The effects of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training on flight attendants' safety attitudes

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A number of well-known incidents and accidents had led the aviation industry to introduce Crew Resource Management (CRM) training designed specifically for flight attendants, and joint (pilot and flight attendant) CRM training as a way to improve teamwork and communication. The development of these new CRM training programs during the 1990s highlighted the growing need for programs to be evaluated using research tools that had been validated for the flight attendant population. The FSAQ (Flight Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-Flight Attendants) was designed specifically to obtain safety attitude data from flight attendants working for an Asia-Pacific airline. Flight attendants volunteered to participate in a study before receiving CRM training (N=563) and again (N=526) after CRM training. Almost half (13) of the items from the 36-item FSAQ showed highly significant changes following CRM training. Years of experience, crew position, seniority, leadership roles, flight attendant crew size, and length of route flown were all predictive of safety attitudes. CRM training for flight attendants is a valuable tool for increasing positive teamwork behaviors between the flight attendant and pilot sub-groups. Joint training sessions, where flight attendants and pilots work together to find solutions to in-flight emergency scenarios, provide a particularly useful strategy in breaking down communication barriers between the two sub-groups.

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... This study intends to thoroughly analyze the professional skills required for air passenger personnel in the airline, navigation, and behind -the -behind services, as well as soft skills such as communication, team cooperation, and emergency response capabilities (Ford et al., 2014). Moreover, quantitative research methods build Flight attendants' professional competency evaluation index system (Zhang, 2021). ...
... (Kanki, 2019) Third, how to evaluate communication, teamwork, and emergency response capabilities? The work of flight attendants involves technical skills and requires a series of soft skills to ensure service quality and flight safety (Ford et al., 2014). Communication skills, team cooperation, and emergency response capabilities are particularly critical (Thamhain, 2013), and effective communication can ensure that passenger needs are met. ...
... Communication skills, team cooperation, and emergency response capabilities are particularly critical (Thamhain, 2013), and effective communication can ensure that passenger needs are met. Team cooperation helps improve work efficiency (Mearns & Connor, 2001), and emergency response ability is a key factor in dealing with emergencies (Ford et al., 2014). ...
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This study aims to build a comprehensive and scientific Chinese high-vocational airliner professional ability evaluation index system to solve the challenges and needs of the current evaluation system. Based on existing research, this study is based on the understanding and application of the theory of occupational ability evaluation, combined with the DACUM method to conduct initial occupational analysis, use of the Delphi method to integrate the feedback of experts in the field of flight attendants and refer to the successful experience of the relevant flight attendants' vocational capabilities. This study built a framework for the evaluation index system. First, through the optimization and adjustment of the two-round Delphi method, the evaluation index system was clarified, the layer analysis method (AHP) was used for quantitative analysis, the weight of each indicator was finally determined, and a hierarchical structure model was constructed. This study has established a practical evaluation index system for China Airlines' vocational professional capability, covering output services, navigation services, reactions, and other necessary capabilities and qualities, including 4 First-level indicators, 12 second-level indicators, And 51 Third-level indicators. The evaluation indicators constructed by the Institute provide a scientific reference framework for training the professional competency of flight attendants. This study provides substantial guidance for the flight attendant specialty's training content and training scheme in Chinese higher vocational education. Efficiency, reduce training costs, and provide scientific reference for the talent training of the entire flight attendant industry.
... Figure 1 provides a diagrammatic representation of the search strategy used. The 15 primary research studies were conducted in six countries: USA (n = 8) [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40], Europe (n = 2) [41,42], Australia (n = 2) [43,44], New Zealand (n = 1) [45], Israel (n = 1) [46] and United Kingdom (n = 1) [47]. Of these 15 articles, eight used quantitative method [33-35, 39, 42, 45-47], six qualitative methods [36-38, 41, 43, 44] and one-mixed methods [40]. ...
... Similarly, a New Zealand study found significant improvements on flight attendants' and cabin crews' understanding of each other's role and responsibilities, their roles in flight emergencies, and their perception of safety, following CRM training. These improvements were evaluated and measured using the Flight Safety Attitudes Questionnaire in the study [45]. The study also found that joint training sessions, where flight attendants and pilots work together to find solutions to in-flight emergency scenarios, provided a particularly useful strategy in breaking down communication barriers [45]. ...
... These improvements were evaluated and measured using the Flight Safety Attitudes Questionnaire in the study [45]. The study also found that joint training sessions, where flight attendants and pilots work together to find solutions to in-flight emergency scenarios, provided a particularly useful strategy in breaking down communication barriers [45]. A German study also found a significant improvement in teamwork-related attitudes and workers' situational awareness after the CRM training program [42]. ...
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Background A high reliability organization is an organization that has sustained almost error-free performance, despite operating in hazardous conditions where the consequences of errors could be catastrophic. A number of tools and initiatives have been used within High Reliability Organizations to learn from safety incidents, some of which have the potential to be adapted and used in health care. We conducted a systematic review to identify any learning tools deemed to be effective that could be adapted and used by multidisciplinary teams in healthcare following a patient safety incident. Methods This review followed the PRISMA-P reporting guidelines and was registered with the PROSPERO (CRD42017071528). A search of databases was carried out in January 2021, from the date of their commencement. Electronic databases include Web of Science, Science Direct, MEDLINE in Process Jan 1950-present, EMBASE Jan 1974-present, CINAHL 1982-present, PsycINFO 1967-present, Scopus and Google Scholar. We also searched the grey literature including reports from government agencies, relevant doctoral dissertations and conference proceedings. A customised data extraction form was used to capture pertinent information from included studies and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool to appraise on their quality. Results A total of 5,921 articles were identified, with 964 duplicate articles removed and 4932 excluded at the title (4055), abstract (510) and full text (367) stages. Twenty-five articles were included in the review. Learning tools identified included debriefing, simulation, Crew Resource Management and reporting systems to disseminate safety messages. Debriefing involved deconstructing incidents using reflective questions, whilst simulation training involved asking staff to relive the event again by performing the task(s) in a role-play scenario. Crew resource management is a set of training procedures that focus on communication, leadership, and decision making. Sophisticated Incident reporting systems provide valuable information on hazards and were widely recommended as a way of disseminating key safety messages following safety incidents. These learning tools were found to have a positive impact on learning if conducted soon after the incident with efficient facilitation. Conclusion Healthcare organizations should find ways to adapt the learning tools or initiatives used in high reliability organizations following safety incidents. It is challenging to recommend any specific one as all learning tools have shown considerable promise. However, the way these tools or initiatives are implemented is critical and so further work is needed to explore how to successfully embed them into health care organizations so that everyone at every level of the organization embraces them.
... Thus, research-based existing knowledge and application of safety methods are limited, while it must be noted that more industry guidance is available. The main results of this study, with human error preconditions in different areas, are similar to those identified and discussed in other subsystems, such as flight operations [15,16,21] or air traffic control [2,11,61]. In those primary subsystems, these issues are included in their safety management concepts, specifically in CRM and Team Resource Management (TRM) training frameworks. ...
... AR# 1, x 42), with some providing only a short synopsis over the situation (e.g. AR# 13,16). As a result, some accident and incident causes may have not been detected in the analysis and the findings cannot be considered as fully comprehensive. ...
Aviation is a complex socio-technical system with interconnected and interdependent subsystems, such as flight operations, air traffic control, aircraft maintenance and ground operations. However, safety and risk research has not paid, thus far, adequate attention to all subsystems, resulting in possibly undetected or underestimated risks. This study focuses on Ground Operations (GO) as a subsystem and analyses the role of human factors in ground operations related accidents and incidents. 87 accident and incident reports (from 2000 to 2020) were analysed in three stages, using the Human Factors Dirty Dozen (HF DD) Model and the Human Factors Analysis and Classification Scheme (HFACS) as a basis for the third stage, a systematic thematic analysis. The findings indicate that lack of situational awareness and failure to follow prescribed procedures are the main causal and contributing factors in GO-related accidents and incidents. Three operational actions were identified as most critical: aircraft pushback/towing, aircraft arrival and departure, and aircraft weight and balance. An agenda for future research and recommendations for industry corrective action are proposed.
... The aviation industry also spends a significant amount on new process development, such as crew resource management (CRM), where continuous improvement and transformation are implemented to increase the effectiveness of aviation training programs as it relates to human errors associated with flight operations and procedures (Helmreich and Merritt, 2000). CRM was designed to teach critical management procedures concerned with organized aviation systems for efficient use of all resources to support the safety and potency of flight operations (Ford et al., 2014). This program entails immense knowledge and IL skills such as communication skills, critical thinking, decision-making and emotional awareness (Salas et al., 2006). ...
... This program entails immense knowledge and IL skills such as communication skills, critical thinking, decision-making and emotional awareness (Salas et al., 2006). As an example, Airbus 320-214 operating as US Airways Flight 1549, pilot and crew who demonstrated their skillsets acquired through CRM after an engine thrust from a bird strike in 2009, explained how the team (under pressure) was able to overcome the unpredictable situation by following CRM guidelines to effectively and efficiently evacuate 150 passengers (Ford et al., 2014). ...
Purpose Accessibility to entrepreneurial education can be very restrictive because of associated barriers (e.g. add-on course/credit cost and prolonged duration) that prevent students from gaining entry into learning experiences. This study aims to provide an approach to address the gap of inaccessibility. This study proposes the integration of entrepreneurially minded coursework into aviation coursework using information literacy (IL) exercises by incorporating readings, videos, student-centered online discussions and student-facilitated presentations. Design/methodology/approach Students participated in an intervention consisting of five entrepreneurially minded online discussions where they watched a video or read an article and then responded to a series of questions. Upon completion of the intervention, participants completed a survey related to student learning outcomes and satisfaction. Findings The results from this study provide insight into changes in student perceptions after engaging in IL exercises designed to develop the entrepreneurial mindset. There is evidence that online discussions, journal article critiques and student-facilitated presentations are effective ways to integrate IL into aviation courses to cultivate entrepreneurial mindsets among students. Originality/value Several university-based approaches currently exist to help students develop an entrepreneurial mindset, including majors and minors in entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship coursework and centers for entrepreneurship that offer extracurricular learning experiences. Although these approaches offer a great foundation, they are typically viewed as “extra” with high barriers to entry. The limited focus on integration into coursework (whereby everyone gets an opportunity) prevents equitable access to a larger contingent of students. Therefore, in this study, we propose one approach to integrating the entrepreneurial mindset into coursework.
... Research results already presented evidence regarding supporting the effectiveness of OHS training on targeted OHS behaviours and attitudes of workers (e.g. Colligan and Cohen, 2004;Robson et al., 2012;Ford et al., 2014). There are high expectations regarding the transference of ST to the workplace since it involves the appropriate application of learned safety knowledge and skills to protect workers from existent or probable hazards. ...
... Moreover, different research, aimed at revealing OHS professionals' strategies to promote new organizational practices, identifies training as a strategy to influence the players' knowledge, behaviour and attitudes (e.g. Olsen, 2012;Ford et al., 2014). The OHS profession is still understudied yet it is rapidly expanding, posing new research challenges (e.g. ...
Safety training (ST) is essential for workplace safety and to be effective requires that the learned knowledge and skills are transferred to the job. Research on transfer mechanisms and its predictors has neglected trainers' influence, despite their privileged position on decisions related with training. This study is aimed at identifying: (1) trainers' perspectives on best practices for enhancing ST success; (2) unexplored transfer factors based on reported best practices; and (3) the trainers' sense of self-efficacy and personal responsibility regarding ST results. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with experienced and first-line safety trainers, all OHS professionals. Content analysis revealed that trainers attribute training success to factors related to trainees' individual characteristics, workplace environment and mainly to training design and delivery. OHS professionals' presence in the workplace emerged as a critical transference trigger suggesting future research to explore under what conditions that effect occurs. Participants reported feeling responsible for training results but revealed a low sense of control. These results confirm that trainers decide on training design and deliver but their role should be expanded so to support training application in the work context. For that purpose, companies must empower safety trainers for enhancing their control over the transfer process.
... À a large number of objects that must be managed, which forces the distribution of tasks between several services-inadequate coordination of their activities is often the cause of an air incident [68] À the crucial role of a human who, acting under conditions of a shortage of time or under stress, makes mistakes arising from shortcomings in training [24,25], sensory deficiencies, the inability to correctly process an excessive number of signals and information [1] À the large dynamics of events which make the time to work out a decision and to carry it out very short and the consequences of even small mistakes-huge À the variety of objects under management-aircraft, vehicles, or ground maintenance equipment. ...
... Building a model that represents possible causal event sequence scenarios that include technical, human and organisational factors is a huge task and requires a combination of detailed knowledge of all aspects of the system, the processing of huge amounts of data, a substantial mathematical background and the ability to capture all of this in a user-friendly software tool to be used by safety analysts [65,66]. Recently, Ford et al. [24,25] analysed some issues regarding the instrumentation and monitoring of surface movements to determine the symptoms of increased collision potential. Similar work on monitoring movements was conducted at Heathrow [29]. ...
... OHS training. Training is one of the most frequently chosen elements of prevention programs in businesses [132][133][134] and has a positive and concrete impact on OHS performance, largely by improving worker attitudes and behavior, raising awareness of hazards and health risks [135], developing knowledge in prevention and thereby increasing willingness and the effectiveness of employees involved in the program [136][137][138][139] and reducing the overall prevalence of occupational diseases [140]. ...
Unlike workplace accidents, occupational diseases are often underestimated and underreported since their effects appear gradually over time. They are even on the increase in the province of Quebec (Canada), especially in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), where they are less likely to receive medical attention. The aim of this four-stage study is therefore to describe how prevention of occupational disease is practiced in this type of business and identify a way forward to improve the protection of worker health and well-being in Quebec. The present article focuses on the first two stages, namely reviewing the literature to catalog the elements of prevention and identifying the most relevant elements. Stages 3 and 4, in which gathered field data on the application of these elements and analyzed their relative effectiveness using descriptive statistics, are reported in Part 2 [1]. Despite the limitations of this research method, we portray in detail the elements that appear to have the most influence on occupational disease prevention in small to medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, and thus identify the strengths and weaknesses of occupational health and safety performance in this setting.
... Mecheo (2016) adds that this can lead to lower productivity, innovation and performance within the organization. Ford et al. (2014) concluded that the issue of communication across ethnic teams raises questions about how clients and project managers may overcome such cultural and structural restrictions. Yang (2014) added that a lack of cultural tolerance and knowledge may lead to poor leadership, needless disputes and delays and even stereotyping. ...
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Prodigious teamwork is the basis for augmenting the level of productivity on construction projects. Globalisation of the construction market has meant that many practitioners work outside of their geographical spectrum however, the multicultural dissimilarities of construction workforces within the project management team (and how these may impact upon project productivity performance) have been given less consideration. To bridge the gap, this research analyses the effects of a multicultural workforce on construction productivity. The epistemological positioning of the research adopted mixed philosophies (consisting of both positivism and interpretivism) to undertake a deductive and cross-sectional survey to collate primary quantitative data collected via a closed-ended structured questionnaire. Non-probability sampling techniques (purposive and convenience) were adopted to target Ghana’s construction workforce and their opinions of the phenomenon under investigation. Out of 96 questionnaires administered, 61 were retrieved. The data obtained were analysed using mean score ranking, relative important index (RII), one sample t-test and multiple regression. The reliability of the scale was checked using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. From the t-test analysis, eleven (11) variables sourced from extant literature, the null hypothesis for the study was not rejected and all factors (except high cost of training and improper gender diversity management) were affirmed as negative effects of the multicultural workforce on construction productivity. Using multiple regression analysis, 6 independent variables viz (communication barriers, improper gender diversity management, poor teamwork propensities, poor wage segmentation, low morale and it leads to scapegoatism) were shown to impact upon productivity. The goodness of fit was verified by collinearity and residual analysis. The model's validation revealed a relatively high predictive accuracy (R2=.589), implying that the results could be generalized. In culmination, these findings suggest that the predictors can be used to accurately predict the effects of multicultural workforce on construction productivity performance. The findings indicate that multicultural workforce/teams have a substantial effect on overall construction productivity in the construction sector; consequently, stakeholders must address this issue to enhance productivity across the sector. The current study significantly contributes to our understanding of how multicultural workers/teams affect construction productivity in the construction business perspective and how to respond to the negative menace.
... Safety Attitude Questionnaire (Flight Attendant)-FSAQ is used as a data collection tool (Ford, Henderson & O'Hare, 2014). With 250 cabin attendants working in a corporate airline company, the data was collected from the same sample group first between December 2019 and February 2020 before COVID-19 and after the World Health Organization's global epidemic declaration in March 2020. ...
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In this study, the effect of COVID-19 on the aviation industry is discussed in terms of its effect on the attitudes of employees on Crew Resource Management (CRM). In addition, this study investigates whether there was a significant difference in CRM attitudes of cabin crew before COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 process. The findings of the study are essential for a safe flight operation. The COVID-19 process is the period that started with the World Health Organization’s global epidemic declaration in March 2020. In this study, with the participation of 250 cabin crew members working in a corporate airline company, the data obtained showed no significant difference between the CRM attitudes of cabin crews before COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 process.
... In addition, according to him, improve the safety of operations, they must include wider system issues as well as training at the individual and crew level. Also, Ford et al., (2014) found out that experience, team position, seniority, leadership role, team size and flight flow are the main determinants of flight candidates safety attitudes. Terzioğlu (2018), findings about the effect of crew resource management on flight safety culture showed that crew resource management statistically positive affected flight safety culture. ...
... Human error accounts for nearly 80% of all major Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 121 accidents (Marais & Robichaud, 2012). Much research has been done to address this problem, with most efforts focused on the cabin and cockpit environments (Bienefeld & Grote, 2014;Ford, Henderson, & O'Hare, 2014;Peksatici, 2018). However, human error extends beyond the internal environment of the aircraft. ...
... In high-consequence industries, culture ties to safety performance (Eurocontrol, 2008;Ford, Henderson, & O'Hare, 2014;Griffin & Neal, 2000;Patankar & Sabin, 2010;Wiegmann, Zhang, Von Thaden, Sharma, & Gibbons, 2004). Creating a safe culture in the workplace is intrinsic to safety performance. ...
... Indeed, some research points at considering important differences between self-categorization and social identification as being respectively the cognitive and affective components of social identity, which explain why they have different effects when manipulated (Ellemers, Kortekaas, & Ouwerkerk, 1999). Yet, we did not use a social identity priming paradigm (e.g., Ford, Henderson, & O'Hare, 2014) but rather a self-categorization one (closer to Reynolds et al., 2001), which would explain this absence of moderating effect along with the absence of significant main effect of priming upon identification with the national ingroup in a properly randomized setting (see study 2). ...
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Common ingroup categorization reduces outgroup prejudice. This link is moderated by distinctiveness motives (i.e., individuals perceiving this identity as too inclusive). Yet, Optimal Distinctiveness Theory states that both distinctiveness and belonging motives shape intergroup attitudes. For the first time we tested the hypothesis that belonging and distinctiveness motives jointly moderate common ingroup categorization effects. Using a flag-priming paradigm, two studies showed that, when national ingroup identity was salient, only belonging motives predicted positive attitudes towards outgroups (Study1: Syrians in Turkey, N = 184; Study 2: Maghrebis in France N = 151). This was corroborated by sensitivity analyses on aggregated data (N = 335). These results suggest that national identification may lead to positive outgroup attitudes for individuals who derive belonging from it.
... Door de positieve effecten van de CRM-training wordt deze momenteel verplicht in de opleiding en bijscholing van piloten in Europa en de VS (Haerkens, Jenkins, & van der Hoeven, 2012). Mede door het invoeren van CRM-trainingen is de luchtvaart, na de lift in gebouwen, geëvolueerd naar het veiligste transportmiddel op aarde en naar een high reliability organisatie (Ford, Henderson, & O'Hare, 2014;O'Reilly, 2010). De gezondheidszorg heeft op verschillende vlakken gelijkenissen met de luchtvaart. ...
... A modellt számos területen adaptálták az elmúlt időszakban: a felsőoktatási tanulási eredmények értékelésére (Praslova, 2010;Rajeev et al., 2009) éppúgy használják, mint a tanárképzés (Shankar, 2007), és az orvosi képzések (Roos et al., 2014;Dunne et al., 2015) esetében, de akár olyan szakmai képzések hatékonyságának mérésére is alkalmazzák, mint a légiközlekedéshez kapcsolódó személyzetfejlesztés (Samad, 2014;Ford et al., 2014;Olšovská et al., 2016 On Investment) rendszer -ma ismert -kialakításához. A Phillips-modell a korábbi Kirkpatrick-elméletből származik, és attól abban tér el, hogy itt már egy ötödik szintet is meghatároznak. ...
Az eltérő szervezeti környezetben (vállalatok és intézmények) folyó képzések és különösen a tréningek hatékonyságának értékelése régóta fennálló problémakör, amelyre a vezetők és HR-szakemberek hosszú idő óta keresik a megfelelő eszközöket és módszereket. A szerzők cikkükben bemutatják a 2016-ban több mint 400 magyarországi szervezet közreműködésével (vállalatnál és intézménynél) végzett felmérésük tapasztalatait, majd ezeket összevetik a 2004-2005, 2008-2010 és 2015-16. évben folytatott, nemzetközi, úgynevezett Cranet-felmérés során kapott válaszokkal. Empirikus vizsgálatuk alapján következtetéseket vonnak le a magyarországi szervezeteknél folyó képzések és tréningek jellemzőiről és az ott alkalmazott hatékonyságmérési módszerekről.
... ─ duża liczba obiektów, którymi należy zarządzać, co wymusza rozłożenie zadań między kilkoma służbami -niewystarczająca koordynacja ich działalności jest często przyczyną incydentu lotniczego [316], ─ kluczowa rola człowieka, który działając w warunkach niedoboru czasu lub stresu, popełnia błędy wynikające z braków wyszkolenia [84], niedoborów sensorycznych, niezdolności do prawidłowego przetwarzania nadmiernej liczby sygnałów i informacji [1], ─ duża dynamika sytuacji ruchowych, które sprawiają, że czas na wypracowanie decyzji i jej wykonanie jest bardzo krótki, a konsekwencje nawet małych błędów -ogromne, ─ różnorodność zarządzanych obiektów -statków powietrznych, pojazdów samochodowych lub sprzętu do konserwacji naziemnej. ...
Transport lotniczy od wielu lat jest najbezpieczniejszym środkiem transportu. Świadczą o tym obiektywne dane statystyczne. Jednocześnie wiele osób obawia się o bezpieczeństwo podczas podróży lotniczej. Zapewne największy wpływ na to ma fakt, że wypadki lotnicze, jako że często niosą ze sobą jednorazowo dużą liczbę ofiar, są przedmiotem globalnego zainteresowania opinii publicznej i są szczegółowo relacjonowane przez media na całym świecie. Jednak zainteresowanie to ustanowiło pewien rodzaj praktyki, trwającej już od wielu lat, która niezmiernie przyczyniła się do poprawy bezpieczeństwa. Polega ona na tym, że żaden wypadek nie jest pozostawiany bez wyjaśnienia. Przeciwnie, jest dogłębnie analizowany, poszukiwane są jego przyczyny i wyciągane są wnioski na przyszłość. Myślą przewodnią monografii było przedstawienie współczesnych metod ilościowej analizy zdarzeń w transporcie lotniczym. Zaliczają się do nich zarówno metody klasyczne, które po dostosowaniu do stanu obecnej wiedzy są cały czas z powodzeniem stosowane, jak i metody całkiem nowe, w tym kilka autorskich opracowanych w ramach badań autora. W części wstępnej scharakteryzowano system zapewniania bezpieczeństwa w ruchu lotniczym, zaproponowano nowe spojrzenie na problematykę analiz bezpieczeństwa, traktowanego bardziej jako ograniczenie niż cel działań w procesie zarządzania ruchem. Następnie omówiono znaczenie analiz zdarzeń lotniczych jako narzędzia poprawy bezpieczeństwa transportu. Ważną rolę przypisano poważnym incydentom lotniczym, których analiza może mieć kluczowe znaczenie w planowaniu proaktywnych działań zmierzających do poprawy bezpieczeństwa transportu lotniczego. W drugiej części przedstawiono teoretyczne podstawy nowych metod ilościowej analizy zdarzeń, niezbędne do zrozumienia ich istoty oraz możliwości stosowania. Omówiono także problematykę analizy ryzyka z uwypukleniem stosowanych modeli i metod jego szacowania. W części tej przestawiono również modele przyczynowe, częściowo znane od dawna, gdyż stosowane do analizy przyczyn wypadków lotniczych. Tutaj jednak zostały przedstawione w odniesieniu do analizy incydentów i to w ujęciu proaktywnym, będącym osią całej monografii. Przegląd tych metod uzupełniono o kilka nowszych, dopiero zdobywających popularność. Można się spodziewać, że niedługo także one znajdą się w głównym nurcie, ponieważ wykorzystują najnowsze zdobycze teorii bezpieczeństwa złożonych systemów antropotechnicznych. Przegląd istniejących metod analizy zdarzeń lotniczych, powiązany ze stwierdzoną potrzebą zmiany podejścia do tej analizy – z poszukiwania ich przyczyn, na badanie możliwych scenariuszy ich przekształcenia się w wypadek, a także koniecznością uwzględniania w większym stopniu niepewności związanej z działaniami człowieka, stał się podstawą do stworzenia nowych metod i narzędzi do ilościowej analizy zdarzeń służących dalszej poprawie bezpieczeństwa w transporcie lotniczym. Są to autorskie metody: FMRE – oceny ryzyka z wykorzystaniem rozmytej macierzy ryzyka, MIATA – metoda analizy zależności między poważnym incydentem a wypadkiem w ruchu lotniczym, ETFP – metoda drzew zdarzeń z rozmytymi prawdopodobieństwami oraz MGDU – metoda wielokryterialnego grupowego podejmowania decyzji w warunkach niepewności. Metody te bazują na kilku filarach. Pierwszym z nich jest wykorzystanie sieci Petriego. Z jednej strony do modelowania ruchu lotniczego z uwzględnieniem zjawisk losowych. Z drugiej strony do prowadzenia formalnych analiz przyczyn i konsekwencji poważnych incydentów lotniczych, a także do analizy procedur związanych z zapewnieniem bezpieczeństwa. Drugim filarem jest wykorzystanie logiki rozmytej do modelowania niepewności, bardzo silnie obecnej w systemie zapewniania bezpieczeństwa w transporcie lotniczym – poprzez znaczącą rolę człowieka w podejmowaniu decyzji. Trzecim filarem jest wykorzystanie techniki symulacji dyskretnej do badania modeli, które są podstawą prezentowanych nowych metod. Czwartym zaś, metody wielokryterialnego, grupowego podejmowania decyzji, które są stosowane głównie na poziomie organizacji i zarządzania systemem zapewniania bezpieczeństwa w transporcie lotniczym. Ważną częścią monografii jest prezentacja przykładów możliwych zastosowań przedstawionych nowych metod. Przez całą monografię przewijają się przykłady czterech poważnych incydentów w ruchu lotniskowym. Są one analizowane pod różnymi kątami z wykorzystaniem nowych metod, co pozwala pokazać komplementarność tych metod, pozwalającą na zrozumienie szerokiego spektrum zagadnień mieszczących się w pojęciu incydent w ruchu lotniczym. A wszystko to w ujęciu ilościowym, pozwalającym na bardziej efektywne wykorzystanie zasobów przy planowaniu działań profilaktycznych zmierzających do zwiększenia poziomu bezpieczeństwa w transporcie lotniczym.
... For example, Cox and Cox designed an effective method to survey a gas company's employees according to the objects of safety attitude [8]. Moreover, in the aviation field, Ford et al. designed a scale containing four dimensions to measure the safety attitude of flight attendants [9]. In the medical field, Haerkens et al. designed a six-dimension scale for measuring safety attitude, which included teamwork climate, job satisfaction and pressure recognition [10]. ...
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Safety attitude is of vital importance to accident prevention, and the high accident rate in the coal mining industry makes it urgent to undertake research on coal miners' safety attitude. However, the current literature still lacks a valid and reliable safety attitude measurement scale for coal miners, which stands as a barrier against their safety attitude improvement. In this study, a scale is developed that can be used to measure coal miners' safety attitude. The preliminary scale was based on an extended literature review. Empirical data were then collected from 725 coal miners using the preliminary scale. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were undertaken to validate and improve the scale. The final scale, which consists of 17 items, contains four dimensions: management safety commitment, team safety climate, fatalism and work pressure. Results show that this safety attitude scale can effectively measure the safety attitude of coal miners, showing high psychological measurement validity. This paper contributes to the occupational safety research by developing the factor structure and indicator system of coal miners' safety attitude, thus providing more profound interpretation of this crucial construct in the safety research domain. The measurement scale serves as an important tool for safety attitude benchmarking among different coal mining enterprises and, thus, can boost the overall safety improvement of the whole industry. These findings can facilitate improvement of both theories and practices related to occupational safety attitude.
... Door de positieve effecten van de CRM-training wordt deze momenteel verplicht in de opleiding en bijscholing van piloten in Europa en de VS [43]. Mede door het invoeren van CRMtrainingen is de luchtvaart -na de lift in gebouwen-geëvolueerd naar het veiligste transportmiddel op aarde en naar een 'high reliability' organisatie [27,44]. Het transfereren van onderzoeksresultaten uit de luchtvaart naar de gezondheidszorg vraagt echter enige voorzichtigheid. ...
... Door de positieve effecten van de CRM-training wordt deze momenteel verplicht in de opleiding en bijscholing van piloten in Europa en de VS (86). Mede door het invoeren van CRM-trainingen is de luchtvaart -na de lift in gebouwen -geëvolueerd naar het veiligste transportmiddel op aarde en naar een "high reliability" organisatie (97,106). Het overbrengen van onderzoeksresultaten uit de luchtvaart naar de gezondheidszorg vraagt evenwel enige voorzichtigheid. ...
Het rapport „To Err is Human” van het Institute of Medicine toonde aan dat tussen 44.000 en 98.000 patiënten jaarlijks overlijden in Amerikaanse ziekenhuizen door mogelijk vermijdbare incidenten. Geëxtrapoleerd zijn dit voor België 1.500 vermijdbare overlijdens per jaar. Een belangrijk deel hiervan kan toegeschreven worden aan suboptimale niet-technische vaardigheden van zorgverleners. Het doel van dit literatuuroverzicht is het inventariseren van de literatuur over de relatie tussen niet-technische vaardigheden en patiëntveiligheid, en methoden om deze vaardigheden te beoordelen en te trainen. Databanken die werden gebruikt waren Medline Database, Web-of-Knowledge, ScienceDirect en SpringerLink. Gebruikte zoektermen waren: „nontechnical”, „teamwork”, „human factor”, „error”, „safety”, „adverse event” of combinaties hiervan. Abstracts en titels van artikels werden gescreend en nagegaan op relevantie. Verder werd de sneeuwbalmethode toegepast en werden relevante en recente handboeken van toonaangevende onderzoekers over niet-technische vaardigheden geraadpleegd. De niet-technische vaardigheden van zorgverleners kunnen worden onderverdeeld in zeven categorieën: communicatie, leiderschap, teamwerk, situatiebewustzijn, besluitvorming, omgaan met vermoeidheid en het managen van stress. Wereldwijd lijkt de belangstelling voor onderzoek naar niet-technische vaardigheden en de impact ervan op patiëntveiligheid toe te nemen. Ondanks het bestaan van interventies ter preventie van vermijdbare adverse events, resulteerden deze tot op heden nog onvoldoende in een veiligere patiëntenzorg. Het identificeren, beoordelen en trainen van niet-technische vaardigheden is een belangrijke eerste stap in de richting van meer patiëntveilige zorg.
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Safety attitude reflects employee beliefs and feelings about safety policies and measures. Safety attitudes have a significant influence on employee safety behaviour. Flight attendants play a vital role in in-flight safety and services. It is known that most fatal accidents involving commercial aircraft are caused by failures in communication and teamwork among flight attendants. This study aims to find out whether there is a differentiation between men and women in airline flight crew in-flight safety attitudes. In the study, the flight safety attitude questionnaire which was developed by Ford et al. (2014) was used. The questionnaire was applied to 58 volunteer flight attendants in the study. Significant differences between the two categorical variables in-flight safety attitudes were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test which is one of the non-parametric tests. According to the results of the analysis, it was determined that the flight safety attitudes of men were higher than the flight safety attitudes of women. The research will contribute to the literature as it is a study conducted in Turkey on safety attitudes.
Cabin crews are crucial to the overall safety of the airline industry; they may enhance air travel safety and are directly responsible for alleviating passenger concerns. The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between proactive personality, safety attitude, safety climate, and safety behaviors among flight attendants. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data from 547 flight attendants, all of whom work for China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results show that proactive personality has an indirect effect on safety behaviors through the influencing of safety attitude. It is also suggested that a positive safety climate weakens the effect of proactive personality on safety behaviors. The study's findings with regard to managerial implications are provided and discussed along with potential future research directions.
The study surveyed 919 Chinese student pilots with 20 national culture questions. The researcher uses 5 questions to measure one national culture variables including Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, and Uncertainty Avoidance. The study performance a principle factor analysis (PCA) to the questionnaires and found that environment setting was essential to abstracted factors from national culture survey. The Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO) of this study was 0.85. A Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (Bartlett’s test) was χ2(n = 919) = 4975.077 and P value 0.001. The study founding echoed with Harari and Perkins who suggested that a culture system is different within different environments [1]. The result of PCA showed the survey could extract 4 latent factors, and the cumulative variance of the PCA indicated that the survey questions only explained 50% of the variances. The abstracted factors were reflecting large group environment, cockpit environment, general society expectation, and self-esteem.
Conference Paper
The frequency of adverse events in rail traffic control system has been linked to the quality of teamwork and communication. With the automation developed, non-technical skills (NTS) underpin technical ability of railway drivers and are critical to the success of operations and the safety in the railway system. Developing suitable NTS evaluation system of railway drivers may play a role in reducing human errors in railway. In this study, four important NTS were selected to describe behaviors of railway driver in automation conditions: situation awareness, decision-making, communication and self-management. Consultation with experts and task analysis led to modifications reflecting the complexities of the railway drivers, particularly the coexistence of three post (driver, dispatcher and integrated controller). The scale was then developed using questionnaire and principle component analysis (PCA) method, and structural equation model (SEM) used to assess the reliability and validity of the NTS scale. The model can provide a certain basis for the evaluation, selection and training for railway drivers, enhance the NTS and ensure the safety of railway system.
In high-reliability industries that are dedicated to ensuring safety, safety event reporting is the cornerstone of improvement. However, human factors can interfere with consistent reporting. Common human factors that are barriers to safety event reporting include liability concerns; time constraints; physician autonomy; self-regulation; collegiality; the lack of listening, language training, and/or feedback regarding reported events; unclear responsibilities within safety teams; and a high reporting threshold. Other barriers include fears of challenging authority, being disrespected, retribution, and the creation of a difficult work environment. These factors are reviewed in the health care setting, and the countermeasures that need to be introduced at the frontline employee, leadership employee (physicians and managers), and departmental and organizational levels to create a culture of safety in which all employees feel comfortable raising safety concerns are discussed.
Ensuring the safety of patients and staff is a core effort of all health care organizations. Many regulatory agencies, from The Joint Commission to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, provide policies and guidelines, with relevant metrics to be achieved. Data on safety can be obtained through a variety of mechanisms, including gemba walks, team discussion during safety huddles, audits, and individual employee entries in safety reporting systems. Data can be organized on a scorecard that provides an at-a-glance view of progress and early warning signs of practice drift. In this article, relevant policies are outlined, and instruction on how to achieve compliance with national patient safety goals and regulations that ensure staff safety and Joint Commission ever-readiness are described. Additional critical components of a safety program, such as department commitment, a just culture, and human factors engineering, are discussed. ©RSNA, 2018.
Conference Paper
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This scoping review examined the extant published research on teamwork training interventions in order to provide a comprehensive map of this literature. Data from 183 primary articles (involving 187 total studies) that met eligibility criteria were retrieved and summarized with regard to year of publication, field of study, study design, team type, method of intervention, data analysis method, and criteria for evaluating effectiveness. Furthermore, 19 review papers were charted with regard to year of publication, type of review conducted, and data analysis method. In addition to providing a map of teamwork intervention research to date, this review also identifies notable research gaps as well as opportunities for future study that could advance the field beyond its current state (e.g., the need for more controlled intervention studies, examining teamwork training across a greater range of team contexts, testing for mediation to determine the mechanisms through which teamwork training enhance team effectiveness).
Purpose To investigate barriers to reporting safety concerns in an academic radiology department and to evaluate the role of human factors, including authority gradients, as potential barriers to safety concern reporting. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, an online questionnaire link was emailed four times to all radiology department staff members (n = 648) at a tertiary care institution. Survey questions included frequency of speaking up about safety concerns, perceived barriers to speaking up, and the annual number of safety concerns that respondents were unsuccessful in reporting. Respondents' sex, role in the department, and length of employment were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher exact test. Results The survey was completed by 363 of the 648 employees (56%). Of those 363 employees, 182 (50%) reported always speaking up about safety concerns, 134 (37%) reported speaking up most of the time, 36 (10%) reported speaking up sometimes, seven (2%) reported rarely speaking up, and four (1%) reported never speaking up. Thus, 50% of employees spoke up about safety concerns less than 100% of the time. The most frequently reported barriers to speaking up included high reporting threshold (69%), reluctance to challenge someone in authority (67%), fear of disrespect (53%), and lack of listening (52%). Conclusion Of employees in a large academic radiology department, 50% do not attain 100% reporting of safety events. The most common human barriers to speaking up are high reporting threshold, reluctance to challenge authority, fear of disrespect, and lack of listening, which suggests that existing authority gradients interfere with full reporting of safety concerns.
The concept of crew resource management (CRM) is getting increasingly applied in sectors other than aviation industry, such as in emergency dispatch centres. However, the acceptance and effectiveness of such trainings, which are partly transferred unreflectedly to new target groups, rarely gets evaluated. The present study deals with the question of how the employees of emergency dispatch centres evaluate the currently used training sessions. In a detailed research, the essential theoretical foundations on the field of investigation were developed. During a "post ex test", 95 employees from emergency dispatch centres in the DACH-area and South Tyrol were interviewed, using a fully standardized survey. The CRM-based trainings were evaluated positively by the participants, regardless of their age or their professional experience. The inadequate integration of aspects of problem-based learning and the lack of simulations during the training sessions were viewed critically. Considering the current conditions in this sector, further research should lead to a systematic approach for capturing and evaluating all currently applied concepts of CRM.
It has been focused on that the major reasons of aircraft accidents resulted not from human error but from the failure of teamwork or communication in 1980`s. Such opinions were suggested in the workshop, so called, "Resource Management on the Flight Deck" by NASA in 1979. The researchers agreed the fact the source of human error was originated from the failure in teamwork, communication or even in leadership of captain. Due to the rapid development of aircraft technologies, the reasons for aircraft accident could be easily found out. According to the analysis results of the technology, most of reasons for the accident might directly be connected not to human error or stick-Rudder skill but to situational awareness, communication, leadership or decision making in the aircraft. This paper has tried to research empirically the satisfaction of flight crews who have gone thorugh CRM training in the commercial airline. Based on the quantitative scale by J. Ford et al. (2014), this paper has proved which characteristics of CRM training has a positive impact on the overall satisfaction of CRM training. It was proven that the teamwork and decision making programs among CRM training have a major effect to the satisfaction level of flight crews.
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Failures of communication and teamwork between cabin crew and flight deck crew have been implicated in a number of fatal accidents involving commercial aircraft. This study was designed to identify perceived barriers to effective teamwork and communication between pilots and flight attendants in airline operations. The nominal group technique (NGT) was used to gather data from 18 flight attendant focus groups involving 100 flight attendants operating on both narrow-bodied and wide-bodied jet aircraft from a major air carrier. The NGT focus group methodology generated both barriers and solutions to communication from the flight attendant perspective in the following key areas: the locked flight deck door and interphone protocols; “sterile cockpit” standard operating procedures (SOPs); preflight briefings; knowledge of basic aircraft terminology; debriefings after incidents; and contractual differences in hotels, meals, and allowances. An emphasis on joint crew resource management (CRM) training between pilots and flight attendants provides the most appropriate way to address these perceived barriers. The solutions generated should be written into CRM and emergency procedures (EP) course content. Training opportunities should be provided to allow both flight deck and cabin crew a better understanding of the other's role and workload patterns.
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Empirical studies of crew resource management (CRM) training effectiveness were subjected to meta-analysis. Sixteen CRM evaluation studies were found to fulfill the a priori criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The metrics of CRM training effectiveness analyzed were reactions, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. CRM-trained participants responded positively to CRM (a mean of 4 on a 5—point Likert scale). The training had large effects on the participants' attitudes and behaviors and a medium effect on their knowledge. The findings from the meta-analysis are encouraging for the effectiveness of CRM training. However, there is a need for researchers and reviewers to be more rigorous about the data included in research reporting CRM evaluation to allow effect sizes to be calculated.
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The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a manipulation derived from social categorization and social identity theory to promote greater cabin crew willingness to engage in intergroup communication and teamwork in airline operations. Failures of communication and teamwork between airline crew have been implicated in a number of airline crashes. Flight attendants based domestically (n = 254) or overseas (n = 230) received a manipulation designed to prime either their social identity or personal identity and then read a brief outline of an in-flight event before completing a teamwork questionnaire. Flight attendants who received a social identity prime indicated increased willingness to engage in coordinated team action compared with those who received a personal identity prime. Priming social identity can enhance attitudes toward teamwork and communication, potentially leading to increased willingness to engage in intergroup cooperation. Social categorization and social identity theories can be used to inform joint training program development for flight attendants and pilots to create increased willingness for group members to participate in effective communication and teamwork behaviors.
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Several accidents have shown that crew members’ failure to speak up can have devastating consequences. Despite decades of crew resource management (CRM) training, this problem persists and still poses a risk to flight safety. To resolve this issue, we need to better understand why crew members choose silence over speaking up. We explored past speaking up behavior and the reasons for silence in 1,751 crew members, who reported to have remained silent in half of all speaking up episodes they had experienced. Silence was highest for first officers and pursers, followed by flight attendants, and lowest for captains. Reasons for silence mainly concerned fears of damaging relationships, of punishment, or operational pressures. We discuss significant group differences in the frequencies and reasons for silence and suggest customized interventions to specifically and effectively foster speaking up.
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Recurrent training of cabin crew should include theoretical and practical instruction on safety as well as crew resource management (CRM) issues. The endeavors of Swiss International Air Lines Ltd. and Swiss Aviation Training Ltd. to integrate CRM and safety aspects into a single training module were evaluated. The objective of the integration was to make CRM more tangible and ease acquisition of competencies and transfer of CRM training content to practice by showing its relevance in relation to safety tasks. It was of interest whether the integrated design would be mirrored in a more favorable perception by the trainees as measured with a questionnaire. Participants reacted more positively to the integrated training than to stand-alone CRM training, although the integrated training was judged as being slightly more difficult and less oriented toward instructional design principles. In a range of forced-choice questions, the majority of participants opted for an integrated training format because it was seen as livelier and more interesting and also more practically relevant. For the forthcoming training cycle, a better alignment of training with instructional principles and an even higher degree of training integration by using simulator scenarios are striven for. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study aims to gain insight in the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model by examining whether daily fluctuations in colleague support (i.e., a typical job resource) predict day-levels of job performance through self-efficacy and work engagement. Forty-four flight attendants filled in a questionnaire and a diary booklet before and after consecutive flights to three intercontinental destinations. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that colleague support had unique positive effects on self-efficacy and work engagement. Self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between support and engagement, but work engagement mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and (in-role and extra-role) performance. In addition, colleague support had an indirect effect on in-role performance through work engagement. These findings shed light on the motivational process as outlined in the JD-R model, and suggest that colleague support is an important job resource for flight attendants helping them reach their work-related goals.
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The question "Is cockpit resource management effective?" has been asked frequently in the years since 1979 when a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Industry workshop addressed the concepts of crew coordination and effective utilization of all available resources in flight operations (Cooper, White, & Lauber, 1980). If one looks at the proliferation of cockpit resource management (CRM) training programs in domestic and foreign, civil and military aviation, and the enormous investment in time and money that they entail, it would appear that the question has been answered in the affirmative. It is our position, however, that the question remains open and that empirical evidence is just beginning to accumulate.
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In a previous article (Chute & Wiener, 1995), we explored the coordination between the "two cultures" in an airliner's crew: cockpit and cabin. In this article, we discuss a particular problem: the dilemma facing the cabin crew when they feel that they have safety-critical information and must decide whether to take it to the cockpit. We explore the reasons for the reluctance of the flight attendant to come forward with the information, such as self-doubt about the accuracy or importance of the information, fear of dismissal or rebuke by the pilots, and misunderstanding of the sterile cockpit rule. Insight into crew attitudes was based on our examination of accident and incident reports and data from questionnaires submitted by pilots and flight attendants at two airlines. The results show confusion and disagreement about what is permissible to take to the cockpit when it is sterile, as well as imbalances in authority and operational knowledge. Possible remedies are proposed.
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Several dramatic accidents have emphasized certain deficiencies in cockpit-cabin coordination and communication. There are historical, organizational, environmental, psychosocial, and regulatory factors that have led to misunderstandings, problematic attitudes, and suboptimal interactions between the cockpit and cabin crews. Our research indicates the basic problem is that these two crews represent two distinct and separate cultures and that this separation serves to inhibit satisfactory teamwork. A survey was conducted at two airlines to measure attitudes of cockpit and cabin crews concerning the effectiveness of their communications. This article includes recommendations for the improvement of communications across the two cultures.
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The aviation community has invested great amounts of money and effort into crew resource management (CRM) training. Using D. L. Kirkpatrick's (1976) framework for evaluating training, we reviewed 58 published accounts of CRM training to determine its effectiveness within aviation. Results indicated that CRM training generally produced positive reactions, enhanced learning, and promoted desired behavioral changes. However, we cannot ascertain whether CRM has an effect on an organization's bottom line (i.e., safety). We discuss the state of the literature with regard to evaluation of CRM training programs and, as a result, call for the need to conduct systematic, multilevel evaluation efforts that will show the true effectiveness of CRM training. As many evaluations do not collect data across levels (as suggested by D. L. Kirkpatrick, 1976, and by G. M. Alliger, S. I. Tannenbaum, W. Bennett, Jr., & H. Traver, 1997), the impact of CRM cannot be truly determined; thus more and better evaluations are needed and should be demanded.
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This review provides the state of crew resource management (CRM) training evaluations since the E. Salas, C. S. Burke, C. A. Bowers, and K. A. Wilson (2001) review and extends it to areas beyond aviation cockpits. Some critical evaluation needs in CRM training are also covered. Because of the purported success of CRM training in aviation, other high-consequence domains have begun to implement CRM training for their workforces. However, the true impact of CRM training in aviation and these other domains has yet to be determined. Using D. L. Kirkpatrick's (1976) framework for evaluating training (i.e., reactions, learning, behavior, and organizational impact), we reviewed 28 published accounts of CRM training to determine its effectiveness within aviation, medicine, offshore oil production and maintenance, shipping/maritime, and nuclear power domains. Findings indicate that CRM training generally produced positive reactions from trainees; however, the impact of training on learning and behavioral changes suggest mixed results across and within domains. Furthermore, and as was found by Salas, Burke, et al. in 2001, we cannot ascertain whether CRM has had an impact on the organization's bottom line (i.e., safety). Based on the results, there are several critical needs that the CRM training community must address before CRM training can have the desired impact on safety: a mandate, access to data, and resources. As CRM training expands to organizations beyond aviation, it is critical that its impact be understood such that it can be improved and achieve the intended results.
Transfer of Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training is an important issue when determining the effectiveness of CRM, but factors influencing transfer after training such as supervisor support cannot be easily controlled in the daily work of airline crews. In this study, a comic-based transfer support tool for flight attendants was designed and tested. Nineteen flight attendants received four comics depicting realistic CRM-related incidents following their initial CRM training in regular intervals. The impact of comics on attitudes, knowledge, behavior, self-efficacy (SE), and retrospective perceived usefulness of training was measured and compared against a control group (n = 22). The comic group showed higher values in SE and retrospective usefulness, but lower values in mean attitude toward CRM. Results for knowledge and behavior were not significant. Correlation analyses showed that number of comics read was associated with higher SE, higher values in retrospective usefulness and assertive behavior, better knowledge about the aim of CRM and lower values in attitude toward situation awareness. Comics thus had a positive impact on SE, but higher SE might have caused a shift towards riskier attitudes (Krueger Jr. & Dickson, 1994). Further research is needed to determine the effect of comics on transfer of knowledge and behavior.
Measured attitudes regarding cockpit management were contrasted for pilots whose line flying performance was independently evaluated by Check Airmen as above or below average. A highly significant discriminant function was obtained indicating that these attitudes are significant predictors of behavior. The performance of 95.7% of the pilots was correctly classified by the analysis. Implications of the results for cockpit resource management training and pilot selection are discussed.
Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.
A revised version of the Cockpit Management Attitudes Questionnaire (CMAQ) is introduced. Factor analyses of responses from 3 different samples reveal comparable factor structure (previous attempts to factor analyze this measure had produced equivocal results). Implications for the measurement of attitudes and the assessment of attitude change are discussed. It is argued that the CMAQ will benefit both special training programs and efforts to explore attitude-performance linkages in air-transport operations.
Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that crew resource management training is favorably received and causes highly significant, positive changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants reacted negatively to the training and showed boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and of the magnitude and direction of attitude change. Implications of these findings for organizations desiring to enhance crew effectiveness are discussed, and areas of needed additional research are described.
In this study, we describe changes in the nature of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in commercial aviation, including its shift from cockpit to crew resource management. Validation of the impact of CRM is discussed. Limitations of CRM, including lack of cross-cultural generality are considered. An overarching framework that stresses error management to increase acceptance of CRM concepts is presented. The error management approach defines behavioral strategies taught in CRM as error countermeasures that are employed to avoid error, to trap errors committed, and to mitigate the consequences of error.
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