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Abstract

AIM: The bench press exercise (BPE) is receiving increasing interest as a field testing, training/therapeutic modality to improve neuromuscular performance or to increase bone mass density. Several studies have been performed using BPE as a standard for increasing upperlimb strength. For this purpose, the position of the bar, the loads, the sets, the number of repetitions, the recovery time inbetween sets, the movement speed, the muscular work and the use of the determination of the one repetition maximum (1RM) are the classical tools investigated in the literature that have been shown to affect the BPE effect on neuromuscular. The goal of the present short review is to make a picture of the current knowledge on the bench press exercise, which could be very helpful for a better understanding of this standard movement and its effects. CONCLUSION: Based on the related literature, several recommendations on these key points are presented here.
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... One week before the main experiment, a familiarization session preceded the 1RM in the free-weight flat bench press. The 1RM test was conducted in accordance with the guidelines based on the most recent bench press exercise literature to ensure reliability and validity [27]. Experimental sessions consisted of performing the bench press alternatively with or without the SS in a random order with progressive loads (70%, 85%, and 100% 1RM) to record peak muscle activity of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and triceps brachii. ...
... Estimation of 1RM was only used during the familiarization session to determine the actual 1RM and referred to free-weight flat bench press. For evaluation of actual 1RM, the loading started at 70% estimated 1RM and was increased by 2.5 to 10 kg for each subsequent attempt, and the process was repeated until failure [27,[30][31][32][33]. In total, each participant performed between four and six attempts in the main session. ...
... The participants executed single repetitions in each subsequent set using a 2/0/V/0 tempo of movement, which denotes a 2 s negative work during lowering of the barbell, no pause during the transition phase, and a volitional movement tempo during the positive work associated with upward displacement of the barbell [12,28,34]. All repetitions were performed without bouncing the bar off of the chest and without raising the hips off of the bench [27,29]. ...
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The aim of this study was to compare the muscle activity between the sling shot assisted (SS) and control (CONT) flat barbell bench press for selected external loads of 70%, 85%, 100% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Ten resistance-trained men participated in the study (age = 22.2 ± 1.9 years, body mass = 88.7 ± 11.2 kg, body height = 179.5 ± 4.1, 1RM in the bench press = 127.25 ± 25.86 kg, and strength training experience = 6 ± 2.5 years). Evaluation of peak muscle activity of the dominant body side was carried out using surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded for the triceps brachii, pectoralis major, and anterior deltoid during each attempt. The three-way repeated measure ANOVA revealed statistically significant main interaction for condition x muscle group (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.569); load x muscle group (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.709); and condition x load (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.418). A main effect was also observed for condition (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.968); load (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.976); and muscle group (p < 0.01; η 2 = 0.977). The post hoc analysis for the main effect of the condition indicated statistically significant decrease in %MVIC for the SS compared to CONT condition (74.9 vs. 88.9%MVIC; p < 0.01; ES = 0.39). The results of this study showed that using the SS significantly affects the muscle activity pattern of the flat bench press and results in its acute decrease in comparison to an equal load under CONT conditions. The SS device may be an effective tool both in rehabilitation and strength training protocols by increasing stability with a reduction of muscular activity of the prime movers.
... Se ha estudiado ampliamente a nivel cinético y cinemático para mejorar en el diseño de los entrenamientos, desde investigar la influencia de la variación del agarre en el patrón de activación muscular, los efectos de la manipulación de las variables de un programa para la mejora de los protocolos de entrenamiento para la hipertrofia, el efecto de diferentes ejercicios de press de pecho, la relación entre actividad EMG y la pérdida de fuerza al realizarlo en superficie estable o inestable, las consecuencia de la fatiga e incluso su ejecución a través de diferentes tipos de activación muscular (Chirosa et al., 2014;Saeterbakken, Mo, Scott, & Andersen, 2017). De hecho, además del alto rendimiento deportivo, cada vez tiene más protagonismo en los entrenamiento terapéuticos o incluso en el aumento de la densidad ósea (Padulo, Laffaye, Chaouachi, & Chamari, 2015). ...
... En el ámbito científico, se considera una herramienta muy utilizada como test de campo (Melani et al., 2019;Padulo et al., 2015). Esta importancia del PB radica en la alta solicitación de los grupos musculares intervinientes en la cintura 2021, Retos, 39, 459-464 © Copyright: Federación Española de Asociaciones de Docentes de Educación Física (FEADEF) ISSN: Edición impresa: 1579-1726. ...
... Fecha de aceptación: 03-08-20 Francisco Tomás González Fernández francis.gonzalez.fernandez@gmail.com de entrenamiento (Carroll & Craig Liebenson, 2017;Padulo et al., 2015). Por todo ello, el conocimiento de este comportamiento y de los factores internos que componen este ejercicio, hará que la gestión de la especificidad de la carga y de la velocidad a la hora de planificar los programas de entrenamiento contribuya a la consecución de los objetivos pretendidos por deportistas recreacionales, terapéuticos o profesionales (Marcos-Pardo, González-Hernández, García-Ramos, López-Vivancos, & Jiménez-Reyes, 2019;Saeterbakken et al., 2017). ...
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Resumen. El press de banca (PB) es uno de ejercicios con más tradición en las ciencias del deporte. Su estudio ha sido abordado desde diferentes perspectivas, principalmente analizando los efectos de variantes técnicas orientadas a mejorar la programación del entrenamiento en diferentes deportes y poblaciones. La repetición máxima ha sido utilizada como referencia para cuantificar la carga en diversidad de estudios. Sin embargo, es necesario conocer cómo ajustar las intensidades de entrenamiento para poder programar con mayor precisión. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar el comportamiento de las variables cinéticas, cinemáticas y psicológicas a distintos porcentajes de la 1RM (repetición máxima) del PB. Treinta estudiantes universitarios sanos formaron parte de la muestra experimental (Edad 23 ± 0,45 años; talla 181,13 ± 2,25 cm; peso 78,25 ± 4,81 Kg; porcentaje muscular 52,10 ± 0,30%, porcentaje graso 12,05 ± 0,59%; IMC 24, 12 ± 0,84). Los participantes realizaron una sesión de familiarización con la técnica del PB y realizaron un test incremental para la obtención de la 1RM. Después de 7 días volvieron a realizar el mismo protocolo, pero a diferentes intensidades de la 1RM (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% y 100%). Los datos obtenidos aportaron información descriptiva del comportamiento de las variables analizadas al aumentar la carga en sujetos entrenados. La presente investigación podría sugerir variaciones en las cargas de trabajo previstas y predecir posibles adaptaciones dentro de la programación del trabajo de fuerza. Palabras clave: Repetición máxima, fuerza, velocidad, potencia, pres de banca, percepción del esfuerzo Abstract. Bench press exercise is one of the most popular exercises in sports science. It has been studied from different approaches, mostly analyzing the effects of technical variations in order to improve training schedule on different sports and populations. The one repetition maximum has been used as a reference to quantify the load in diverse studies. However, knowing how to adjust training intensities is necessary in order to schedule training accurately. The objective of the present study was to analyze the response of kinematic, kinetic and psychological variables at different percentages of 1RM. The study sample was comprised of thirty healthy university students (Age 23 ± 0.45 years; height 181.13 ± 2.25 cm; weight 78.25 ± 4.81 Kg; muscle percentage 52.10 ± 0.30%, fat percentage 12.05 ± 0.59%; BMI 24, 12 ± 0.84). The participants attended a familiarization session with the bench press technique and performed an incremental test to obtain the 1RM. They returned to carry out the same protocol seven days after, but different intensities of the 1RM were accomplished (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The results obtained provided descriptive data about the behaviour of the analyzed variables by increasing the load on trained subjects. The present research could suggest variations in the expected workloads and predict possible adaptations within the force work schedule.
... During the two sessions (unilateral or bilateral half-squat exercises, randomly assigned), the participants started with a standardized warm-up routine (J. Padulo et al., 2015) consisting of five repetitions (with 30 s of recovery in between) against 30% of their body mass at a self-selected velocity during the half-squat exercise (with the same 17 kg barbell) with the feet maintained in parallel at shoulder width apart. In the unilateral condition, the limb not involved in the exercise was kept with the hip completely extended and the knee flexed at 90° (angle transducer MuscleLab 4020e, Bosco System TM , Langesund, Norway, precision 0.01°, sampling frequency 100 Hz). ...
... The filtered sEMG was then rectified and smoothed, converting it to its root mean square (sEMG RMS ) with a 20-ms smoothing window, as previously reported in the literature (J. Padulo et al., 2015). The sEMG RMS signal was then re-sampled at 100 Hz using a 16-bit A/D converter and synchronized with the linear encoder and the upward displacement of the barbell over time. ...
Article
Movement velocity has been viewed as one of the bilateral deficit (BLD) determinants. This research tested the velocity effect on BLD during a half-squat exercise. The role of muscle excitation in BLD was also assessed. BLD amplitude was assessed in 12 male soccer players while performing a half-squat exercise with incremental load. During the exercise’s pushing phase, the average force and velocity were measured in bilateral and unilateral conditions to provide the bilateral index (BI) at each interpolated velocity. The vastus lateralis and medialis excitation was assessed during the exercise by calculating the surface electromyography signal root mean square (sEMGRMS). The BI for sEMGRMS (sEMG BI) was calculated. The theoretical maximum force (F0) and velocity (v0) were also determined. F0 was +43 (28)% in bilateral compared with unilateral conditions (p < 0.001), whereas v0 was similar in both conditions (p = 0.386). The BI magnitude rose with the increase in velocity from −34 (7)% at 50%v0 to −70 (17)% at 90%v0 (p 0.03-<0.001), whereas no sEMG BI occurred (p: 0.07-0.991 in both muscles). The study reported velocity-dependent changes in the BLD amplitude, with the largest BLD amplitudes occurring at the highest velocities. This behaviour could provide useful information for setting specific contraction velocities to exploit/limit the BLD amplitude as a possible training stimulus.
... External load is a crucial variable, which strictly influences the required muscular effort. It is linked to the maximum force (onerepetition maximum [1RM]) that a person is able to develop [36,37], and this load is often higher than the body weight [38]. 1RM was inversely and independently associated with deaths of all causes and cancer in 8762 subjects [39] and with the risk of hypertension in prehypertensive man [40]. ...
... The use of exercise machines is strongly suggested owing to their load adjustment feature, reducing the risk of accidents. Chest press application [36] has been shown to be a safe and well-structured form of physical exercise: it can be easily supervised and load can be controlled [11]. Regular monitoring of HR and BP during each session is advised to ensure that cardiovascular responses to exercise are normal. ...
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Unlike in the previous decades, strength training is gaining more scientific attention owing to its numerous benefits on human health. It has major benefits on metabolic processes, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, age-related processes, and mental health. In comparison with aerobic low-intensity exercises, chest press-based strength training cardiovascular adaptations have been ignored for many years. Yet, if properly prescribed and conducted, strength training has shown to be safe and effective in people with cardiovascular disease. This narrative review aims at summarizing the available evidence about the role of chest press-based strength training on the cardiovascular system. Citation: Palermi S, Bragazzi NL, Cular D, Ardigò LP, Padulo J. How chest press-based exercises can alleviate the burden of cardiovascular diseases. Hum Mov.
... The bench press exercise is receiving an increasing interest as a field testing, training and/or therapeutic modality to improve neuromuscular performance [1] . Moreover, this exercise has been defined as the simplest and the most suitable test for evaluating upper body strength [2] . ...
... In this sense, a drawback could be that the unnatural barbell path of the Smith machine forces the participants to press the barbell in a linear path [10] . However, the Smith machine is more secure for the users [1] because it constrains the barbell movements in the mediolateral and anterior-posterior directions, focusing on the vertical direction [8] . In addition, the guiding system of the Smith machine avoids measurement errors resulting from extraneous horizontal motions [11] . ...
Article
The bench press exercise on a Smith machine, frequently used in training programs, can be analyzed as a redundantly actuated biomechanical system. In this exercise, a simplified model having one degree of freedom, actuated at the shoulder and the elbow, provides a meaningful representation of its dynamics. Due to the actuation redundancy, many different combinations of actuations that lead to the same motion can be found. The present optimization framework for the bench press exercise is intended at understanding the appropriate performance of this exercise when it is used to gain endurance or to perform the exercise in the safest manner, that is, avoiding overloads. The dynamic simulation is solved by parameter optimization and direct collocation. The kinematics of the bench press exercise performed by a trained subject and recorded with an electro-goniometer is used as a reference motion for the optimization. The results show that it is possible to mathematically obtain better realizations of the exercise, what suggests the potential of this methodology in the design of training programs in sports or rehabilitation exercises.
... In this context, the load lifted would contribute to volume, compared to purely counting total repetitions (Stone et al., 1999;Tran & Docherty, 2006). The bench press was chosen because it is one of the most frequently used exercises in strength and conditioning, which has also received field testing to improve neuromuscular performance (Padulo et al., 2015). The technique for performing the bench press was previously described in the session familiarization. ...
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Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of tDCS combined with caffeine intake on training volume and pain perception in the bench press in resistance-trained males. The correlation between training volume and pain perception was also assessed in all interventions. Methods: Sixteen healthy males (age = 25.2 ± 4.7 years, body mass = 82.8 ± 9.1 kg, and height = 178.3 ± 5.7 cm), advanced in RT, were randomized and counterbalanced for the following experimental conditions: Sham tDCS with placebo intake (Sham+Pla), Sham tDCS with caffeine intake (Sham+Caff), anodal tDCS with placebo intake (a-tDCS+Pla), and anodal tDCS with caffeine intake (a-tDCS+Caff). The caffeine or placebo ingestion (both with 5 mg.kg⁻¹) occurred 40 minutes before the tDCS sessions. The tDCS was applied over the left DLPFC for 20 minutes, with a 2 mA current intensity. After the tDCS sessions, participants performed the bench press with an 80% of 1RM load, where training volume and pain perception were measured. Results: Training volume was higher in the 1st and 2nd sets in both a-tDCS+Caff and Sham+Caff conditions, compared to the Sham+Pla condition (P < .05). Both a-tDCS+Caff and a-tDCS+Pla showed an increased pain perception during the third set compared to the first set. Also, no correlation was found between the number of repetitions and pain perception in any condition (P > .05). Conclusion: This research revealed that caffeine intake alone could be used as an ergogenic aid during resistance training programs in resistance-trained males.
... In this session, the 4-6 RM load was directly used, and each participant performed only one trial of 4-6 RM for each exercise. The coefficient of friction between steel for each machine was 0.78 µrd for static friction and 0.42 µrd for dynamic friction (Padulo et al., 2015). ...
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This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of body mass to estimate 4-6 repetitions maximum of pectoral machine, leg extension, and leg press exercises to optimize the one repetition maximum assessment. For this purpose, fourteen male soccer players (age 24.14 ± 4.66 years; body mass 76.52 ± 6.35 kg; height 1.83 ± 0.06 m; training experience 17.71 ± 5.15 years) participated to determine 4-6 repetition maximum according to Brzycki protocol for each exercise in randomized counterbalanced order. A moderate significant correlation was showed between the 4-6 repetition maximum and the body mass (r = 0.440, 0.393 and 0.305) for pectoral machine, leg extension, and leg press exercises, respectively). The analyses showed that body mass weakly explained the three criterion variables (r2: 9-19%). The prediction equations suggested can be used to optimize the one repetition maximum test, but other factors must be considered in further studies to have more accurate 4-6 repetition maximum values.
... The speed of movement of workout was self-determined by the participants. However, the free weight was determined on the right arm using dumbbells [12]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a week-long free weight training intervention for grip strength and grip endurance time in young adults. Thirty-one healthy people (15 men and 16 women) volunteered for this study. During biceps curl exercises with dumbbells in supination, pronation, and neural forearm postures, free weights were used to perform 3 sets of 10 repetitions [10-RM] daily for a week. Experimental trials were randomly recorded for MVC grip strength and endurance at 50% MVC in three different levels of forearm posture. The results showed a significant effect of gender and exposure days on grip strength and endurance time (p < 0.001) for both participants. In addition, MVC grip strength was highest in the pronation of both participants. However, grip endurance time was highest in the pronation in male participants and neutral in female participants. Therefore, it can be concluded that free weight strength training may improve grip strength and endurance with respect to exposure days for both male and female participants.
... Furthermore, the changes in ROM during the resistance exercise can also impact the time under tension or recently used -term time under load (TUL) (Grgic et al., 2018) in a particular set, as well as in a whole training session. A common method of measuring resistance training volume is multiplying the repetitions with the external load (Padulo et al., 2015). However, given the differences in ROM between SB and CB bench press, the comparison of resistance training volume based on repetition or tonnage should be extended to measure of TUL. ...
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The main goal of this study was to assess the impact of the cambered bar (CB) during the bench press exercise on power output and bar velocity when compared to a standard bar (SB). Ten healthy strength-trained men (age = 27.9 ± 3.7 years; body mass = 90.1 ± 12.5 kg; resistance training experience = 6.5 ± 2.7 years; bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM) = 118.5 ± 21 kg) performed a single set of 3 repetitions of the bench press exercise with an SB and a CB at 50%1RM to assess differences in peak power output (PP), mean power output (MP), peak bar velocity (PV), and mean bar velocity (MV), range of motion (ROM), and positive work time under load (TUL) between conditions. The t-test indicated significantly higher mean ROM for the cambered bar in comparison to the standard bar (52.7 vs. 44.9 cm; P < 0.01; ES = 1.40). Further, there was a significantly higher PP (907 vs. 817 W; P < 0.01; ES = 0.35), MP (556 vs. 496 W; P < 0.01; ES = 0.46), PV (1.24 vs. 1.14 m/s; P < 0.01; ES = 0.35) and MV (0.89 vs. 0.82 m/s; P < 0.01; ES = 0.34) for the CB condition when compared to the SB. A significantly longer TUL for the CB was observed, when compared to the SB (1.89 vs. 1.51 s; P < 0.01; ES = 1.38). The results of this study showed that the CB significantly increased power output and bar velocity in the bench press exercise at 50%1RM compared to the SB. Therefore, the additional ROM, made possible through the use of the CB, allows for the acceleration of the bar through a significantly longer displacement, which has a positive impact on power output. However, a simultaneous increase in TUL may cause higher fatigue when the bench press is performed with the CB compared to the SB.
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Rugby players need muscular strength and power to meet the demands of the sport; therefore , a proper assessment of the performance in rugby players should include both variables. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and power characteristics (SPC) during the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) in national amateur rugby players and to analyze gender-and position-related differences. A total of 47 players (30 males and 17 females; age: 25.56 ± 1.14 and 23.16 ± 1.38 years, respectively) participated in the study. The one repetition-maximum (1-RM) and SPC in SQ and BP were obtained using a Smith Machine. Then, subjects performed one set of five repetitions on the SQ and BP against six relative loads (30-40-50-60-70-80% 1-RM) using a linear transducer. Differences between genders were found in 1-RM for maximal power, kilograms lifted at maximal power, maximal power, maximal strength and maximal speed in BP (p < 0.00) and 1-RM, kilograms lifted at maximal power, maximal power, maximal strength and maximal speed in SQ (p < 0.00). Comparisons between variables in SQ and BP present a significant relationship (p < 0.01) in SQ and BP 1-RM with kilograms lifted at maximal power (r = 0.86 and r = 0.84), maximal strength (r = 0.53 and r = 0.92) and maximal power (r = 0.76 and r = 0.93). This study confirms the importance of the SPC assessment for training prescription in rugby amateur players.
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Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2.2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m) completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl), with two-minute (SEQA) and with five-minute interval (SEQB). The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley), with two (SEQC) and five-minute intervals (SEQD). For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9) was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9). Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7) compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1). The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets.
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BACKGROUND: Although studies have demonstrated the occurrence of postexercise hypotension (PEH) in resistance exercises, there is still no consensus on an ideal protocol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different rest intervals (RI) between resistance exercise (RE) sets on postexercise blood pressure (BP).METHODS: Sixteen sedentary non-hypertensive young men performed three RE protocols with RI of 1 (P1), 2 (2) and 3 (P3) minutes between the sets, as well as a control protocol (CON), in a counterbalanced manner. The RE protocols consisted of three sets of eight repetitions in six exercises. The loads used in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd exercise sets were 80%, 70% and 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM), respectively. Measurements were taken at rest (RES), 15 (T15), 30 (T30), 45 (T45), 60 (T60), 75 (T75), and 90 (T90) minutes after the session. Factorial analysis of variance (Anova) was carried out, followed by post hoc LSD.RESULTS: No significant change was found in systolic BP after the protocols. A significant increase in diastolic BP was verified after CON at timepoints T45 and T90. Significant reduction in diastolic BP occurred after P1 and P3, with duration of 30 and 15 min, respectively. No significant differences were found in the systolic and diastolic BP responses between the protocols with different RI.CONCLUSION: RI does not seem to influence systolic BP reduction after an RE session. However, reductions in diastolic BP (P1 and P3) lasting up to 30 minutes were observed. (Arq Bras Cardiol 2010; 94(4):482-487)
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the force-velocity response of the neuromuscular system to a variety of concentric only, stretch-shorten cycle, and ballistic bench press movements. Twenty-seven men of an athletic background (21.9 +/- 3.1 years, 89.0 +/- 12.5 kg, 86.3 +/- 13.6 kg 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) performed 4 types of bench presses, concentric only, concentric throw, rebound, and rebound throw, across loads of 30-80% 1RM. Average force output was unaffected by the technique used across all loads. Greater force output was recorded using higher loading intensities. The use of rebound was found to produce greater average velocities (12.3% higher mean across loads) and peak forces (14.1% higher mean across loads). Throw or ballistic training generated greater velocities across all loads (4.4% higher average velocity and 6.7% higher peak velocity), and acceleration-deceleration profiles provided greater movement pattern specificity. However, the movement velocities (0.69-1.68 m.s(-1)) associated with the loads used in this study did not approach actual movement velocities associated with functional performance. Suggestions were made as to how these findings may be applied to improve strength, power, and functional performance.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to develop three regression equations to predict 1-RM chest press strength (CPS), shoulder press strength (SPS), and knee extension strength (KES) from a 5-10 RM CPS, SPS, and KES test in females 19-26 years of age. Thirty healthy adult females were tested for 1-RM and 5-10 RM strength. The order of testing was counterbalanced to minimize the effect of improved technique. Simple regression analysis produced the following equation to predict 1-RM CPS from submaximal CP testing: [1-RM (lb) = 7.24 + (1.05 SCP)]. The correlation between predicted and measured 1-RM CP was r = 0.91. The SEE was 2.5 kg or 7.8% of measured 1-RM CPS. The mean and standard deviations for the measured 1-RM CPS and the predicted 1-RM CPS was 32.3±5.4 kg and 32.3±6.0 kg respectively. Regression analysis also produced the following equation to predict 1-RM SPS from submaximal SP testing: [1-RM (lb) = 1.43 + (1.20 SPS)]. The correlation between predicted and measured 1-RM SPS was r = 0.92. The SEE was 1.6 or 7.6% of the measured 1-RM SPS. The mean and standard deviations for the measured 1-RM SPS and the predicted 1-RM SPS were 21.4±4.0 kg and 21.4±3.7 kg respectively. Regression analysis also produced the following equation to predict 1-RM KES from submaximal KE testing: [1-RM (lb) = 4.67 + (1.14 KES)]. The correlation between predicted and measured 1-RM KES was r = 0.94. The SEE was 2.3 kg or 6.3% of measured 1-RM KES. The mean and standard deviations for the measured 1-RM KES and the predicted 1-RM KES were 38.5±7.6 kg and 38.4±6.8 kg, respectively. The results of this study indicate that 1-RM CPS, SPS, and KES may be predicted with an acceptable degree of accuracy in untrained female subjects.