Article

Duration of Protection After First Dose of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine in Infants

PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 02/2014; 133(3). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3181
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Data on the effectiveness of the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in the first 4 years of life are sparse. We evaluated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 1 and 2 doses of DTaP before 6 months of age and of 3 doses from 6 months of age in Australia, where, since 2003, a fourth dose is not given until 4 years.
We matched reported pertussis cases aged 2 to 47 months between January 2005 and December 2009 to controls from a population-based immunization register by date of birth and region of residence. VE by number of doses and age group was calculated as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%.
VE against hospitalization increased from 55.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.7%-65.1%) for 1 dose before 4 months of age to 83.0% (95% CI, 70.2%-90.3%) for 2 doses before 6 months. The VE of 3 doses of DTaP against all reported pertussis was 83.5% (95% CI, 79.1%-87.8%) between 6 and 11 months, declining to 70.7% (95% CI, 64.5%-75.8%) between 2 and 3 years of age and 59.2% (95% CI, 51.0%-66.0%) between 3 and 4 years of age.
DTaP provided good protection against pertussis in the first year of life from the first dose. Without a booster dose, the effectiveness of 3 doses waned more rapidly from 2 to 4 years of age than previously documented for children >6 years of age who had received 5 doses.

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    • "The model's findings support the notion that replacement of the 18 mth booster with an adolescent booster from 2003 contributed to a substantial increase in disease in children aged 18 mth–<4 yr. Modelled age incidence patterns are consistent with the higher incidence observed in children aged 2 and 3 years from 2008 to 2010 compared to previous epidemics [6] "
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    ABSTRACT: Pertussis resurgence has been reported from several developed countries with long-standing immunisation programs. Among these, Australia in 2003 discontinued an 18 months (fourth) booster dose in favour of an adolescent (fifth) dose. We developed a model to evaluate determinants of resurgence in Australia and alternative vaccine strategies for mitigation. Novel characteristics of our model included the use of seroepidemiologic data for calibration, and broad investigation of variables relevant to transmission of, and protection against, pertussis. We simulated multiple parameter combinations, retaining those consistent with observed data for subsequent use in predictive models comparing alternative vaccination schedules. Reproducing the early control of pertussis followed by late resurgence observed in Australia required natural immunity to last decades longer than vaccine-acquired immunity, with mean duration exceeding 50 years in almost 90% of simulations. Replacement of the dose at 18 months with an adolescent dose in 2003 resulted in a 40% increase in infections in the age group 18-47 months by 2013. A six dose strategy (2, 4, 6, 18 months, 4 and 15 years) yielded a reduction in infection incidence (pre-school 43%, infants 8%) greater than any alternative strategies considered for timing of five administered doses. Our finding that natural immunity drives long-term trends in pertussis cycles is relevant to a range of pertussis strategies and provides the necessary context in which to consider maternal vaccination. Comparatively short-lived vaccine-acquired immunity requires multiple boosters over the first two decades of life to maximise reduction in infections.
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    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Medical journal of Australia
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    ABSTRACT: The United States switched from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines in the 1990s following global concerns with the safety of the whole cell vaccines. Despite high levels of acellular pertussis vaccine coverage, the United States and other countries are experiencing large pertussis outbreaks. The aim of this article is to describe the historical context which led to acellular pertussis vaccine development, focusing on vaccines currently licensed in the US, and to review evidence that waning protection following licensed acellular pertussis vaccines have been significant factors in the widespread reappearance of pertussis.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
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