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Training has become the buzz word in the dynamic competitive market environment.Human capital differentiates a great organization from a good one. Organizations investing in effective training and development for human resource tend to achieve both short and long term benefits. This study presents a literature review on the significant of training and development on employee productivity. Employees tends to become absolute, and therefore making the need to adapt to the continuous learning and updating of the skill and knowledge invaluable, due to the organizational, technological and social dynamics. Thus, in order for organizations to achieve optimum returns from their investment, there is imperative need to effectively manage training and development programs. However, the most vital asset of every organization under stiff and dynamic competition is its human capital. Training and development is an instrument that aid human capital in exploring their dexterity. Therefore training and development is vital to the productivity of organization's workforce.
G.J.C.M.P.,Vol.2(6):91-93 (November-December, 2013) ISSN: 2319 7285
Maimuna Muhammad Nda & Dr. Rashad Yazdani Fard
Centre of Postgraduate Studies
Limkokwing University of Creative Technology. Cyberjaya, Malaysia.
Training has become the buzz word in the dynamic competitive market environment.Human capital differentiates a
great organization from a good one. Organizations investing in effective training and development for human resource
tend to achieve both short and long term benefits. This study presents a literature review on the significant of training and
development on employee productivity. Employees tends to become absolute, and therefore making the need to adapt to
the continuous learning and updating of the skill and knowledge invaluable, due to the organizational, technological and
social dynamics. Thus, in order for organizations to achieve optimum returns from their investment, there is imperative
need to effectively manage training and development programmes. However, the most vital asset of every organization
under stiff and dynamic competition is its human capital. Training and development is an instrument that aid human
capital in exploring their dexterity. Therefore training and development is vital to the productivity of organization’s
Key words: Employee Training, Employee Development, employee Productivity.
As organizations try to survive in the turbulent dynamic market, strong emphasis must be laid on human capital in
order to be competitive and financially solvent. However, there are other factors that affect organizations’ success;
organizations must possess productive (i.e. effective and efficient) employees. In addition, organizations differentiating
on the basis of human capital due to its intangible characteristics such knowledge, skills and motivation of workforce
increasingly sees it as invaluable in order to remain sustainable in the market. Thus organizations should have employees
that have capability of adjusting to swift dynamic business environment. Paradise, (2007) in his report stated that U.S.
organizations alone spend more than $126 billion annually on employee training and development. In an environment
where there is high uncertainty tends to present organizations with high risk, the knowledge of business and market
intelligence present organizations with a reliable competitive advantage over those that do not have such (Jelena, 2007).
Therefore knowledge is turning to basic capital that triggers development. The success of organizations is however
dependent on its knowledgeable, skilled as well as experienced workforce. Therefore in order to maintain sustainability,
organizations must see continuous employee training and development as invaluable. Training and development is very
essential at all employee levels, due to the reason that skills erode and become obsolete over a period of time and has to
be replenished (Nishtha and Amit (2010).
II.Employee Training
Training is the organized way in which organizations provide development and enhance quality of new and existing
employees. Training is viewed as a systematic approach of learning and development that improve individual, group and
organization (Goldstein& Ford, 2002) in Khawaja & Nadeem (2013). Thus it is the series of activities embarked upon by
organization that leads to knowledge or skills acquisition for growing purposes. Thereby, contributing to the well being
and performance of human capital, organization, as well as the society at large. According to Manju & Suresh (2011),
training serves as an acts of intervention to improve organization’s goods and services quality in stiff the competition by
improvements in technical skills of employees.
III.Employee Development
Development refers to activities leading to the acquisition of new knowledge or skills for purposes of growing.
Organizations provide employees with development programmes in order to enhance their capabilities. Employee
development is gaining an increasingly critical and strategic imperative in organizations in the current business
environment (Sheri-lynne 2007) in Abdul Hameed (2011). Thus organizations need to invest in continuous employee
development in order to maintain employees as well as the organization success (Khawaja & Nadeem 2013).
IV.Employee Productivity
Productivity as defined in Oxford dictionary (2007) is the efficiency with which things are being produced.
Employee productivity however is the measure of output per unit of input economically. It is the log of net sales over
total employees (Rohan & Madhumita 2012). Thus employee productivity of an economy as whole or industry could be
G.J.C.M.P.,Vol.2(6):91-93 (November-December, 2013) ISSN: 2319 7285
V. Employee Training And Employee Productivity
Training has been invaluable in increasing productivity of organizations. It does not only enhance employees
resourcefully, but also provides them with an opportunity to virtually learn their jobs and perform more competently.
Hence, increasing not only employees productivity but also organizations’ productivity. Various researches indicate the
positive impact of training on employees’ productivity. Training as a process is one of the most pervasive methods to
enhance the productivity of individuals and communicating organizational goals to personnel (Ekaterini & Constantinos-
Vasilios, 2009). Rohan & Madhumita (2012) also supported that investing in training employees on decision making,
teamwork, problem-solving and interpersonal relations has beneficial impact on the organizations’ level of growth, as
well as impacting on employees’ performance. Training affects employees’ behavior and their working skills which
results into employees enhanced performance as well as constructive changes (Satterfield & Hughes, 2007). Training is
most effective way of motivating and retaining high quality in human resources within an organization (Kate Hutchings,
Cherrie J.Zhu, Brain K, Cooper, Yiming Zhang & Sijun Shao, 2009). Also added by Lowry, Simon & Kimberley (2002),
training is a way of enhancing employee commitment and maximizing employee potential. According to Konings &
Vanormelingen (2009),Colombo & Stanca (2008) and Sepulveda (2005) training is an instrument that fundamentally
affects the successful accomplishment of organizations’ goals and objectives. However, the optimum goal of every
organization is to generate high revenue and maximize profit and a vital tool to realize this is an efficient and effective
workforce. Thus, a workforce is only efficient and effective if the appropriate training and development is provided for
such and therefore leading to productivity.
Fig1:Relationship cycle Source: Rohan & Madhumita (2012)
VI. Employee Development and Employee Productivity
Development programs worth investing so much into, as most successful organizations consider the progress of
workforce and therefore invest in their training. This results to increase in skill and competence that improve morale and
productivity (Sheeba, 2011). Development seems to reduce the turnover rate of employees (Deckop et al. 2006). Thus
advancement opportunities do not only reduce absenteeism, but it increases employee’s commitment and satisfaction that
helps reduce turnover (Atif et al. 2010).
Training and development must be designed and delivered to meet the needs of all employees in such a way that the
employees will not be only productive but also be satisfied. Training and development has a positive impact on the
employees to carry out their work more effectively, increasing their interpersonal and technical abilities, team work, job
confidence and work motivation (Kate Hutchings, Cherrie J. Zhu, Brian K. Cooper, Yiming Zhang and Sijun Shao 2009).
Training in organizations holds the key to unlock the potential growth and development opportunities to achieve
a competitive edge (Rama V. & Nagurvali Shaik, 2012). Organizations train and develop their workforce to the fullest in
order to enhance their productivity. Thus, knowledge, skill and abilities are determinants of employees’ performance
which organizations need to continuously invest in wisely in order to improve their employees’ productivity. As
supported by (Noe, 2006), organizations spend an enormous amount of money and time on training in order to aid
employee's learning of job-related competencies. Thus it is important to fully provide the results from training efforts
(Dowling & Welch, 2005).
VIII. Conclusion
Training and development ultimately upgrade not only the productivity of employees but also of the organization. It
has rightly been said, employee development is the key to organizational sustainable development. Organizations must
have employees who are able to quickly adapt to an ever-changing world market. Companies need to invest in on-going
employee training and development in order to both keep employees and be successful. The 21st century will be
favorable to those organizations, which are able to learn faster and adapt to changes than their competitors. Training
enhances employees’ initiative and quality of work, thereby assisting them to be more committed to achieving the
organizational goals and objectives and in turn enhancing employees’ effectiveness within the organization.
G.J.C.M.P.,Vol.2(6):91-93 (November-December, 2013) ISSN: 2319 7285
Summarily, training and development impacting on employee productivity has not only improve the wellbeing of
organizations, but also aid the prosperity of most countries that has put into consideration the design and delivery of
training and development of workforce at national level. As the national policies aim to improve nation’s human capital,
this optimally in turn results to the economic growth of the nation. However, it is recommended for management of
organizations to give training and development of employees a priority in order to get the best out workforce as well as
improving the organization’s productivity. Further research studies is also recommended on the training and development
of employees in order to have a broader understanding of its valuable impacts.
1. Abdul Hameed Aamer Waheed (2011): Employee Development and Its Affect on Employee Performance A Conceptual
Framework”. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 13 [Special Issue - July 2011] 224.
2. Atif et al.(2010): “ Employee Retention Relationship to Training and Development: A Compensation Perspective”. African
Journal Of Business Management. Vol. 5(7), pp. 2679-2685.
3. Caterine (2007): “Oxford dictionary, ed7th”. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
4. Colombo, Emilio & Stanca, Luca. (2008): “The Impact of Training on Productivity: Evidence from a Large Panel of Firms,
Available at SSRN.
5. Deckop et al. (2006):"The Effect Of Human Resource Management Practices on The Retention Of Former Welfare Clients”.
Hum. Res. Mgt., vol. 45(4). Pp 539-559.
6. Dowling, P.J., and Welch, D.E. (2005), International Human Resource Management: Managing People in a Multinational
Context.(4th Ed), (Mason, O.H: Thomson South-Western.
7. Ekaterini Galanou, Constantinos-Vasilios Priporas (2009): “A model for evaluating the effectiveness of middle managers‟
training courses: evidence from a major banking organization in Greece”. International Journal of Training and
Development, pp 221-245.
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Economics And Organization Vol. 4, No 2, 2007, Pp. 209 216.
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training and development of „grey-collar‟ workers in the People’s Republic of China”. Human Resource Development
International, Vol.12, No.3, pp 279-296.
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Conceptual Study”. European Journal of Business and Management. ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online).
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the New South Wales registered clubs industry”. Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 13, No1, pp 53-69.
13. Nishtha Langer and Amit Mehra (2010), “How Training Jump-Starts Employee Performance”, Indian Management, Vol 49
(6), pp: 14-18.
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Advantage”. (6th Ed), (Boston,MA:Mc Graw -Hill Irwin).
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Alexandria, VA: ASTD
16. Rama V. Devi & Nagurvali Shaik (2012): Training & Development A Jump Starter For Employee Performance And
Organizational Effectiveness”. International Journal Of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 7, July
2012, Issn 2277 3630.
17. Rohan, S. & Madhumita, M. (2012): “Impact of Training Practices on Employee Productivity: A Comparative Study”.
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18. Satterfield JM, Hughes E. (2007):”Emotion skills training for medical students: a systematic review”. MedicalEducation,
19. Schmidt Steven W (2009), “Employee demographics and job training satisfaction: the relationship between dimensions of
diversity and satisfaction with job training”, Human Resource Development International, vol.12, No.3, pp 297-312.
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21. Sheeba Hamid (2011): “A Study of Effectiveness of Training and Development Programmes of UPSTDC, India An
analysis”, South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, Vol.4 (1).
... This can be ensured through staff professional training and development. Training affects the rate of staff productivity since the organisational performance relies upon employee performance as the human asset capital of any organisation assumes a significant part in the development and advancement of such organisations (Nda and Fard, 2013). The library, as well as its management do depend upon enhanced skills, knowledge and capability of the talented workforce for their good (Shu-Rung and Chun-Chieh, 2017), a reason many institutions including university library management plans professional development and training programmes for their staff to boost their general performance in the job (Lakra, 2016;Huang and Jao, 2016;Khan and Baloch, 2017;Godwin et al., 2020). ...
... Training and development can be supposed to be a nonstop one as money spent on workers, for this reason, are well-invested (Nda and Fard, 2013). Workers who have been relegated with obligation need certainty with which to complete their positions. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of professional training and development for librarians/library staff in the southwest, Nigeria; especially the Federal University of OyeEkiti, Nigeria. Thus, this study intends to assess the impact of staff professional development and training on the job performance of library staff in the Federal University Oye Ekiti, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach The descriptive survey research design was used in carrying out this study. The population of study cuts across all library staff/attendants in the Federal University Oye Ekiti departmental, faculty and the university libraries. The purposive sampling technique was used in selecting the sample for the study (77 library staff). Research instruments, developed by the researchers, Staff Development Programme Questionnaire ( r = 0.79), Staff performance Questionnaire ( r = 0.81), Challenges of Staff Professional Development and Training Questionnaire ( r = 0.82), were used for data collection. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency counts and percentages, mean and standard deviation) and inference statistics (correlation and one-way ANOVA) at a 5% level of significance. Findings Results revealed that the level of the job performance of library staff in Federal University Oye-Ekiti (FUOYE) is high; there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between the professional development of library staff and their performance in the job; professional development and training of library staff significantly impact their job performance; orientation, in-house training, seminars, on-the-job training and instructor-led training. Research limitations/implications The study was limited to the university libraries in the Federal University Oye Ekiti, Nigeria. The variables used in this study were restricted to training and development of library staff and job performance of librarians in FUOYE, and professional development programmes available for FUOYE librarians. Practical implications Other forms of professional development programmes such as Distance Educational Programmes, Conferences/Workshops, Study visits, Formal professional library education and TETFUND Programmes should be made available for university library staff. Universities should always organise staff professional development programmes; since it enhances the job performance of library staff. Originality/value This article is original and has not been published elsewhere.
... Hence, training can be defined as an organised process through which employees acquire new skills and knowledge which enables them to perform better in their current job function (Sthapit, 2018). Furthermore, training and development also acts as a tool that helps organisations assess and discover an employee's level of ability (Yazdanifard, 2013). Training allows organisations to gather a competitive advantage over their competitors in a marketplace. ...
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This study examined the impact of non-monetary factors (training, organisational support, promotion, job security, co-worker incivility and job rotation) on employee performance in Internet Service Provider (ISP) firms. The study used an inferential research approach to analyse the impact of independent variables on dependent variable. A standardised questionnaire was surveyed on a sample of 200 ISP employees from the Kathmandu Valley. The results demonstrate that job security and co-worker incivility have statistically significant effects on employee performance, but the rest of the independent variables do not. Based on finding, it is recommended that more the job security, more the employee performance in company and reduction of co-worker incivility around organisation environment will help boost employee confidence and performance. Along with this, this research also showed area for refurnishing other variables like available training, organisational support, promotion facility and application of job rotation for creating more impact of it on employee performance.
... Also staff qualifications positively influenced research output, this finding supports the finding of [23], that the staff qualifications could predict significantly the research output by the university staff. The finding is in consonance with work of [24] on the impact of employee training and development on employee productivity, they reported that training and development is vital to the productivity of organisation's workforce. ...
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Research plays significant role in developmental process of any nation of the world. This makes productivity-measured by research publications in research institutes, very crucial. In realization of the pivotal roles of research in development, Nigeria, like any other nations that want development made certain efforts towards transforming her economy from less developed to developing one. One of the efforts in making Nigeria developed is the establishment of research institutes in all the six geo-political zones in the country. This research Institute employs both male and female research scientists because it is a non-gender biased institution like the universities of learning. However, there are challenges that are peculiar to the married female workers. In view of this, this study focused on the influence of some married female research scientists' variables, which are their characteristics (age, household size, age of youngest child, age of oldest child, academic qualification, and years of experience in the institution, rank/grade level and financial stress) on productivity among married female research scientists in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. The survey research was conducted on 80 respondents selected from four research institute in Ibadan, Nigeria. The results revealed that all the variables jointly predicted the productivity of the married female research scientists. Notwithstanding only years of experience in the institute, academic qualification and financial stress contributed relatively to productivity. Thus the researchers recommend that academic qualifications and years of experience should be the key determinant of job designation, responsibility and tasks given to employee. Also there is the need for financial counseling and education in the workplace, to reduce financial stress among research scientists.
... If the offered educational and training courses meet these requirements in their creation and realisation, then they will also bring, besides the expected upgraded competence of their participants, different further benefits. Possible examples of these could be: more effective performance from the employees, improvement in the interpersonal and technical abilities of the employees, better preconditions of the employees for successful teamwork, and higher employee motivation and enthusiasm for the work [34]. Educational and training activities carried out by company within the company open a space for employees to become more efficient and successful in their jobs and for the company to become more competitive [35]. ...
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The paper deals with the topic of the further education of employees in the industrial sector. Even though Europe today has one of its most highly qualified cohorts of young graduates entering the labour market, approximately a quarter of European Union employees have significant professional skill deficits, their professional skills are much lower compared to those needed by an average worker to be fully proficient in their job. Companies must have employees who are able to quickly adapt to an ever-changing world market. That is why they need to invest in on-going employee training and development in order to both keep their employees and be successful. Academics from Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra have a long-term cooperation with the EATON company, a global leader in electrotechnical technologies. Within the framework of this cooperation, the university was asked by this company to assess courses which it offered to its own employees as well as employees of other companies from industrial production practices, and if appropriate to suggest an improved model of the tailor-made courses provided. The authors present a case study, the aim of which was to evaluate the effectiveness and the meeting of the objectives of the training carried out for the particular target groups of participants. They describe the methodology of the assessment carried out and the main findings resulting from it.
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A university's ability to remain competitive in a knowledge-driven world depends on the development of its teaching staff. Government and the private sector have invested in staff development in Nigerian and Pakistani universities. This article compares their staff development policies and practices as well as teachers' job performance. An expo-facto comparative research design was adopted. We found significant differences between universities' staff development policies and practices as well as lecturers' job performance in the two countries (F (3, 657) = 41.879, ρ =.000). The article recommends effective implementation of staff development policies (funding, selection, performance appraisal, and promotion) to enhance staff's skills and competencies and improve Nigerian universities' position in global rankings. La capacité d'une université à rester compétitive dans un monde axé sur la connaissance dépend du développement de son personnel enseignant. Le gouvernement et le secteur privé ont investi dans le développement du personnel dans les universités nigérianes et pakistanaises. Cet article compare leurs politiques et pratiques de développement du personnel ainsi que les performances professionnelles des enseignants. Un modèle de recherche expo-facto a été adopté et des différences significatives ont été constatées entre les politiques et pratiques de développement du personnel des universités et les performances professionnelles des enseignants dans les deux pays (F(3, 657) = 41,879, ρ = 0,000). L'article recommande une mise en oeuvre efficace ABOUT THE AUTHORS: omotayo adewale awodiji, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, nike y. s. ijaiya, des politiques de développement du personnel (financement, sélection, évaluation des performances et promotion) afin de renforcer les aptitudes et les compétences du personnel et d'améliorer la position des universités nigérianes dans les classements mondiaux.
The COVID-19 pandemic increased the risk of financial distress, bankruptcy, or both, in the airline industry. Whether airlines can survive or not during and/or after the pandemic is closely related to their decisions and actions which will enable their success by increasing their resilience. In crisis periods such as COVID-19, the decisions taken by airlines are strategically important for achieving sustainable success. Thus, it is critical to understand which factors are more important for airlines to shape their actions and make correct decisions. This paper investigates the sustainable success factors on which airlines should focus to provide resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. It provides a robust model using the interval type-2 fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (IT2FAHP) and interval type-2 fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (IT2FDEMATEL) to identify and rank success factors. The findings indicate that financial and operational factors are extremely important to ensure resilience for airlines. In addition, the results of the study reveal that operational factors and information sharing factors have an impact on financial factors and customer satisfaction.
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bstract: This study examines the impact of training on employee performance and satisfaction in the workplace, as well as the useful skills and understanding they gain after completing the training programme. It also investigates the use of training and development as a source of competitive advantage, as well as the challenges faced while conducting training in the organisation, in order to identify the elements that lead to an increase in an employee's skills, determine steps to improve the training programme for employees, and make recommendations to management on how to improve the training and development programme. The factors of training approaches, training styles, delivery and quality of training and development programmes, training curriculum, effectiveness of training in enhancing work performance, and trainer performance and encouragement were found to be extremely satisfied by employees. Training and development factors are associated and contribute to overall satisfaction with training and development procedures as well as employee satisfaction, according to the regression results. The regression analysis results back up the notion that the organization's training and development initiatives are linked to employee happiness. Keywords: employees’ performance, employees training and their satisfaction
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amidst the economic, social, and environmental disruption being faced due to the COVID-19 outbreak, SMEs are being challenged with how best to ensure business continuity. As a result, business continuity and global supply chain performance are disrupted. Due to the damage caused by the outbreak of the Coronavirus, if the economic, social, and environmental losses are not addressed quickly, and practical policies and strategies are not adopted, the damage will be exponential. This means that many SMEs will face many crises in the future. Good governance has significant potential for sustainability & continuity of operations of the business, modernizing SMEs, business model innovation, new business development, improving public service delivery, addressing complex development needs and promoting prosperity, and may help achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations. In this regard, smart governance to support business strategies remains an important driving force for this transition, especially in the face of international market pressures and global competition. And it offers incredible opportunities to innovate, strengthen and improve efficient practices and bring many benefits. In the meantime, the role of education is vital for sustainability. Education for sustainability leads to the accumulation of human capital in organizations by improving individual skills, abilities, and competencies. Companies that have better sustainability training have enjoyed more sustainable growth and development by using high-tech and knowledge-based products. In today’s increasingly complex social environments, many E-governance is working to ensure effective planning, implementation, and delivery of education policies. training in sustainable SMEs helps enthusiasts gain the necessary competence and skills to initiate sustainable enterprises. In fact, companies are no longer just legal in nature, and their main goal is not just profitability and accountability to shareholders. Companies have become citizens who are responsible for society and must become good corporate citizens. Innovative SMEs and their business ecosystems can be a major strength in achieving the goals of green technologies, the circular economy, as well as an innovation-enabling policy- and regulatory framework. Therefore, educational sustainability and transition to hybrid organizations are a necessity. In this paper, we are going to introduce a new concept which titled “Hybrid SMEs/SME 5.0 or Tomorrow’s SMEs” through the 5th wave theory towards mapping the future education with using the smart governance.
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The paper studies the effects of training on employee productivity. This paper provides a review of the current evidence of such a relationship and offers suggestions for further investigation. An extensive review of the literature in terms of research findings from studies that have been trying to measure and understand the impact that individual HR practices like training have on employee productivity across various sectors. The focal point of our review is on training practices and employee productivity and their relationship. In conclusion, we can say that taken as a whole, the research findings are varied. Some studies have found a positive association, some negative and some no association whatsoever. The paper concludes with directions for future research by applying different level of analysis on exploring the impact of training practices on employee productivity. Our comparison and analysis suggest that there definitely exist a relation between these two but the impact and effect of training practices on employee productivity varies for different industry.
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The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual study established on the employee training and development program and its benefits. This paper will inspect the structure and elements of employee training and development program and later the study present what are the positive outcomes for employees and organizations. Organizations find it difficult to stay competitive in recent global economy. Importance of employee development program is growing for the organizations those pursuing to receive an advantage among competitors. Employees are esteemed resource of the organization and success or failure of the organization relay on the performance of employees. Therefore, organizations are financing large amount on employee training and development programs. Furthermore, in training program it is supportive for companies to emphasis on knowledge, expertise and ability of employees. There is substantial discussion among professionals and researchers on the affect that development program has on both employee and organization. The study described here is a vigilant assessment of literature on fundamental of employee development program and its benefits to organizations and employees.
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Human resource development professionals serve many diverse populations of learners in the workplace. They do so with limited resources which leads to a dilemma: How to most effectively and efficiently meet the needs of all learners in the workplace, given the different job duties, backgrounds, skills and abilities of each learner. This empirical study examines job training satisfaction among customer and technical service employees in nine different organizations in the US and Canada. The study concluded that there were no differences in job training satisfaction when examined with dimensions of diversity such as age groups, gender and race/ethnicity. There were differences in job training satisfaction, however, when examined with job type, job status, and job tenure.
Employee retention is a critical aspect for every company regarding competitive advantage because human resource is the most critical asset of today's modern world. Other resources can be arranged effortlessly but to get efficient and retain talented human capital is the most difficult task. Therefore, organizations are now more focused towards employee retention. Organizations use different HR techniques for retention. Our main emphasis is on compensation packages after employee training and development practices for retention purposes. We will also see how a relaxed work environment will help in the retention of employees. For this purpose, we conducted this study in Lahore and collected data from corporate groups. The numbers of respondents in our study are 330. For analysis we used the structural equation modeling technique with the use of AMOS 18.0. In this study, we used compensation as the mediating variable between the training and retention of employees. Results reveal that retaining employee's long term, after their training and development has been completed, without increasing their compensations is not as favorable as when compensation is increased to reflect the completion ability to apply their field related skills and capabilities.
Why should an employer hire a former welfare client?What human resource management practices can help employers retain former welfare clients? This study addresses these questions against the backdrop of changes in welfare legislation in the United States that have lessened support to welfare clients and their families and emphasized movement into the workplace. We conducted a large-scale empirical study of the effectiveness of a wide range of HRM practices and found that higher wages, better financial and health benefits, and development opportunities were positively associated with job retention. Unexpectedly, supervisory training had no relationship to retention, and appraising supervisors on providing a supportive and inclusive work environment showed a negative relationship. We provide suggestions to employers for improving the job retention of former welfare recipients along with directions for additional research. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Contemporary management thinking embraces the organizational training theory that sustainable success rests, to a great extent, upon a systematic evaluation of training interventions. However, the evidence indicates that few organizations take adequate steps to assess and analyse the quality and outcomes of their training. The authors seek to develop the existing literature on training evaluation by proposing a new model, specific to management training, which might encourage more and better evaluation by practitioners. Their thesis is that training evaluation is best if it can be based on criteria derived from the objectives of the training and they draw on the management effectiveness literature to inform their proposed model. The study seeks to examine the effect of six evaluation levels – reactions, learning, job behaviour, job performance, organizational team performance and some wider, societal effects – in measuring training interventions with regard to the alterations to learning, transfer and organizational impact. The model was tested with data obtained from 190 middle managers employed by a large banking organization in Greece and the results suggest that there is considerable consistency in the evaluation framework specified. The paper discusses these results and draws conclusions about their practical implications. The study's limitations are considered and some future research needs identified.
This research investigated the effects of casual work arrangements on employee job satisfaction and commitment in a segment of the hospitality sector in Australia. The authors surveyed a total of 454 casual employees: they interviewed 42 employees in a sample of clubs within the top two hundred registered clubs in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and 384 employees returned questionnaires from a sample of different clubs. For the interviews, the authors selected eighteen clubs using nonproportionate stratified sampling, the strata being small, medium, and large. The team conducted systematic random sampling of the clubs within each stratum. Using nonprobability accidental sampling, they then selected individual interviewees at the clubs. For the questionnaire survey, the sampling procedure was identical, but the team selected eighteen different clubs. Questionnaires were administered to all two thousand employees at these eighteen clubs. Because of a low response rate to the survey, the authors questioned an accidental sample of twenty casual employees, who admitted to not responding, in order to see whether their responses differed from those of the participants. The responses were very similar. Key findings suggest that casual employees experience varying levels of commitment and satisfaction according to their perceptions of work context factors such as training, promotion, work scheduling, management practices, and social integration. The authors encourage employers in highly casualized enterprises to involve and empower their casual employees, provide continuous feedback as well as behaviorally based formal performance appraisals, address the issue of training opportunities and program content for casual workers, and consider ways of developing their career paths.
We use a panel of two digit manufacturing industries to examine the role of formal training programs in productivity growth and wage growth. We find evidence for positive and decreasing effects of on-the-job training (OJT) in human capital accumulation, and therefore productivity. We find however weak evidence that OJT affects wage growth, suggesting that the firm appropriates most of the benefits from OJT programs. Off-the-job training on the other hand has no effects on industrial productivity or wages. Copyright 2010 Oxford University Press 2009 All rights reserved, Oxford University Press.
An important human resource development (HRD) implication of the People's Republic of China's (PRC) rapidly expanding economy has been the emergence of a critical shortage of grey-collar workers (GCW). Although 'grey-collar' has been commonly used in the West to describe an aging population within the workforce, in China it refers to people who are neither white nor blue collar workers but technicians. The shortage of GCW constrains the PRC's economic and developmental sustainability, and has been recognized in central and provincial government initiatives to increase training and development of employees within these fields. While acknowledged as a policy and organizational problem, there has been no research investigating what organizations are doing to develop these employees. Drawing upon a survey of 310 semi-skilled and skilled employees in Beijing, our findings suggest that while the surveyed organizations are investing heavily in both on- and off-the-job training, employees' perceived value of such differs markedly according to age and position. The research has important implications for China's HRD strategy in suggesting links between training and other human resource management (HRM) functions are yet to be evidenced. Yes Yes