human livelihood. It was recommendedthat Zimbabwe should consider aligning its woodland management policies and legislation with the Zimbabwe’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP, 2013-2020) so as to ensure national commitment with funding for government extension service delivery in the forestry sector, effectively utilize traditional leaders and best practices to protect the environment, wildlife and equitable use of woodland resources to benefit the present and future generations. The study further recommended the need to revisit the Zimbabwe land reform policy associated with agricultural resettlement and law enforcement agents to be effective in sustainable conservation of woodlands and protected wildlife areas in Zimbabwe.
... Ecotourism at Mahenye also declined due its failure to actively involve women and the youth in natural resources management (Gandiwa et al. 2014b). This failure is also evident in South Africa (Machena et al. 2017). ...
... Women utilize natural resources more than men as they are in constant contact with soil, water and forest resources through crop cultivation, fetching water and firewood hence there is need to ensure their increased participation in ecotourism programs, especially at the decision-making level (Dankelman and Davidson 1988;Mudzengi et al. 2013;Mashapa et al. 2019Mashapa et al. , 2020. The youth also regard natural resources management endeavors under ecotourism as poorly rewarding financially and are less willing to reside in socioeconomically disadvantaged and often marginalized communal lands thereby migrate to urban economic core areas (Gandiwa et al. 2014b). Socioeconomic deprivation in the communal areas has also been worsened by the poor macroeconomic environment in the country. ...
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The sustainability of ecotourism ventures under the Community Based Natural Resources Management in Zimbabwe is under stress due to environmental changes emanating from effects associated with socioeconomic factors, climate change and epidemic diseases. Using an in-depth analysis of the Mahenye ecotourism venture from the year 1982 to 2020 as a case study, this study sought to propose a management framework for ecotourism ventures in a changing environment by examining the sustainability of community conservation initiatives in Zimbabwe. Research methods included expert opinion from two natural resources governance academics, desktop research and authors’ experiences about Mahenye ecotourism venture. Results indicated that the Mahenye ecotourism venture has faced significant challenges but has been resilient to withstand the shocks such as population increase, exclusion of youths and women, climate change, hyperinflation, donor fatigue, reduced international ecotourist visitation and international hunting bans emanating from socioeconomic and political environmental changes. These shocks have a negative effect on the main elements of an ecotourism venture such as the wildlife resources, amenities, attraction, accessibility, management system, marketing, beneficiaries and linkages. The management framework highlights the interventions that can be made to enable ecotourism ventures in changing environments to remain sustainable. The interventions are promoting strong community cohesion, developing sustainable self-funding mechanisms, promoting multiple sources of income, carrying targeted environmental education programs, capacity building in managing ecotourism in periods of hyperinflation, improved marketing and offering a unique experience, promoting climate smart ecotourism, promoting domestic ecotourism visits, implementing effective feedback systems among stakeholders to decrease uncertainties and lobbying to have hunting bans removed.
... The rural poor in developing countries remain directly dependent mostly on raw natural resources for their food and livelihood security [1]. However, dependence on natural resources is contextualised within socio-cultural parameters and shaped by differences embedded in societies, such as power, age and gender differences [2] [3] [4]. Gender issues are increasingly attracting attention in the community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), policy making or project implementation where stakeholders question the relevance of gender in natural resource conservation [5] [6] [7], especially about attitudes. ...
... The need to address gender-sensitive concerns is pronounced in CBNRM initiatives like community areas management programme for indigenous resources programme (CAMPFIRE) in Zimbabwe. For instance, one of the principles of the CAMPFIRE program is stated as: "To support equal opportunities for all members of the community regardless of race, gender or political affiliations and work to train and empower women as effective participants in the economic development of the community" [4]. CAMPFIRE on communal areas adjacent to national parks was one of the key initiatives adopted to generate benefits, promote conservation, and empower local communities in Zimbabwe [9] [10]. ...
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The study assessed women’s participation in the Communal Area Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) activities in southeast Zimbabwe. The study collected data using an interview questionnaire administered to five CAMPFIRE committees in October 2014. There were relatively no differences in the selected attributes on CAMPFIRE committee composition across the five study communities i.e., 1) the number of people and their level of education, and 2) gender and age composition. There were more men (5 ± 0.11) than women (2 ± 0.02) in CAMPFIRE program committees across the five study communities. Men dominate leadership and decision making over CAMPFIRE in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Yet, it is the women who use most of the natural resources at a household level, such as game meat, wild fruits and wild vegetables as relish, fuel wood as source of energy for cooking, and baskets woven from woodland products. It was concluded that despite all the benefits that a gender sensitive approach could bring to CAMPFIRE, women participation in CAMPFIRE programs in southeast Zimbabwe was still low as evidenced by their numbers in committees that make decisions for the program. There was need for deliberate action to ensure increased women participation in CAMPFIRE programs, especially at the decision-making level. A certain number of committee positions in CAMPFIRE should be reserved for women.
... The invaded farms that were not subsequently designated as resettlement areas are not formally recognized, and no offer letters or permits to occupy were provided to settlers (Moyo, 2000;Rukuni et al., 2006). Some human settlements invaded Save Conservancy and continue to transform wildlife area into subsistence agriculture land use (Zisadza- Gandiwa et al., 2014). ...
... The study objectives are based on the assumption that factors precipitating human-wildlife conflict are not homogenous, but can reflect general factors affecting most local communities living adjacent to protected areas with high wild animal population densities and closed or nonexistent wild animal movement corridors Gandiwa et al., 2014). The main objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of human-wildlife conflict on livelihoods of local people occupying the periphery of Save Conservancy, Zimbabwe. ...
Thesis
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Human-wildlife conflicts are a national concern in southern Zimbabwe which is part of the Greater Limpopo Transfontier Conservation Area where human and wildlife requirement overlaps are intense and increasing. The objectives of the present study were to identify key problem wild animals, assessing social and economic impact of human-wildlife conflicts on agro-based livelihood in the periphery of Save Conservancy, southern Zimbabwe. The study further aimed at understanding measures to manage human-wildlife conflicts. Data collection was done using semi-structured questionnaires administered to a stratified and randomly selected 300 households and 20 key informants. In terms of livelihoods, 86% of households were smallholder agricultural farmers who had incurred economic loss and perceived both the frequency and level of crop and livestock damage to have increased over the last two years. Eelephants, buffaloes and lions were key problem wild animals in the study area. Annual household economic costs of human-wildlife conflicts were enormous (USD 18.61 to USD 1 174.60), though the perceived and actual losses differed by 63.2% for mono-specific stands of crops and livestock. The following factors were significant in explaining the household’s willingness to pay for human-wildlife conflict management, namely, education level of household head, household income, distance from Save Conservancy boundary and awareness of human-wildlife management (R2 = 0.245, p = 0.025). It was concluded that the main sources of human-wildlife conflicts is the damage inflicted by selected wild animals on agricultural crop and livestock produce, injure and/or death to human life, all these caused household economic loss in the study area. It was recommended that managing human-wildlife conflicts in the study area should be part of the national conservation and development objectives for the benefit of both wild animals and people’s well-being e.g. economic value, to wildlife management through replicating programmes such as CAMPFIRE (Community Areas Management for Indigenous Resources).
... The invaded farms that were not subsequently designated as resettlement areas are not formally recognized, and no offer letters or permits to occupy were provided to settlers (Moyo, 2000;Rukuni et al., 2006). Some human settlements invaded Save Conservancy and continue to transform wildlife area into subsistence agriculture land use (Zisadza- Gandiwa et al., 2014). ...
... The study objectives are based on the assumption that factors precipitating human-wildlife conflict are not homogenous, but can reflect general factors affecting most local communities living adjacent to protected areas with high wild animal population densities and closed or nonexistent wild animal movement corridors Gandiwa et al., 2014). The main objective of the study was to assess the socio-economic impact of human-wildlife conflict on livelihoods of local people occupying the periphery of Save Conservancy, Zimbabwe. ...
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Human-wildlife conflicts (HWC) are a concern in southern Africa which is part of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area where human-wildlife interface overlaps. The objectives of the study were to identify key problem wild animals, assessing social and economic impact of HWC on agriculture-based livelihoods in communities adjacent to Save Valley Conservancy (SVC), southeastern Zimbabwe. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires administered to randomly selected 300 households and 20 key informants. Elephants, buffaloes and lions were key problem wild animals in southeastern Zimbabwe. Annual household economic costs due to HWC were enormous (USD 18.61 to USD 1 174.60). The following factors were significant in explaining the household’s willingness to pay for HWC management, namely, education level of household head, household income, distance from SVC boundary and awareness of human-wildlife management (R2 = 0.245, p = 0.025). It was concluded the main HWC was in the form of damage inflicted by selected wild animals on agricultural crop and livestock, injure and/or death to human life, all these caused household economic losses. It was recommended that managing HWC should be part of the national conservation for the benefit of both wild animals and people’s well-being.
... Estos conocimientos son derivados de una prolongada relación entre los residentes locales y su ambiente inmediato, lo que hace que las personas adquieran una mayor capacidad para comprender acerca de la conservación de los recursos naturales y su uso a través de programas educación y concienciación (Jalilova y Vacik, 2012;Gandiwa et al., 2014a) y que resultan valiosos sobre todo en áreas donde las comunidades humanas viven dentro o alrededor de áreas protegidas (Trakolis, 2001;Alendorf et al., 2012;Gandiwa et al., 2012). ...
... It is surrounded by three other districts which are; Zaka, Buhera and Chipinge. In this drought prone semi-arid area, wildlife management, irrigation agriculture, rain-fed dry land agriculture and livestock production are ideal and common livelihoods activities (Vincent and Thomas, 1960;Gandiwa et al., 2014) with most people relying on subsistence farming and development relief from humanitarian donor organizations in collaboration with the government of Zimbabwe for survival . Human communities living west of the SVC specifically, practice a combination of subsistence, cash crop farming, and small scale livestock rearing. ...
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Human-wildlife conflicts (HWCs) occur around the edges of protected areas where there are high human and wild animal interactions. Such is the case with Save Valley Conservancy (SVC), southern Zimbabwe, where reports of HWCs are increasing. We conducted an assessment of HWCs in local communities bordering the western part of SVC. The objectives of the assessment were threefold: (i) to determine the key wildlife species causing damage, (ii) to establish the nature and extent of conflicts experienced with wildlife, and (iii) to document techniques local people employ to minimize HWCs. A multi-stage sampling design was adopted and this combined purposive sampling (to select study wards); random sampling (to select villages) and systematic sampling to select households (n = 84). Data were collected through a household questionnaire survey and field reconnaissance visits in January and February 2016. Our results showed that out of the 10 species involved in conflict, the top three species in terms of number of reports were elephant (Loxodonta africana), lion (Panthera leo) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) across the study area. Crop raiding, livestock depredation and disease transmission to domestic livestock were reported as the three main HWC types. To alleviate HWC in the study site, local people utilized a combination of non-lethal measures and lethal control. Nearly, all respondents rated HWC as a severe problem. To ameliorate HWCs in the area it is proposed that a multi-action approach be considered for adoption which include: (i) proper land use planning which zones key areas for livestock vs. wildlife production systems to reduce competition and overlap of interests and (ii) prompt, constant maintenance and repair of game fence especially along the western part of the conservancy. Keywords: Crop raiding, Human-wildlife conflicts, Local communities, Livestock depredation, Save Valley Conservancy
... The study area falls within the semi-arid agroecological zone of south eastern Zimbabwe (Figure 1), with a hostile crop environment caused mainly by variable annual rainfall with a range of 450-600mm, which usually comes as infrequent heavy storms (Moyo et al., 1993). In this drought prone semi-arid area, wildlife management, irrigation agriculture, rain-fed dry land agriculture and livestock production are ideal and common livelihoods activities (Vincent and Thomas, 1960;Gandiwa et al., 2014) with most people relying on subsistence farming and development relief from humanitarian donor organizations in collaboration with the government of Zimbabwe for survival (Mashapa et al., 2013. Save River being a common boundary between Save Valley Conservancy and the adjacent communal village areas is a shared water resource. ...
Article
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Human-wildlife conflicts are a concern in communal areas adjacent to protected areas in Zimbabwe. The objectives of the present study were to (i) investigate the determinants of farmers' willingness to pay for human-wildlife conflict management and (ii) estimate the opportunity cost of human-wildlife conflict management in the periphery of Save Valley Conservancy, south eastern Zimbabwe. Interviews with individual household heads, key informants and focus group discussions were done. A stratified random sampling technique basing on distance from Save Valley Conservancy was used in selecting the households for data collection. Data collection was done in July 2015, using semi-structured questionnaires administered to a stratified and randomly selected 300 households and 20 key informants. Elephants, buffaloes, hyenas and lions were most problem wild animals in the study area. The following factors were significant in explaining the household's willingness to pay for human-wildlife conflict management, namely, education level of household head (p = 0.006), household income (p = 0.001), distance from Save Valley Conservancy boundary (p = 0.036) and awareness of human-wildlife management. Despite the absence of an active formal agricultural insurance institution, farmers were willing to pay about USD157.67 annually per household, for human-wildlife conflict management in the study area.
... Local ecological knowledge is valuable in areas where human communities live inside and around protected areas [4] [5]. This knowledge is derived from the long-standing relationships between local people and their immediate environment resulting in local people having good understanding about natural resources conservation through resource use, education and conservation awareness programmes [6] [7]. ...
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This study aimed at examining local people’s knowledge and perceptions of wildlife conservation in southeastern Zimbabwe. Data were collected between October and November in 2012 using a purposive sampling approach of households (n = 114) in communities adjacent to Gonarezhou National Park. Our results show that local people were aware of the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) and Gonarezhou, and their associated purposes. However, our results suggest that local people had inadequate knowledge about the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (GLTFCA) and its purpose. Moreover, mixed perceptions about the impact of the GLTFCA on local livelihoods and conservation in the study area were recorded. Finally, the results indicated that improving park-community relationships, education and awareness programmes on natural resources conservation could assist in raising the status of conservation in Gonarezhou and GLTFCA.
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Sustainable wildlife enterprises in remote Indigenous communities are an important source of economic development and employment whilst providing people with opportunities to continue their close connection with country and to maintain customary wildlife harvesting practices. Critical to the success of wildlife enterprises is recognition of the importance of both Indigenous ecological knowledge and western science in their design and implementation. This paper analyses the Indigenous ecological knowledge and western science underpinning the northern long-necked turtle and fledgling tarantula spider industries that have been established by the Djelk Rangers in the remote township of Maningrida in central Arnhem Land. The paper addresses issues of complementarity and conflict across both knowledge systems. The paper also examines the formal transmission of knowledge through education and training institutions as a means of developing employment pathways for young Indigenous people to work in wildlife enterprises.
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Wildlife conservation in terrestrial ecosystems requires an understanding of processes influencing population sizes. Top-down and bottom-up processes are important in large herbivore population dynamics, with strength of these processes varying spatially and temporally. However, up until recently the role of human-induced top-down and bottom-up controls have received little attention. This is despite the fact that almost all terrestrial ecosystems are influenced by human activities thereby likely altering the natural control of animal populations. Therefore, in this thesis, the role of natural and human-induced controls in influencing large herbivore populations and how human controls (i.e., policy instruments, incentives and provisions) influence human activities and wildlife conservation in a semi-arid African savanna ecosystem are investigated. This study primarily focuses on Gonarezhou National Park (hereafter, Gonarezhou), Zimbabwe and adjacent areas. Zimbabwe experienced an economic crisis and political instability between 2000 and 2008 following the land reforms that started in 2000 which were widely covered in the mass media. The results indicated a weak synchrony in rainfall and drought occurrence (natural bottom-up process) in areas within the same “climatic” region, and variable responses of large herbivore species to the 1992 severe drought with most large herbivore species’ populations declining following the 1992 drought and increasing thereafter. Therefore, droughts are important in influencing large herbivore populations in semi-arid ecosystems. Furthermore, the results showed variation in the intensity of illegal hunting (top-down human control) which was associated with variation in law enforcement efforts in Gonarezhou. Law enforcement efforts in Gonarezhou were strengthened in 2004 following the employment of additional patrol rangers which resulted in increased park coverage and a decline in recorded illegal activities. Thus, the results show that political instability and economic collapse does not necessarily lead to increased illegal hunting in situations where policy instruments, such as laws, are enforced. A higher perceived effectiveness of Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE - a community-based program that allows local people living in communal areas near protected areas in Zimbabwe to financially benefit from using the wildlife resources within their area) was partly associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts. In addition, local communities with higher perceived effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs partly had more favourable attitudes towards problematic wild animals. Moreover, the results showed that in the 1990s, the majority of newspaper articles highlighted that wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe was largely successful. However, following the land reforms that occurred in 2000, the international media lost interest in wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe, as evidenced by a sharp decline in published articles. Also, the frames changed in the international media with the “political unrest and land reform” blame frame becoming more dominant, and nature conservation was portrayed more negatively. The change in media frames shows that there was a spill-over effect from the political domain into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe’s land reforms in 2000. Overall, this study provides new insights on the processes influencing large herbivore population dynamics in human-dominated semi-arid savanna ecosystems which consist of diverse wildlife management regimes and also illuminates the importance of media framing and (mis-)representation of wildlife conservation issues following political instability, crisis or societal unrest. With these findings, it is concluded that natural bottom-up processes (e.g., droughts) influence large herbivore population dynamics whereas policy instruments, incentives, provisions and societal frames mainly have a top-down effect on wild large herbivore populations in savanna ecosystems.
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Youth unemployment and underemployment are serious problems in most countries, and often more severe in rural than in urban areas. Small-scale agriculture is the developing world's single biggest source of employment, and with the necessary support it can offer a sustainable and productive alternative to the expansion of large-scale, capital-intensive, labour-displacing corporate farming. This, however, assumes a generation of young rural men and women who want to be small farmers, while mounting evidence suggests that young people are uninterested in farming or in rural futures. The emerging field of youth studies can help us understand young people's turn away from farming, pointing to: the deskilling of rural youth, and the downgrading of farming and rural life; the chronic neglect of small-scale agriculture and rural infrastructure; and the problems that young rural people increasingly have, even if they want to become farmers, in getting access to land while still young.
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This paper retraces: 1) the promulgation of protectionist wildlife policies by colonial administrators at the turn of the 19th Century in Zimbabwe, and their evolutionary trajectory over distinct time periods, 2) the paradigmatic shift and the extent of evolution of wildlife policies with respect to the devolution thrust and local community participation to date. The aim is to re-ignite and keep the debate alive for the ultimate improvement of local community livelihoods by meeting their aspirations and addressing poverty. Another section explores the robustness of local community institutional framework following decades of research on their efficacy in the face of internal weaknesses and external pressures. This is discussed in the context of contested devolution and decentralization concepts which not in the distant past became fashionable rhetoric in the field of local community empowerment in natural resource management. Areas of contests have been explored using a case study approach. Extensive literature consultation and gleaning of 129 published and relevant sources cutting across national, regional and global realms reveal that Zimbabwe and most southern African countries have evolved progressive policies. However, consistent with most literature, the implementation of these otherwise progressive policies remains problematic. Hence, the question, ‘when will community-based wildlife conservation initiatives like communal areas management programme for indigenous resources (CAMPFIRE) achieve their initially intended goals of devolution?’ remains largely unaddressed.
Article
Opening Paragraph For over a decade African economies have been plagued by recurrent food shortages, economic decline and growing disparities between the living standards of rich and poor. To a large extent food shortages and rural impoverishment may be attributed to external shocks—world recession, oil price shocks, deteriorating terms of trade and mounting debt service obligations—compounded in the 1970s and early 1980s by drought and war. In addition government policies have exacerbated the effects of adverse environmental and world market trends, aggravating rather than alleviating food shortages and depressing rural output and incomes.