Conference PaperPDF Available

Combining high-end architecture and low energy: energy analysis to support the design of a large office building within the GreenBuildingplus

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The paper presents the analysis made to support an Architect Studio (Richard Meier, NY) in the process of designing a large office and laboratory building (6 400 m2 above ground and 10 600 m2 under ground) that will be constructed in 2008 in the new technology area near Bergamo. The building, following the design style of Meier (see for example the Dives in Misericordia Church in Rome) aims at constant visual contact of the occupants with the outdoor and the sky through use of transparent surfaces. Based on analysis made by eERG, the resulting challenge from the energy and comfort point of view has been addressed via a number of refinements and additions to the original design. The owner aims at achieving the GreenBuilding partner status.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Combining High-End Architecture and Low Energy: Energy
Analysis to Support the Design of a Large Office Building Within
the Greenbuildingplus Project
Lorenzo Pagliano, Salvatore Carlucci, Tommaso Toppi, Paolo Zangheri
Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, end-use Efficiency Research Group (eERG)
Abstract
The paper presents the analysis made to support an Architect Studio (Richard Meier, NY) in the
process of designing a large office and laboratory building (6 400 m2 above ground and 10 600 m2
under ground) that will be constructed in 2008 in the new technology area near Bergamo. The
building, following the design style of Meier (see for example the Dives in Misericordia Church in
Rome) aims at constant visual contact of the occupants with the outdoor and the sky through use of
transparent surfaces. Based on analysis made by eERG, the resulting challenge from the energy and
comfort point of view has been addressed via a number of refinements and additions to the original
design. The owner aims at achieving the GreenBuilding partner status.
A large laboratory and office building within the GreenBuildingplus Project
GreenBuilding1 is the European Union’s voluntary programme to promote the enhancement of energy
efficiency and the use of renewable energies in non-residential buildings. GreenBuildingplus is the
second IEE Project within the GreenBuilding programme and offers information, promotion and
publicity for building owners and professionals who are willing to implement cost-efficient energy
efficiency measures.
Building owners who successfully reduce the primary energy demand of their non-residential buildings
by at least 25%, are awarded the GreenBuilding Partner status. Professionals supporting a building
owner with products or services can receive the status of a GreenBuilding Endorser.
In this context a large manufactures of cement (Italcementi) has decided to actively engage and to
take a commitment to participate to the GreenBuilding programme starting a fruitful collaboration
between an architect studio (Richard Meier, NY) and an engineering team (eERG - Dipartimento di
Energia - Politecnico di Milano) in order to build a new centre for research and innovation. This large
building (6 400 m2 above ground and 10 600 m2 under ground), to be constructed in 2008, aims at
combining energy efficiency and architectural characterization. The action plan and the formal request
to become a GreenBuilding partner were presented in spring 2008.
The building, following the design style of Richard Meier, aims to constant visual contact with the
outdoor and the sky through the use of transparent surfaces. The resulting challenge from the energy
and comfort point of view, has been addressed via a number of refinements and additions to the
original design.
The vertical parts of the envelope feature increased thermal insulation of the opaque parts, the use of
double pane glazing, argon filled and with low-e surfaces, which are triple pane on the north facade.
The flat ceiling allows the contact with the sky and the day lighting availability via skylights. Part of the
skylights are realised with glazing with Krypton filling with integral sunshades in mid-pane, others
have external movable solar protections. Daylighting sensors controlling dimmable efficient lighting
will reduce electricity consumption and internal cooling loads.
From the system/plant point of view, energy efficiency features include high efficiency heat recovery
on exhaust air, and a large ground exchanger with heat pumps (48 boreholes). The ground exchanger
will provide energy to the heating and cooling plants, playing a key role in reducing total primary
energy consumption. PV panels installed on the roof will deliver about 95 kWp total peak power and
solar thermal panels will supply 65% of the sanitary hot water.
In this paper, we describe the building project and some results of the energy analysis. In particular:
1. the building geometry definition;
1 Initiated and administered by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC), the Green Building
Programme officially started in 2005. The programme’s pilot phase (GreenBuilding Project 2005-2006) was
performed in the context of the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme and the second phase, named
GreenBuildingplus Project started in December 2007.
2. the energy demand estimation;
3. the pre-design of the ground source heat pump system.
Other features of the building that will not be described in this paper are those connected to
environmental qualities different from energy efficiency. For example it was decided to use as much
as possible recycled content materials, local materials, materials with low emission of organic
substances and certified wood. All ITCLab architectural elements will be constructed with a
photocatalytic principle for cement products which can reduce organic and inorganic pollutants that
are present in the air (as well as keeping the characteristic white colour of the building over time).
All these aspects will help ITCLab project to obtain another recognition: the “Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design” (LEED) certification.
General description
Situated at the eastern end of the Scientific Technology Park in Stezzano (Bergamo, Italy), the
Italcementi Centre for Research and Innovation (ITCLab) is the new iconic building designed by the
New York architect Richard Meier for Italcementi Group.
The building is “V”-shaped in plan and it has a total useful floor area of approximately 6 400 m2 above
grade on two levels and 10 600 m2 (including parking) in two basement levels. Other data are
reported in table1.
Table 1: ITCLab surface and volume data
Type of data Units Value
Net conditioned2 (heated and/or cooled) area m2 9 759
Total conditioned volume m3 50 540
Total external surface m2 13 502
Shape ratio m2/ m3 0,267
It accommodates Laboratories in one of the wings and an Administrative Building in the other one; a
central atrium, positioned in the centre of the two wings, contains a public reception, the security
control and also provides a circulation space for both wings of the ITCLab.
Figure 1: Three-dimensional view of ITCLab, “V”-shaped building
The building surrounds a central courtyard with a garden and trees; this courtyard provides access to
underground parking, natural light to underground laboratory spaces, fresh air for the mechanical
spaces and the garage and some shading by the trees for the south sited glazed façades.
The building benefits from a highly insulated opaque envelope; Typical transmittance values,
disaggregated by typological technical components, are listed in table 2.
2 Using the terminology of EN 15603 [1]
Table 2: Transmittance of opaque building envelope
Type of technical component Units U-value
External walls (typology with maximum value) W/(m2K) 0,258
External walls (typology with minimum value) W/(m2K) 0,104
Flat roof W/(m2K) 0,140
Floor above untreated spaces W/(m2K) 0,400
The flat concrete roof has an important thermal mass exposed to internal air that ensures a large
inertial behaviour. Over it, a Sarnafil membrane with solar reflectance of 83% has been proposed to
reduce absorbed solar energy in order to minimize solar loads transmitted into air-conditioned spaces
during summer.
The roof, which has large overhang projections (figure 2), provides some shading on the façade. This
component of the building envelope is perforated with skylights which direct natural light into offices of
the second upper ground level, atrium, conference room, board room and circulation corridors.
Skylights cover 16% of roof area (figure 1).
Figure 2: Lateral view: large overhang projections of roof
The presence of roof overhang protections and skylights permits to decrease the electrical energy
requirement for lighting inside the building and to profit of solar gains during winter.
Skylights over offices are pitched, north oriented and realized with Okasolar (type S) that is a special
double glazed, Krypton filling system with integrated sunshades in mid-pane, with thermal
transmittance of 1,08 W/(m2K). This arrangement prevents most direct solar radiation entering into
the air-conditioned space during summer.
Table 3: Skylight over offices – variation of properties with the angle of incidence
Okasolar properties Units Value
Angle of incidence ° -60 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient % nd 42 nd 22 nd 19 nd 12
Light transmittance % 59 47 28 5 3 2 1 1
The Skylight over the board room is externally protected by a rotating slatted blind system and can be
opened in order to permit night natural ventilation during summer. Glazed system is a Low-E,
Starphire triple pane filled with Argon .
Table 4: Properties of skylight over board room
Property Units Value
U-value at centre of glazing W/(m2K) 0,62
U-value (total) W/(m2K) 1,82
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient % 13
Visible transmittance % 15
The vertical exterior skin of the building has large glazed areas with high-performance, low-e,
insulating clear glass systems. Façade systems consist of pre-cast concrete, aluminium and glass
cladding, extending from the building base to the roof. Glazing systems on the facades are Low-E,
Starphire filled with argon, triple pane on North façade, double pane on the other orientations.
Table 5: Properties of north façades
Property Units Value
U-value at centre of glazing W/(m2K) 0,62
U-value (for curtain wall assembly) W/(m2K) 1,30
Light transmission % 47
Table 6: Properties of other façades
Property Units Value
U-value at centre of glazing W/(m2K) 1,08
U-value (for curtain wall assembly) W/(m2K) 1,74
Solar factor % 32
Light transmission % 52
The active systems consist of:
1. two condensing boilers;
2. chillers;
3. a geothermal plant;
4. solar photovoltaic panels for electricity generation (540 m2 with a capacity of 96 kWp);
5. solar thermal panels which have to supply 65% of the sanitary hot water.
In particular the system will comprise three geothermal heat pumps with a total capacity in heating
mode of 312 kW and minimum COP of 4,1. The geothermal system will cover 84% of the energy
demand for space heating and part of the cooling demand. It can be operated in free-cooling3 mode
during summer.
When the geothermal system is unable to meet the heating demand, additional heating energy is
provided by two condensing boilers with a nominal power of 450 kW each and with a nominal
combustion efficiency of 106%.
Average monthly efficiencies of the boilers have been evaluated according to UNI 10348 Error!
Reference source not found. and they are shown in table 7. In the months of April and October,
average monthly efficiencies of the boilers are low due to partial load operation.
Table 7: Average monthly efficiencies of the boilers
Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
p
h 0,55 0,93 0,98 0,99 0,98 0,92 0,68
For cooling, besides the geothermal plant, the system consists of two water cooled chillers with a
cooling power of 700 kW each, with a COP (at 100%) = 5,8 and high-performance part-load efficiency
curve (table 8).
Table 8: Chiller performance at partial load conditions
At 100% At 80% At 60% At 40% At 20%
COP 5,8 7,4 9,1 9,0 6,8
In order to achieve higher savings, variable speed drivers pumps are used for pumping hot water,
chilled water and sanitary hot water. According with Energy+ Pumps guidelines4, this will deliver at
least 30% savings.
Heating energy demand estimation
The evaluation of the heating energy consumption of ITCLab was made according with
UNI EN ISO 13790 [3], the calculation method provided by the European Standard approved by CEN.
3 Direct circulation of the heat carrier fluid from the ground to the radiant system and viceversa without operating
the heat pumps.
4 www.energypluspumps.eu
Weather data
The information for the static calculation about the climate data of Stezzano have been taken from the
Standard UNI EN ISO 10349 [4]. In the Standard the data about the average monthly temperature,
the monthly mean solar irradiation on the different orientations, average annual wind speed and
direction and monthly mean vapour pressure of external air are reported only for the main cities.
Table 9: Climatic data for Stezzano (BG)
Quantity Units Value
Vertical gradient of temperature °C/m 1/178
Elevation (m.s.l) m 211
Heating Degree Days 5 HDD 2 479
Climatic zone (DPR 412:1993) E
Latitude 45° 39’ 6’’
Longitude 9° 39’ 7’’
As described in the following pages, once the monthly heating need of the building has been
evaluated, additional data are required (in particular, the hourly temperature profile during the year) in
order to evaluate the hourly contribution of each generation system (condensing boilers and ground
exchanger system including heat pumps).
These data are available in the data weather collection “Gianni De Giorgio” [5], which contains also
(with a time step of one hour) the relative humidity, the beam and diffuse solar irradiance, wind speed
and direction and the mean rainfall. We describe in the following how the database was created.
This data collection contains weather data for a reference year which represents the most probable
sequence of weather data for a set of Italian locations.
The reference year was built from the data collected by the Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica
Militare in 68 weather stations located quite uniformly all along the country in the period 1951-1970.
For each weather station and for each month, the average and the variance of the air temperature
were calculated. As reference months were chosen the ones for which the values of mean and
variance are closest to the average values for the whole population.
Finally, the reference year was built connecting the reference months; this means that the reference
year is composed by those months, actually occurred in the past, with each one representing the
average month in the best way. The choice of the reference months was made on the basis of air
temperature; once defined the reference months, all other quantities were obtained from the chosen
months.
Figure 3: Temperature and solar irradiation for Stezzano (BG)
0
10
20
30
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
Site Data - ITALCEMENTI, CENTRO RICERCA ED INNOVAZIONE
EnergyPlus Output 1 Jan - 31 Dec, Hourly Licensed
Temperature (°C)Solar Rad. (kW/m2)
Outside Dry-Bulb Temperature
Direct Normal Solar Diffuse Horizontal Solar
Calculation method
5 According to DPR n.412 [6], in Italy, heating days degrees has been calculated referring to a base temperature
of 20 °C.
The energy balance according to the standards includes the following terms:
1. transmission and ventilation heat loss from the heated space to the external environment;
2. transmission and ventilation heat transfer between adjacent zones;
3. internal heat gains;
4. solar gains;
5. generation, distribution, emission and control losses of the space heating system;
6. energy supplied to the heating system.
The first step of the calculation is the definition of the thermal zone and the temperature set points,
then one proceeds to the calculation of the heat loss coefficient of the building (H):
=+
TV
HH H
The transmission heat loss from the heated space to the external environment (HT) is evaluated using
the method suggested by the Standard UNI EN ISO 13789 [7], while the losses due to the ventilation
(HV) are calculated taking into account the external air flow (V
):
Vaa
HcV
When a heat recovery system is used, the effect is taken into account in the calculation by reducing
the external air flow according with the efficiency of the heat exchanger.
Once envelope and ventilation losses are known, the total heat losses of the building (QL) are
calculated:
()
θ
Lie
QH t
The energy need (Qh) of the building is calculated as the energy losses of the building minus the
useful heat gains (ηQg).
The heat gains are both solar gains and internal gains. Since heat gains may drive internal
temperature to rise above the set-point, the resulting additional heat loss is taken into account through
a utilisation factor (
η
) which reduces heat gains. The utilisation factor depends on the gain/loss ratio
and on the time constant of the building.
=−η
hL g
QQ Q
Starting from the energy need it is possible to evaluate the energy use of the building by taking into
account the distribution, emission and control losses, as suggested by the Italian Standard UNI 10348
[2] and the efficiency of the generators. About this last datum, the Standard provides a method for the
calculation of the average monthly generation efficiency for different energy systems.
In the ITCLab, as described earlier, there are two different types of heat generators: heat pumps and
condensing boilers.
The condensing boilers are used as a back up for the heat pumps, so that they work only when the
load exceeds the maximum power of the heat pumps.
Since the calculation of the average monthly generation efficiency for each system requires
information about the number of running hours in a month (starting from the results of the static
calculation made according with the Standard), a detailed evaluation was set up in order to obtain for
each hour of the heating season the amount of power required from the heat pumps and from the
boilers.
Once obtained the load profile for each generator, it’s possible to calculate their monthly efficiency
and the monthly and yearly energy use.
From the energy use, through the appropriate conversion coefficients, the primary energy
consumption of the building was obtained.
Results
Table 10: Main results of the thermal balance of ITCLab
Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April
Q
L
kWh/month -10 917 -82 521 -131 185 -146 862 -114 444 -81 912 -15 793
Q
V
kWh/month -6 184 -40 678 -63 451 -70 765 -55 424 -40 467 -8 459
Q
T
kWh/month -4 733 -41 843 -67 733 -76 098 -59 020 -41 446 -7 335
Q
g
kWh/month 7 430 30 439 36 337 37 601 33 071 31 729 9 625
Q
h
kWh/month 3 486 52 082 94 848 109 262 81 373 50 183 6 169
Energy need
for heating kWh/m
2
/month 0,4 5,8 10,6 12,2 9,1 5,6 0,7
Primary
Energy kWh/m
2
/month 0,5 5,5 9,9 11,3 8,5 5,4 0,8
Time period
UnitsQuantity
Q
L
kWh/year -583 635
Q
V
kWh/year -285 427
Q
T
kWh/year -298 208
Q
g
kWh/year 186 231
Q
h
kWh/year 397 404
Energy need
for heating kWh/m2/year 44,5
Primary
Energy kWh/m2/year 41,8
Quantity Units Heating
period
At the time of the request of permission to build the Italian national energy regulation in force was the
Dlgs 192 [8]. It establishes the maximum primary energy requirement for space heating for new
buildings in relation to the degree days of the construction site and the shape ratio of the building.
For ITCLab, the primary energy requirement limit, according to Dlgs 192, is 57,2 kWh/m2 per year.
Since primary energy demand for space heating of Italcementi’s building is less than 42 kWh/m2 per
year, it results that there is an energy saving of about 27%. This result allows ITCLab to reach the
GreenBuilding target for new buildings consisting of a reduction of the yearly primary energy
consumption of at least 25% compared with the limit required by the national regulation.
At the moment in Italy legislation does not set a limit concerning the energy consumption for space
cooling. Since there’s no binding quantitative legislation, the procedure for obtaining the
GreenBuilding partner status was to check that technical improvements were taken in order to reduce
cooling load and cooling energy consumption, according to the GreenBuilding technical modules6.
Among the improvements concerning the envelope, high thermal insulation of opaque surfaces,
external solar protections, the choice of selective glasses (especially for the most critical rooms and
surfaces), deserve to be mentioned.
6 www.eerg.it/greenbuilding/
Geothermal system
In order to reduce energy consumption of the Italcementi’s new Center for Research and Innovation
and to help the achievement of the LEED [9] and GreenBuilding partner status, the design team
decided to focus on a geothermal heat pump system. As a preliminary step this possibility was verified
by eERG through a first estimate of ground space needed and the free-cooling strategy was judged
interesting. To better characterize the ground under consideration a geological analysis and a
response test have been performed. The results of these investigations, combined with the first
estimation of building loads, allowed to obtain possible design configurations satisfying the energy
demand. Further studies, technical definitions (borehole type, filling material, etc.) and context
knowledge (a drilling restriction of 100 m was imposed by public administration) guided the definition
of the final project. The geothermal system will consist of:
1. 48 boreholes arranged in two rectangular configurations;
2. 3 reversible heat pumps, each connected to 16 boreholes, with total thermal power of 312 kW
and minimum COP of 4,1 in heating mode;
3. 6 storage units with capacity of around 1000 liters each, connected to the heat pump system;
4. the monitoring and control system.
In warmer periods, if the free-cooling strategy is not sufficient to achieve comfort, the geothermal heat
pumps come into operation in order to increase the cooling capacity.
The principal technical data relating to the geothermal field are shown in table 11.
Table 11: Technical data of geothermal field
Quantity Value
Number of ground exchanger 48
Spacing between adjacent boreholes 7,5 m
Ground exchanger type Double-U tube
Ground exchanger diameter 40 mm (double-U, 4 x 40 mm)
Borehole diameter 150 mm (protection liner included)
Borehole depth 100 m
Total ground exchanger length 4 800 m
Heat carrier fluid Water and polypropylenglycole (25%)
Filling material Thermally enhanced with conductivity of 2 W/(mK)
Fluid flow Laminar
The Response Test has been performed with a HDPE7-Single-U (2 x 40 mm) 150 m long and it lasted
47,5 h. According to the information provided by a geologist the following soil formations were
perforated:
- 0 – 25 m: sand – clay – gravel – mixed
- 25 – 55 m: conglomerate
- 55 – 70 m: clay
- 70 – 86 m: sand – gravel – clay – mixed
- 86 – 101 m: sand – gravel – limestone – mixed
- 101 – 114 m: limestone
- 114 – 119 m: clay
- 119 – 133 m: lime and limestone
- 133 – 150 m: clay – sand – mixed
Doing the test for constant heat injection, a heat exchange of 8 093 W (384,4 kWh over 47,5 h) and
an undisturbed ground temperature of 14,0 °C (mean value over 150 m length of tube) were
measured. The evaluation of the test was carried out with evaluation-algorithm based on the line
source theory [10], obtaining an average thermal soil conductivity (effective) of 2,1 W/(mK).
7 High-density polyethylene
Figure 4: Development of fluid temperatures and evolution of the injected thermal power in the
borehole heat exchanger (BHE) during the whole test period.
The preliminary analysis was performed with the software Earth Energy Designer (EED) [11], jointly
developed by universities in Sweden and Germany8.
The EED calculations allow to check if an already chosen layout of borehole heat exchanger (BHE)
depth, number and pattern is suited for the underground conditions found on site and the building
demand, and which temperatures of the heat carrier fluid can be expected during operation.
Alternatively, for given temperature constraints the suitable layout can be determined.
To perform the simulations, a building heating demand of 500 MWh/year and a cooling demand of
360 MWh/year has been considered and the following temperature boundary conditions were
requested:
- the average temperature of the fluid going back to the BHE in heating mode should be above
0 °C, the minimum temperature at peak times not below -5 °C;
- the temperature of the fluid inside the BHE in cooling mode should not be higher than 23 °C
(with absolute maximum peak of 27 °C).
The simulation, referred to an already specified configuration, confirms the possibility of satisfying
these constraints (Figure 5). For the interpretation of the graphs we observe that the shown
8 The programme EED has been developed jointly by the former Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften of
Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany, and the Dept. Mathematical Physics of Lund University, Sweden.
temperatures are the mean fluid temperatures, i.e. with a temperature difference between inlet and
outlet of 3 ÷ 4 °C, the inlet temperatures into the heat pump in heating mode will be 1,5 ÷ 2,0 °C
higher, and the inlet temperatures into the heat pump/chiller in cooling mode will be 1,5 ÷ 2,0 °C lower
than the values in the following graphs.
Figure 5: Temperature development in the 25th year of operation and the development of
annual minima and maxima over 25 years of operation
Base load
Peak cool load
Peak heat load
Year 25
JA N FEB MA R A PR MA Y JUN J UL A UG SEP OCT NOV DEC
Fluid temperature [ºC]
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
Peak min
Peak max
Base min
Base max
Year
252015105
Annual min-max fluid temp. [ºC]
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
The ground exchanger system will be monitored and the following parameters will be measured:
1. Electric energy absorbed by heat pump system (compressor, circulating pumps);
2. Thermal energy from the heat pump system to distribution system in heating and cooling
mode;
3. Inlet and outlet temperature for each ground exchanger;
4. Inlet and outlet temperature for each circuit of condensation, evaporation, distribution and
storage;
5. Undisturbed ground temperature.
Conclusions
Matching the imprint of a world-wide known architect studio, and an energy efficiency focused
analysis and design support, the ITCLab will represent a case study of a large energy efficient
building for offices and laboratories with an interesting combination of high efficiency envelope
technologies, heat recovery on the ventilation air flow and renewable supply systems (e.g. the large
ground exchanger). Through this building Italcementi is a candidate to the GreenBuilding partner
status. The building will be monitored and analysed with the aim to document its actual performances
and to deliverer detailed reports to the GreenBuildingplus project.
References
[1] prEN 15603:2007 – Energy performance of buildings - Overall energy use and definition of
energy ratings– CEN, 08/2007
[2] UNI 10348:1993 – Building heating. Heating systems efficiency. Calculation method – CTI,
11/1993.
[3] UNI EN ISO 13790:2005 – Thermal performance of buildings – Calculation of energy use for
space heating – CTI, 04/2005.
[4] UNI EN ISO 10349:1994 – Heating and cooling of buildings. Climatic data – CTI, 04/1994.
[5] Dati climatici orari G. De Giorgio per 67 località italiane – Atti della “Giornata di studio Giovanni
De Giorgio”, Politecnico di Milano , Milano – 18 novembre 1997- Ed. Esculapio –Bologna – marzo
1999 – ISBN 88-86524-25-0.
[6] DECRETO DEL PRESIDENTE DELL REPUBBLICA 26/8/1993, n. 412 – Regolamento recante
norme per la progettazione, l'installazione e la manutenzione degli impianti termici degli edifici, ai
fini del contenimento dei consumi di energia, in attuazione dell'art. 4, comma 4 della legge 9
gennaio 1991, n.10. (Versione revisionata a seguito del DPR 21/12/99, n.551).
[7] UNI EN ISO 13789:2001 – Thermal performance of buildings – Transmission heat loss coefficient
– Calculation method – CTI, 03/2001.
[8] DECRETO LEGISLATIVO 19/08/2005, n.192 – Attuazione della direttiva 2002/91/CE relativa al
rendimento energetico nell'edilizia.
[9] LEED -NC: Green Building Rating System For New Construction & Major Renovations – Version
2.2, 10/2005.
[10] L.R. INGERSOLL and H.J. PLASS – Theory of the ground pipe heat source for heat pump –
ASHVE Trans. 54 (1948), pp. 339–348.
[11] G. HELLSTRÖM, B. SANNER, M. KLUGESCHEID, T. GONKA, S. MÅRTENSSON: Experiences
with the borehole heat exchanger software EED. - Proc. MEGASTOCK 97 (1997), p. 247-252,
Sapporo.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
EED, the "Earth Energy Designer", has been tested and used since summer 1995. Validation runs against measured data from existing plants show a rather good prediction of fluid temperatures. At a workshop in early 1996 the test users could present their experiences with EED. EED proved to be a useful tool for design of borehole heat exchangers for UTES and GSHP. One example shown here is a cold storage plant in Wetzlar, where EED was tested against measured data and simulations with the FD-model TRADIKON-3D.
412 -Regolamento recante norme per la progettazione, l'installazione e la manutenzione degli impianti termici degli edifici, ai fini del contenimento dei consumi di energia
  • Del Presidente Dell Decreto
  • Repubblica
DECRETO DEL PRESIDENTE DELL REPUBBLICA 26/8/1993, n. 412 -Regolamento recante norme per la progettazione, l'installazione e la manutenzione degli impianti termici degli edifici, ai fini del contenimento dei consumi di energia, in attuazione dell'art. 4, comma 4 della legge 9 gennaio 1991, n.10. (Versione revisionata a seguito del DPR 21/12/99, n.551).
13789:2001-Thermal performance of buildings-Transmission heat loss coefficient-Calculation method-CTI, 03
  • Uni En Iso
UNI EN ISO 13789:2001-Thermal performance of buildings-Transmission heat loss coefficient-Calculation method-CTI, 03/2001.
De Giorgio per 67 località italiane -Atti della "Giornata di studio Giovanni De Giorgio
  • Dati
Dati climatici orari G. De Giorgio per 67 località italiane -Atti della "Giornata di studio Giovanni De Giorgio", Politecnico di Milano, Milano -18 novembre 1997-Ed. Esculapio -Bologna -marzo 1999 -ISBN 88-86524-25-0.
Heating and cooling of buildings. Climatic data – CTI
  • Uni En
  • Iso
UNI EN ISO 10349:1994 – Heating and cooling of buildings. Climatic data – CTI, 04/1994.
Thermal performance of buildings -Transmission heat loss coefficient -Calculation method -CTI, 03
  • Uni
  • Iso
UNI EN ISO 13789:2001 -Thermal performance of buildings -Transmission heat loss coefficient -Calculation method -CTI, 03/2001.
Green Building Rating System For New Construction & Major Renovations -Version 2.2, 10
  • Leed -Nc
LEED -NC: Green Building Rating System For New Construction & Major Renovations -Version 2.2, 10/2005.