Bacterial lipodipeptide, Lipid 654, is a microbiome-associated biomarker for multiple sclerosis

Clinical & Translational Immunology 11/2013; 2(11). DOI: 10.1038/cti.2013.11


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Infectious agents have been suggested to have a role as environmental factors in MS, but this concept remains controversial. Recently, gastrointestinal commensal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, but mechanisms underlying the relationship of human systemic autoimmunity with the commensal microbiome have yet to be identified. Consistent with the lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and relevant environmental factors in MS, no blood biomarkers have been identified that distinguish MS patients from healthy individuals. We recently identified a unique gastrointestinal and oral bacteria-derived lipodipeptide, Lipid 654, which is produced by commensal bacteria and functions as a human and mouse Toll-like receptor 2 ligand. Using multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry, a critical approach in targeted lipidomics, we now report that Lipid 654 can be recovered in the serum of healthy individuals. Most interestingly, we find that Lipid 654 is expressed at significantly lower levels in the serum of patients with MS compared with both healthy individuals and patients with Alzheimer’s disease. These results thus identify for the first time a potential mechanism relating the gastrointestinal and oral commensal microbiome to a human systemic autoimmune disease. In addition, these results also identify a potential etiologic environmental factor and novel clinically relevant serum biomarker for MS.

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Available from: Xudong Yao, Aug 15, 2014
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    • "Although there is little mechanistic understanding about the role of the microbiome on inflammatory and neurological disease, some studies have found specific markers (microbes and metabolites) associated with both gut and oral microbiomes. These markers have been shown to enter the systemic circulation and elicit systemic immune responses, thus serving as specific biomarkers of disease (Clark et al., 2013; Farrokhi et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial effort has been made over the last six decades to identify biomarkers for multiple sclerosis that can improve disease diagnosis, predict disease progression, and improve clinical outcomes. However, to date, few of these findings have proven clinically useful. In this review, we address the current state of MS biomarker research. We start by discussing biomarkers currently in clinical use including Oligoclonal bands, MRI, and JC viral titers. We go on to discuss other potential biomarkers from MS serum and cerebrospinal fluid including Markers of neurodegeneration including neurofilament and GFAP, the monocyte macrophage marker CD163, the glial activation marker YKL-40, the B cell chemoattractant CXCL13, miRNA and mRNA, myelin reactive t cells, Kir4.1 antibodies, osteopontin, and microbiome associated lipopeptides. Finally, we discuss the current state of MS genetic studies and how genetics may offer simple, reliable testing for MS susceptibility and progression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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