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Dragonflies from eastern Georgia On a collection of dragonflies from eastern Georgia, with the first record of Sympetrum arenicolor (Odonata: Libellulidae)

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Abstract

On a short field trip in 2006 to eastern Georgia, 14 Odonata species were recorded at six localities. A male of Sympetrum arenicolor was collected in the outskirts of Tbilisi. This species is new for the Georgian fauna. All species are annotated and a list of the sampled localities is given.





Sympetrum arenicolor



Abstract

  Sympetrum arenicolor      


daskvna
2006 wels aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi yofnis mokle periodSi eqvs
adgilze iqna napovni nemsiylapiaTa 14 saxeoba. Sympetrum arenicolor
 axalia saqarTvelos faunisTvis. yvela saxeoba da povnis adgili
CamonaTvalSi iqneba aRwerili da komentirebuli.
SeniSvnebi:
mniSvnelovania, rom cneba nemsiylapia naTargmnia qarTul oficialur
samecniero enaze da misi Sesatyvisi ar moi poveba xalxur etimologiaSi,
rogorc es arsebobs cxovelTa bevri jgufisTvis TiTqmis yvela enaSi.
Sympetrum arenicolor aris nemsiylapiis saxeobis laTinuri dasaxeleba,
romelic Seicavs misi pirveli aRmwerlis gvars da gamoqveynebis wels.
Zusammenfassung
    Sympetrum arenicolor 
 
Sympetrum arenicolor




Introducon
 
            
 
         
            
        

 
     
  

          
         

   






           


 



  





Study region and method






       




      
       


List of sampled localies
Locality 1

           
მტკვარი          
თბილისის ბოტანიკური ბაღი
ტაბახმელა    


Locality 2

ალაზანი 
 
თელავის რაიონიკახეთი
Locality 3

            
 მთაწმინდა     კუს ტბა  

Locality 4

  თბილისის ბოტანიკური ბაღი    
           

Locality 5

არაგვიმცხეთა



Locality 6


       
ლაგოდეხის სახელმწიფო ნაკრძალი
ლაგოდეხის რაიონიკახეთი
Results
    
           

 

   



Annotated list of records
Calopteryx splendens (Harris, 1780)





         


     
        
 
          
  

           




Calopteryx splendens ssp. [trans intermedia ad waterstoni]


 
  

  
 
     
     
         
         

          


     

          
Species vouch loc 1 loc 2 loc 3 loc 4 loc 5 loc 6
Calopteryx splendens     
Epallage fame     
Coenagrion puella       
Ischnura elegans      
I. pumilio     
Caliaeschna microsgma     
Onychogomphus exuosus  
O. forcipatus albobialis     
Lindenia tetraphylla     
Orthetrum albistylum      
O. anceps    
O. brunneum    
Sympetrum arenicolor     
S. striolatum     








           

        
ლიხის ქედი
          
           



          

    

  

  



 

Epallage fame (Charpener, 1840)




    

       
          
      


Coenagrion puella species complex
    
    
            
     
       
           
         





       



       

          
     

Ischnura elegans (Vander Linden, 1820)




            
 
          


Ischnura pumilio (Charpener, 1825)





Caliaeschna microsgma Selys, 1883


          













Onychogomphus exuosus (Schneider, 1845)
         


        


          
     
              





  


Onychogomphus forcipatus albobialis Schmidt, 1954
           

       
 
   
   


    
         
 
     
     
   


      



        







Lindenia tetraphylla (Vander Linden, 1825)
Lindenia inki 

    



  
           







 

Orthetrum anceps (Schneider, 1854)

        

   

    

  
 

Orthetrum albistylum (Selys, 1848)

             
         

Orthetrum brunneum (Fonscolombe, 1837)
          





          

Sympetrum arenicolor Jödicke, 1994
     
           
        

    

         

            

           
       
  

           

 
   
      






   
  
           
 
    

Sympetrum striolatum (Charpener, 1840)
         

   





Discussion
         


  
       







 

  




           
    


          

           
 


Acknowledgement

          
     
   

   


 




References
    
    Zoologicheskij
Sbornik, Akademiya Nauk Armyanskoj SSR


 
    
   


Rabo-
ty iz Laboratorii Zoologicheskago Kabineta
Imperatorskago Varshavskago Universiteta
     

    
 
Bullen du Musée de Géorgie

 

Zoologischer Anzeiger


 Vestnik Gosudarstvennogo Muzeja
Gruzii
    

 Zoologische Jahrbücher
Abteilung für Systemak, Geographie und
Biologie der Tiere
    
   
Trudy Severo-Kavkazskoj Assotsi-
atsii Nauchno-Issledovatel`skikh Instutov
      






 Notulae Odonatologicae  

     
   
   Acta Zoologica
Bulgarica

Sympetrum arenicolor
Eu-
rasian Entomological Journal

 
Eurasian Entomo-
logical Journal


  Eurasian Entomological
Journal

    
   
       
    
 
  Bullen et Annales de la
Société Royale Belge d’Entomologie 

     
   

Marnia
     

Odonatologica

    
      
       





  
   
Bulle-
n et Annales de la Société Entomologique
de Belgique 
 
     
  
   
Hydrobiologia

Zoology in the Middle East 

    
    
   Vestnik
Zoologii

      
    
Internaonal
Journal of Odonatology 
        

    
     Agrion

   Lindenia inki 
    Lindenia tetra-
phylla   
 Notulae Odonatologicae 


     

Brachytron
     
   

Internaonal Journal of Odona-
tology 7: 

     
    


    

     
    
   

    
    

    
   
     

 


    
   


    
 Deutsche Entomo-
logische Zeitschri
    
    
 Entomologische Nachrichten
und Berichte


Notulae Odonatologi-
cae
     
 

   




      
   
    
  Senckenbergiana Biologica

   
     
    
Internaonal Journal of
Odonatology
      
  

   
IDF-Report

    
   Trudy Instute
Zoo logii    

    




    
   Materialy k Faune
Gruzii
     
 

       
    
Zoo lo-
gy in the Middle East
Manuskripteingang: 9. September 2010
... Recent data from Georgia are especially rare and after gaining political independence in 1991 besides Skvortsov (2010) -of which we recommend a cautious use only (cf. Schröter 2011) -only three short articles dedicated to the Odonata fauna of Georgia have been published at all (Reinhardt 1992;Schröter 2010a;Rodríguez Martínez & Conesa García 2015). ...
... Several regions of the country, especially the mountainous areas, such as the territories of the historical provinces of Tusheti and Khevsureti (today part of Mzcheta-Mtianeti and Kakheti provinces, respectively), literally remained terra incognita with regards to Odonata and have never been visited by any odonatologist. For a brief summary of the current state of odonatological research in Georgia we refer to Schröter (2010a). ...
... Indicated are (in that order) the administrative unit on the level of regions, description of the localities with Georgian toponyms, coordinates, altitude in meters above sea level, date(s), and -if available -conductivity [µS/cm], temperature [°C] and pH value of the aquatic habitat. Loc. 1. Tbilisi (თბილისი), scrubland at the northern slope of Sololaki ridge below Nariqala fortress (ნარიყალა), 41. 6883°N, 44.7934°E, 500 m a.s.l., 20-vi-2014; 05-vi-2015, 10--vi-2015, 11-vi-2015 Loc. 2. Tbilisi (თბილისი), gorge of Tsavkisistsqali river (წავკისისწყალი), also called Leghvtakhevi ლეღვთახევი), 41. 6828°N, 44.7899°E, 580 m a.s.l., 21-vi-2014, 22-vi-2014, 3-vii-2014, 4-vii-2014, 10-vii-2014, 05-vi-2015, 10-vi-2015, 11-vi-2015; corresponds to loc. 1 in Schröter (2010a) Loc. 3. Tbilisi (თბილისი), gravelroad to the waterfall along the northern slope of Tsavkisistsqali gorge (წავკისისწყალი), 41.6843°N, 44.7910°E, 600 m a.s.l., 21-vi-2014, 22-vi--2014, 3-vii-2014, 4-vii-2014, 10-vii-2014, 05-vi-2015, 10-vi-2015, 11-vi-2015; corresponds to loc. 1 in Schröter (2010a) Loc. 4 Loc. 14. Kakheti (კახეთი), small pond and meadows in the floodplain of Iori river (იორი) close to the dam bridge road (S 38), 41. 8466°N, 45.1335°E, 875 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014, waterfilled tracks on muddy path at the western bank of Iori river (იორი), 41. 8441°N, 45.1341°E, 870 m a.s.l., 23-vi-2014 Loc. ...
Article
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A total of 63 odonate taxa were recorded in Georgia during nationwide surveys in June–July 2014, and June and July–August 2015, corresponding to at least 85 % of the country’s Odonata fauna. For the majority of species information from Georgia is provided in English language for the first time. Selysiothemis nigra is a new addition to the country’s list. The occurrence of Chalcolestes parvidens is confirmed and previous records from Georgia listed as Lestes viridis are doubted and believed to pertain to parvidens. The second and third records only for L. macrostigma are presented. Individuals intermediate between Enallagma cyathigerum cyathigerum and E. c. risi are reported from Georgia for the first time. As to Georgian Lestes virens, the infraspecific taxonomy is critically discussed, with special reference to Central Asian forms described as ssp. marikovskii. It is recommended to avoid any further splitting into inadequately defined subspecies, as the variability of eastern forms from Central Europe towards Central Asia can be better described as clinal variation within the ssp. vestalis. In consequence, the name marikovskii is regarded as a junior synonym of vestalis: Lestes virens vestalis Rambur, 1842 = L. virens marikovskii Belyshev, 1961, syn. nov. The diversity of taxa within the Calopteryx splendens complex in the Caucasus region is considered to comprise in fact three subspecies in Georgia: ssp. intermedia, spp. tschaldirica, and ssp. mingrelica. Despite of transition zones and hybridisation each subspecies represents in toto a spatially clearly delimited unit. In ssp. intermedia androchrome females frequently occurred in the Kakheti region in the east of Georgia. The distinct female colour form ‘feminalis’ of Calopteryx virgo is illustrated for the first time and the availability of the name Calopteryx virgo var. feminalis Bartenev, 1910 is critically discussed. For a number of species thefirst information from Georgia is provided since their discovery over a century ago, such as Coenagrion armatum, Aeshna serrata, and Onychogomphus assimilis; for Coenagrion lunulatum and C. scitulum the first data since over 75 years are presented. Coenagrion ponticum was recorded throughout the country and at least at two sites found to reproduce syntopically with C. puella. New information is provided for the little known Coenagrion vanbrinkae, including a formerly unknown pink colour morph of reproductive females. The infraspecific taxonomy of Ischnura elegans is critically discussed, with special reference to the taxa pontica Schmidt, 1938 and ebneri Schmidt, 1938. In addition, new records of Pyrrhosoma nymphula and Coenagrion pulchellum, both being rare in the Caucasus region, are given. The presence of distinct Gomphus schneiderii in Georgia is confirmed as well as the continuous presence of Gomphus ubadschii at the Rioni River over 80 years after its description under the homonym »Gomphus flavipes var. lineatus var. n.«. Onychogomphus assimilis and O. flexuosus were found to be abundant in the eastern half of the country suggesting that Georgia is an important global stronghold for both threatened species. Males of Caliaeschna microstigma exhibited a distinctive tendency for reduced ante-humeral stripes, leaving only a small bluish patch at the posterior part in some males. Vital populations of Libellula pontica, endemic to the East Mediterranean, were found and the species is assumed to be well established in the Kakheti region in the East of the country.
... (Sadeghi et al., 2010). Turkey (Salur and Özsaraç, 2004); Georgia (Schröter, 2010); Iraq (Gastecki and Amr, 2011); Iran (Schneideret et al., 2018). Ischnura tuberculata Charpentier, 1825 Ischnura zonata Stephens, 1835 Material examined: 2 adult specimens, Thi-Qar Province, Al-Chibayish Marshes, 3.vii.2021. ...
... Ischnura tuberculata Charpentier, 1825 Ischnura zonata Stephens, 1835 Material examined: 2 adult specimens, Thi-Qar Province, Al-Chibayish Marshes, 3.vii.2021. Distribution: Iraq (Abdulhassan et al., 2009; It distributes from Spain in the West, to Japan in the East, and from Sweden in the North to Iran in the South (Boudot and Salamun, 2015); Georgia (Schröter, 2010); Turkey (Salur and Özsaraç, 2004). Morton, 1919 Material examined: 3 specimens (1 naiad, 2 adults), Thi-Qar Province, Al-Chibayish Marshes, 31.iv.2021. ...
... Distribution: Iraq (Garstecki andAmr, 2011); it's a wide distribution range in most parts of Central and Southwest Asia, and eastern Mediterranean (Boudot and Kalkman, 2015). It was also found Tunisia (Kunz and Kunz, 2001), Iran (Heidari and Dumont, 2002), Italy (Terzani, 2002), Algeria (Boudot et al., 2009), Bulgaria (Gastarov andBeshkov, 2010), Georgia (Schröter, 2010), Kuwait (Amr, 2021). Selys, 1854Synonyms: Onigogomphus Brauner, 1902Paragomphus Cowley, 1934 Onychogomphus flexuosus Schneider, 1845 Synonym: Gomphus flexuosus Schneider, 1845 Material examined: 2 adult specimens; Thi-Qar Province, Al-Chibayish Marshes, 27.viii.2020. ...
Article
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This study included a survey and review of the scientific names of the marsh insects (aquatic and surrounding it) for the purpose of unifying and updating the database. The survey reveals 109 species under 77 genera that belong to 32 families and 7 orders as follow: Coleoptera (44 species), Diptera (7 species) Ephemeroptera (2 species), Hemiptera (14 species), Hymenoptera (11 species), Lepidoptera (2 species) and Odonata with 29 species. Information of specimens' collection for each species, synonyms and geographical distribution were provided.
... Lindenia tetraphylla (Vander Linden, 1825), synonym Lindenia inkiti Bartenef, 1929 (Odonata Gomphidae), is an Irano-Turanian species, its main range spreading over the Eremian region, going from Central Asia to Arabia (Dumont, 1991;Giles, 1998;Schröter, 2010a;Waterston, 1984;Waterston & Pittaway, 1991;Skvortzov & Snegovaya, 2014). It is distributed also from Western Pakistan to the Caucasus region, the Levant and Turkey (mostly southern Anatolia) to the Western Mediterranean (Schneider, 1981(Schneider, , 1988Schneider & Dumont, 1997Kalkman, 2006;Kalkman & Van Pelt, 2006;Borisov & Haritonov, 2008;Boudot et al., 2009;Schröter 2010aSchröter , 2010bBoudot & Kalkman, 2015). It was recently found in Bulgaria (Gastaron & Beshkov, 2010), where it is expanding its distribution (Kolev & Boudot, 2018), and Crete (Boudot et al., 2009, Boudot, 2014Stille et al., 2014;Boudot & Kalkman, 2015) and is now considered resident in the western Balkans and Greece (Boudot & Kalkman, 2015;Lopau, 2010;Vilenica et al., 2016). ...
Article
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First record and status of the dragonfly Lindeni tetraphylla (Vander Linden, 1825) (Odonata Gomphidae) for Molise region and update to the status in Italy
... Since the demise of the Soviet Union only a handful of references on the Odonata fauna of the Caucasus region have been published (Reinhardt 1992;Ketenchiev & Haritonov 1998;Dumont 2004;�ailly et al. 2004;Jödicke et al. 2009;Schröter 2010;Skvortsov 2010;Ananian 2012;Ananian & �ailly 2012Ananian & �ailly , 2013. Amongst these only Dumont (2004) and in part Jödicke et al. (2009) consider Azerbaijan, the dragonfly fauna of which is arguably the least explored of the three successor states of the former Caucasian Ex-Soviet Republics. ...
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Thirty-two species collected during 2012 from Azerbaijan are listed, three further species were identified from photographs taken in 2008. Of the resulting 35 species, six species were new for the country, the record of Cordulegaster vanbrinkae being the third locality in the world.
... It therefore appears possible that the species will be found also in the Transcaucasus in the future, in this respect resembling its Central Asian congener S. arenicolor (cf. Jödicke et al. 2009;Schröter 2010a;Seehausen et al. 2016). This assumption is supported by the fact that the odonate collection of the Georgian National Museum in Tbilisi (GNM) contains parts of at least two males of S. tibiale, unfortunately without label (AS unpubl.). ...
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Literature data, museum collections as well as fieldwork were used to produce an up-to-date distribution map and a list of records of Sympetrum tibiale, a species restricted to the semi-deserts of Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and western China. The type locality is in Xinjiang province, China, and the type specimens are preserved in the Zoological Museum of Hamburg, Germany (ZMUH). Language barriers, publication in obscure journals and poor data exchange meant S. tibiale was little-known to non-Russian speaking odonatologists for a long time. Yet, it has been confirmed to breed in the steppes of the Kuma-Manych Depression on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, situated in the southern part of European Russia, making the species a genuine member of the European fauna. This article addresses these European sites, hitherto neglected in non-Russian language literature, and establishes the correct westernmost limit of the species' range. In addition, all currently certified records are mapped. Available knowledge on the species' ecology-a summer species with a larval preference for brackish water-is summarized. Identification characters of adults and larvae are provided; its closest relative is identified as Sympetrum depressiusculum.
... The Bladetail Lindenia tetraphylla (Vander Linden, 1825) is a large and conspicuous gomphid species distributed from Central Asia and Pakistan to parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Western Mediterranean Basin (Borisov & Haritonov, 2008;Boudot, 2014;Schneider, 1986Schneider, , 1988Schorr et al., 1998;Schröter, 2010aSchröter, , 2010bSkvortsov & Snegovaya, 2014;Stille et al., 2014). In Europe, the species has a disjunct distribution, inhabiting mostly large Mediterranean lakes, with relatively few strong permanent po-* corresponding author: marina.vilenica@gmail.com; ...
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A total of 12 dragonfly species were recorded at Vlačine Reservoir in the Dinaric Western Balkan region (ER 5) in Croatia. Habitat conditions, i.e. vegetation structure and physico-chemical water properties of the reservoir, are presented and discussed. Habitat conditions were suitable for life cycle completion of Mediterranean species such as Lindenia tetraphylla and Selysiothemis nigra. Exuviae of L. tetraphylla represent new evidence of the species' reproduction in the northwestern border of its distribution Na akumulaciji Vlačine, smještenoj u dinaridskoj ekoregiji (ER 5, Dinaridski zapadni Balkan) u Hrvatskoj, zabilježeno je ukupno 12 vrsta vretenaca. U radu su prikazani i raspravljeni okolišni uvjeti na istraživanom staništu, prvenstveno struktura vegetacije i fizikalno-kemijski čimbenici vode. Sta-nišni uvjeti akumulacije bili su pogodni za uspješno završavanje životnog ciklusa mediteranskih vre-tenaca poput vrsta Lindenia tetraphylla i Selysiothemis nigra. Zabilježeni svlakovi vrste L. tetraphylla pred-stavljaju novi nalaz razmnožavanja ove vrste na sjeverozapadnoj granici njene rasprostranjenosti.
... For any basic infor mation on climate, geology and current state of odonatological research in Georgia we refer to this study. Since the latest additions to the Georgian dragonfly fauna, Sympetrum arenicolor and Selysio themis nigra (Schröter 2010a;Schröter et al. 2015), the checklist records 74 species group taxa from the country. On the whole the knowledge of the Georgian dragonfly fauna is still fragmentary and almost every survey potentially brings new discoveries, shifting the knowledge frontier. ...
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... Subsequent decisive works were presented, in several country-related papers for Turkey (Morton 1914, Schmidt 1953, 1954a, Dumont 1974a, 1977, Dumont, Demirsoy, and Verschuren 1987, Dumont, Borisov, and Seidenbusch 1995, Schneider 1983, 1984a, 1985a, 1986a, Iraq and surrounding areas (Morton 1919, 1920a,b, 1921, Sage 1960a,b, Asahina 1973, what was then referred to as Palestine, and now as Israel and Palestine (Morton 1924, Schmidt 1938, South Caucasus countries (Akramowski 1948, 1964, 1975, Shengelia 1975, Iran (Schmidt 1954b, Blom 1982, Hacet and Aktaç 1997, Lohmann 1990, 1992, 1993, the Levant (Dumont 1974b, Schneider 1981a,b,c, 1982a,b, 1984b, 1985b, 1986b, 1987a,b, 1995, the Near East (Schneider 1985c,d) and Lebanon (Schneider and Moubayed 1985). More recent records and syntheses appeared after the turn of the millennium, dealing with Lebanon (Dia and Dumont 2011), Iran (Heidari and Dumont 2002, Sadeghi and Dumont 2004, Kiany and Minaei 2009, Sadeghi and Mohammadalizadeh 2009, Sadeghi and Kiany 2012, Ghahari et al. 2012, the South Caucasus countries (Dumont 2004, Tailly, Ananian and Dumont 2004, Tailly and Tabarroni 2006, Schröter 2010, Ananian 2012, Ananian and Tailly 2012, Turkey (Kalkman, Wasscher, and Van Pelt 2003, Kalkam et al. 2004, Kalkman, Lopau, and Van Pelt 2004, Van Pelt 2004Kalkman 2006, Kalkman and Van Pelt 2006, Hacet and Aktaç 2004, Salur and Özsaraç 2004, Salur and Kiyak 2000, Pisica and Popescu-Mirceni 2008, Hacet, 2009a, Ayten and Özgökçe 2009, Miroglu and Kartal 2008, Miroglu 2011, Miroglu, Katal, and Salur 2011, Salur, Dogan, and Yagiz 2012, Salur, Miroglu, and Okçu 2012, Olthoff and Ikemeyer 2012), Jordan (Katbeh-Bader, Amr, and Schneider 2002, Katbeh-Bader, Amr, and Abu Baker 2004, Syria (Mousatat et al. 2010), and the overall Mediterranean Basin (Selys, 1850) and is treated with the latter. Calopteryx waterstoni Schneider, 1984, endemic from the North-east Anatolia, is similarly treated as a member of the C. splendens complex, although assessing it at the full species rank would be equally justified. ...
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about iuCn IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges. IUCN's work focuses on valuing and conserving nature, ensuring effective and equitable governance of its use, and deploying nature-based solutions to global challenges in climate, food and development. IUCN supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world, and brings governments, NGOs, the UN and companies together to develop policy, laws and best practice. IUCN is the world's oldest and largest global environmental organization, with more than 1,200 government and NGO Members and almost 11,000 volunteer experts in some 160 countries. IUCN's work is supported by over 1,000 staff in 45 offices and hundreds of partners in public, NGO and private sectors around the world. www.iucn.org iuCn – the species survival Commission The Species Survival Commission (SSC) is the largest of IUCN's six volunteer commissions with a global membership of 7,000 experts. SSC advises IUCN and its members on the wide range of technical and scientific aspects of species conservation and is dedicated to securing a future for biodiversity. SSC has significant input into the international agreements dealing with biodiversity conservation. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/who_we_are/about_the_species_survival_commission_/
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Thanks to the work of N. N. Akramowski, the Odonata fauna of Armenia had become relatively well known by the late 1940s. In recent years, an effort has been made to collect new information, and this paper reports on the most striking results. Three species new for the country, Erythromma lindenii, Coenagrion scitulum and Orthetrum sabina, are listed. Specimens presumed to be Coenagrion ornatum actually fit the description of C. vanbrinkae. A number of others, viz. Anaciaeschna isoceles, Anax imperator and A. parthenope , are shown to be more abundant than in earlier times, probably due to the construction of ponds and canals. In most of Armenia, hybrid populations of Calopteryx splendens are found, but in the south only genuine C. s. in-termedia occurs. The paper concludes with a checklist and a discussion of why certain species are considered doubtful and have not been included.
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Thirty-two species of dragonflies were recorded from Azerbaijan in late spring 2002. We estimate the true species richness to be about 45–50 species. Several of these are first records for the Caucasus region or for the Eastern Caucasus subregion. Two forms of Calopteryx splen-dens were found, separated by the valley of the lower Kura, of which only C. splendens interme-dia occurs in the so-called southern and lower Kura. C. s. orientalis occurs on rivers that drain the Talysh hills directly to the Caspian, but there is some phenotypic evidence of hybridization with intermedia south-west of the Kura, where the lower River Vilesçay approaches rather close to the Kura. A few species are salt-tolerant and may be outliers from populations further north and east. Others are derived from Iran. Two members of the Coenagrion puella group are recorded; they occur within 50 km of each other, so that Azerbaijan is part of the zone where the two meet. A blue male of Aeshna cyanea is recorded This may be the first case in Odonata of a rare point mutation that causes wild-type green animals to occur in a blue form.
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