Completeness of coronary revascularization and survival: Impact of age and off-pump surgery

The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (Impact Factor: 4.17). 01/2014; 148(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.12.039
Source: PubMed


We conducted a multicenter observational cohort study of the effect of completeness of revascularization on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. We also investigated the impact of age and off-pump surgery.
The Veterans Affairs Continuous Improvement in Cardiac Surgery Program was used to identify all patients (N = 41,139) with left main and 3-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent nonemergency coronary artery bypass grafting from October 1997 to April 2011. The primary outcome measure, all-cause mortality, was compared between patients with complete revascularization and patients with incomplete revascularization. Survival functions were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by using the log-rank test. Propensity scores calculated for each patient were used to match 5509 patients undergoing complete revascularization to 5509 patients undergoing incomplete revascularization. A subgroup analysis was performed in patients aged at least 70 years and patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
In the unmatched groups, several risk factors were more common in the incomplete revascularization group, as was off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. In the matched groups, risk-adjusted mortality was higher in the incomplete revascularization group than in the complete revascularization group at 1 year (6.96% vs 5.97%; risk ratio [RR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.34), 5 years (18.50% vs 15.96%; RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26), and 10 years (32.12% vs 27.40%; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.24), with an overall hazard ratio of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.09-1.28; P < .0001). The hazard ratio for patients aged 70 years or more was 1.125 (95% CI, 1.001-1.263; P = .048). The hazard ratio was 1.47 (95% CI, 1.303-1.655) for the unmatched off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group and 1.156 (95% CI, 1.000-1.335) for the matched off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group.
Incomplete revascularization is associated with decreased long-term survival, even in elderly patients. Surgeons should consider these findings when choosing a revascularization strategy, particularly if off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is contemplated.

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  • No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Data comparing results of off-pump and conventional operations in octogenarians is very limited. Thus we chose to compare early adverse events between off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) and on-pump CABG (ONCABG) in patients older than 80 years. Systematic review of multiple databases was performed to obtain original studies fulfilling search criteria. End points-early mortality, stroke, respiratory failure, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial infarction-were compared between these cohorts. A random-effects weighted analysis was performed using the trim-fill adjustment when necessary. Results are presented as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); p < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Sixteen retrospective studies (9,744 ONCABG and 8,566 OPCABG patients) were included in the systematic review. OPCAGB patients received significantly fewer grafts (2.54 ± 0.16) compared with ONCABG patients (3.22 ± 0.41). Early mortality was comparable at 4.6% and 5.2% in the OPCABG and ONCABG cohorts, respectively (risk ratio [RR], 0.91; 95% CI, 0.64-1.28; p = 0.598). Stroke rates were higher in the ONCABG cohort (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49- 0.87; p < 0.01). Respiratory failure was higher with ONCABG (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.97; p = 0.03). New-onset renal failure (p = 0.99), atrial fibrillation (p = 0.27), and myocardial infarction (p = 0.99) were comparable. Coronary artery bypass in octogenarians can be performed safely with low early mortality. Although off-pump operations reduce the risk of early stroke, all other adverse events are comparable in on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass operations. Data regarding late mortality is at present limited; however, both on- and off-pump procedures appear to produce comparable survival. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between age and both short- and long-term outcomes of off-pump coronary bypass grafting (OPCAB).Methods and Results:The 780 patients undergoing OPCAB were divided into 3 groups: 262 aged <65 years (young), 329 aged 65-74 years (early elderly), and 189 aged >75 years (late elderly), and retrospectively analyzed. Thefollow-up rate was 94.9%, and mean follow-up period was 5.6±3.4 years. In-hospital mortality rates were similar among the groups (0.8% in young, 1.2% in early elderly, and 1.1% in late elderly; P=0.862). In logistic regression analysis, the risk factor for predicting major complications was the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification (odds ratio: 1.555, P=0.001), and not age. The 10-year estimated rates free from cardiac death (89.6±3.2, 95.0±2.1, and 96.5±2.1%, log rank, P=0.16) and cardiac events (71.8±3.8, 66.8±4.3, and 59.9±7.7%, P=0.61) were not significantly different among the groups. In multivariate Cox models, independent risk factors predicting cardiac events were the NYHA classification (hazard ratio (HR): 1.265, P=0.009), and ejection fraction (HR: 0.986, P=0.016), but not age (young HR: 1.0, early elderly HR: 1.276; P=0.210, late elderly HR: 0.910; P=0.707). Both short- and long-term cardiac outcomes of OPCAB are not influenced by age at operation.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Circulation Journal
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