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Tribulus terrestris has long been used as a tonic and aphrodisiac in Unani system of medicine. It has been used in India and Pakistan as a treatment for impotence and as a stimulant to enhance sexual drive and performance (Brown et al., 2001). T. terrestris has diuretic and uricosuric effects. In this review article introduction, description, active constituents and medicinal uses of T. terrestris have been given herewith.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(16), pp. 3601-3605, 18 August, 2011
Available online at
ISSN 1996-0875 ©2011 Academic Journals
Tribulus terrestris Linn.: A review article
M. Akram1, H. M. Asif2, Naveed Akhtar2, Pervaiz A. Shah3, M. Uzair4, Ghazala Shaheen2,
Tahira Shamim2, S. M. Ali Shah2 and Khalil Ahmad2
1Department of Basic Medical Sciences1, Faculty of Eastern Medicine, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan.
2College of Conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of
Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
3University College of Pharmacy, Punjab University Lahore, Pakistan.
4Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan.
Accepted 22 February, 2011
Tribulus terrestris has long been used as a tonic and aphrodisiac in Unani system of medicine. It has
been used in India and Pakistan as a treatment for impotence and as a stimulant to enhance sexual
drive and performance (Brown et al., 2001). T. terrestris has diuretic and uricosuric effects. In this
review article introduction, description, active constituents and medicinal uses of T. terrestris have
been given herewith.
Key words: Tribulus terrestris, active constituents, medicinal uses.
Tribulus terrestris L. is found to be growing in subtropical
areas around the world. It is commonly known as Gokhru
belonging to the family Zygophyllaceae, widely distributed
throughout India. The fruits of T. terrestris L. have been
used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of
eye trouble, edema, abdominal distention, emission, mor-
bid leucorrhea, sexual dysfunction and veiling. Roots and
fruits are useful in rheumatism, piles, renal and vesical
calculi, menorrhagia, impotency, premature ejaculation,
general weakness etc. The fruits, flowers and leaves are
shown in Figures 1 and 2. It is a very potent diuretic and
tonic drug (Selvam, 2008). The steroidal saponin consti-
tuents obtained from T. terrestris exhibit antimicrobial and
cytotoxic effects (Bedir et al., 2002; Protich et al., 1983;
Chu et al., 2003; Li et al., 2002). The phytochemical
investigation of the aerial parts of T. terrestris of has
resulted in the isolation of the novel furostanol saponin 1,
named tribol, together with the known spirostanol
saponins 2 and 3 and sitosterol glucoside (Conrad et al.,
2004). An HPLC-ELSD-ESI-MS method has been
developed for the analysis of the steroidal saponins in the
aerial parts of T. terrestris (De Combarieu et al., 2003).
Saponins from T. terrestris (STT) exert its cytotoxic effect
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Tel: 92-021-6440083. Fax: 92-021-6440079.
on liver BEL-7402 cells by inducing apoptosis (Sun et al.,
2004). T. terrestris exerts significantly antihyperlipidemic
effects (Jiji et al., 2009). Chronic intake of a complex
dietary supplement containing DHEA (Jameel et al.,
2004), androstenedione and herbal extracts increases
serum androgen levels, it has minimal effect on immune
function in middle aged men (Kohut et al., 2003; Protich
et al., 1983). Gynaecomastia has also been reported due
to intake of a T. terrestris (Jameel et al., 2004).
T. terrestris is a natural stimulant of Luteinizing hor-
mone (LH) which signals the body to produce more of its
own testosterone (Neychev et al., 2005; Antonio, 2000).
Clinical studies showed T. terrestris improved reproduce-
tive function, including increased concentration of
hormones such as estradiol, with testosterone being very
slightly influenced, thereby improving reproductive func-
tion, libido and ovulation (Gauthaman, 2002; Tomova,
Tribulus terrestris Linn.
Tibbi name: Gokhru
English name: Caltrop
Botanical name: T. terrestris
Family: Zygphyllaceae
Part used: Seeds
3602 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Figure 1. Fruit of T. terrestris.
Figure 2. Leaves and flowers of T. terrestris.
It is a tap rooted herbaceous perennial plant that grows
as a summer annual in colder climates. The stems
radiate from the crown to a diameter of about 10 cm to
over 1 m, often branching. They are usually prostrate,
forming flat patches, though they may grow more
upwards in shade or among taller plants. The leaves are
pinnately compound with leaflets less than a quarter-inch
long. The flowers are 4 to10 mm wide, with five lemon-
yellow petals. A week after each flower blooms, it is
followed by a fruit that easily falls apart into four or five
single-seeded nut lets.
The nutlets or "seeds" are hard and bear two to three
sharp spines, 10 mm long and 4 to 6 mm broad point-to-
point. It is a trailing and spreading herb, densely covered
with minute hair. Leaves compound, in opposite pairs,
leaflets 3 to 6 pair, upto 8 cm long. Flowers are usually
silky, white or yellow, solitary, arises from the axils of
leaves. Ovary briskly, style short and stout. Fruits are
globose, spinous or tuberculate; consisting of fine hairy or
nearly glabrous, often muriculate and woodi cocci, each
with two pairs of hard sharp spines, one pair longer than
the other. Fruit often cling to clothes and bodies of
animals. Seeds are many in woodi cocci. Plant is widely
distributed in different parts of India upto 3000 m altitude.
Steroidal saponin and diosgenin is isolated from this
plant. It is very rich in protein and calcium. Dried fruit
contain semi-drying oil, peroxides, diastase, traces of
glucosides, resins, protein and large amount of inorganic
matters. From the roots, stem and leaves, sitosterol and
srtigmasterol were also isolated.
T. terrestris extract has been shown to stimulate
luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary gland.
It may also have some peripheral effects as manifested
by increased pubic hair in some hypogonadal test
It is speculated that the metabolites of protodioscine
may also have mild androgenic properties. The exact
mechanisms are still vague and current explanations are
speculative at best.
Macroscopic characters
Yellowish globose and spiny, each having five woody,
spiny cocci and each coccus has four pointed rigid
spines. Two of the larger spines are directed towards the
apex and other two smaller ones are directed
downwards. Each coccus contains several seeds.
Active constituents
Protodioscin, terrestrosins A-E, desgalactotigonin, F-
gitonin, desglucolanatigonin, gitonin, tigogenin, furostanol
glycosides, β-Sitosterol, spirosta-3,5-diene, stigmasterol,
diosgenin, hecogenin, ruscogenin, Kaempferol, quercetin,
tribulusamides A and B (Wu et al., 1999; Mahato et al.,
Pharmacological action
T. terrestris shows aphrodisiac, diuretic, antiseptic,
anti-inflammatory,demulcent, nervine tonic, emenagogue,
alterative, astringent analgesic activities. Plant and spiny
fruits are used in the form of decoction or infusions in
cases of spermatorrhea (Georgiev et al., 1988),
phosphaturia, and diseases of the genitourinary system
such as dysuria, gonorrhea, gleet, chronic cystitis,
calculus affections, urinary disorders, gout, and
impotence; also in utrine disorder after parturition, kidney
diseases, and gravel. It is used in northern India in
cough, and some diseases of the heart.
T. terrestris has been used as a diuretic, tonic and
aphrodisiac, urinary disorders, hyperuricccemia,
impotence. Tribulus has been shown to enhance sexual
behaviour in an animal model. T. terrestris has long been
a constituent in tonics in Ayurveda medicine, where in it
is used as an aphrodisiac, also used diuretic and nervine
in tonic, where as in Unani medicine to inhibit the
formation of kidney stone. T. terrestris contains three
groups of active phytochemicals: Dioscin, protodioscin,
diosgenin and similar. These substances have effect on
sexual performance and may treat various sexual
disorders, they regulate sexual energy level and strength
by increasing the percentage of free testosterone level for
men and they affect pregnenolone, progesterone and
estrogen. The hormone balancing effects of Bulgarian T.
terrestris for women makes this herb suitable for
premenstrual syndrome and menopausal syndrome
(Protich et al., 1983; Huang et al., 2003). Sterols like
betasitosterols or stigma substances. These protect the
prostate from swelling and in combination with the X
steroidal saponins, protect the prostate from cancer.
Steroidal saponins currently referred to as X steroidal
saponins (Sun et al., 2003). These X steroidal saponins
affect the complete immune system (Toshkov et al.,
1985). They have been demonstrated to possess anti-
bacterial and anti-viral effects.
Bulgarian T. terrestris may be used internally and
externally to treat herpes, and virus infections such as
influenza and the common cold. T. terristris was found to
be a rich source of calcium (Duhan et al., 1992).
Studies have shown a more than 50% increase in testo-
sterone levels when taking the Tribulus herb studies
show that it works very well when stacked with DHEA
and androstenedione. It increases testosterone levels in
a different way, however, than either DHEA or andro do.
Instead of being a testosterone precursor, it leads to the
production of the LH. When LH levels are increased, the
natural production of testosterone also increases. LH is a
hormone that also deals with sex drive. T. terrestris
increases sperm count as well as motility levels when it is
taken for 30 days. This is a good supplement for men and
women to increase their sex drive. Most experts
recommend experimenting with 750 to 1,250 mg per day,
Akram et al. 3603
divided among meals. A significant benefit of Tribulus is
the stimulation of hormone production to a balanced
level, without over stimulating the secretion of hormones.
T. terrestris works by stimulating the anterior pituitary
gland to release LH, which is responsible for stimulating
the testes to produce testosterone. W hen scientists
began studying the curative power of Tribulus, they
discovered that it significantly elevates the level of
several hormones: Testosterone Luteinizing Hormone;
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol. A
significant benefit of Tribulus is the stimuration on human
males and experimental animals are well known (Tomova
et al., 1978).
The analgesic effect of T. terrestris extract and
comparison of gastric ulcerogenicity of the extract
with indomethacine in animal experiments
T. terrestris has been used in traditional medicine for
relieving rheumatic pain and as an analgesic plant for a
long time. In this investigation the analgesic effect of
methanolic extract of this plant on male albino mice was
evaluated by formalin and tail flick test. Extraction of the
fruits of the plant was done by two different methods
(suxheletion and percolation) with methanol 80%. The
percolated extract was injected intraperitoneally in mice
at 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. The results showed
that a dose of 100 mg/kg of percolated extract had the
highest significant analgesic effect compared to the
control group (P < 0.01) in formalin and tail flick test.
There is no significant difference in the analgesic effect
of suxheleted and percolated extract. The analgesic
effect of the extract was lower than morphine, 2.5 mg/kg
in both tests, and higher than ASA 300 mg/kg in chronic
phase of pain in formalin tests (P < 0.05). Pretreatment of
animal with naloxone did not change the analgesia
induced by the plant extract in both tests, therefore the
involvement of opioid receptor in the analgesic effect of
this plant was excluded. The results of ulcerogenic
studies indicate that the gastric ulcerogenecity of plant
extract is lower than the indomethacin in the rat's
stomach. It can therefore be concluded that T. terrestris
extract has a suitable analgesic effect and further studies
are required to produce a more effective product of this
plant to substitute for conventional analgesic drugs
(Heidari et al., 2007).
A novel furostanol saponin from T.terrestris of
Bulgarian origin
The phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of T.
terrestris of Bulgarian origin has resulted in the isolation
of the novel furostanol saponin 1, named tribol, together
with the known spirostanol Saponins 2 and 3 and
sitosterol glucoside. The structure of tribol was
determined as (25R)-furost-5(6)-ene-3β,16,26-triol-3-O-
3604 J. Med. Plant. Res.
glucopyranoside (1) by spectral analysis, including
extensive 1D and 2D-NMR experiments (Conrad J).
The hormonal effects of T. terrestris and its role in
the management of male erectile dysfunction – an
evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat
Effects of T. terrestris (TT) on hormonal secretion were
evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to evaluate its
usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction
(ED) (Adaikan et al., 2000). TT extract was administered
intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg,
in primates for acute study. Rabbits and normal rats were
treated with 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg of TT extract orally for 8
weeks, for chronic study. In addition, castrated rats were
treated either with testosterone cypionate (10 mg/kg,
subcutaneously; biweekly for 8 weeks) or TT orally (5
mg/kg daily for 8 weeks). Blood samples were analyzed
for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone(DHT) and
dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels using
radioimmunoassay. In primates, the increases in
testosterone (T) (52%), DHT (31%) and DHEAS (29%) at
7.5 mg/kg were statistically significant. In rabbits, both
testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone were increased
compared to control, however, only the increases in DHT
(by 30 and 32% at 5 and 10 mg/kg) were statistically
significant. In castrated rats, increases in T levels by 51
and 25% were observed with T and TT extract respect-
tively that were statistically significant. TT increases
some of the sex hormones, possibly due to the presence
of protodioscin in the extract. TT may be useful in mild to
moderate cases of erectile dysfunction (Kalamegam et
al., 1988).
Testosterone enhancer
T. terrestris is a testosterone enhancer. T. terrestris
saponins appear to bind with the receptors of the
hypothalamus that detect sex hormones. It in-part blocks
the receptors leading to the hypothalamus misinterpreting
the body’s sex hormone levels as being lower than they
really are. The hypothalamus signals to start the
production of LH. When LH levels are increased, the
natural production of testosterone also increases (Sun et
al., 2003). LH is a hormone that also deals with sex drive
(Milanov et al., 1985).
Effective dose
Effective doses used in clinical settings are 750 to 1500
mg per day.
Gokhru, an important herb commonly used in the folk
medicine of many countries for different purposes. The
fruits of the plant T. terrestris has been shown to exhibit
diuretic, (Sangeeta et al., 1994) anti-urolithiatic, (Anand
et al., 1994) CNS stimulant, (Prakash et al., 1985)
antimicrobial, (Dhar et al., 1968) antifungal activities in
rats, (Zhang et al., 2006) antioxidant and antihyperten-
sive activity in rat heart (Ojha et al., 2006; Phillips et al.,
2006). T. terrestris contains biologiacally rich
compounds as steroids, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids
and unsaturated acids, which are involved in promoting
numerous physiological responses (Yan et al., 1996).
Thimation. The leaves increase the menstrual flow, cure
gonorrhea. The fruits are useful in urinary complaints,
painful micturation and impotence. The fruits are also
used to treat coughs, scabies and anexemia. The roots
are said to be stomachic, appetizer, diuretic and
carminative. It has also been used as medicine in India,
South Africa, and Japan. Some steroidal saponins have
previously been isolated from this plant as the active
components (Milanov et al., 1985).
The plant T. terrestris has been used since centuries in
Unani system of Medicine. It has been used in the
treatment of sexual disorders. T. terrestris has also been
used in traditional medicine for relieving rheumatic pain
and as an analgesic plant for a long time. It is concluded
that T. terrestris has analgesic, diuretic and uricosuric
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... In addition, the extracts can offer added value due to the presence of bioactive compounds in the mixture (Schreiner et al., 2022). Among them, for example, the saponin-rich extract Tribulus terrestris (TT) from puncture vine presents antioxidant (Amin et al., 2006), antimicrobial, and cytotoxic effects (Akram et al., 2011). In a recent work of the research group (Schreiner et al., 2021), a comparative study addressing the emulsifier potential of three saponin-rich extracts (Tribulus terrestris, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Ruscus aculeatus) was carried out, highlighting TT as a promising alternative. ...
Several industrial fields use emulsifiers in their products, with the ones of natural origin gaining increasing relevance. Identifying and using diversified sources for their extraction is a pertinent topic regarding sustainability principles, biodiversity preservation, or cost rationalization. This is the case of Quillaja bark saponin (QS), for which saponin‐rich extracts, for example, Tribulus terrestris (TT), are being highlighted as viable alternatives, even though constraints like performance are still on the table. In this context, an experimental design using binary emulsifier mixtures of TT with pure QS was carried out by changing their composition (50–90%wt. TT), content (1.5–4.5%wt.), and high‐pressure homogenization conditions (5–15 cycles). The emulsions were characterized by zeta potential, morphology, droplet size, and stability (expressed as the number of days without creaming formation). Moreover, the cream index for 30 days was determined to indicate the destabilization extent. The zeta potential showed stable emulsions (values below −41 mV); even still, creaming formed for samples using a low emulsifier and high TT contents. The emulsions' mean droplet diameter (D [3, 2]) was between 78 and 921 nm, with smaller sizes agreeing with higher stability. The statistical analysis indicated an optimum composition range comprising an emulsifier content between 3.9 and 4.5%wt. and TT content between 50 and 56%wt. to reach stable products. Overall, TT can provide an effective solution when combined with QS, decreasing the dependence on Quillaja bark.
... Tinospora cordifolia belonging to the Menispermaceae family is generally used for its general tonic, antiperiodic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic properties (Shirolkar et al., 2013). Tribullus terrestris a member of Zygophylaceae family is used in folk medicine as tonic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, astringent, stomachic, antihypertensive, diuretic, lithon-triptic and urinary anti-infective (Lamba et al., 2011;Akram et al., 2011). Withania somnifera Dunal of Solanaceae family helps promote stress relief, health and longevity by potentiating the immune system, arresting premature aging, restoring homeostasis and increasing resistance to adverse environmental factors, collectively known as the anti-stress adaptogenic effect (Mukhopadhya et al., 2001;Verma, 2010). ...
Two poly herbal granules (AVII and SBWII) were developed utilizing the extracts of five medicinal plants on the basis of organoleptic evaluation, nutritional composition and shelf life. Five medicinal plants viz., Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Tinospora cordifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Withania somnifera enriched with general tonic and health promoting property were selected for the formulations which were based on Aloe vera gel and soyabean whey. The nutrient analysis of the formulated granules exhibited that the carbohydrates were the major constituents in both AVII and SBWII, followed by protein and total ash. Fat contents were 0.96 and 1.18 g/100g in AVII and SBWII, respectively. The energy levels of AVII and SBWII were 378 and 377 Kcal/100g, correspondingly. Higher contents of Ca (70.20 mg/100g), Mg (85.27mg/100g) and P (61.55 mg/100g) were observed in SBWII. The trace elements revealed that, Zn and Fe content were 1.84 and 8.63mg/100g in AVII and 1.85 and 7.85mg/100g in SBWII, respectively. The retention and stability of vitamin C, total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar for 270 days illustrated the storage life of the product in ambient condition.
... Hence, the interest in the flavonoid aglycones of the flavonoid-rich plant is of focus in this investigation, T. terrestris. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is an annual plant of Mediterranean origin but is now of global distribution [14,15]. It has a wide range of folkloric medicinal uses including the treatment of gout, kidney stone and other HUA-related diseases like hypertension, stroke and type II diabetes [15,16]. ...
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Abstract Background Despite the ongoing safety-driven spate of flavonoid xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibition investigations, there is a lack of flavonoid-based uricostatic antihyperuricemic agents in clinical medicine. The poor pharmacokinetic profiles of glycosides (the natural form of existence of most flavonoids) relative to their aglycones could be largely responsible for this paradox. This investigation was aimed at providing both functional and molecular bases for the possible discovery of XOD inhibitory (or uricostatic) anti-hyperuricemic flavonoid aglycones from the leaves of a flavonoid-rich medicinal plant, Tribulus terrestris. To this end, the flavonoid aglycone fraction of T. terrestris leaf extract (FATT) was evaluated in vivo for antihyperuricemic activity in ethanol-induced hyperuricemic mice, monitoring serum and liver uric acid levels. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies were carried out on the three major flavonoid aglycones of T. terrestris (isorhamnetin, quercetin and kaempferol) against an inhibitor conformation XOD model. The three flavonoids were also subjected to in vitro XOD activity assay, comparing their IC50 to that of allopurinol, a standard uricostatic antihyperuricemic drug. Results FATT significantly lowered serum uric acid (p
... The fruits contain ferulic acid, one of the constituents having antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. Ferulic acid is used in various cosmetics, to protect skin from sunlight and inflammation [17][18][19] . ...
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The objective of the current study was to develop a new simple and precise High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method for standardization of three biomarkers i.e., berberine, ellagic acid and ferulic acid in Amrtadi churna. Amrtadi churna is mainly used for hyperacidity and contains dried plant parts of Gokshur, Amla and Guduchi. The method was developed and validated using precoated silica gel at 60 F254 as the stationary phase and toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid:methanol (6:6:1.6:0.4, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection and quantification were performed at 319 nm and the Rf value obtained was 0.35±2 for berberine, 0.5±2 for ellagic acid and 0.74±2 for ferulic acid. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines in terms of linearity, precision, specificity, accuracy and robustness.
... The plant contains phenolic compounds, steroidal saponins, flavonol glycosides, flavonoids, amides, unsaturated fats, alkaloids, vitamins, amino acids and tannins (Ercan and El, 2016;Asadmobini et al., 2017;Basaiyye et al., 2017). TT has received great attention due to usage as widespread and indiscriminate in treatment of various diseases such as urinary infections, inflammations, sexual dysfunction and desire problems, leucorrhoea, erectile function, oedema, kidney stones, hypertension and coronary heart disease and ascites owing to possessing aphrodisiac, free-radicalscavenging, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antispasmodic, anti-bacterial, antiurolithic and analgesic properties (Akram et al., 2011;Mohd et al., 2012;Hammoda et al., 2013;Kamenov et al., 2017;Ma et al., 2017). Moreover, it has potential to elevate the testosterone, testosterone precursor and luteinizing hormone levels in humans and animals (Gauthaman and Ganesan, 2008;Omitoyin et al., 2013;Neychev and Mitev, 2016;Yeganeh et al., 2017). ...
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Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a famous traditional plant of family Zygophyllaceae and widely distributes around the world. TT has potential to elevate the testosterone, testosterone precursor and luteinizing hormone levels. In this study, trials were conducted to assessment the impact of Tribulus terrestris addition on sperm motility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the first time. In the trial, we used to different concentrations [0 µg L-1 (Control), 200 µg L-1, 400 µg L-1, 600 µg L-1, 800 µg L-1 and 1000 µg L-1] of T. terrestris extract. Sperm motility characteristics and longevity were determined. In addition, protodioscin content of T. terrestris extract was assessed. The present study revealed that the presence of T. terrestris caused to increase in sperm motility. The increases in duration (49.00±3.61 s) and motility rate (91.67±2.89%) at 400 µg L-1 were statistically significant (p
... Tribulus terrestris (T.t.) is natural herb used for treating many diseases like hypertension. It is a member of the Zygophyllaceae family, and an annual herb found in many tropical and moderate areas of the world, including U.S.A and Mexico, the Mediterranean region, and throughout Asia, T.t. is also known as Puncture Vine, it contains steroidal saponins, and act as a natural testosterone enhancer (2). Tribulus terrestris increases testosterone through increasing luteinizing hormone (LH)(3). ...
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The present study included 98 bovine ovary collected from AL-Shulla slaughter house immediately after the animal was slaughtered. Ovaries were preserved in physiological saline at 37 C o and transport to the laboratory within 3-4 hrs. Diameters of the follicles were measured and divided into large (6-10 mm) and small (1-5 mm) follicles. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were aspirated from large and small follicles using a 18 G needle connected to a 10 ml syringe COCs surrounded by compact and thick cumulus cell were cultured in an integrated culture media RPMI-1640 , than were divided in to two groups , the first group (control media) using integrated culture media only , the second group alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris (Tt) plant was added to the culture media RPMI-1640 once a concentration of 50µg/ml , and the other a concentration of 25µ/ml. The results of the current study demonstrated superiority of alcoholic extract of 50µg/ml in the percentage of oocytes maturation which optended or drawn from large and small follicles compared with a concentration of 25µg/ml of the alcoholic extract it was observable the effect of adding alcoholic extract of T. t. plant in two concentrations of 25µg/ml and or 50µg/ml on the percentage of mature oocytes compared to control media (culture media RPMI-1640) .The present results indicated that the oocytes retrieved from larger follicles is better than small follicles in maturing oocytes maturation. In conclusion, alcoholic concentration of 50µg/ml preference extracted first and then the concentration of 25µg/ml T. t. plant extract that was added to culture media RPMI-1640 , superiority in percentage of the mature oocytes compared to control culture media RPMI-1640 , also the large follicle were better than small follicles in terms of equality suitable for mature oocytes. 1 1 ‫فرع‬ ‫والتوليد‬ ‫الجراحة‬-‫الطب‬ ‫كلية‬ ‫البيطري‬-‫جامعة‬ ‫بغداد‬ 2 ‫العلوم‬ ‫كلية‬-‫النهرين‬ ‫جامعة‬-‫العراق‬ ‫الخالصة‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫شملت‬ 89 ، ‫الحيوان‬ ‫ذبح‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫مباشرة‬ ‫الشعلة‬ ‫مجزره‬ ‫من‬ ‫جمعت‬ ، ‫مبيضا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫المبايض‬ ‫فضت‬ ‫المحلول‬ ‫في‬ ‫أل‬ ‫حرارة‬ ‫بدرجة‬ ‫فسلجي‬ 73 ‫ونقلت‬ ‫م‬ ‫المختبر‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫خالل‬ 7-4 ‫قي‬ ‫تم‬ ، ‫ساعات‬ ‫الجر‬ ‫قطر‬ ‫اس‬ ‫المبايض‬ ‫على‬ ‫المتواجدة‬ ‫يبات‬ (‫الحجم‬ ‫كبيرة‬ ‫جريبات‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫وقسمت‬ 6-01 (‫الحجم‬ ‫وصفيره‬ ‫مليمتر‬) 0-5 ‫بالركمه‬ ‫المحاطة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫سحبت‬. ‫)مليمتر‬ ‫المبيضة‬ ‫الجر‬ ‫من‬ ‫الشفط‬ ‫بطريقه‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫يبات‬ ‫والصفيرة‬ ‫ابره‬ ‫بواسطة‬ ‫قياس‬ 09 ‫سعة‬ ‫بسرنجة‬ ‫موصولة‬ ‫كيج‬ 01. ‫ملمتر‬ ‫المتكامل‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫الوسط‬ ‫في‬ ‫زرعت‬ ‫المبيضة‬ ‫الركمة‬ ‫خاليا‬ ‫من‬ ‫ثخينة‬ ‫بطبقه‬ ‫والمحاطة‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫المالئمة‬ ‫البويضات‬ 0641 RPMI-‫إلى‬ ‫قسمت‬ ‫وقد‬ ، ‫مجموعتين‬ (‫السيطرة‬ ‫األولى‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ، control media ‫ما‬ ‫أي‬ ‫يضاف‬ ‫لم‬) ‫ده‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ ‫أضيف‬ ‫فقد‬ ‫الثانية‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫إما‬ ، ‫المتكامل‬ ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ RPM1-1640 ‫المتكامل‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫بتركيز‬ 51 ‫وتركيز‬ ‫مابكروغرام/مللتر‬ 55 ‫مللتر‬ ‫مايكروغرام/‬. ‫البويضات‬ ‫زرع‬ ‫بعد‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫أظهرت‬ ‫تفوق‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫بتركيز‬ 51 ‫المسحوبة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫إلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫بتركيز‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫والصغيرة‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ 55 ، ‫الكطب‬ ‫نبات‬ ‫لمستخلص‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫وسجل‬ ‫أضافه‬ ‫تأثير‬ ‫وبالتركيزيين‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ 51 , 55 ‫النسبة‬ ‫في‬ ‫مللتر‬ / ‫مايكروغرام‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫إلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ .) ‫السيطرة‬ (‫ألزرعي‬ ‫بالوسط‬ ‫مقارنه‬ ‫أوضحت‬ ‫كما‬ ‫نتائج‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ ‫المسحوبة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫بان‬ ‫أضافه‬ ‫عند‬ ‫الناضجة‬ ‫غير‬ ‫للبويضات‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫وتدني‬ ‫والحيوية‬ ‫اإلنضاج‬ ‫في‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫الضفيرة‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫من‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫القطر‬ The Iraqi J. Vet. Med. 36 (2):199-203; 2012 222 ‫الكحول‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫ي‬. ‫ألزرعي‬ ‫للوسط‬ ‫المضاف‬ ‫الكطب‬ ‫لنبات‬ ‫الكحولي‬ ‫المستخلص‬ ‫أفضلية‬ ‫الحالية‬ ‫الدراسة‬ ‫من‬ ‫نستنتج‬ RPMI-1640 ‫الجريبات‬ ‫إن‬ ‫كما‬ ، ‫السيطرة)‬ (‫ألزرعي‬ ‫بالوسط‬ ‫مقارنة‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫المئوية‬ ‫النسبة‬ ‫تفوق‬ ‫في‬ ‫من‬ ‫أفضل‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫الكبيرة‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫من‬ ‫القطر‬ ‫ألصفيره‬ ‫الجريبات‬ ‫ال‬ ‫البويضات‬ ‫نوعية‬. ‫وحيويتها‬ ‫لإلنضاج‬ ‫مالئمة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫كلمات‬ ‫ال‬ ‫مفتاحية‬ ‫االبقار‬ , ‫البيوض‬ ‫انضاج‬ , ‫الكطب‬ ‫نبات‬ ‫مستخلص‬ : .
Tribulus terrestris L. seems to be a globally grown annual shrub pertaining to family Zygophyllaceae and worldwide used as aphrodisiac and boosting physical performance in men as it upregulates the testosterone levels that are involved in enhanced muscular growth and physical performance. From centuries it has been successfully used for formulating various folk and herbal medicines in Pakistan, Sudan, India, and China. It contains rich blend of some rare and scientifically captivating bioactive phytochemicals, like flavonoids and saponins that possess tremendous therapeutic potential. This review will cover different aspects of TT in terms of its traditional use, biochemistry and pharmacological effects related to its use that will help in extending the medicinal use of this herb.Keywords Tribulus terrestris Medicinal plantTherapeutic potentialPhytochemicalsPharmacology
The plant Tribulus Terrestris commonly known as Gokhru or Sarata is used in household medicine as a tonic, Aphrodisiac, Palliative, Astringent, Gastric, anti-infective medicine. The literature when surfaced shows use of leaf, stem, shoots, roots, fruit and whole plant extract of the medicinal plant Tribulus Terrestris for various nanoparticles synthesis viz. Silver, gold, nickel, nickel oxide. The synthesised nanoparticles were reported to show various bioactivities viz. antibacterial, antifungal activities. The photocatalytic and cytotoxicity effects of the synthesized nanoparticles were also reported in the recent literatures. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of various researchers' efforts towards the biosynthesis of various nanoparticles using the extracts of this medicinal plant Tribulus Terrestris during 2012–2021.
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The present study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis and Tribulus terrestris on lipid profile in rats. Plant extract was orally administered to high fat fed rats (ghee + normal feed in the ratio 2:1) at a dose of 583 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. At the end of the experiment the animals were sacrificed and biochemical analysis of serum was performed for cholesterol, phospholipids, HDL and TG. The increased in cholesterol level, Phospholipids, HDL and TG were brought to some what normal by oral administration of Cissus quadrangularis and Tribulus terrestris. The histopathological examination of liver and heart showed positive result. The results of biochemical observations were supplemented by histipathological examination of rat's heart and liver section. The data suggested that oral administrtion with Cissus quadrangularis and Tribulus terrestris for 30 days has significantly antihyperlipidemic effect against high fat fed rats.
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In the present study, effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris (TT-75 & 150 mg/kg/day for 30 days) on lipid peroxidation product, malonaldialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) was evaluated against isoprenaline (ISO) induced oxidative stress in rat hearts. Isoprenaline administration resulted in marked increase in MDA with a concomitant decline in myocardial SOD activity. However, TT treatment significantly protected it against oxidative stress as it restored myocardial SOD activity and decreased MDA content. The protective effect of Tribulus terrestris against oxidative stress might be due to its flavonoid and saponin constituents, which confer its free radical scavenging and anti-peroxidative activity.
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The effectiveness of a nutritional supplement designed to enhance serum testosterone concentrations and prevent the formation of dihydrotestosterone and estrogens from the ingested androgens was investigated in healthy 30- to 59-year old men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume DION (300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg dehydroepiandrosterone, 540 mg saw palmetto, 300 mg indole-3-carbinol, 625 mg chrysin, and 750 mg Tribulus terrestris per day; n = 28) or placebo (n = 27) for 28 days. Serum free testosterone, total testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and lipid concentrations were measured before and throughout the 4-week supplementations period. Serum concentration of total testosterone and PSA were unchanged by supplementation. DION increased (p < 0.05) serum androstenedione (342%), free testosterone (38%), dihydrotestosterone (71%), and estradiol (103%) concentrations. Serum HDL-C concentrations were reduced by 5.0 mg/dL in DION (p < 0.05). Increased in serum free testosterone (r(2) = 0.01), androstenedione (r(2) = 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (r(2) = 0.03), or estradiol (r(2) = 0.07) concentrations in DION were not related to age. While the ingestion of androstenedione combined with herbal products increased serum free testosterone concentrations in older men, these herbal products did not prevent the conversion of ingested androstenedione to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.
This paper provides a comprehensive list of about 472 authentic vegetable crude drug samples belonging to about 375 plant species that are housed in the Crude Drug Museum (CDM) of Pharmacognosy Section, Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Howrah. This museum is a repository of raw drug samples or vegetable crude drug samples such as rhizomes, roots, stems, wood, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds etc. that are commonly used in the Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM). It provides a baseline information on these raw drugs. The various uses of this museum have been highlighted in this paper.
The structure of glycoside „C” (I) from the overground part of Tribulus terrestris L., was established by enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidatJve degradation as the furostanol bisglycoside protodioscin. Acid hydrolysis yielded the spirostanol diosgenin, a trace of tigogenin, glucose and rhamnose.
Besides β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside and dioscin, two new steroidal glycosides, neohecogenin glucoside and tribulosin, isolated from the aerial part of Tribulus terrestris Linn. were respectively shown to be neohecogenin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and neotigogenin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (7).
Further studies on the constituents of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris led to the isolation of six new furostanol saponins, 26-O-β- d-glucopyranosyl (25R)-furostane-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1–4)-β-d-galactopyranoside, 26- O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (25R,S)-5α-furostane-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1–2)-β-d- glucopyranosyl(1–4)-β-d-galactopyranoside, 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (25R,S)-5α-furostane-3β,22α,26-triol-3- O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1–2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1–4)-β-d-galactopyranoside, 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (25 R,S)-5α-furostan-12-one-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1–2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1–4)-β-d- galactopyranoside, 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (25R,S)-furost-5-ene-3β,22α,26-triol-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1–2)- β-d-glucopyranosyl(1–4)-β-d-galactopyranoside, 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (25R)-5α-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3β,26- diol-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1–2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1–4)-β-d-galactopyranoside, named terrestrosin F—K, respectively. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies of the isolated compounds and their hydrolysed products.
Three new compounds, terrestribisamide, 25R-spirost-4-en-3,12-dione and tribulusterine, together with 10 known compounds, N-p-coumaroyltyramine, terrestriamide, hecogenin, aurantiamide acetate, xanthosine, fatty acid ester, ferulic acid, vanillin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and β-sitosterol, were isolated and characterized from dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Structures of these compounds were determined by spectral analysis.