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Abstract

AIM: The bench press exercise (BPE) is receiving increasing interest as a field testing, training/therapeutic modality to improve neuromuscular performance or to increase bone mass density. Several studies have been performed using BPE as a standard for increasing upperlimb strength. For this purpose, the position of the bar, the loads, the sets, the number of repetitions, the recovery time inbetween sets, the movement speed, the muscular work and the use of the determination of the one repetition maximum (1RM) are the classical tools investigated in the literature that have been shown to affect the BPE effect on neuromuscular. The goal of the present short review is to make a picture of the current knowledge on the bench press exercise, which could be very helpful for a better understanding of this standard movement and its effects. CONCLUSION: Based on the related literature, several recommendations on these key points are presented here.
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... BP execution requires a complex set of movements, such as adduction, extension, and internal rotation of the humerus. It mainly involves the scapulohumeral girdle (anterior deltoid, triceps brachii and stabilizing muscles), other than the pectoralis major muscle (Padulo et al., 2015). Competitions are based on powerlifters' performance over 3 tests of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). ...
... Competitions are based on powerlifters' performance over 3 tests of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Tests must respect all technical rules imposed by official regulations to be valid (Ferland and Comtois, 2019;Padulo et al., 2015). Powerlifters are classified into different categories according to their weight (Bishop et al., 2018). ...
... Concerning bodily proportions, | 2023 | ISSUE -| VOLUME --© 2023 University of Alicante UMLR and UALR exhibited very strong associations with performance in both univariate and multivariate analyses. These novel indices are based on the ratio between length and body composition (total area and muscle area) of the upper arm, which is the main body part involved during BP execution (Ferland and Comtois, 2019;Padulo et al., 2015). Thus, UMLR and UALR combine the two anthropometric key elements for optimal BP performance, and their use by athletes and coaches could be advantageous in performance improvement and talent identification programs. ...
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The bench press (BP) is a complex, multiarticular exercise known as one of the three powerlifting specialties. Although several variables contribute to the maximum load lifted, upper limb variables may also play an important role in BP performance. In this study, a cohort of 47 male Italian classic powerlifters underwent a direct anthropometric evaluation during two official competitions. The recorded parameters included body mass index, body composition, and variables of the upper limb (indirectly evaluated cross-sectional areas and lengths). IPF-GL points and maximal strength (1RM) adjusted for weight were used as proxies for performance. Statistical comparisons between weaker and stronger powerlifters, Pearson correlation and partial correlation analyses, and multiple linear regression models were performed. The upper arm cross muscular area (r = 0.56) and fat-free mass (r = 0.31) were positively correlated with Wilks points, whereas the arm fat index was negatively correlated with 1RM BP (r =-0.37). Moreover, we proposed two new indices (UALR and UAMR) that represent the ratio between upper arm areas and length. Both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed the strong association between these two variables and BP performance. Further improvement of this study may confirm the important role of body proportion and body composition as predictors of performance in strength sports.
... During the two sessions (unilateral or bilateral half-squat exercises, randomly assigned), the participants started with a standardized warm-up routine (J. Padulo et al., 2015) consisting of five repetitions (with 30 s of recovery in between) against 30% of their body mass at a self-selected velocity during the half-squat exercise (with the same 17 kg barbell) with the feet maintained in parallel at shoulder width apart. In the unilateral condition, the limb not involved in the exercise was kept with the hip completely extended and the knee flexed at 90° (angle transducer MuscleLab 4020e, Bosco System TM , Langesund, Norway, precision 0.01°, sampling frequency 100 Hz). ...
... The filtered sEMG was then rectified and smoothed, converting it to its root mean square (sEMG RMS ) with a 20-ms smoothing window, as previously reported in the literature (J. Padulo et al., 2015). The sEMG RMS signal was then re-sampled at 100 Hz using a 16-bit A/D converter and synchronized with the linear encoder and the upward displacement of the barbell over time. ...
Article
Movement velocity has been viewed as one of the bilateral deficit (BLD) determinants. This research tested the velocity effect on BLD during a half-squat exercise. The role of muscle excitation in BLD was also assessed. BLD amplitude was assessed in 12 male soccer players while performing a half-squat exercise with incremental load. During the exercise’s pushing phase, the average force and velocity were measured in bilateral and unilateral conditions to provide the bilateral index (BI) at each interpolated velocity. The vastus lateralis and medialis excitation was assessed during the exercise by calculating the surface electromyography signal root mean square (sEMGRMS). The BI for sEMGRMS (sEMG BI) was calculated. The theoretical maximum force (F0) and velocity (v0) were also determined. F0 was +43 (28)% in bilateral compared with unilateral conditions (p < 0.001), whereas v0 was similar in both conditions (p = 0.386). The BI magnitude rose with the increase in velocity from −34 (7)% at 50%v0 to −70 (17)% at 90%v0 (p 0.03-<0.001), whereas no sEMG BI occurred (p: 0.07-0.991 in both muscles). The study reported velocity-dependent changes in the BLD amplitude, with the largest BLD amplitudes occurring at the highest velocities. This behaviour could provide useful information for setting specific contraction velocities to exploit/limit the BLD amplitude as a possible training stimulus.
... The bench press exercise involves a multijoint movement and is used both for tests to evaluate the strength of the upper limbs and improve maximum strength, power, and hypertrophy. In this context, the manipulation of RT volume and intensity variables needs to be understood and manipulated (18), as well as the TUT. ...
Article
This study aimed to analyze the time under tension (TUT) behavior in the bench press exercise performance in recreationally trained individuals. A systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA recommendations and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022301830). MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Lilacs (BVS) databases were consulted with the terms (resistance training [Title/Abstract]) OR (strength training [Title/Abstract]) AND (time under tension [Title/Abstract]). Cohort studies that analyzed the TUT in the bench press exercise in individuals with experience in resistance training were included. We used the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool to analyze the methodological quality of the included studies. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The total number of participants was 215 individuals (179 men and 36 women). TUT was analyzed from the manipulation of each study variable. The behavior of the TUT in the bench press exercise varies according to the training protocol and method used. The TUT and the number of repetitions can vary to quantify the training volume.
... Furthermore, the difference in results between men and women was observed as women obtained lower results. This study is in line with other observations that evaluated jumping performance in athletes from different sports and reported imbalances in strength and velocity [32]. ...
... In this context, the load lifted would contribute to volume, compared to purely counting total repetitions (Stone et al., 1999;Tran & Docherty, 2006). The bench press was chosen because it is one of the most frequently used exercises in strength and conditioning, which has also received field testing to improve neuromuscular performance (Padulo et al., 2015). The technique for performing the bench press was previously described in the session familiarization. ...
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Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of tDCS combined with caffeine intake on training volume and pain perception in the bench press in resistance-trained males. The correlation between training volume and pain perception was also assessed in all interventions. Methods: Sixteen healthy males (age = 25.2 ± 4.7 years, body mass = 82.8 ± 9.1 kg, and height = 178.3 ± 5.7 cm), advanced in RT, were randomized and counterbalanced for the following experimental conditions: Sham tDCS with placebo intake (Sham+Pla), Sham tDCS with caffeine intake (Sham+Caff), anodal tDCS with placebo intake (a-tDCS+Pla), and anodal tDCS with caffeine intake (a-tDCS+Caff). The caffeine or placebo ingestion (both with 5 mg.kg⁻¹) occurred 40 minutes before the tDCS sessions. The tDCS was applied over the left DLPFC for 20 minutes, with a 2 mA current intensity. After the tDCS sessions, participants performed the bench press with an 80% of 1RM load, where training volume and pain perception were measured. Results: Training volume was higher in the 1st and 2nd sets in both a-tDCS+Caff and Sham+Caff conditions, compared to the Sham+Pla condition (P < .05). Both a-tDCS+Caff and a-tDCS+Pla showed an increased pain perception during the third set compared to the first set. Also, no correlation was found between the number of repetitions and pain perception in any condition (P > .05). Conclusion: This research revealed that caffeine intake alone could be used as an ergogenic aid during resistance training programs in resistance-trained males.
... In this session, the 4-6 RM load was directly used, and each participant performed only one trial of 4-6 RM for each exercise. The coefficient of friction between steel for each machine was 0.78 µrd for static friction and 0.42 µrd for dynamic friction (Padulo et al., 2015). ...
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This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of body mass to estimate 4-6 repetitions maximum of pectoral machine, leg extension, and leg press exercises to optimize the one repetition maximum assessment. For this purpose, fourteen male soccer players (age 24.14 ± 4.66 years; body mass 76.52 ± 6.35 kg; height 1.83 ± 0.06 m; training experience 17.71 ± 5.15 years) participated to determine 4-6 repetition maximum according to Brzycki protocol for each exercise in randomized counterbalanced order. A moderate significant correlation was showed between the 4-6 repetition maximum and the body mass (r = 0.440, 0.393 and 0.305) for pectoral machine, leg extension, and leg press exercises, respectively). The analyses showed that body mass weakly explained the three criterion variables (r2: 9-19%). The prediction equations suggested can be used to optimize the one repetition maximum test, but other factors must be considered in further studies to have more accurate 4-6 repetition maximum values.
... The speed of movement of workout was self-determined by the participants. However, the free weight was determined on the right arm using dumbbells [12]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a week-long free weight training intervention for grip strength and grip endurance time in young adults. Thirty-one healthy people (15 men and 16 women) volunteered for this study. During biceps curl exercises with dumbbells in supination, pronation, and neural forearm postures, free weights were used to perform 3 sets of 10 repetitions [10-RM] daily for a week. Experimental trials were randomly recorded for MVC grip strength and endurance at 50% MVC in three different levels of forearm posture. The results showed a significant effect of gender and exposure days on grip strength and endurance time (p < 0.001) for both participants. In addition, MVC grip strength was highest in the pronation of both participants. However, grip endurance time was highest in the pronation in male participants and neutral in female participants. Therefore, it can be concluded that free weight strength training may improve grip strength and endurance with respect to exposure days for both male and female participants.
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Introduction Submaximal strength testing appears to be valid to prescribe the intensity for strength training protocols that reduce the risk of injuries and testing time. Objective This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of body mass parameters to estimate 4-6 repetitions maximum (4-6 RM) of Leg press 45°, Chest press, and Pull-down exercises. Methods Eleven male bodybuilders (age 38.27 ± 10.48 years) participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental external load up to find the load allowing them to perform 4 to 6 maximal repetitions for each exercise in random order. The starting load was 50% of body mass for chest press and pull-down exercises and 100% for leg press. The load increment after each set was 20 kg for lower limb exercises and 10 kg for upper body exercises. Results Results revealed that body mass had good to optimal relationships with 4-6 RM for all three exercises. Results showed that body mass had a good prediction ability for all three criterion measures. Conclusion The prediction equations suggested in this study may allow coaches to estimate the 4-6 RM of leg press 45°, chest press, and pull-down performances. Evidence Level IV; Case series. Keywords: Predictions and Projections; Muscle Strength; Body Weight
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Introduction Submaximal strength testing appears to be valid to prescribe the intensity for strength training protocols that reduce the risk of injuries and testing time. Objective This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of body mass parameters to estimate 4-6 repetitions maximum (4-6 RM) of Leg press 45°, Chest press, and Pull-down exercises. Methods Eleven male bodybuilders (age 38.27 ± 10.48 years) participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental external load up to find the load allowing them to perform 4 to 6 maximal repetitions for each exercise in random order. The starting load was 50% of body mass for chest press and pull-down exercises and 100% for leg press. The load increment after each set was 20 kg for lower limb exercises and 10 kg for upper body exercises. Results Results revealed that body mass had good to optimal relationships with 4-6 RM for all three exercises. Results showed that body mass had a good prediction ability for all three criterion measures. Conclusion The prediction equations suggested in this study may allow coaches to estimate the 4-6 RM of leg press 45°, chest press, and pull-down performances. Evidence Level IV; Case series. Keywords: Predictions and Projections; Muscle Strength; Body Weight
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Purpose: This study investigated the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on velocity loss in a typical resistance exercise session. Methods: Twelve recreationally resistance-trained males (age = 24.8 ± 3.0 years, body mass = 78.9 ± 13.6 kg, and height = 174.3 ± 7.3 cm) completed two experimental trials in a counterbalanced crossover design: anodal tDCS and sham conditions. The stimuli were applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 20 minutes, using a 2 mA current intensity in anodal tDCS and a 1-minute active stimulus in the sham condition. After stimulation, subjects performed three sets of the bench press at a 70% of 1 maximum repetition intensity and 1 min of inter-set rest. The velocity loss was calculated as the relative difference between the fastest repetition velocity (usually first) and the velocity of the last repetition of each set and averaged over all three sets. Results: The results found no interaction between conditions and sets (P = .122), and no effect for conditions (P = .323) or sets (P = .364) for the velocity loss in each set. Also, no differences were found between the average velocity loss of the three sets in the anodal tDCS (-25.0 ± 4.7%) and sham condition (-23.3 ± 6.4%; P = .323). Conclusion: Anodal tDCS does not affect movement velocity in a typical strength training protocol in recreationally trained subjects.
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Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2.2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m) completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl), with two-minute (SEQA) and with five-minute interval (SEQB). The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley), with two (SEQC) and five-minute intervals (SEQD). For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9) was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9). Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7) compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1). The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets.
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BACKGROUND: Although studies have demonstrated the occurrence of postexercise hypotension (PEH) in resistance exercises, there is still no consensus on an ideal protocol.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different rest intervals (RI) between resistance exercise (RE) sets on postexercise blood pressure (BP).METHODS: Sixteen sedentary non-hypertensive young men performed three RE protocols with RI of 1 (P1), 2 (2) and 3 (P3) minutes between the sets, as well as a control protocol (CON), in a counterbalanced manner. The RE protocols consisted of three sets of eight repetitions in six exercises. The loads used in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd exercise sets were 80%, 70% and 60% of one repetition maximum (1RM), respectively. Measurements were taken at rest (RES), 15 (T15), 30 (T30), 45 (T45), 60 (T60), 75 (T75), and 90 (T90) minutes after the session. Factorial analysis of variance (Anova) was carried out, followed by post hoc LSD.RESULTS: No significant change was found in systolic BP after the protocols. A significant increase in diastolic BP was verified after CON at timepoints T45 and T90. Significant reduction in diastolic BP occurred after P1 and P3, with duration of 30 and 15 min, respectively. No significant differences were found in the systolic and diastolic BP responses between the protocols with different RI.CONCLUSION: RI does not seem to influence systolic BP reduction after an RE session. However, reductions in diastolic BP (P1 and P3) lasting up to 30 minutes were observed. (Arq Bras Cardiol 2010; 94(4):482-487)
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the force-velocity response of the neuromuscular system to a variety of concentric only, stretch-shorten cycle, and ballistic bench press movements. Twenty-seven men of an athletic background (21.9 +/- 3.1 years, 89.0 +/- 12.5 kg, 86.3 +/- 13.6 kg 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) performed 4 types of bench presses, concentric only, concentric throw, rebound, and rebound throw, across loads of 30-80% 1RM. Average force output was unaffected by the technique used across all loads. Greater force output was recorded using higher loading intensities. The use of rebound was found to produce greater average velocities (12.3% higher mean across loads) and peak forces (14.1% higher mean across loads). Throw or ballistic training generated greater velocities across all loads (4.4% higher average velocity and 6.7% higher peak velocity), and acceleration-deceleration profiles provided greater movement pattern specificity. However, the movement velocities (0.69-1.68 m.s(-1)) associated with the loads used in this study did not approach actual movement velocities associated with functional performance. Suggestions were made as to how these findings may be applied to improve strength, power, and functional performance.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to develop three regression equations to predict 1-RM chest press strength (CPS), shoulder press strength (SPS), and knee extension strength (KES) from a 5-10 RM CPS, SPS, and KES test in females 19-26 years of age. Thirty healthy adult females were tested for 1-RM and 5-10 RM strength. The order of testing was counterbalanced to minimize the effect of improved technique. Simple regression analysis produced the following equation to predict 1-RM CPS from submaximal CP testing: [1-RM (lb) = 7.24 + (1.05 SCP)]. The correlation between predicted and measured 1-RM CP was r = 0.91. The SEE was 2.5 kg or 7.8% of measured 1-RM CPS. The mean and standard deviations for the measured 1-RM CPS and the predicted 1-RM CPS was 32.3±5.4 kg and 32.3±6.0 kg respectively. Regression analysis also produced the following equation to predict 1-RM SPS from submaximal SP testing: [1-RM (lb) = 1.43 + (1.20 SPS)]. The correlation between predicted and measured 1-RM SPS was r = 0.92. The SEE was 1.6 or 7.6% of the measured 1-RM SPS. The mean and standard deviations for the measured 1-RM SPS and the predicted 1-RM SPS were 21.4±4.0 kg and 21.4±3.7 kg respectively. Regression analysis also produced the following equation to predict 1-RM KES from submaximal KE testing: [1-RM (lb) = 4.67 + (1.14 KES)]. The correlation between predicted and measured 1-RM KES was r = 0.94. The SEE was 2.3 kg or 6.3% of measured 1-RM KES. The mean and standard deviations for the measured 1-RM KES and the predicted 1-RM KES were 38.5±7.6 kg and 38.4±6.8 kg, respectively. The results of this study indicate that 1-RM CPS, SPS, and KES may be predicted with an acceptable degree of accuracy in untrained female subjects.