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Understanding non-work presenteeism: Relationships between emotional intelligence, boredom, procrastination and job stress

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Abstract

Non-work related presenteeism refers to the behaviour of employees who engage in personal activities instead of work-related activities whilst at work. Currently, limited research exists concerning non-work related presenteeism, despite the suggestion that it can financially impact organisations more than absenteeism. The aim of the present study was to examine whether any significant relationships existed between non-work related presenteeism and four theoretically linked psychological variables: emotional intelligence (EI), job stress, boredom, and procrastination. Data was collected via an online questionnaire. A sample of 57 male and 127 female full-time employees across several industries and organisations completed the surveys. As hypothesised, a significant relationship was observed between non-work related presenteeism and EI (r = −0.25), boredom (r = 0.33) and procrastination (r = 0.26). Self-reported levels of job stress, however, were not significantly related to non-work related presenteeism. These results suggest that developing EI and improving job-related engagement may decrease non-work presenteeism.

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... According to Smith et al., EI plays a vital role in nursing practice and can affect various aspects of nursing such as clinical decision-making, collegial and inter-professional relationships, clinical environment and knowledge utilization [47]. Previous studies highlighting the positive effect that EI has on employee's emotion regulation, overcoming challenges at work and managing with work-related stress [48]. While several studies also indicated that there is a positive relationship between EI, job performance and job satisfaction as well as EI reduces the turnover intention of employee's [48,49]. ...
... Previous studies highlighting the positive effect that EI has on employee's emotion regulation, overcoming challenges at work and managing with work-related stress [48]. While several studies also indicated that there is a positive relationship between EI, job performance and job satisfaction as well as EI reduces the turnover intention of employee's [48,49]. In addition, EI has been found to be a protective factor for the negative emotions and Counterproductive Work Behaviors among employees [50,51]. ...
... Despite the fact that there are papers reporting the positive effect that EI can have on boredom [54]; the empirical studies supporting this notion are limited. According to a cross-sectional study in which 184 employees from several type of industries participated there is a negative relationship between EI and professional boredom [48]. ...
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Occupational (professional) boredom results in low performance at work. It has been positively associated with high levels of anxiety and depression as well as premature death. However, occupational boredom has not been extensively studied among working nurses. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational boredom in nurses working in both public (52.9%) and private (47.1%) health units in Greece. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a convenience sample of 189 nurses (84.7% females) with an average age of 40 years. Emotional Intelligence was evaluated with the use of The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form and Professional Boredom was assessed with the use of the Boredom Proneness Scale. The majority of Nurses showed relatively high values of total Emotional Intelligence (EI), and marginally low values of overall Professional Boredom. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the overall Professional Boredom of Nurses and the Well-being, Self-control, Emotionality and Sociability subscales of EI, as well as total EI (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the three dimensions of EI (Well-being, Self-Control and Emotionality) explained 39.0% of the variability of the total Professional Boredom of the working Nurses.
... Other than these three types literature stated another two types of presenteeism as, jobstress-related presenteeism and non-work-related presenteeism (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012;Wan, Downey and Stough;2014). 'Non-work-related presenteeism' means that employees are mentally absent while they are healthy and present at work. ...
... Other than these three types literature stated another two types of presenteeism as, jobstress-related presenteeism and non-work-related presenteeism (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012;Wan, Downey and Stough;2014). 'Non-work-related presenteeism' means that employees are mentally absent while they are healthy and present at work. Job-stressrelated presenteeism occurs when employees fail to focus their mental concentration on work due to job stress (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012) and non-work-related presenteeism arises when employees involve in their personal events instead of working activities at job (Wan, Downey and Stough, 2014). ...
... 'Non-work-related presenteeism' means that employees are mentally absent while they are healthy and present at work. Job-stressrelated presenteeism occurs when employees fail to focus their mental concentration on work due to job stress (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012) and non-work-related presenteeism arises when employees involve in their personal events instead of working activities at job (Wan, Downey and Stough, 2014). ...
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Presenteeism is a comparatively new phenomenon in the study of occupational behaviors which evolved throughout the past few decades. Increasing interest in managing presenteeism effectively emerged as a new source of competitive advantage in current organizations. With definitional confusion, the most scholarly conception of presenteeism involves the employee's attending to work while being ill. However, the definition has been more recently extended to include other conditions and events that limit productivity. Now focus is moving from single dimension to multiple dimensions of presenteeism. Accordingly, this conceptual paper traces the development of interest in presenteeism with consideration of its various conceptualizations which are important theoretically and practically. The paper may be useful to those who are interested in understanding the concept of presenteeism for future research studies.
... Other than these three types literature stated another two types of presenteeism as, jobstress-related presenteeism and non-work-related presenteeism (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012;Wan, Downey and Stough;2014). 'Non-work-related presenteeism' means that employees are mentally absent while they are healthy and present at work. ...
... Other than these three types literature stated another two types of presenteeism as, jobstress-related presenteeism and non-work-related presenteeism (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012;Wan, Downey and Stough;2014). 'Non-work-related presenteeism' means that employees are mentally absent while they are healthy and present at work. Job-stressrelated presenteeism occurs when employees fail to focus their mental concentration on work due to job stress (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012) and non-work-related presenteeism arises when employees involve in their personal events instead of working activities at job (Wan, Downey and Stough, 2014). ...
... 'Non-work-related presenteeism' means that employees are mentally absent while they are healthy and present at work. Job-stressrelated presenteeism occurs when employees fail to focus their mental concentration on work due to job stress (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012) and non-work-related presenteeism arises when employees involve in their personal events instead of working activities at job (Wan, Downey and Stough, 2014). ...
... Another study suggested that cyberloafing provides an effective barrier against work stress, and has shown that taking periodic breaks from work is vital because these breaks allow employees to recharge their energy level and are necessary to improve work performance (Henle & Blanchard, 2008;Anandarajan et al., 2011). Wan et al. (2014) found that one of the factors driving employees in committing cyberloafing was related to work pressure and the perception of how superiors gave appreciation and fair treatment in the workplace. When employees feel that they are not being treated well, they tend to engage in cyberloafing behaviours. ...
... This finding is in agreement with Liberman et al., (2011) who suggests that if the stress level of employees is high, he/she will delay the work by indulging in cyberloafing, which leads to reducing in work involvement and commitment. Şen et al. (2016) and Wan et al. (2014) also confirmed that the employees tend to engage in cyberloafing behaviour as a result of psychological workload. It is also proved that cyberloafing behaviour is a more reliable predictor of job burnout than cyberloafing activities (Aghaz & Sheikh, 2016). ...
... Also confirmed that the employees might tend towards cyberloafing behaviour as a result of workload. (Şen et al., 2016;Wan et al., 2014). As for the relation between cyberloafing and organizational commitment, the result of the study demonstrated that there is a relation between cyberloafing and organization commitment. ...
Article
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The availability of the internet and its usage has become accessible to all and it has contributed to the ease of employees avoiding work pressure and leading it for non-work-related matters, which is cyberloafing. It has caused many problems in organizations and the most affected are organization commitment. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of workload dimensions (psychological workload and physical workload) on organizational commitment. It also seeks to determine whether cyberloafing mediates the link between workload and organizational commitment. A survey was conducted on 304 employees of a mining company in Jordan. Descriptive statistics, correlation, multiple regression, and hierarchical regression analyses were performed to analyse the data using SPSS v23. The results showed that the workload significantly influenced the organizational commitment among the employees. Cyberloafing was found to partially mediate the link between both workload variables and organization commitment. The study was conducted in the mining industry in Jordan. Thus, future study is suggested to examine the model in other industries and countries.
... In view of the above, this study approached mobbing in nursing from a perspective considering the role of emotional intelligence in psychological harassment and its relationship with other psychological, personal and social variables. In this respect, high emotional intelligence has been related to more positive affect and emotions, while lower emotional intelligence could lead to attitudes of isolation at work, since, under such circumstances, it is harder to manage behavior positively [30]. In more detailed studies of emotional intelligence, it has been found to have a moderating role in coping with stress and anxiety [31][32][33]. ...
... We agree with Keskin et al. [11] that those who have a greater ability to perceive, understand, use and manage their own and others' emotions are more likely to be psychologically well-adjusted. We also agree with Wan et al. [30] that emotional intelligence facilitates coping with the challenges of the job and achieving goals, although neurological, genetic and contextual factors also intervene in self-regulation and emotional control. Relaxation or mindfulness strategies may reduce sensitivity to anxiety and help cope with stress, as suggested by other authors (e.g., [30]). ...
... We also agree with Wan et al. [30] that emotional intelligence facilitates coping with the challenges of the job and achieving goals, although neurological, genetic and contextual factors also intervene in self-regulation and emotional control. Relaxation or mindfulness strategies may reduce sensitivity to anxiety and help cope with stress, as suggested by other authors (e.g., [30]). Lastly, it is worth mentioning how important it is for business leaders to make this problem, which silently affects their workers, known and improve the perception of support of mobbing victims. ...
Article
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The prevalence of mobbing among nurses in various countries is around 17–20%. Some researchers have attempted to explain the success or failure of adaptation to the work environment and teamwork and to buffer the effects of psychological harassment in the workplace by incorporating emotional intelligence into the mobbing context. As its main objectives, this quantitative, observational, cross-sectional study analyzed the relationship between emotional intelligence and mobbing as perceived by nurses and sought to establish the mediating roles of other variables involved, such as social support and sensitivity to anxiety. The final sample consisted of 1357 Spanish, self-selected nurses aged 22–58 from multiple healthcare institutions. The questionnaires (Perceived Psychological Harassment Questionnaire, The Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory, Brief Perceived Social Support Questionnaire, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3) were implemented on a web platform, which enabled the participants to complete them online. Descriptive analyses and mediation models were estimated. Personal characteristics related to high sensitivity to anxiety and low emotional intelligence implied greater presence of mobbing at work. This mobbing may be buffered if the person perceives enough support from family, friends or significant others. Our results recommend reinforcing the social support network of nursing personnel to improve the work climate and training them in emotional intelligence in university and on-the-job programs.
... Boredom is regarded as a negative state of cognition, emotion and physical strength that strike employees to be deactivated and unpleasant with of their unchallenging job. Boredom as a negative wellbeing (Whiteoak, 2014) are driving employees to perform negatively such as ill health (Harju, Hakanen, & Schaufeli, 2014), job dissatisfaction (Spector & Fox, 2006), poor job performance (Watt & Hargis, 2010), high absenteeism (Wan et al,, 2014), and poor organizational commitment (Van Wyk et al., 2016). Across time, turnover intention may therefore occur as employees are constantly dissatisfied with the job and organization. ...
... Evidently, boredom in the workplace has more negative impacts on health (Harju et al., 2014), job performance (Watt & Hargis, 2010), job satisfaction (Spector & Fox, 2006), employees' emotion (Culp, 2006), attendance (Wan et al., 2014), and well-being (Loukidou et al., 2009), across various countries. Moreover, it leads to monetary loss at the organization level. ...
Article
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Boredom in the workplace is commonly described as one of the negative and widespread phenomena where its increasing trend can be seen among employees on all occupational levels. However, the number of investigations performed on the occurrence of boredom in the eastern countries is limited. This study conceptualizes the causal and consequences of boredom in the workplace underpinned by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory. Subsequently, it postulates that boredom among employees occurs due to work-related characteristics (i.e.: job demands, job resources) and individual personality traits, as well as time orientation cultural dimension, which may lead to their turnover intention. Furthermore, several hypotheses are proposed in this study. This paper provides several empirical contributions by highlighting the tendency of boredom to occur in the workplace which may leads to the turnover intention. By determining its antecedents, boredom in the workplace can be curbed and the turnover intention can be prevented in a more practical way.
... Individuals sometimes procrastinate for a relief from stress © 2020 International Association of Applied Psychology. (Lavoie & Pychyl, 2001;Wan et al., 2014). Social support is particularly important in this extraordinary context, because it can act as a "negativity buffer" (Bavik, Shaw, & Wang, 2020), helping workers cope with stress and focus on tasks. ...
... In this unique context, our research reveals the importance of social support. Given that procrastination in the home office is a challenge for many, yet it hasn't been considered adequately in the remote working literature, we suggest the need for research to investigate the nuanced relationship between virtual work characteristics and procrastination, including boundary conditions (moving beyond self-discipline in this research) and underlying mechanisms (Wan et al., 2014). ...
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Given that existing knowledge on remote working can be questioned in an extraordinary pandemic context, we conducted a mixed-methods investigation to explore the challenges remote workers at this time are struggling with, as well as what virtual work characteristics and individual differences affect these challenges. In Study 1, from semi-structured interviews with Chinese employees working from home in the early days of the pandemic, we identified four key remote work challenges (i.e., work-home interference, ineffective communication, procrastination, and loneliness), as well as four virtual work characteristics that affected the experience of these challenges (i.e., social support, job autonomy, monitoring, and workload) and one key individual difference factor (i.e., workers’ self-discipline). In Study 2, using survey data from 522 employees working at home during the pandemic, we tested the associations amongst these factors and found a powerful role of virtual work characteristics in influencing worker’s performance and well-being via shaping the extent of these experienced challenges. Specially, social support was conducive for alleviating all remote working challenges, while job autonomy only negatively related to loneliness. Workload and monitoring both led to work-home interference, but workload also can reduce procrastination. We discuss the implications of our research for the pandemic and beyond.
... Conversely, Koopman, et al. (2002) found that presenteeism negatively correlated with JS among employees. Finally, in a joint study in Australia and the UK, Wan, Downey, and Stough, (2014) found JS was not significantly related to presenteeism among employees. The results of these studies show that observed relationships between presenteeism and JS were inconsistent. ...
... 3. The relationship between JS and Presenteeism: There was no significant relationship between overall JS and overall presenteeism (r = 0.08, p < 0.15) ( Table 3). The results of this study were consistent with the findings of a joint study in Australia and the UK by Wan, Downey & Stough (2014), which found no significant relationship between presenteeism and job stress. The results of this indicate that although the nurses are facing job stress, they still go to work. ...
Article
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Presenteeism among nurses is the designation to attend work while sick, and is a vital issue for nurse administrators to focus. This descriptive correlational study aimed to explore the level of job stress and presenteeism as perceived by nurses, and to explore the relationship between overall job stress and overall presenteeism among nurses in tertiary care hospitals, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The subjects were 282 nurses working in three tertiary care hospitals in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Data collection was carried out from February to March, 2016. The research instruments included the Expanded Nursing Stress Scale (ENSS) and the Stanford Presenteeism Scale-6 (SPS-6). The ENSS and the SPS-6 were confirmed for validity by the developers. The reliability coefficients of the ENSS and SPS-6 were 0.80. Descriptive statistics and Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed as follows: 1. The mean score of overall job stress and the nine dimensions of job stress as perceived by nurses were at a moderate level. 2. The mean score of overall presenteeism and the two dimensions of presenteeism included completing work and avoiding distraction as perceived by nurses were at a high level. 3. There was no relationship between overall job stress and overall presenteeism among the nurses. The results of this study provide baseline information for hospital and nursing administrators in order to design strategies to reduce job stress and to manage presenteeism among nurses in tertiary care hospitals in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Keywords: Job stress, presenteeism, nurse, tertiary care hospital, Pakistan
... Pesquisas anteriores também indicam que, quando o tédio no trabalho aumenta, os funcionários são mais propensos a usar a tecnologia de comunicação para atividades não relacionadas ao trabalho durante sua vigência (cyberslacking) ou fazer intervalos mais longos para o café (soldiering) (Eddy, D'Abate, & Thurston, 2010;Metin et al., 2016;Wan, Downey, & Stough, 2014). Os resultados desses estudos estão de acordo com os raciocínios derivados da Teoria da Autodeterminação. ...
... O tédio no trabalho também tem um efeito moderado no cyberslacking, evidenciando que os funcionários entediados são mais propensos a comportamentos como usar mensagens instantâneas para questões pessoais, passar o tempo navegando em redes sociais e ler notícias online no trabalho. Estes resultados corroboram os de estudos anteriores (Eddy et al., 2010;Metin et al., 2016;Reijseger et al., 2012;Wan et al., 2014), que relataram que funcionários entediados tendem a fazer intervalos mais longos para o café (soldiering) e engajar-se mais no uso não relacionado ao trabalho de tecnologia de comunicação (cyberslacking). Os gerentes que desejam reduzir a procrastinação no trabalho e seus resultados negativos devem promover modalidades de trabalho (por exemplo, ações de redesenho do trabalho ou job crafting) que atendam às preferências e competências dos funcionários, promovendo um ambiente mais estimulante e desafiador, reduzindo a sensação de tédio (Metin et al., 2016;Reijseger et al., 2012). ...
Article
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RESUMO Embora as pesquisas sobre procrastinação no trabalho ainda sejam escassas, os estudos existentes apontam para os seus efeitos negativos em múltiplas esferas da vida pessoal e profissional com repercussões no bem-estar e na sustentabilidade social dos indivíduos. Este estudo propõe um modelo que visa esclarecer as relações entre os antecedentes e os consequentes da procrastinação no trabalho. Assim, adotou-se uma conceitualização bidimensional da procrastinação no trabalho, utilizando as dimensões de soldiering e cyberslacking. O modelo inclui o tédio no trabalho como um antecedente da procrastinação, e o estresse no trabalho e a satisfação no trabalho como seus consequentes. Os dados recolhidos a partir de uma amostra de 287 participantes foram analisados por meio do método dos mínimos quadrados. Os resultados mostram que o tédio no trabalho está positivamente associado tanto ao soldiering quanto ao cyberslacking. Os resultados também mostram que o soldiering aumenta o estresse e diminui a satisfação no trabalho. O cyberslacking não teve efeitos significativos quer sobre o estresse no trabalho, quer sobre a satisfação no trabalho. São ainda discutidas as implicações teóricas e práticas deste estudo.
... Previous research also indicates that, when boredom at work increases, employees are more prone to use communication technology for nonwork-related activities during work (cyberslacking) or taking longer coffee breaks (soldiering) (Eddy et al., 2010;Metin et al., 2016;Wan et al., 2014). The results of these studies are in accordance with reasonings derived from Self-Determination Theory. ...
... Boredom at work also has a moderate effect on cyberslacking, evidencing that bored employees are more prone to behaviors such as using instant messaging for personal use, spending time on social network platforms, and reading news online at work. These results corroborate those from previous studies (Eddy et al., 2010;Metin et al., 2016;Reijseger et al., 2012;Wan et al., 2014), who reported that bored employees tend to take long coffee breaks (soldiering) and engage more in non-work-related use of communication technology (cyberslacking). Managers who wish to reduce job procrastination and its negative outcomes should promote working arrangements (e.g., job crafting) that fit employees' preferences and competences promoting a more stimulating and challenging working environment, reducing boredom at work (Metin et al., 2016;Reijseger et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Although research on procrastination at work is scarce, existing studies indicate its negative effects in multiple spheres of personal and professional life, with repercussions on individuals’ well-being and social sustainability. This study proposes a model that aims to clarify the relationships between the antecedents and consequences of procrastination at work. We follow a bi-dimensional conceptualization of procrastination at work, using the dimensions of soldiering and cyberslacking. The model includes boredom at work as a predictor and work stress and job satisfaction as outcomes. Data from a sample of 287 participants were analyzed with Partial Least Squares. Results show that boredom at work is positively associated with both soldiering and cyberslacking. Results also show that soldiering increases work stress and decreases job satisfaction. Cyberslacking has no significant effects on work stress or job satisfaction. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are further discussed.
... Therefore, since it is thought to have an impact on core selfevaluation and presenteeism, it has formed another variable of the research. As a matter of studies in the literature, relations among presenteeism and core self-evaluation (Acaray, 2019), life satisfaction, physical and mental well-being (Güdü Demirbulat & Bozok, 2015), stress (Wan et al., 2014;burn-out (Zengin & Kaygın, 2016); work performance (Collins et al., 2005;Guluni & Yumuk Günay, 2020), absenteeism (Mc Clearn et al., 2010;Wada et al.,2013), organizational identification (Çiftçi et al.,2018), organizational commitment ( Baysal, 2012), alienation from work (İşcan & Moç, 2018), type A and B personality (Üzüm & Şenol, 2019;Yavuz & Kayhan, 2020), type A and B personality and stress (Durna, 2004), presenteeism with five factor personality traits (Ulu et al., 2017;Yıldız et al., 2017) were investigated. It was considered important to determine the relationships between personality assessments, presenteeism behaviors and personality traits. ...
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In this study, it was aimed to reveal the mediating role of personality traits in the effect of head of school's core self-evaluation on presenteeism behaviors. For this purpose, in the quantitative research designed in the correlational design, the research was conducted with a sample group of 310 head of schools selected by the 'simple random (random)' sampling method in the 2019-2020 academic year. Correlation and regression analyzes were utilised in the analysis of the data. In line with the findings, it was concluded that the head of school' core self-evaluations were at a medium level and their presenting behaviors were at a low level and that the head of schools mostly had A-type personality traits. According to the results of multiple regression analysis and process module and bootstrapp regression analysis, it was determined that personality traits had a partial mediation effect on the effect of core core self-evaluation on presenteeism behaviors.
... Workers with a high level of emotional intelligence usually have reduced burnout levels [13] as these individuals are more able to deal with stress, which in turn could lead to a higher level of productivity [14]. Emotional regulation techniques can aid individuals to feel accomplished at work [15]. ...
Article
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This study is focused on assessing the effects of burnout as a moderator of the relationship between employees’ quality of work life (QWL) and their perceptions of their contribution to the organization’s productivity by integrating the QWL factors into the trichotomy of (de)motivators of productivity in the workplace. The empirical findings resulting from an OLS multiple regression, with interaction terms, applied to a survey administered at 514 employees in 6 European countries, point out two important insights: (i) QWL hygiene factors (e.g., safe work environment and occupational healthcare) positively and significantly influence the contribution to productivity; and (ii) burnout de-motivator factors (that is, low effectiveness, cynicism, and emotional exhaustion) significantly moderate the relationship between QWL and the contribution to productivity. Combining burnout with other QWL components, such as occupational health, safe work, and appropriate salary, new insights are provided concerning the restricting (i.e., low effectiveness and cynicism) and catalyzing (emotional exhaustion) burnout components of contribution to productivity. These findings are particularly relevant given the increased weight of burnout, mental disorders and absenteeism in the labor market, affecting individuals’ quality of life and organizations’ performance and costs.
... D'Abate and Vortex (2007) evaluated yearly time limit due to which individual surf $8875 hours (home and recreationrelated) at work as per representative. Notwithstanding the rare accessible research in work settings, recommended that procrastination is associated with negative results, for example, accepting a lower compensation, encountering shorter enchantment of business, tending to be underemployed (Nguyen, Steel, and Ferrari, 2013), having lower self-viability (Steel, 2007), and announcing larger amounts of fatigue (Wan, Downey, and Stough, 2014). ...
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The mental health problems among bank employees are very crucial throughout the world. In particular, the bank employees of Pakistan experience substantial mental health issues. As bank employees encounter high work demands that cause procrastination, that leads to work stress as well as mental health issues among bank employees. Therefore the current study aims to investigate the predictive relationship between Procrastination, Work Stress, and Mental Well-being among Bank Employees. The present study was a cross-section research design followed the convenient sampling technique to select a sample size of 350 bank employees. The Measures GWS (Gideon, Bruin & Nicola, 2005) PAWS, (Metin, Taris, and Peeters, 2015), and WEMWB Scale (2006) were used in the current study. The data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed by the use of the SPSS 21 version. The output of the present research revealed the positive correlation between procrastination and work stress. In contrast, mental well-being found to be negatively associated with procrastination and work stress. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that the Soldiering and Cyber-slacking were found to be the negative predictors of mental well-being among bank employees. No significant mean difference has been found in demographic variables except soldiering in age. The study would help the management employees, other supportive representatives, and psychologists to understand that how procrastination and work stress influence the mental well-being of bank employees as well as to provide direction for devising management plans.
... We concluded from the wording of the two kinds of misfit that the direction thereof is in one direction: The demands are greater than the abilities, or the supply falls below the needs. However, it seems feasible to hypothesize that when the abilities exceed the demands that this leads to a need that is not supplied for, which leads to the theme of boreout (Fisherl, 1993;Loukidou et al., 2009;Rothlin & Werder, 2007;Skowronski, 2012;Wan et al., 2014;Watt & Hargis, 2010;Whiteoak, 2014). ...
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This article describes “chronic relative underperformance” (CRU)—a special example of P-E misfit. It investigates literature on giftedness, underachievement, underemployment, workplace boredom, and boreout, and connects these to clinical psychological views on mentalization. The intent is to develop thoughts that are useful in the understanding of why some employees fail to thrive, even though they are performing seemingly well enough as regards to the targets of the employer, and offer a frame of reference that can lead to further understanding of this condition. CRU is an issue that is hardly described within the literature. Recognizing CRU in the workforce and taking steps to counter its effects may lead to a more efficient and elegant way to reach organizational, and personal, goals.
... There is some proof of this hypothesis. EI has been found to be negatively associated with procrastination by employees in the workplace (Wan, Downey & Stough, 2014) and in college students trying to meet college requirements (Deniz, Tras & Aydogan, 2009). It has also been found to mediate the relationship between procrastination and academic achievement in students with and without learning disabilities (Hen & Goroshit, 2014). ...
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Background While passive procrastination is usually associated with distress and dysfunction active procrastination may be an effective coping style. To test this possibility, we examined passive and active procrastination in terms of temperament, character, and emotional intelligence (EI), as well as by a short-term longitudinal study. Methods Adult community volunteers ( N = 126) self-reported twice in an online short-term longitudinal study. At baseline on active and passive procrastination, as well as on the temperament and character inventory of personality (TCI-140) and EI. At first testing, they were asked to freely describe three personal goals and to make action plans to achieve each within the next two weeks. Two weeks later they reported on progress on their personal goals (PPG). Results PPG correlated positively with active procrastination and negatively with passive procrastination. Dividing the participants into median splits on active and passive procrastination resulted in four groups: Active, Passive, Active-Passive, and Non-Procrastinators. Analysis of variance showed that active procrastinators had an advantage in temperament and character traits as well as EI. Active procrastinators were also higher than the other groups on personality profiles i.e. combinations of traits; dependable temperament and well-developed character. Conclusions Active procrastination can be an adaptive and productive coping style. It is associated with dependable temperament, well-developed character, and high emotional intelligence and predicts meeting personal goals.
... Presenteeism, defined as potential productivity loss attributable to health problems or other events that adversely affect employees, is an important cause of productivity loss at workplaces [21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. Accumulating evidence has provided theoretical insights regarding the determinants of presenteeism for individuals [28,29]. ...
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With the rapid increase of aging workforces, companies worldwide are concerned with improving the health and working status of older workers. Sense of control is an important psychological variable in sociology but has attracted less attention in studies of occupational health and management. This study examined the association of sense of control with presenteeism among aging workers in the United States. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey were analyzed, specifically, 2308 observations in 2012. Structural equation modeling was used to assess work environment, sense of control (measured in relation to personal mastery and perceived constraints), and associations with presenteeism. The moderating effect of subjective social status on the association between sense of control and presenteeism was examined with a moderated mediation model. In the final structural equation modeling model, work environment was directly inversely associated with presenteeism, and work environment was significantly inversely associated with perceived constraints. There was a direct positive association between work environment and personal mastery, a direct positive association between perceived constraints and presenteeism, and a significant inverse association between personal mastery and presenteeism. The significant indirect effects between work environment and presenteeism were significantly mediated by sense of control. Subjective social status inversely moderated the relation between presenteeism and perceived mastery, a dimension of sense of control. To increase the performance of aging workers in the United States, managers should create a work environment that facilitates access to job resources, as this might improve personal sense of control, particularly among those with high subjective social status.
... A study on productivity at Google and Dell found companies were 40% more productive than competitors due to the ability to identify high-performance employees. The companies formed and mobilized teams of competent employees with high job performance, which contributed to firm performance (Vozza, 2017). Interestingly, a study conducted by Aon Hewitt stated that, by having an employee value proposition, reputation, collaboration, autonomy, learning and development and work-life balance would certainly increase job performance. ...
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An organization must initiate an adequate job design for the employees to required job performance. A question arises on how a company could gain high job performance in a particular setting in a dynamic business environment and diverse background. This study examines the influence of four components of job design as predictors to job performance; job enrichment, job rotation, job enlargement, and job simplification. While job design is proven to contribute to high job performance, some literature states its limitations. This study adopted a case study method to investigate issues faced by a leading automobile company in Malaysia. Primary data was collected through a series of interviews and a distribution of questionnaires. A multiple regression model was used to explore the predictors of job performance. It was found that job rotation and job enlargement were significant to job performance, while the insignificant effect of job enrichment and job simplification needs to be reviewed. The results of the analysis were discussed in line with feedback from interviews and related literature. The study contributed to the new understandings on critical factors of job design that influence job performance in the support cluster of a manufacturing company.
... According to [29], low levels of conscientiousness that is resulted as a subsequence of cyberloafing is linked with trait procrastination while situational procrastination is associated with experiencing an unpleasant and boring. In addition, it was discovered that staff involved in procrastination were more likely to participate in workplace cyberloafing or personal business [30]. According to [31], procrastination related to internet and computing resources as well as the resulting cyber loafing has increased drastically lately. ...
Article
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Workplace cyberloafing among government servants has become one of the most challenging issues facing by Malaysian governmental organisations and administrations. The phenomenon of cyberloafing among government servants in the governmental service context calls for an effort to determine the factors that influence the related cyberloafing. This research has identified four factors which predict cyberloafing behaviour namely job satisfaction, internet usage policy, job stress and work procrastination. A total 150 government servants in Putrajaya were targeted as respondents and the self-administered questionnaires were employed as the main method of primary data collection. Smart PLS 3.0 was employed to access the constructs’ structural model and measurement model. The findings reveal that only internet usage policy and work procrastinations are predicting cyberloafing behaviour predominantly. This study also emphasizes the need to perceive cyberloafing positively while imposing the correct amount of control on it.
... To evaluate the presenteeism perception of the participants, presenteeism scale (Stanford Presenteeism Scale) has been used, which was developed by Koopman et al. (2002) and revised by them in 2008. Reliability and validation of the scale has been approved and used in many studies made in later years by Kigozi, et al. 2017;Uribe et al. 2017;Zhang et al. 2015;Wan et al. 2014;Despiegel et al. 2012;Coşkun 2012. In the scale, the phenome-non of presenteeism is discussed with two lower-dimensions. ...
Article
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Presenteeism (işte var olamama) çalışanların hasta olmalarına, ruhsal ve fiziksel açıdan problem yaşa-malarına rağmen iş yerinde olmaları ve düşük verimlilik seviyesinde çalışmaları şeklinde tanımlanmak-tadır. Presenteeism kavramı, işyerinde performans, verimlilik ve sağlığa ilişkin henüz ortaya çıkan bir olgu olmasına rağmen örgütlerin dikkatle ele alması gerekli konuların başında gelmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı; eğitim kurumlarında çalışan öğretmenlerin presenteeism algılarının perfor-manslarına olan etkilerini analiz etmek ve bu eylemlerin bazı değişkenlere göre farklılık gösterip göster-mediğini ortaya koymaktır. Bununla birlikte bu araştırma değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkilerin düzeyinin ve yönünün de tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçlar doğrultusunda, Akdeniz bölgesinde yer alan Mersin ve Kahramanmaraş illerinde faaliyet gösteren eğitim kurumlarında görevli 829 öğretmene anket uygulanmıştır. Anket sonucunda elde edilen verilere SPSS paket programı kullanılarak korelasyon, re-gresyon, Kruskall-Wallis ve Mann-Whitney U analizi testleri uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; presenteeism ile işgören performansı arasında negatif yönde anlamlı ilişkinin varlığı, presentee-ismin "işi tamamlama" boyutunun işgören performansını negatif yönde etkilediği ve "dikkat dağınıklığından kaçınma" boyutunun ise işgören performansı üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisinin olmadığı ve sosyo-demografik özelliklerinin araştırma değişkenleri üzerinde anlamlı bir farklılığa sebebiyet ver-mediği tespit edilmiştir
... So far, the available evidence shows that procrastination is a prevalent behavior at work (Klingsieck, 2013), that is influenced by personality factors such as high neuroticism and low conscientiousness (Steel, 2007) and situational factors like limited task significance, limited autonomy, and feedback (Lonergan & Maher, 2000). Furthermore, it is associated with high levels of stress and boredom, decreased work engagement, and performance (Metin et al., 2018;Nguyen et al., 2013;Wan, Downey, & Stough, 2014). ...
Article
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Procrastination at work has been examined relatively scarcely, partly due to the lack of a globally validated and context-specific workplace procrastination scale. This study investigates the psychometric characteristics of the Procrastination at Work Scale (PAWS) among 1,028 office employees from seven countries, namely, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom. Specifically, it was aimed to test the measurement invariance of the PAWS and explore its discriminant validity by examining its relationships with work engagement and performance. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis shows that the basic factor structure and item loadings of the PAWS are invariant across countries. Furthermore, the two subdimensions of procrastination at work exhibited different patterns of relationships with work engagement and performance. Whereas soldiering was negatively related to work engagement and task performance, cyberslacking was unrelated to engagement and performance. These results indicate further validity evidence for the PAWS and the psychometric characteristics show invariance across various countries/languages. Moreover, workplace procrastination, especially soldiering, is a problematic behavior that shows negative links with work engagement and performance.
... Furthermore, the results of such studies consistently show that there is a significant relationship between working long hours and the obscurity in balancing both work and family domains (Clarke, 2004;Estes, Noonan, & Maume, 2007;Frone, 2003;Gamor, Amissah, & Boakye, 2014;Hobson, 2013;Mulvaney, O'Neill, Cleveland, & Crouter, 2007;Narayanan & Savarimuthu, 2013;Perry-Smith & Blum, 2000). Studies conducted by Doherty (2004); Hamilton et al. (2006); Emslie and Hunt (2009); Gurney (2009); Okumus, Sariisik, and Naipaul (2010); Reddy, Vranda, Ahmed, Nirmala, and Siddaramu (2010);Desai, Majumdar, Chakraborty, and Ghosh (2011); Mathew and Panchanatham (2011); Stavrou and Ierodiakonou (2011); Valk and Srinivasan (2011); Rehman and Azam Roomi (2012); Mani (2013); Goswami (2014); Krishnan (2014); Kachchaf, Ko, Hodari, and Ong (2015); Bharathi and Mala (2016); Peter and Enock (2016); Shrestha (2016); Peshave and Gupta (2017); Raj and Bansal (2017); Smith (2018) investigated work-life balance for women in various industries and found that the fundamental deterrents across all the industries are the concept of presenteeism (Arslaner & Boylu, 2017;Cicei, Mohorea, & Teodoru, 2013;Cullen & McLaughlin, 2006;Wan, Downey, & Stough, 2014) and very long working hours (Bohlea, Quinlana, Kennedya, & Williamsonb, 2004;Matthews et al., 2012;McNamara et al., 2011;Wright et al., 2014) and lack of flexibility ( Hill et al., 2001;Ravenswood & Harris, 2016;Skinner & Pocock, 2011;Stavrou & Ierodiakonou, 2011) for women that keeps them away from exploring career advancement opportunities (Albayrak, 2019;Ben & Galim, 2012;Blomme, Rheede, & Tromp, 2010;Emslie & Hunt, 2009;Estes et al., 2007;Gurney, 2009;Jarvis, 2016;Karkoulian et al., 2016;Ravenswood & Harris, 2016;Rehman & Azam Roomi, 2012;Santero Sanchez, Segovia Pérez, Castro Nuñez, Figueroa Domecq, & Talón Ballestero, 2015;Xu, 2018). Ong, Tan, Villareal, and Chiu (2019) conluded that a quality work life and prosocial motivation, positively affects organizational commitment, may lead to a lesser turnover intent among professionals. ...
Conference Paper
Hotel employees are being faced with long working hours, heavy workload shift duties and handling demanding and difficult customers has become a take-for granted phenomenon in the hospitality industry (Hsieh et al., 2004). With advancement in technology, demographic shifts, international labour mobility, and the blurring of geographical boundaries, work-life balance assumed an important role in human resources management. More importantly previous research has established the role work-life balance plays on both positive and negative outcomes. Yet reports of research on work-life balance and its management in the hospitality industry are fragmented, underdeveloped, and inconsistent.
... A seventeen-item scale adopted by Lee (1986) is used to measure employee job boredom with 17 items; this scale is having reliability value .909. For measuring the non-work-related presenteeism Wan et al. (2014) eight (8)item scale is used (a = .843). FWPs are measured by using Leslie et al. (2012) employee FWP motives measures with reliability of .867. ...
Article
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The scope of the current study is to investigate the impact of work-family conflict on procrastination and affective organizational commitment. The current study covered different aspects of the employees like their working life as well as their personal life. The unit of analysis for the study is individuals employed in the information technologyrelated organizations of Pakistan. Total response rate of the data collected is 85 %. The IT-related organization situated in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad is a limitation affecting the generalizability of results of this study. The sampling technique used is purposive/judgmental and data collection technique is cross-sectional. The study is unique as for the first time an integrative model is formulated with the construct of work-family conflict along with mediating role of non-work-related presenteeism which has not been tested earlier, specifically in IT industry of Pakistan. Moreover two important moderators’ boredom and flexible work practices are added in this model which is ignored in the previous research. Results of the study indicate that the employees facing the problem of work-family conflict have a significant and direct relationship with procrastination, whereas work-family conflict and affective organization commitment has a positive significant relationship which is a different result from previous studies on similar relationships. The reason of this different result owes to the organizational support given to the procrastinators. Moreover, non-work-related presenteeism is partially mediating in the relationship of related independent and the dependent variable. The results suggest that organizations need to review their employee-related policies and procedures which do not support non-work-related activities in order to reduce procrastination or delay in tasks. The present study has its significance for policy makers, managers, supervisors and employees at all levels.
... Self-regulation failure. Boredom may also form an important link in self-regulation and explain behaviors such as procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 1998;Vodanovich, & Rupp, 1999;Wan et al., 2014). Procrastination shares many of the same sources as boredom, ...
Preprint
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Why do people experience unpleasant, aversive emotions? Boredom is associated with a wide range of mental and physical health problems, including binge eating, substance use, anxiety, and depression. Nor does boredom feel good; many people are willing to shock themselves or even view upsetting images rather than be bored. Given such evidence, is it possible that boredom has adaptive value? We argue that it does; boredom provides an important evolutionary solution to minimizing prediction error by incentivizing learning. Reducing prediction error, it has been argued, is a core organizing principle underlying cognition; however, one way to reduce error is to isolate one’s self in extremely predictable environments (i.e., the “Dark Room Problem”). We argue that boredom evolved, at least in part, to prevent this. Specifically, boredom makes such a solution affectively undesirable, by aversively signaling a lack of successful attentional engagement in a valued goal-congruent activity. To reduce this aversive state, people are motivated to re-engage in meaningful activities and reallocate attentional resources. We review evidence from behavioral science and computational modeling supporting the role of boredom in maximizing learning and reducing prediction error. Furthermore, we suggest that these functions of boredom are not only present in modern humans, but have been conserved across species. We review evidence for boredom-like states in non-human animals and argue that animals likely experience boredom due to sharing many of the same psychological and physiological components of emotion as humans. For instance, animals in under-stimulated environments, such as cages or zoos, exhibit stereotyped behavior and other responses analogous to boredom in humans, including novelty seeking and play. In doing so, we address the adaptive value of boredom and its origins and prevalence in both human and non-human animals.
... Previous studies revealed that workplace cyber ostracism is known to be the leading cause of virtual workplace procrastination (Magee et al., 2017;Nguyen et al., 2013). Specifically, people who procrastinate their working tasks till the last minute worsen the situation as they could never cope up with other employees and it also makes cyber ostracism chronic (Wan et al., 2014). Based on the above discussion, this study proposed the following hypothesis; ...
Article
This study aimed to identify the influence of workplace cyber ostracism on employee online work engagement and employee mental well-being with the mediating roles of remote work challenges such as loneliness, procrastination, work-home interference, and ineffective communication. As amidst lockdown due to COVID-19, the data was collected from 303 respondents through an online questionnaire that was distributed in virtual groups among friends, relatives, and other fellows who were working in the private sector organizations of Pakistan. The hypotheses were tested using the partial least square structural equation modeling PLS-SEM technique. The findings of this study showed that workplace cyber ostracism has a positive and significant impact on employee online work engagement and employee mental well-being. Moreover, results also demonstrated that loneliness, ineffective communication, procrastination, and work-home interference positively and significantly mediate the relationship between workplace cyber ostracism, employee online work engagement, and employee mental well-being. Furthermore, discussion, implications, and limitations were also discussed in this research article.
... Moreover, we found no significant effect after an average of five weeks of academic stressors to predict between-person differences in cyberloafing. This is consistent with a cross-sectional study on non-work presenteeism, which "refers to the behavior of employees who engage in personal activities instead of work-related activities whilst at work" (Wan et al., 2014); it found the levels of job stress were not related to non-work use of ICT. Taken together, we think it is premature Week-level predictor (weekly stressors) is person-mean centered. ...
Article
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Student cyberloafing is a relatively new educational phenomenon and is getting to be an outstanding issue that educators have to face. It is necessary to find out important factors that aggravate cyberloafing. Using an experience sampling method, this study examined the relationship between academic stressors and cyberloafing. Once a week for five consecutive weeks (T1–T5), 134 undergraduate students assessed the extent of academic stressors and cyberloafing of that week through an electronic questionnaire. Additionally, participants completed a trait self-control scale at Time 2. Results of two-level regression analysis showed that academic stressors were negatively associated with cyberloafing at the within-person level (i.e., week-to-week changes), but not at the between-person level. Furthermore, this relationship pattern was only observed in students with low trait self-control, while those with high trait self-control were less likely to cyberloaf regardless of academic stressors. These findings suggest that cyberloafing can fluctuate over periods, especially for individuals who lack self-control. Future research should consider cyberloafing from a dynamic perspective of individual-context interaction. Several practical implications are also discussed.
... While one study reports approximately 70-80% of college students experience various degrees of procrastination [8], another indicates that the prevalence of procrastination among college students is as high as 85.9%, and it is even higher in China [9,10]. Previous studies have shown that the interaction between a series of behavioral, cognitive, and psychological elements may lead to procrastination [11], including addition behavior, stress, anxiety, and depression [12,13]. ...
Article
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The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between physical activity, mobile phone addiction, and irrational procrastination after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The participants were 6294 first- and second-year students recruited as a cluster sample from three public universities in Shanghai, China. Physical activity, mobile phone use, and irrational procrastination were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), the mobile phone addiction index scale (MPAI), and the irrational procrastination scale (IPS). The participants were divided into four groups according to their mobile phone usage status and physical activity level. The binary logistic regression model was used to predict the probability of serious irrational procrastination among different groups. The emergence of serious of irrational procrastination under physical activity of different intensity and different mobile phone addiction statuses was predicted by a multiple linear regression model. In this study, the combination of insufficient physical activity and mobile phone addiction is positively associated with high levels of irrational procrastination. Furthermore, students who exhibited both mobile phone addiction behaviors and insufficient physical activity tended to have significantly higher odds of reporting high levels of irrational procrastination than those students who exhibited one behavior or neither behavior. After adjusting for the effects of age, BMI, tobacco, alcohol use, and sedentary time, the result is consistent with previous outcomes. These findings suggest that intervention efforts should focus on the promotion of physical activity and reduction of mobile phone addiction.
... Boredom in undergraduate students has been associated with depressive and somatic symptoms such as headaches, nervousness, difficulties falling asleep or worrying too much about things (Sommers & Vodanovich, 2000). Similarly, it has been associated with anxiety, depression and stress in adult populations (Lee & Zelman, 2019), but there is limited evidence on its relationship with job-related stress (Wan, Downey & Stough, 2014;van Hooff & van Hooft, 2014). Given its subtle nature (Pekrun et al., 2010), it is not surprising the lack of evidence concerning the health effects of boredom in the workplace, when compared to other more evident phenomena. ...
Article
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Although boredom poses serious consequences for employees and organizations, research has paid little attention to this phenomenon, especially when compared to other job experiences such as overload. Building upon the Effort‐Recovery Model, our study examines the impact of these two sub‐optimal experiences, characterized by under‐ and over‐stimulation, on burnout via three facets of rumination. Using a time lagged design with three measurement moments and a sample of 152 participants, we found partial support for our hypotheses. Boredom and overload led to emotional exhaustion and disengagement two weeks later, via an increase in affective rumination. Overload also increased emotional exhaustion via reduced detachment, yet boredom reduced emotional exhaustion by facilitating detachment. These findings stress the importance of addressing boredom as a pervasive, although often silent, workplace phenomenon.
... In this present context, boredom is a negative state of well-being that boosts negative outcomes, such as deteriorating job performance (Watt & Hargis, 2010), low satisfaction (Kass et al., 2001), high absenteeism (Wan, Downey, & Stough, 2014), and poor organizational commitment (Van Wyk, De Beer, Pienaar, & Schaufeli, 2016), despite of the positive views on boredom, such as a session for refreshment and generation of new ideas (Belton & Priyadharshini, 2007). Therefore, as far as the boredom literature is concerned we hypothesize that: H 3 : Boredom is positively related to turnover intention. ...
Article
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The present study looked into individual personality (extrovert and neuroticism) towards boredom proneness and its association with turnover intention. A quantitative study was conducted by collecting data from 279 academicians working for 20 private higher education institutions (PHEIs) located in Sarawak. The study outcomes showed that personality can influence boredom experienced by academicians at workplace. Those extroverts tend to alleviate boredom, while the reversal for neurotics. Boredom at workplace is positively related to turnover intention and it mediates the relationship between personality and turnover intention. Thus, PHEIs are suggested to blend neurotic and extrovert academicians in a group to mitigate boredom and eventually, turnover intention.
... The definition has been more recently extended to include other conditions and events that limit productivity. Accordingly, presenteeism is known as job stress-related presenteeism and non-work-related presenteeism (Gilbreath and Karimi, 2012;Wan, Downey, and Stough;2014). Now focus is moving from single dimension to multiple dimensions of presenteeism. ...
Article
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Sickness presenteeism is grown as a legitimate concern for scholars, especially in occupational medicine who referred to it as 'employees attending work while being ill'. The complexity of decision-making process of sickness presenteeism turned attention to possible association of personality traits as its key personal driver which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation. The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between personality traits and sickness presenteeism among managers in three public banks in Sri Lanka considering the Big Five personality traits; Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience. Using a quantitative research design, a survey was conducted among managers who represent all managerial levels in selected public banks in Sri Lanka. Analysis of the data was aligned with the objective of the study to yield results of the correlation between each personality trait and sickness presenteeism. Findings revealed that all Big Five personality traits correlated to sickness presenteeism among managers in three public banks in Sri Lanka.
... Matthews et al. (2014) stated that individuals with a strong workload or high expectations might work more from the household. Furthermore, they may predict a big schedule at work, which may make disengagement more challenging (Paden and Stell, 1997;Wan et al., 2014). Moreover, a heavy workload or a greater amount of expectations may be associated with increased types of depression activation, making it more difficult to unwind and forget about work (Dux et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are widely used in developing nations as a dynamic solution for socio-economic development. Pakistan has seen a rapid increase in the use of ICTs during the previous decade. The purpose of this study is to examine how polychronicity affects procrastination behavior when it is influenced by ICTs. According to this study, individuals are described as a dynamic and destructive kind of self-regulation failure in ICTs. Procrastination is a behavior that prevents emerging economies from growing from developing countries. We researched the group-level polychronicity influence of the individual behavior and the mechanism of procrastination from a team-level perspective of worker behavior. This study data collected 231 workers from 76 groups working in ICTs in Pakistan. The results revealed that the group polychronicity and the behavior of group members were positively linked by taking the work overload as a mediator. Moreover, group cohesiveness moderates the role between polychronicity and work overload diminishing the mediation procession between-group polychronicity and individual procrastination. The practical importance of this study is to understand the causes of procrastination, and how to decrease this obstacle to a fairer workplace. It also helps to decide the professional route that is most suited to personality characteristics.
... However, organizational changes could cause friction between the worker and organization. When employees are in a work environment with high job demands and stress, the imbalance between the individual and organization could alter their PSM and even cause considerable productivity loss, or presenteeism [21,22]. ...
Article
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Background: Job stress is a strong indicator of presenteeism, but few studies have examined its diverse effects and mediators on presenteeism. This study explored the relationships between job stress, public service motivation (PSM) and presenteeism and how job stress and PSM influence presenteeism in a large national sample of Chinese healthcare workers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey including 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central and western China was used in the analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were used to test the research hypothesis. Results: Hindrance stress was inversely associated with PSM (β = - 0.27; P < 0.001) but significantly positively associated with presenteeism (β = 0.35; P < 0.001). PSM was directly inversely associated with presenteeism (β = - 0.35; P < 0.001). PSM partially mediated the relation of hindrance stress with presenteeism. Conclusions: The findings suggest that efforts to prevent presenteeism among healthcare workers in China should emphasize PSM improvement and reduction of hindrance stress.
... Indecision as a cognitive form of procrastination was related to the individual's need for sensory stimulation. In another study, Wan et al. (2014) studied the relationship between boredom, dispositional procrastination, emotional intelligence, and job stress among employees at several companies. Procrastinators in the study reported significantly higher levels of boredom and job stress. ...
Article
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The relationship between different emotions with situational (e.g., academic) and dispositional (chronic) procrastination was examined extensively in the literature since the early days of procrastination research. A review of empirical studies over the past 40 years might shed light on the role of emotions in procrastination in different contexts with different populations. The current paper reviewed 83 studies (from 1977 to 2021) exploring the relationship between 9 different emotions and situational and dispositional procrastination. The emotions examined, listed in the order of the extent of focus of scholarly research are: anxiety, fear, shame, guilt, regret, boredom, frustration, anger, and revenge. Findings highlight the important role of emotions as motives, antecedents, correlates, or consequences of situational and dispositional procrastination. Based on the findings, a lack of a comprehensive theory summarizing dispositional and situational procrastination is pointed out and avenues for future research are outlined and recommended.
... 1 According to the Meaning and Attentional Components Model (MAC) developed by Erin C. Westgate and Timothy D. Wilson, boredom is a state of displeasure resulting from "(a) an attentional component, namely mismatches between cognitive demands and available mental resources, and (b) a meaning component, namely mismatches between activities and valued goals (or the absence of valued goals altogether)." 2 In other words, boredom is an unpleasant state "experienced when people feel either unable or unwilling to cognitively engage with their current activity" or situation because of environmental, attentional, and/or functional reasons. 2 A positive correlation has been demonstrated regarding boredom and efficiency, 3 maintenance of attention, 4-5 levels of satisfaction, 6-10 motivation, and active/creative participation, [11][12][13][14][15][16] work-related accidents, [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] and feelings of stress and anxiety in the workplace. [25][26][27][28][29] Numerous scales and models for measuring [30][31][32] and preventing boredom at work have also been developed to date. [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] Preventing boredom is critical in terms of productivity, 5,10 but also to ensure the welfare of workers, especially if their job is to care for others. ...
Article
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The problem of boredom in the workplace has caught the attention of researchers since the beginning of the past century. Preventing boredom is critical in terms of productivity, but also to ensure the welfare of workers, especially if their job is to care for others. When it comes to professions in which caring is the hallmark, boredom has been treated lightly and quickly. Not to mention that almost no study has been conducted to determine the causes and consequences of caregivers of older adults being bored in the workplace. Both formal and informal caregivers are potential victims of boredom, but not always in the same way. In this paper, I will briefly review and synthesize the few articles that posit boredom as a risk factor for caregivers' welfare in formal and informal settings to make a call for research as a response to the existing knowledge gap. Journal of Geriatric Care and Research.
... In sum, the higher the level of boredom proneness in athletes, the more likely it is that their performance will be diminished. This result is in line with previous organizational psychology research identifying that boredom diminishes productivity, task engagement, and performance (Drory, 1982;Kass et al., 2001;Watt and Hargis, 2010;Harju et al., 2014;Wan et al., 2014). Among the control variables included in the first regression model, only age demonstrates a positive and statistically significant effect on athletes' performance. ...
Article
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There is a common misconception that elite athletes enjoy their sports activities so much that they cannot feel bored. However, this research reveals that boredom is a prevalent emotion among professional, amateur, and college athletes that impacts their performance, brand preferences, and overconsumption behaviors. This investigation relies on a multi-method approach. Qualitative data were collected through interviewing athletes (n = 123), and the critical incident technique was used to record factual boredom incidents. Quantitative data were collected through a survey and analyzed using hierarchical regression models. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate athletes’ proneness to boredom and then present a typical sports consumption scenario in which athletes’ brand preferences and overconsumption behaviors were captured. Overall findings from this research indicate that episodes of boredom are common among athletes when they engage in repetitive tasks (34.8%); negative mood is anticipated (16.9%); teammates show a lack of interest and seriousness (15.7%); they must endure periods of waiting (13.5%); there is a lack of competitiveness and goal-setting (10.1%); there is a lack of participation in activities (4.5%); there is a lack of empathy with teammates and coaches (3.3%); and there are infrastructure issues (1.1%). Furthermore, this study presents evidence that boredom negatively impacts athletes’ performance (β = −0.41). Then, in a specific sports consumption scenario that uses sports drinks, this study finds that a more boredom-prone athlete has a higher chance of purchasing different brands of the same product (β = 0.37) and engaging in overconsumption behaviors (β = 0.44). The relationships among boredom, performance, variety seeking, and impulse buying are congruent with previous research on boredom. This research discusses several sports management implications and presents recommendations from coaches on how to cope with athletes’ boredom.
Book
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Creativity is at the heart of successful research, yet researchers are rarely taught how to manage their creative process, and modern academic life is not structured to optimize creativity. Creativity in Research provides concrete guidance on developing creativity for anyone doing or mentoring research. Based on a curriculum developed at Stanford University's Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, this book presents key abilities that underlie creative research practice through a combination of scientific literature on creative confidence, experiential exercises, and guided reflection. By focusing attention on how research happens as well as its outputs, researchers increase their ability to address research challenges and produce the outputs they care about. Simultaneously, they may also transform their emotional relationship with their work, replacing stress and a harsh inner critic with a more open and emotionally empowered attitude.
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Se presentan los principales aportes de la psicología vinculados al uso más eficiente del tiempo por parte de los trabajadores al ejecutar sus funciones. Primero se incluye un marco teórico sobre aspectos como: clima y cultura, personalidad, cronotipo, procrastinación, cyberslacking. Una segunda parte está vinculada a algunas intervenciones psicológicas para favorecer un uso más racional del tiempo. The main contributions of psychology within the context of a more efficient use of time by workers in the execution of their duties are hereby presented. First, a theoretical framework is included touching upon: climate and culture, personality, chronotype, rocrastination, cyberslacking. The second part deals with certain psychological interventions aimed at fostering a more rational use of time.
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Boredom and burnout are suggested to develop from opposite conditions: Whereas boredom is associated with low job stressors, burnout is driven by high job stressors. However, little empirical research exists on the relations between different types of stressors and boredom at work vis-à-vis burnout. Moreover, the direction of these relations has not been previously examined. Drawing from control – value theory and the challenge – hindrance stressor framework we used two-wave panel data from 1730 employees to examine cross-lagged relations between two types of job stressors (i.e., workload and red-tape), boredom and burnout. Results of structural equation modelling revealed that both workload and red-tape positively predicted burnout, while only red-tape positively predicted job boredom over the follow-up period. Furthermore, we found that while burnout positively predicted both perceived workload and red-tape, boredom negatively predicted both types of stressors. We also found a positive reciprocal relation between boredom at work and burnout. These results imply that boredom and burnout may have partly distinct antecedents and outcomes, but they may also fuel each other in a way that requires further research. Implications for practice are discussed.
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Theory suggests that individuals who are high in emotional intelligence are likely to exhibit a higher level of performance outcomes. However, research acknowledges the need to further establish the connection between emotional intelligence and work outcomes. We address this call by empirically examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and two aspects of work outcomes (task performance and two forms of organizational citizenship behaviors, altruism and compliance). Emotional intelligence was assessed by Schutte et al.'s (1998) self-report measure of emotional intelligence, whereas work outcomes were assessed by the employees' supervisors. The findings show positive relationships between emotional intelligence and employees' work outcomes.
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Data from 79 male and 64 female members of a white-collar union employed in drafting, mechanical, and technical-clerical jobs in a midwestern manufacturing company show that some effects of role stresses on individually valued states were incompatible with their effects on 3 organizationally valued motivational states: involvement, effort toward quantity, and effort toward quality. Specifically, role overload was correlated positively with organizationally valued outcomes, but also with 3 adverse individual outcomes: job dissatisfaction, fatigue, and tension. Two other role stresses, role ambiguity and nonparticipation, had adverse effects on both individually and organizationally valued psychological states. Relationships between role stresses and individually valued outcomes were moderated by higher order need strength. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how people cope with boredom at work, and whether differences in “boredom coping” effectiveness are associated with differences in employee well‐being, and safety behaviour. Design/methodology/approach The authors used two methods to gather information for this paper. Employees in a chemical processing organisation ( n =212) completed a survey of individual boredom coping levels, self‐reported safety compliance, and a range of well‐being variables. Also, critical incident interviews with a sub‐sample of survey respondents ( n =16) elicited strategies that employees use to cope with boredom at work. Findings High boredom‐copers reported better well‐being and greater compliance with organisational safety rules compared with low boredom‐copers. Relative to low boredom‐copers, high boredom‐copers tended to cope with boredom in ways that were more functional for themselves and the organisation. Research limitations/implications Because the research was exploratory and cross‐sectional conclusions are necessarily tentative. However, the findings add to the scant body of knowledge about workplace boredom and serve as a useful guide to future research. Practical implications This approach offers new insights into how the negative effects of boredom might be managed in future, both individually and organisationally. Training in boredom coping skills, in conjunction with job redesign initiatives, may help to reduce the frequency and impact of boredom at work. Originality/value Boredom at work is an important yet neglected area of human resource management research. The present study is the first to examine the construct of “boredom coping” at work and to demonstrate a potential link between differences in boredom coping tendency and employee health and safety outcomes.
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of procrastination tendencies and to investigate its relationship to a behavioral measure of procrastination and to a self-report measure of general self-efficacy. In a pilot study, the 72-item scale in a 4-point Likert-type response format was developed and administered to 50 college juniors and seniors. A factor analysis of the results yielded two factors which formed the basis for reducing the scale to 35 items with a resulting reliability of .90. The relationship between scores on the 35-item instrument and performance on a self-regulated performance task called the Voluntary Homework System (VHS) yielded a correlation of -.54, and a coefficient of -.47 was observed between the 35-item scale and the General Self-Efficacy Test (GSE; both correlations of p < .001). The correlation between GSE and VHS scores was .29 (p < .05). In a subsequent study of 183 college students, a factor analysis of scores on the 35-item scale yielded a single-factor structure and a condensed scale of 16 items with a reliability of .86. This shortened version of the procrastination scale was recommended for use as a means of detecting students who may tend to procrastinate in the completion of college requirements.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to empirically test whether it is possible to deliberately develop emotional intelligence (EI) as conceptualized in the Mayer and Salovey model. Design/methodology/approach This empirical study utilized a sample of 135 fully‐employed business students in a treatment/control group research design in which treatment group participants underwent an intensive 11‐week EI training program. Additional samples of 270 and 130 fully employed business students were utilized to develop an EI measure appropriate for EI development. Findings The results indicate that EI can be deliberately developed; the treatment group demonstrated statistically significant overall EI gains and across each EI dimension, while the control group did not show any significant pre‐/post‐test differences. Practical implications In addition to illustrating EI training best practices, a new EI measure is described that is appropriate for leadership development. Research limitations/implications Research implications are discussed for the role of EI training in leadership development programs and fertile research directions for EI training. Originality/value Emotional intelligence training has emerged into a popular and lucrative field, but empirical evidence on the deliberate development of EI has been substantially more elusive. This study provides an empirical EI training study that overcomes the conceptual and methodological limitations of extant research on the EI development process.
Article
Presenteeism - or working while ill - is commonly seen as just an economic indicator of disease burden. Emerging evidence suggests it may best be conceptualised as a behaviour that has implications for the person and their employer, and one that can be clinically managed. This article presents an overview of the phenomenon of presenteeism in the workforce and its clinical implications. It focuses on evidence relevant to the management of day-to-day, short term decisions on whether an individual should go into work while sick or take a day or more of work absence. This discussion is separate to the management of compensation and return to work issues. Certain patients will be at risk of presenteeism, even when absence may be clinically advisable, due to personal or job characteristics. Presenteeism behaviour has potential positive and negative consequences for the patient's own health, their job performance and tenure and their workplace, and these should be weighed up when helping patients to manage their work responsibilities.
Article
The literature suggests that managerial skills in general, and emotional intelligence in particular, play a significant role in the success of senior managers in the workplace. This argument, despite its popularity, remains elusive. This can be attributed to the fact that although a few studies have provided evidence to support this argument, it has not received an appropriate empirical investigation. This study attempts to narrow this gap by empirically examining the extent to which senior managers with a high emotional intelligence employed in public sector organizations develop positive work attitudes, behavior and outcomes. The results indicate that emotional intelligence augments positive work attitudes, altruistic behavior and work outcomes, and moderates the effect of work-family conflict on career commitment but not the effect on job satisfaction.
Article
The objective of this paper is to address the predictive validity of the workplace Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test. The first aim of this research project was to identify whether financial revenue earned by consultants in an Australian professional recruitment company were related to their levels of emotional intelligence (EI). The second aim was to assess whether EI competencies were more strongly related to revenue performance than measures of IQ and personality. The study consisted of 100 recruitment consultants from a large Australian‐based company who had their IQ assessed and completed a questionnaire battery consisting of measures of personality and EI. Revenue accrued by the recruitment consultants was also collected and related to the psychometric measures. Results showed that emotional competencies and personality traits are valuable predictors of job performance as measured by the revenue accrued by recruitment consultants. Further to this, the EI competencies were observed to be more strongly related to this measure of performance, and were able to predict a significant proportion of variance in performance in comparison to IQ and personality.
Article
In this diary study conducted in Hong Kong, we examined a theoretical model in which negative emotions serve as an explanatory mechanism through which daily stressors impact daily counterproductive work behavior (CWB). We further theorized that personality variables (negative affectivity, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness) would exert cross-level effects on the within-person relationships. Hierarchical linear modeling results based on a sample of 231 individuals and 5,583 observations across 25 days provide partial support for the mediating role of negative emotions in the within-person stressor–CWB relationships. Specifically, we found that negative emotions (a) partially mediated the within-person relation of perceived ambiguity with CWB directed at the organization, (b) fully mediated the relation of supervisor interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at individuals, and (c) fully mediated the relation of customer interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at the organization. High levels of trait negative affectivity were found to strengthen the within-person relation between daily supervisor interpersonal injustice and daily negative emotions. As expected, high levels of trait Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were found to weaken the within-person relations of daily negative emotions with daily CWB directed at the organization and individuals.
Article
The concept of emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted a huge amount of interest from both academics and practitioners and has become linked to a whole range of outcomes, including career success, life satisfaction and health. Yet the concept itself and the way in which it is measured continue to fuel considerable debate. This paper takes a critical review of the methodologies and robustness of the validation and application studies that have used EI measures. In addition, the links between EI and other related theoretical perspectives such as emotional labour are considered.
Article
This paper discusses the results from a survey on the gendered impact of organizational change and the implications for workloads and working hours. These results suggest that restructuring leads to increased workloads and that the pressure of long working hours is associated with male-dominated organizations. Restructuring is also associated with ‘presenteeism’ (the tendency to stay at work beyond the time needed for effective performance of the job) as fear of redundancy and uncertainty over promotion opportunities lead to a need to demonstrate visible commitment. Such presenteeism was found to be gendered: it is associated with a competitive masculine culture, it is seen by women as a form of ‘male resistance’ to their presence as managers and it imposes heavy costs on women as they attempt to meet the conflicting demands of work and home. This paper suggests that organizational restructuring can produce dysfunctional outcomes such as ‘competitive presenteeism’ (whereby managers compete over who stays longest in the office) and that such outcomes have important gender implications. It concludes that gender mix is a defining feature in how well women fit into the organization and how easily they accommodate to changes in organizational structures and managerial work.
Article
Presenteeism describes the situation when workers are on the job but, because of illness, injury, or other conditions, they are not functioning at peak levels. Although much of the research on presenteeism appears in the medical literature, we argue that presenteeism also occurs when employees go to work but spend a portion of the workday engaging in personal business while on the job, such as e-mailing friends, paying personal bills, or making personal appointments. Results of a Web-based survey of 115 individuals suggest that employees spend approximately one hour and twenty minutes in a typical workday engaged in personal activities, costing their employers an average $8,875 each year in lost productivity per employee. Results suggest that engagement in personal business on the job is not related to self-reported measures of performance, efficiency, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, or intentions to stay, only to procrastination. Implications of these findings for practice and research are discussed.
Article
Cyberloafing is the personal use of email and the Internet while at work. The purpose of this study is to identify the different forms of cyberloafing and their antecedents. We propose that cyberloafing has two primary forms: minor cyberloafing (e.g., sending and receiving personal email at work) and serious cyberloafing (e.g., online gambling, surfing adult oriented web sites). Additionally, we hypothesize that employees’ perceptions of coworker and supervisor norms supporting cyberloafing are related to minor cyberloafing but not serious cyberloafing. We also hypothesize that external locus of control (i.e., a belief that chance and powerful others determines one’s outcomes), as an antecedent of other counterproductive work behaviors, will be related to both minor and serious cyberloafing. Two hundred and twenty two employed graduate business students were surveyed. Two forms of cyberloafing were identified: one composed of minor cyberloafing behaviors and one composed of the more serious cyberloafing behaviors. As predicted, employees’ perceptions of their coworkers’ and supervisor’s norms were positively related to minor cyberloafing, but not related to serious cyberloafing. Also as predicted, belief in chance was positively related to both minor and serious cyberloafing. A belief in powerful others was not related to minor or serious cyberloafing. Implications for policy development to regulate cyberloafing in organizations are discussed.