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Effect of high temperature on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes under controlled conditions.

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Abstract

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum MILL.) is usually produced during the winter period in Sudan. In summer due to high temperatures, monthly average temperatures are between 31 to 35°C, a shortage of tomatoes is common. General environmental changes, especially global warming, may have an adverse effect on crop production in Sudan. The objective of this study is (i) to investigate the effect of heat stress on vegetative and productive development of heat sensitive and tolerant tomato genotypes, (ii) to compare the growth and development of different genotypes under defined heat stress conditions (intensity and duration) as well as (iii) to investigate if there are any positive effects of heat shock treatments to increase heat tolerance of tomatoes. Different experiments were carried out under simulated temperature conditions in plant growth chambers at the Humboldt University of Berlin as well as under field conditions at the University of Khartoum, Sudan. Here only results obtained from experiments under controlled condition are presented. Plant height, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of leaves, stem and roots, number of clusters, number of flowers as well as the number of pollen grains per microscopic field were recorded. The reproductive processes in tomato were more sensitive to high temperatures than the vegetative ones. The number of pollen grains produced by the heat tolerant genotypes, were higher than the numbers produced by the heat sensitive genotypes. However, under field condition around Khartoum, Sudan other factors such as low relative humidity, insect and virus diseases as well as soil physical properties have also to be considered. Optimization of microclimate could be very important to ensure a good performance of new tolerant varieties cultivated in summer periods in Sudan.
Adil H.A. Abdelmageed1, Nazim Gruda2, and Bernd Geyer2
1University of Khartoum, Department of Horticulture, Sudan
2Humboldt-University of Berlin, Institute for Horticultural Sciences,
Department of Vegetable Crops, Germany
2. Material and Methods
Different experiments were carried out under
simulated temperature conditions in plant growth
chambers at the Humboldt University of Berlin as well
as under field conditions at the University of
Khartoum, Sudan. Here only results obtained from
three experiments under controlled condition are
presented.
Tomato plants of different cultivars were subject to
day/night air temperatures either of 37/27 or 37/22 °C
and photoperiod of 13/11 h. Due to limited space in
the plant growth chamber, the experiment at high
day/night temperatures was carried out in two parts,
one after another under the same conditions.
Plant height, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of leaves,
stem and roots, number of clusters, number of
flowers, number of pollen grains per field as well as
assimilation and transpiration rate were recorded.
1. Introduction
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is usually
produced during the winter period in Sudan. In
summer due to high temperatures, monthly average
temperatures are between 31 to 35°C, a shortage of
tomatoes is common. General environmental
changes, especially global warming, may have an
adverse effect on crop production in Sudan.
The objective of this study is (i) to investigate the
effect of heat stress on tomato, (ii) to compare the
growth and development of different genotypes under
defined heat stress conditions (intensity and duration)
as well as (iii) to investigate if there are any positive
effects of heat shock treatments to increase heat
tolerance of tomatoes.
Effect of High Temperature on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
Genotypes under Controlled Conditions
3. Results
The reproductive processes in tomato were more
sensitive to high temperatures than the vegetative
ones (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). The number of pollen grains
produced by the heat tolerant genotypes, were higher
than the numbers produced by the heat sensitive
genotypes (Fig. 2). Night temperature had a effect on
the number of pollen grains produced and released.
Heat tolerant genotypes showed under heat stress
conditions higher photosynthetic rate at flowering
stage compared to the heat sensitive one (Tab. 1).
4. Discussion
High temperatures limit tomato growth and development.
This is in agreement with other studies. However, under
field condition in Sudan other factors such as low
relative humidity, insect and virus diseases as well as
soil physical properties have also to be considered.
Contact Address: Dr. Nazim Gruda, Humboldt -Universität zu Berlin, Institute for Horticultural Sciences, Department of Vegetable Crops, Lentzeallee 75, 14195 Berlin, Germany
e-mail: nazim.gruda@rz.hu-berlin.de
1Suported by
9.23 a10.28 aMavericck F1 -6.31 cPeto 86 7.37 a8.10 abcStrain B6.53 a6.58 bcUC-82-B9.77 a10.08 aDrd 85 F1 -10.35 aKervic F1
Temp. 37/22 °CTemp. 37/27 °CCultivars
Tab. 1: Effect of High Temperature on Assimilation Rate (µmol m -2s-1) at Flowering Stage
0
20
40
60
80
100
Kervic F1 Drd 85 F1 UC-82-B Strain B Peto 86 Maverick F1
Cultivars
Number of pollen grains per microscope field
37/ 27 °C 37/ 22°C
a
a
a
a
c
bc
A
A
B
D
Fig. 2: Effect of High Temperature on Pollen Grains per Microscope Field.
Differences between bars labelled by the same letters are not significant (P<0.05)
5. Conclusions
-Screening for heat tolerance in tomato plants is a
complex process need to investigate the whole plant
physiology.
-Preliminary results in this study suggest that
photosynthetic rate at heat stress condition could be
used as criteria for screening genotypes for heat
tolerance.
Means followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly different (P<0.05)
Fig. 1: Effect of High Temperature on Leaf Area (cm2).
Differences between bars labelled by the same letters are not significant (P<0.05)
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
Kervic F1 Drd 85 F1 UC-82-B Strain B Peto 86 Maverick F1
Cultivars
Leaf area (cm
2)
37/27°C 37/22°C
a
bcdef
def
fef
cdef
AB
B
AB
A
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