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The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

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Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats' sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion: Oral consumption of TT could markedly antagonize the reduction of sex hormones and gonadotropins (except for FSH) due to morphine addiction.
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Original Article
The Eect of Oral Feeding of
Tribulus terrestris L.
on Sex
Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats
Mohammad Hassan Ghosian Moghaddam, Ph.D.
1
, Mohsen Khalili, Ph.D.
2
,
Maryam Maleki, M.D.
3
*, Mohammad Esmail Ahmad Abadi, M.D.
3
1. Department of Biochemistry, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
2. Neurophysiology Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
3. Shahed University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract
Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug,
reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus ter-
restris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study
investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to
show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into
four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Water-
soluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which
the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four
weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all
rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were
statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey
test. P<0.05 was considered signicant.
Results: The addicted group had a signicantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level
than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased signicantly in the TT-treated ad-
dicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower
than the treated control group. The addicted group had a signicantly low testosterone
level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was signicantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted
group than in the control group. In addition, there was a signicant difference between
the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control
group had a signicant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and
sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones
in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group.
Conclusion: Oral consumption of TT could markedly antagonize the reduction of sex
hormones and gonadotropins (except for FSH) due to morphine addiction.
Keywords: Morphine, Tribulus terrestris, FSH, LH, Sex Hormones
Citation: Ghosian Moghaddam MH, Khalili M, Maleki M, Ahmad Abadi ME. The effect of oral feeding of tribulus ter-
restris L. on sex hormone and gonadotropin levels in addicted male rats. Int J Fertil Steril. 2013; 7(1): 57-62.
Received: 25 Dec 2011, Accepted: 13 Oct 2012
* Corresponding Address: P.O.Box: 141557435, Shahed
University, Tehran, Iran
Email: mlk.mry@gmail.com
Royan Institute
International Journal of Fertility and Sterility
Vol 7, No 1, Apr-Jun 2013, Pages: 57-62
Introduction
Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in
the use of opioid drugs despite the documentation
of their numerous adverse effects in the literature.
One of these side effects is the negative impact on
sex hormone levels, libido, potency, and menor-
rhea (1-3). A study has shown that 96% of men
and 69% of women who receive opioid analgesic
IJFS, Vol 7, No 1, Apr-Jun 2013
58
drugs for pain management have decreased libido
or impotency (4). Also, it has been found that spi-
nal opiate analgesics reduce libido and cause dif-
culty in achieving or maintaining an erection in
men (5).
One of the most commonly used opioid drugs
is morphine. In a prospective, uncontrolled,
non-randomized study, a group of men with an
average pain duration of 11 years used intrathe-
cal morphine for 12 weeks. Most of the patients
reported poor libido and erectile difficulty to-
ward the end of the 12-week period; in addition,
testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH) levels significantly reduced. The intrath-
ecal opioid caused a reduction in hormone lev-
els (6).
Tribulus terrestris (TT), commonly known as
caltrop or devil’s eyelashes plays an important role
in traditional medicine. Most parts of this plant
are used in herbal medicine, for which TT can en-
hance sex drive and treat urolithiasis, menorrha-
gia, impotency, rheumatism pains, and premature
ejaculation (7-9). Khordadmehr and his colleagues
have used TT in an herbal formula, NOFODA, to
investigate its effect on infertile males and con-
cluded that it improved both sperm motility and
count (10).
In studies conducted on animals, TT is thought
to have a luteinizing hormone (LH)-like activity,
which can induce corpus luteum formation in fe-
male rats (11). LH induces the corpus luteum to
secrete progesterone. This results in an increase
in progesterone levels as well as some estrogen
secretion. Studies have shown that protodioscin,
which is found in TT extract, treats mild to mod-
erate erectile dysfunction and increases libido
(12, 13).
In light of the increasing fertility disorders in
opioid users, the present study investigated the ef-
fect of TT on the sex hormones and gonadotropins
of addicted male rats.
Materials and Methods
Experimental animals
Adult male Wister rats that weighed 200 ± 25 g
each (Razi Institute, Iran) were randomly divided
into four groups, of 12 animals each: i. control,
ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated ad-
Ghosian Moghaddam et al.
dicted. The rats were housed in groups of three in
cages at a temperature of 22-25˚C, on a 12 hour
light/12 hour dark schedule and sufcient amounts
of food and water.
Preparation of Tribulus terrestris (TT)
After obtaining TT and verifying its suitability
for our study via the Department of Botany at Sha-
hid Beheshti University, we ground and combined
the plant with pelleted food at a weight ratio of
6.25%.
Study protocol
Morphine addiction was induced according to
the method of Moini Zanjani et al. (14). Groups
3 and 4 received oral administrations of water-
soluble morphine for 21 days. During this 21-day
period, the treated groups (2 and 4) also received
oral administration of TT plant-mixed pelleted
food (6.25%).
The water soluble morphine solution was given
in doses of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/ml according to
the method of Swanston-Flatt et al. (15); each of
these doses was administered for 48 hours for the
rats to drink and then 0.4 mg/ml was administered
for the remaining 15 days. The bitterness of mor-
phine was eliminated by adding 3% sucrose to the
solution. In this experiment, the average amount
of water consumed, and therefore morphine, by
rats was approximately 60-80 mg/ml/day. Addic-
tion was conrmed by injecting a morphine an-
tagonist (naloxone) and observing for withdrawal
symptoms.
All techniques and methods were approved by
the Ethics Committee of Shahed University of
Medical Sciences. The laboratory animals were af-
forded due care in accordance with the regulations
of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and
Supervision on Experiments on Animals (CPC-
SEA).
Blood sampling
After 21 days of treatment, at treatment termi-
nation, blood samples (3-5cc) were obtained from
all the rats’ hearts to measure hormone levels. The
sera were subsequently separated via centrifuge
(Sigma 4-10, USA) at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes
and stored at -70˚C in a freezer until hormone
analysis.
59
The Effect of
Tribulus terrestris
on Hormone Levels
Plasma analysis
The plasma concentrations of the sex hormones
and gonadotropins were veried by the radioim-
munoassay (RIA) method using kits manufactured
by Monobind Inc. (USA), as well as ELISA kits
(Labsystem, Finland).
Statistical analysis
Obtained data were expressed as mean ± SEM
and statistically analyzed using the one-way analy-
sis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the post-
hoc Tukey test. p<0.05 was considered statistically
signicant.
Results
FSH analysis
Our FSH analysis showed that the TT-treated
control group had the least amount of FSH (0.271
± 0.025 mIU/ml), while the morphine-addicted
group had the highest FSH level (0.348 ± 0.022
mIU/ml). Morphine solely did not suppress FSH.
The TT-treated addicted group had a higher FSH
level (0.302 ± 0.01 mIU/ml) than did the TT-treat-
ed control group; there was, however, no signi-
cant change in any of the groups. Figure 1 illus-
trates these results.
FSH (mlU/ml)
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
Control Con+TT Morphine Mor+TT
Test groups
Fig 1: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on FSH levels
in control and addicted groups. Bars depict mean ± SEM
of LH.
LH analysis
In LH analysis, the addicted group had decreased
LH levels. The highest amount of LH belonged to
the treated control group (0.207 ± 0.098 mIU/ml).
Figure 2 shows a signicantly lower LH level in
the addicted group than the control group (0.0125
± 0.017 mIU/ml), which was due to morphine sup-
pression (p<0.027). The TT-treated addicted group
had a signicantly higher amount of LH (0.273 ±
0.066 mIU/ml) than did the control group p<0.031.
LH (mlU/ml)
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
Control Con+TT Morphine Mor+TT
Test groups
*
$
Fig 2: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on LH levels
in control and addicted groups. Bars depict mean ± SEM
of LH.* and $; P<0.05 compared between the control and
treated control groups.
Testosterone analysis
In this analysis, there was a reduction in the
addicted group (0.122 ± 0.058 ng/ml). The high-
est amount of testosterone belonged to the con-
trol group (0.399 ± 0.04 ng/ml). Figure 3 shows
that the addicted group had the least amount of
testosterone, as a result of morphine suppres-
sion. The treated addicted group had a signifi-
cantly lower hormone level (p<0.024) than did
the treated control group (0.193 ± 0.057 ng/ml).
The addicted group had a significantly lower
testosterone level than did the control group
(p<0.001).
Testestrone (ng/ml)
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
Control Con+TT Morphine Mor+TT
Test groups
*
*
Fig 3: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on testosterone
levels in control and addicted groups.
Bars depict mean ± SEM of testosterone. *; P<0.05 com-
pared between the control and treated control groups.
Estrogen analysis
Our estrogen analysis revealed a decrease in
the addicted group compared to the control group
(22.70 ± 3.21 pg/ml). Figure 4 illustrates these
IJFS, Vol 7, No 1, Apr-Jun 2013
60
results. Compared to the control group, estro-
gen decreased in the addicted group; there was a
signicant difference between these two groups
(p<0.002). Figure 4 also shows a signicant dif-
ference between the treated addicted group and the
treated control group (p<0.048).
Estrogen (pg/ml)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Control Con+TT Morphine Mor+TT
Test groups
*
$
Fig 4: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on estrogen levels in
control and addicted groups. Bars depict mean ± SEM of LH.
* and $; P<0.05 compared between the control and treated
control groups.
Progesterone analysis
There was an increase in the treated control
group and a decrease in the addicted group
according to progesterone analysis. Figure 5
shows that the treated control group had the
highest hormone level (79.28 ± 5.2 pg/ml),
which was due to TT. The addicted group had
the least amount, which was due to the effects
of morphine. The addicted group had a lower
progesterone level than did the control group;
the difference, however, was not significant. In
comparison with the treated addicted group, the
treated control group had a significant increase
in hormone levels (p<0.002).
Progesterone (pg/ml)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Control Con+TT Morphine Mor+TT
Test groups
*
Fig 5: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on progesterone
levels in the control and addicted groups. Bars depict mean
± SEM of progesterone.
*; P<0.05 compared between the control and treated control
groups.
Discussion
In this study, sex hormone and gonadotropin
levels were evaluated based on the effect of TT
on morphine-addicted rats. FSH, a stimulating
hormone of the ovarian follicles, had a higher
level in our morphine-addicted groups. In the
treated morphine group, the FSH level had the
most decrease, which demonstrated that TT
suppressed FSH release in the addicted rats. A
similar result was observed in the treated con-
trol group; however the difference was not sig-
nificant.
Tabakova and his colleagues, in a compari-
son of endocrinal functions before and after
TT therapy, reported that TT acted on the hy-
pothalamus and reduced FSH levels but did not
decrease ovarian hormones (estrogen and pro-
gesterone). They concluded that TT could be
used to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot
flashes and increase sex drive. These research-
ers speculated that the presence of saponin in
TT was responsible for FSH suppression and
the resultant alleviation of hot flashes, irritabil-
ity, and depression in menopausal women (16).
However, in our study, no significant effect of
TT on FSH levels was found.
We observed a signicant decrease in LH lev-
els in the morphine-addicted group. The treated
addicted group had a relatively higher LH than
did the addicted group, which denoted that TT in-
creased LH levels. Similarly, the treated control
group had a signicantly higher LH level than did
the control group.
According to Neychev et al. (17) and a study
by Antonio et al. it was shown that TT induced
LH release. The upswing in LH led to a signal
for testosterone to increase (18). With regard to
testosterone levels, there was a significant de-
crease in our addicted rats. In the treated ad-
dicted group, the level was significantly higher
than that of the addicted group. Although TT
affected the increase in testosterone, a num-
ber of studies have demonstrated different re-
sults. Studies demonstrated that TT caused an
increase in testosterone, increase in cavernous
body pressure, increase in systolic pressure, and
increase in penile erection (19-22). In addition,
the effect of TT on castrated rats compared to
Ghosian Moghaddam et al.
61
normal rats was an increase in prostate weight,
which augmented sexual activities and potency
(22). In contrast, Neychev and his colleague re-
ported that TT did not influence androgen lev-
els in young men (17). Our results support the
results of a majority of similar studies in the
literature.
Based on our study, estrogen decreased sig-
nificantly in the addicted group but increased
significantly in the treated addicted group. It
can, therefore, be concluded that TT signifi-
cantly increased the estrogen hormone level in
male addicted rats. Of note, there was a dearth
of specic studies on estrogen in the literature.
Progesterone decreased in our addicted group;
the amount, however, was insignificant. In con-
trast, progesterone significantly increased in
the treated control group. We concluded that TT
increased progesterone in non-addicted cases;
however this increase was not significant in ad-
dicted cases. Mazaro-Costa and colleagues have
reported that not only could TT treat sexual dis-
orders and dysfunction in menopausal women
but it could also enhance vasomotor actions.
There are, however, no reports on progesterone
specifically (19).
Conclusion
The present study shows that addiction decreas-
es sex hormones and gonadotropins. Treatment
with TT can increase the hormone levels of tes-
tosterone, progesterone, estrogen, and LH. Never-
theless, TT did not increase the FSH levels in our
male rats.
Acknowledgments
This paper is the result of a medical student
thesis and was financially supported by the
Research Council of Shahed University. The
authors declare that they have no conflicts of
interest.
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Ghosian Moghaddam et al.
... Ghosian Moghaddam et al. 2013, Haghmorad et al. 2019, Salahshoor et al. 2020.Sahin et al. (2016) observed the stimulatory action of Tribulus extract on rat plasma testosterone, but not LH or FSH. Some studies showed the ability of Tribulus terrestris to increase dihydrotestosterone(Selgado et al. 2017) and testosterone(Sahin et al. 2016, Roaiah et al. 2017, Sellami et al. 2018, GamalEl Din 2019) levels in men's plasma. ...
... Some studies showed the ability of Tribulus terrestris to increase dihydrotestosterone(Selgado et al. 2017) and testosterone(Sahin et al. 2016, Roaiah et al. 2017, Sellami et al. 2018, GamalEl Din 2019) levels in men's plasma. Other studies however did not detect Tribulus terrestris influence on androgen release in rat(Martino-Andriade et al. 2010, Ghosian Moghaddam et al. 2013) or humans (Pokrywka et al. 2014, Neychev and Mitev, 2016, Santos et al. 2019, Kuchakulla et al. 2021 ...
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Study aim : To investigate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with Tribulus terrestris L. ( TT ) on the responses of testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones including triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) following an intensive session of resistance exercise (RE). Materials and methods : Twenty-two healthy non-athlete men (23.8 ± 3.1 years) participated in this study were divided into two groups and were randomly assigned to receive either TT supplementation (n = 11) or a placebo (n = 11). They consumed two 250-mg capsules with TT or placebo (maltodextrin) per day and performed six REs with the intensity 80-90% of 1RM on the fifteen day of the experiment. Venous blood samples were drawn before supplementation, and before and after the RE session. Results : The mean values of post-exercise testosterone and cortisol in both groups were significantly higher than pre-exercise and baseline ( p < 0.01); however, there were no significant differences between the groups ( p > 0.05). Likewise, despite a trend toward different levels of the responses of thyroid hormones with TT supplementation, there were no significant differences either in different time points or the groups ( p > 0.05). Conclusions : Short-term supplementation with TT appears to be ineffective in changing the hormonal responses measured in this study following a session of high-intensity RE.
... [18] It is believed to increase the LH centrally and thus increases the testosterone level. [19] It further metabolized into androgen-like substances or stimulating the physiological transformation of testosterone into more active dihydrotestosterone. [20] TS in 750 mg/ day for three months reported to have no statistically significant effect in the levels of testosterone (total and free) and LH and semen parameters in a human trial. ...
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Gynecomastia, a benign hypertrophy of male breast tissue is an issue with considerable discomfort ranging from social embarrassment to the possibility of malignant transformation. The basic pathophysiology being the decreased testosterone activity following an imbalance in estrogen androgen ratio. Among the various causes for such manifestations, the commonest are Chronic Liver Diseases (CLDs) and at times may be drug‑induced. Ayurveda considers such manifestations under the dysfunctions of Shukra dhatu (~altered hormonal balance). Gynaecomastia with loss of libido can be reported by patients with a history of CLDs owing to altered testosterone levels. Here, a case of gynecomastia with underlying CLD and extra hepatic portal vein obstruction is presented, who was managed with 1000 mg aqueous extract of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris L.) for three months. Good response in serum testosterone level and in reversing gynecomastia was observed showing beneficial effect of the herb in managing the condition.
... W. somnifera, having active component like sitoindosides and withaferin A [7,8] , reduce lipid peroxidation by elevation of superoxide dismutase, free radical scavenging enzymes, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels [7] . The active component in T. terrestris is protodioscin, which improves semen quality by increasing androgen level and enhances ejaculation [9,10] . A. racemosus and M. pruriens contain active ingredients like shatavarin I-IV and mucunine, which have anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory activity [11,12] . ...
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The objective of this study was to assess the acute oral toxicity of AV/SGB/27 (M/s Ayurvet Limited) in accordance with OECD-423 guideline. AV/SGB/27 is a herbal formulation for enhancing semen quality of livestock. Nine healthy and adult nulliparous nonpregnant Swiss albino female mice, weighing 24-28 g, were used in this study. After being given test material orally, the mice were examined for toxic effects and mortality. Changes in body weights, symptoms of toxicity, histological appearances of liver, kidney, and lungs, and biochemical parameters were used to assess the toxicity. No toxic effects or mortalities were noticed until the trial was completed, indicating that AV/SGB/27 is safe for oral consumption.
... Its mainly affected constituent is terrestrosin, which is primarily composed to steroid saponins [22,23,24]. Modern pharmacological research has demonstrated the effects of steroid saponins against tumours, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, senescence, and inflammation [25,26,27]. The significant anti-inflammatory effects of steroid saponins originate from the N-trans-q-caffeoyl tyramine structure [28]. ...
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Atrazine is considered moderately toxic to aquatic animals. In the present study protective effect of Tribulus terrestris on hepatotoxicity in fresh water fish Oreochromis mossambicus, at sub lethal concentration of atrazine (16.5mg/l) exposure fish for 120h was studied. After completing the exposure time experiment were carried out to find the level of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides (LPO, GSH, GPx, SOD, and CAT) activities in liver tissues. The results showed increases LPO and decreased level of GSH, GPx, SOD, and CAT when compared to normal. During the recovery period Tribulus terrestris (1.2g/l) plant exposure drastically restored to the normal level when compared to atrazine treatment. Present investigation concluded that the Tribulus terrestris significantly alters the metabolic activity in liver tissues of atrazine exposed fishes.
... Also, the groups supplied with 100 mg ETT (ETT2) or 100 mg ETT + Se (ETT2+Se) showed the lowest levels of E 2 17β than the control and the other experimental groups. These results are in agreement with Mohammad et al. (2013) who recorded that treatment with TT can increase the hormones level of FT, P4, E 2 17β and LH. Antonio et al. (2000) recorded that the upswing in LH impact to a signal for testosterone to increase. ...
... There are insufficient data about T. terrestris and its secondary metabolites on the female reproductive system. Nevertheless, the actions of T. terrestris on sexual response have been attributed mainly to its steroidal properties (Wu et al., 1996), and mostly to protodioscin (Fig. 3) as a steroidal saponin (Rowland and Tai, 2003;Moghaddam et al., 2013). The exact mechanism of aphrodisiac effects of T. terrestris and its long-term activity are not fully understood. ...
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Background: Tribulus terrestris L. (T. terrestris) positive performance on the male sexual system has been confirmed, but little is known about its effects on the female reproductive system. Purpose: This review discussed in detail the beneficial impact of T. terrestris and its secondary metabolites on the female reproductive system. Study design and methods: In this review, the scientific Databases of Science direct, Pubmed, Web of Science, Google, Google Scholar, Researchgate, EMBASE, Scientific Information (SID), and Elsevier were searched profoundly. Studies about the pharmacological activities of T. terrestris on the female reproductive system in each aspect of investigations: human, in vivo, and in vitro studies, in the period from 1998 to 2020 were admitted. Our study was not limited by the language of publications. Results: 23 articles about the effects of T. terrestris on the female reproductive system were found. These studies approved the T. terrestris efficacy on improvements in histological features of the ovary and uterus of polycystic ovary syndrome patients as well as the well-working of normal ovaries, enhancements in the sexual desire of postmenopausal syndrome, improve ovarian and breast cancers. Conclusion: These studies showed that the positive effect of T. terrestris on the female reproductive system was due to the presence of a secondary metabolite called protodioscin; a steroidal saponin compound, as the dominant active component of this plant.
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Tribulus terrestris, puncture vine has long been used in traditional medicine to treat impotency and improve sexual functions in man although, there are little information about effect of Tribulus terrestris on female reproduction. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tribulus trestris extract on ovarian activity of immature wistar rat. About 20 immature female wistar rats, aged 21 days and with an average weight of 50 g were used in the study. The rats randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Rats in treatment group received 10 mg of the extract per rat. The period of the study divided into 7 and 14 days period. Half of the rats in each group (n = 5) were euthanized at final day of each period and the ovaries removed for preparating of histology sections. Number and diameter of corpus luteum, thickness of theca interna layer and number of all follicles were evaluated in each left and right ovaries. Results showed that number of corpus luteum and diameter of theca interna increased in treatment group as compared with control group. Number of secondly and graafian follicles after 14 days treatment were be higher than control and 7 days treatment. The present results indicated that Tribulus terrestris induces corpus luteum formation and growth and therefore beginning of puberty with its LH-like activity.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a preparation from herbal extracts (PHE) on libido and semen quality in breeding artificial insemination boars. Ten fertile boars were divided into control and experimental groups according to significant difference of libido. There were no differences in semen quality between groups. Animals were fed a commercial feeding mixture for boars. The feeding mixture for the experimental group was enriched with PHE, which was prepared from Eurycoma longifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Leuzea carthamoides. Duration of the experiment was 10 weeks. Samples of ejaculate were collected weekly. Libido was evaluated according to a scale of 0-5 points. Semen volume, sperm motility, percentage of viable spermatozoa, sperm concentration, morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, daily sperm production and sperm survival were assessed. Amounts of mineral components and free amino acids were analysed in seminal plasma. Significant differences were found in these parameters: libido (4.05 ± 0.22 vs 3.48 ± 0.78; p < 0.001), semen volume (331.75 ± 61.91 vs 263.13 ± 87.17 g; p < 0.001), sperm concentration (386.25 ± 107.95 vs 487.25 ± 165.50 × 10(3) /mm(3); p < 0.01), morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (15.94 ± 11.08 vs 20.88 ± 9.19%; p < 0.001) and Mg concentration (28.36 ± 11.59 vs 20.27 ± 13.93 mm; p < 0.05). The experimental group's libido was increased by 20% in comparison with the beginning of the experiment. Results of this study showed positive effect of PHE on libido and some parameters of boar semen quality.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the herbal preparation Tribulus terrestris (tribulus) on body composition and exercise performance in resistance-trained males. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo or tribulus (3.21 mg per kg body weight daily) group. Body weight, body composition, maximal strength, dietary intake, and mood states were determined before and after an 8-week exercise (periodized resistance training) and supplementation period. There were no changes in body weight, percentage fat, total body water, dietary intake, or mood states in either group. Muscle endurance (determined by the maximal number of repetitions at 100-200% of body weight) increased for the bench and leg press exercises in the placebo group (p <.05; bench press +/-28.4%, leg press +/-28.6%), while the tribulus group experienced an increase in leg press strength only (bench press +/-3.1%, not significant; leg press +/-28.6%, p <.05). Supplementation with tribulus does not enhance body composition or exercise performance in resistance-trained males.
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This paper provides a comprehensive list of about 472 authentic vegetable crude drug samples belonging to about 375 plant species that are housed in the Crude Drug Museum (CDM) of Pharmacognosy Section, Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Howrah. This museum is a repository of raw drug samples or vegetable crude drug samples such as rhizomes, roots, stems, wood, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds etc. that are commonly used in the Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM). It provides a baseline information on these raw drugs. The various uses of this museum have been highlighted in this paper.
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Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex and multifactorial condition. An increased incidence of FSD is especially associated with the decline of estrogen. Thus, menopause is a critical phase for FSD complaints. In this context, medicinal plants may be a therapeutic option. To identify and describe the popular and clinical uses of medicinal plants for FSD treatment in climacteric women. We highlighted the majority of the plants commonly involved with the female reproductive system including: Angelica sinensis, Cimicifuga racemosa, Ferula hermonis, Ginkgo biloba, Humulus lupulus, Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus. This study is a narrative review of studies of plants that are possible alternative treatments for FSD. The species described have clinical and popular uses in different cultures as well as medical indications for female reproductive disturbances, mainly in climacteric women. We have also analyzed the evidence level of clinical studies. The main outcome assessed is the efficacy of plants in improving the symptoms of FSD. There is little evidence from the literature to recommend the use of medicinal plants when treating FSD. The majority of studies with a strong level of evidence are associated with the treatment of the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Ferula hermonis, Angelica sinensis, and Gingko biloba may be suggested for arousal disorder studies. Cimicifuga racemosa, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus may be recommended for several FSD. Humulus lupulus and Tribulus terrestris may help with desire disorder studies. Lepidium meyenii should be studied further. Studies of these plants indicate that they may be useful as a possible alternative and/or complementary approach for studies aimed at the treatment of FSD. At this time, however, this review cannot recommend a plant that has a strong enough level of evidence for treatment of FSD. Thus, there is a need for clinical (double-blinded and randomized) studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of several plants that can exert a positive effect on the management of FSD.
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Seven plants and a herbal mixture used for traditional treatment of diabetes were studied in streptozotocin diabetic mice. The treatments were supplied as 6.25% by weight of the diet for 9 days. Consumption of diets containing bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis), mistletoe (Viscum album) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) significantly reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia associated with streptozotocin diabetes, but bayberry (Cinnamomum tamala), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), senna (Cassia occidentalis) and the herbal mixture did not alter these parameters. Bearberry, mistletoe and tarragon retarded the body weight loss but none of the eight treatments significantly altered plasma glucose or insulin concentrations. These studies suggest that bearberry, golden seal, mistletoe and tarragon may counter some of the symptoms of streptozotocin diabetes without, however, affecting glycemic control.
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Altered sexual function has been reported in individuals addicted to opioids or on methadone maintenance, yet little literature is available regarding the effect of intraspinal opioids on libido or sex hormone levels. We evaluated sexual function and plasma sex hormone levels in six men treated with chronic intraspinal opioids. All patients had some reduction in libido and four patients had difficulty obtaining or maintaining an erection. These changes were noted within 1 month of beginning intraspinal opioid therapy. Serum testosterone levels ranged from 26 to 367 ng/dL (normal, 350-1500 ng/dL); the mean serum level was 197.7 ng/dL (SD = 119.8). Serum testosterone levels and other sex hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, sex-hormone-binding globulin, and prolactin, should be measured prior to and at various points during intraspinal opioid therapy. Patients should be queried regarding sexual function and should be cautioned regarding the possibility of these adverse effects prior to initiating spinal opioids. Supplemental testosterone should be considered to treat this dysfunction.