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Digital Resources versus cognitive tools: A discussion of learning science with technology

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... Year 6 and 7 children to write a series of three BioStories (i.e., short stories with a biosecurity theme) guided by the Cognitive Tools Framework (Songer, 2007). In accordance with the framework, the learning goals (i.e., scientific attitudes, literacy and conceptual understanding of biosecurity), learning activities (i.e., a sequence of BioStories to be completed and composed by the students), and specific learning outcomes (i.e., enhanced scientific literacy, conceptual understanding and positive attitudes toward science) were articulated (Ritchie et al., 2008b). ...
... In order to examine the use of technology for learning science, Songer (2007) made the distinction between Digital Resources and Cognitive Tools. A digital resource comprises of computer-available information that presents information, including facts and perspectives, about a particular topic. ...
... In contrast to a digital resource, a cognitive tool is a computer-available information source or resource that presents focused information targeted at a particular audience, with specific learning goals pertaining to a topic of study (Songer, 2007). Cognitive tools are designed for use in specific ways in order to achieve the desired learning outcomes. ...
... It also provided a new way to exchange information, which at that time was mainly used by the military and research institutes (Tuvi & Nachmias, 2003). Over the last two decades the situation has changed dramatically (Songer, 2007). Today, the Internet connects the entire world and makes information available in a manner never before seen. ...
... As ICT took on increasing importance in all domains of modern societies, it also changed schools and the lives of teachers (Songer, 2007). At least in industrialized countries, most modern teachers use the Internet and related media such as learning tools, animations, or databases to improve teaching and learning (Dori, Rodrigues & Schanze, 2013). ...
... In the last thirty years many different strategies and pedagogies have been suggested for employing computer-based learning environments and the Internet in education in general and in science education in particular (e.g. Linn, 1998;Rodrigues, 2010;Songer, 2007). New developments in hardware like smartphones, tablet-PCs and interactive whiteboards, as well as continuous improvement in the available software, cause constant challenges in innovating educational practices through modern ICT. ...
Chapter
Bionics is a topic in which learning about modern applications of science with reflection on current changes in science and technology can be combined. However, the availability of innovative teaching and learning materials on bionics is still rather limited. This chapter addresses a curriculum development, classroom-based research project which follows the model of Participatory Action Research in science education. In a two-year timespan, two university science educators and four high school teachers collaboratively developed, tested and revised a lesson plan for teaching bionics in lower secondary science education. The central pedagogical innovation was to incorporate all teaching and learning activities in a multimedia-based learning environment. This environment combines different sorts of media and activities such as explanatory texts, learning videos, physical models, inquiry-type experiments, and assessment tasks. The classroom scenario with the corresponding learning environment is described. A reflection upon the experience gained during the collaborative process of curriculum development is also provided. Selected findings are discussed.
... As digital technologies became pervasive and students became more teach-savvy, there was an increase in pressure to bring educational technologies into classrooms (Smetana & Bell, 2012). It was claimed by technology advocates that computer technologies could transform learning by providing teachers with more opportunities offered and students with more collaboration with peers and experts as well as with increasing access to information, ideas expressed and communicated and difficult topics explored (Sivin-Kachala & Bialo, 2000;Songer, 2007). However, educational technologies were poorly integrated into classrooms (Songer, 2007), or used in a limited way. ...
... It was claimed by technology advocates that computer technologies could transform learning by providing teachers with more opportunities offered and students with more collaboration with peers and experts as well as with increasing access to information, ideas expressed and communicated and difficult topics explored (Sivin-Kachala & Bialo, 2000;Songer, 2007). However, educational technologies were poorly integrated into classrooms (Songer, 2007), or used in a limited way. Bitner and Bitner (2002) described eight keys to success of integrating technology into classrooms, one of which was teaching models, and they stated that different kinds of programs could be used in large and small group instruction to facilitate teaching and learning. ...
... Com possibilidade de compreender melhor a inserção do Ensino Híbrido no Ensino de Ciências na educação básica, considerando as possíveis reflexões, necessidades nas formas de ensinar e aprender, bem como a crescente busca pelos impactos advindos da tecnologia (Songer, 2007;Lunetta et al., 2007), este estudo oferece uma revisão sistemática de literatura a partir de teses e dissertações brasileiras, buscando identificar em tais pesquisas os principais modelos utilizados, como e quando vêm sendo implantados, quais áreas de concentração têm sido aplicados e quais são suas fundamentações teórico-metodológica. ...
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O Ensino Híbrido, conjunto de metodologias que utilizam ferramentas digitais em atividades presenciais e a distância, tem sido utilizado como alternativa à organização tradicional, nas formas de ensinar e aprender ciências. Essas relações estabelecidas possibilitam caminhos alternativos para a prática docente e aprendizado dos estudantes. Deste modo, discussões sobre sua implantação podem ser direcionadas a partir de revisões de literatura. Tendo em vista essa possibilidade, o presente trabalho traz um estudo vinculado a uma revisão sistemática de teses e dissertações brasileiras que discutem os modelos híbridos no Ensino de Ciências. Para tanto, os procedimentos foram conduzidos pela Plataforma Parsifal, uma ferramenta on-line de elaboração de Revisões Sistemáticas da Literatura, que está ordenada nas fases de: planejamento, busca, importação e seleção de estudos, extração e análise de dados. Foram selecionados 42 trabalhos, cujos conceitos se concentraram em conteúdo específicos de Ciências da Natureza. No que se diz respeito a aspectos procedimentais, a maioria dos modelos propostos pelos trabalhos exigem uma menor modificação nas práticas educativas. Logo, trazem abordagens um pouco mais próximas das usuais e que são passíveis de discussão. Apesar disso, não foram encontradas comparações mais aprofundadas acerca de quais modelos e estratégias são mais indicados para uma determinada área ou conteúdo. Sendo assim, ainda há necessidade de publicações que compilem análises e interpretações acerca da sistematização de metodologias híbridas nas Ciências da Natureza.
... Other computerbased visualization tools have also been used in undergraduate classrooms to help students learn about water . However, even though technology-based tools are available for use, they are often underutilized by instructors (Songer, 2007). ...
Article
Groundwater is a critical resource for life on Earth. However, our groundwater resources are at risk due to human activities, making this a topic of importance within K-12 and undergraduate environmental education. Yet, students hold alternative conceptions and may have limited awareness about groundwater systems. One way to support students’ learning is by incorporating computer-based modeling tools into classrooms. Here, we explore the use a groundwater modeling tool, the Hydrogeology Challenge (HGC), among two age groups of students: seventh grade students and undergraduate students. In the seventh-grade population, we investigated how students relate or map model components to their real-world phenomena. We found that students struggled with aspects of the model relating to natural components and processes of groundwater systems. In the undergraduate population, we explored how students think spatially about aspects of the groundwater model. We compared two semesters of students: 1 semester with no intervention, and 1 semester with a spatial thinking intervention. We found that the intervention helped students to think spatially in certain aspects, such as concepts of space. However, students in both years still struggled with other aspects of spatial thinking, such as tools of representation and reasoning. Overall, these studies have implications for teaching and learning about groundwater. Adviser: Cory T. Forbes
... Internet has recently become a way of communication, education leading some shifts in our minds. As supported by Songer (2007), over two decades, internet has been viewed as a commonplace in various aspects in our daily lives. According to a survey study, majority of the children between 12 and 17 years of age were online on a regular basis. ...
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The present study aims to investigate private middle school students' attitudes toward online homework in science lessons. Furthermore, the relationship between these students' attitudes toward online homework and their academic performances in science lessons were examined. A total of 669 middle school students from a private middle school located in the capital of Turkey participated in the current study. These students had experienced online homework in science lesson for 15 months. The data were collected by the administration of 'Attitudes toward Online Homework in Science Lesson Scale' (ATOHS) covering 31 items in 5-point Likert type. The results revealed that the students had favorable attitudes toward completing online homework in science lesson. Students reported development in their understandings of scientific concepts through completing OHW.
... When the studies were reviewed, it was determined that the highest number of studies were conducted in the field of science education. Digital resources, transformed into cognitive tools, can help science learners experiment and critically think about real-life events by working in controlled, hypothetical or virtual environments (Songer, 2007). Therefore, the fact that there are more studies in the field of science education is considered important in terms of providing scientific literacy which is the aim of science education and contributing to this discipline. ...
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Web 3.0 technologies have inevitably affected educational research. Many studies have been conducted on the use of Web 3.0 tools in learning environments. The synthesis and summarization of the results of these studies with a systematic review is considered important in terms of being the source of future research and helping to spread the use of these technologies in education. Hence the purpose of this systematic review is to obtain a better understanding of how Web 3.0 technologies can be used to enhance quality of educational settings. The systematic analysis was conducted by 81 papers from 2005 to 2020. The PRISMA Statement was used in the research and report generation process. Papers related to semantic, augmented reality, intelligent tutoring system, 3d visual environments, 3d games and ontologies is included in the study. The results show that in 2008 and 2013 there was an increase in the number of studies. In addition, most experimental studies have been conducted in this literature and the studies in the discipline of science education are more than other disciplines. When the data collection tools used in the studies were examined, it was found that the majority of the studies were quantitative and most benefited from surveys, questionnaires and observational information in the data collection process. In addition, the majority of studies focus on the learning usefulness and learning outcomes of the software used in the research. Furthermore, suggestions for future researches were made in line with the limitations and results of the study. © 2021. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. All rights reserved.
... When the studies were reviewed, it was determined that the highest number of studies were conducted in the field of science education. Digital resources, transformed into cognitive tools, can help science learners experiment and critically think about real-life events by working in controlled, hypothetical or virtual environments (Songer, 2007). Therefore, the fact that there are more studies in the field of science education is considered important in terms of providing scientific literacy which is the aim of science education and contributing to this discipline. ...
Article
Full-text available
Web 3.0 technologies have inevitably affected educational research. Many studies have been conducted on the use of Web 3.0 tools in learning environments. The synthesis and summarization of the results of these studies with a systematic review is considered important in terms of being the source of future research and helping to spread the use of these technologies in education. Hence the purpose of this systematic review is to obtain a better understanding of how Web 3.0 technologies can be used to enhance quality of educational settings. The systematic analysis was conducted by 81 papers from 2005 to 2020. The PRISMA Statement was used in the research and report generation process. Papers related to semantic, augmented reality, intelligent tutoring system, 3d visual environments, 3d games and ontologies is included in the study. The results show that in 2008 and 2013 there was an increase in the number of studies. In addition, most experimental studies have been conducted in this literature and the studies in the discipline of science education are more than other disciplines. When the data collection tools used in the studies were examined, it was found that the majority of the studies were quantitative and most benefited from surveys, questionnaires and observational information in the data collection process. In addition, the majority of studies focus on the learning usefulness and learning outcomes of the software used in the research. Furthermore, suggestions for future researches were made in line with the limitations and results of the study.
... With the onset of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013), STEM educators have an opportunity to use technology as a cognitive tool for enhancing learning (Songer, 2007). Education stakeholders have moved away from narrowly defined visions of digital tools where technology gives access to general scientific data on the Internet. ...
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Virtual reality (VR) in science classrooms has the potential to enhance students’ learning by bridging the knowledge in the learners’ communities with science instruction. When virtual environments reflect students’ culture, it has the potential to influence their attitudes toward the value of science in their community. This qualitative study examined student reflections on learning science using virtual reality software with embedded culturally relevant design elements. After learning how to use this technology, fifty-eight 4th and 5th grade students from urban schools in Northern California were interviewed about their experiences learning science. Students explained how learning science through virtual worlds influenced their perceptions of how science mattered in their lives. Students explained the influence of CRP–VR in impacting how they saw the value of science in their communities. Implications of this research highlight the need for educational stakeholders to consider the relevance of integrating culturally relevant perspectives in VR technologies. This approach has the potential to position learners and their communities as bearers of scientific knowledge and thus providing a more dynamic learning experience.
... The results from the study support the use of audio technology to ensure LD students are provided the same opportunities to learn and understand science as the mainstream cohort. Providing audio iBooks on the iPad emphasizes the importance of utilizing technology as a learning and assistive tool for all students, including those with an LD (Songer, 2007). ...
Chapter
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With the current focus to have all students reach scientific literacy in the U.S, there exists a need to support marginalized students, such as those with Learning Disabilities/Differences (LD), to reach the same educational goals as their mainstream counterparts. This chapter examines the benefits of using audio assistive technology on the iPad to support LD students to achieve comprehension of science vocabulary and semantics. This research is composed of quantified data supported by qualitative information. Significant statistical evidence from pretest and posttest ANCOVA analysis reveals that audio technology is beneficial for seventh grade LD students when learning unfamiliar science content. Analysis of observations and student interviews support the quantified findings. This chapter provides useful information for the rising number of identified LD students and their parents and teachers by providing the benefits of using audio assistive technology to learn science. Audio assistive technology can be the tool to bridge the gap for LD students to achieve scientific literacy.
... Additionally, weblogs have been considered to be an important part in the participative Web 2.0, where internet users are being facilitated to become authors (O'Reilly, 2005), and potential elements of personal learning environments (Attwell, 2007;Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012). In science education, the focus of digital media is currently shifting from digital resources to cognitive tools (Jonassen, 1995;Songer, 2010). Rather than delivering and displaying information, cognitive tools support student inquiry and meaning making. ...
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The goal of this study was to compare how weblogs and traditional hand-written reflective learning protocols compare regarding the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies for knowledge acquisition as well as learning gains in secondary school students. The study used a quasi-experimental control group design with repeated measurements comparing weblogs and text-based reflective journals both with and without prompts. During a learning unit on the subject of climate change, students were assigned one to four experimental groups with different writing assignments and one control group that did not keep a learning protocol of any kind. Comparisons of pretest and posttest scores indicate that students in the experimental groups collectively outperform the students in the control group. Looking closer however, only the groups writing with the guidance of prompts showed better learning gains, while groups writing without prompts did not show significant differences when compared to the control group. There were no differences with respect to learning gains between groups writing weblogs and those writing with paper and pencil when supported by prompts. Without prompts however, students in the paper-and-pencil writing condition performed better than students writing blogs. For blogging students, prompts seemed to be more important to achieve greater learning gains. In addition, students showed greater use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies when guided by prompts. Also here, there were no differences with regard to the medium of writing. Both cognitive and metacognitive strategies were predictors of learning gains. In conclusion, the use of prompts can be considered as important scaffold when writing weblogs or paper based learning protocols.
... It has been claimed that "despite widespread use of technology by scientists across many disciplines, computers and network technologies are often underutilized and poorly integrated into core science education activities" (Butler Songer, 2007). This is a great shame as in the science classroom, new technology has offered a number of especially appropriate new resources for teaching. ...
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Computers and related information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly being employed in teaching at school and college level. Like any new educational technology, computers have strengths and limitations; and it is important that computers are used to support existing educational aims when they are appropriate tools, rather than simply being adopted to do what they are good at because ICT is seen as intrinsically 'good'. In science teaching, computers offer a number of useful properties, both related to their use in data collection and analysis, and their ability to offer high quality simulations. These modes of use offer much to support the classroom teacher. However, computers are increasingly being seen as suitable tools for 'delivering learning' in individual study as a supplement to, or even an alternative to, the teacher. Whilst this offers more flexibility - in where and when studying can occur - resources intended to 'teach' learners when the teacher is not present are a different proposition to resources provided as tools for the teacher to employ flexibly to support their own teaching. Conceptual learning in science is well recognised as often being problematic even with motivated students and skilled teachers. This chapter considers the challenge of producing materials to support conceptual learning in science, and the type of pedagogic models that are needed for successful computer-assisted teaching of science. As an example, the chapter discusses the pedagogic model employed in developing learning material in physics for use in further education colleges in England, and the responses of students to the resources.
... The key ideas for the upper elementary students found in the grade band (3 -5) under the NRC Framework are that offspring inherit genetic information, that variations in this information result in variation in traits, and that the environment also plays a role in influencing traits and thus enhancing observed variation (i.e., even identical twins are usually not entirely identical). Given the complex nature of genetics and the extent of persistent non-normative ideas, technology-enhanced instruction has "tremendous" potential for promoting student learning around complex and abstract science topics such as genetics (Banet & Ayuso, 2000;Roseman, Linn, & Koppal, 2008;Shear, Bell, & Linn, 2004;Songer, 2007;Tsui & Treagurst, 2007). Technology-enhanced inquiry curricula and instruction can lead to improvement in the K-12 students' learning outcomes (Edelson, Gordin, & Pea, 1999;Kali, Linn, & Roseman, 2008;Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, Bass, Fredericks, & Soloway, 1998;Linn, Davis, & Bell, 2004;Reiser, Tabak, Sandoval, Smith, Steinmuller, & Leone, 2001;Songer, Lee, & Kam, 2002). ...
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Genetics is an increasingly important topic in today's society, yet continues to be an ongoing challenge to the science education community and an important aspect of school student learning. This chapter examines how STEMGenetics, an inquiry-based technology-enhanced online unit, engages upper elementary students in building a better understanding of the concepts of inheritance of traits, variation of traits, and the life cycle of plants. Using pre/post measures, supplemented with qualitative analyses of students' responses, the authors show how upper elementary students' understanding of inheritance and variation of traits, as well as the life cycle of plants, resulted in greater learning gains. In addition, engaging in learning technologies, such as dynamic visualizations, provided the students opportunities to interact with the scientific phenomena and enhanced their reasoning about inheritance of traits and its relationship to the life cycle of plants.
... Tehnoloogiliste vahendite abil on võimalik STEM-ainetes luua õpikeskkond, milles õpilased aktiivselt teadmisi omandavad (National Research Council, 2011b;Novak & Krajcik, 2005;Songer, 2007). Tehnoloogilisi abivahendeid tuleks kasutada õpilaste toetamiseks disainipõhise hariduse omandamisel. ...
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Artiklis käsitletakse STEM-õpikeskkonna arendamise võimalusi ning STEMi rakendamist põhi- ja keskkooliastmes, keskendudes järgmisele küsimusele: kuidas aidata õpilastel omandada põhjalikke ja integreeritud STEM-valdkonna teadmisi, et neil oleks praktilised teadmised ja probleemilahendusoskused, mis aitaks neil maailmas hakkama saada ja seda paremaks muuta? Lisaks tutvustatakse STEMõppeks sobiva keskkonna hindamise kriteeriume ning käsitletakse probleeme, millega õpetajatel tuleb STEM-ainete õpetamisel kokku puutuda. Meie määratluse järgi on STEM loodusteaduste, tehnoloogia, inseneriteaduse ja matemaatika ühendamine eesmärgiga lahendada pakilisi isiklikke ja ühiskondlikke probleeme. Õpilaste kaasamine STEM-valdkonda tähendab nende kaasamist disainiprotsessi. STEM-maailmas on disain õpilaste mõttemaailma lahutamatu osa. Disainiprotsess on mittelineaarne ja oma olemuselt korduv, kuid nõuab disainiprobleemi kindlaksmääramist ja selget sõnastamist, probleemi kohta juba teada oleva teabe uurimist, võimalike lahenduste pakkumist, prototüüpide (tehisesemete) väljatöötamist, et lahendusi demonstreerida, ning tagasiside jagamist ja saamist. Disainile keskenduva STEM-hariduse kaudu on võimalik toetada õpilasi suurte loodus- ja inseneriteaduslike ideede ning oluliste praktiliste loodus- ja inseneriteaduslike teadmiste omandamisel. Samuti võimaldab STEM-haridus motiveerida õpilasi, et neil tekiks omanikutunne ning vajadus oma ideid tutvustada ja tulemuslikult tegutseda. Enamgi veel, STEM-õpikeskkonda kaasatud õpilased saavad arendada selliseid 21. sajandil vajalikke oskusi nagu probleemilahendus- ja suhtlemisoskus ning koostöövõime. Full text
... The findings of this research add support for the integration of technology in the teaching and learning of science, especially at schools where performance in science is poor, and in contexts such as in South African where ICT integration is developing. Despite the widespread use of technology in many aspects of our work and personal lives, ICT has been under-utilised in the science classroom (Songer, 2007). A study by Wilson-Strydom and Thomson (2005) revealed that teachers at disadvantaged schools are just starting to explore the possibilities of integration of ICTs in their lessons, and that they need to be supported in this regard. ...
Article
This study investigated the use of interactive computer simulations in addressing misconceptions held by Grade 10 South African learners on electric circuits. The sample comprised 130 learners from three under-performing schools in a socio-economically disadvantaged township. The misconceptions were identified by means of a threetier diagnostic test. The first tier consisted of conceptual questions; the second tier asked for reasons for the choice made on the first-tier item; and the third tier addressed the confidence level of the respondents. A statistical analysis of the data collected revealed a significant difference in the performance of learners on the pre-test and post-test, with learners performing better on the post-test. This suggested that the use of simulations in the science classroom did, to a certain extent, reduce the number of misconceptions previously held by learners. The results from this study support the findings of studies conducted in other countries, and suggest that simulations may be a viable cognitive learning tool in enabling learners to investigate their pre-conceptions and thereby effect conceptual change.
... Technology tools can help transform the STEM classroom into an environment in which learners actively construct knowledge (National Research Council, 2011b;Novak & Krajcik, 2005;Songer, 2007). Technology tools should be used to support students in design-based education. ...
... Technology tools can help transform the STEM classroom into an environment in which learners actively construct knowledge (National Research Council, 2011b;Novak & Krajcik, 2005;Songer, 2007). Technology tools should be used to support students in design-based education. ...
Article
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In this manuscript we focus on how to develop STEM learning environments, and how STEM can be implemented in K-12 schools. We focus on the following question: “How can we support students in building a deep, integrated knowledge of STEM so that they have the practical knowledge and problem solving skills necessary to live in and improve the world?” We also discuss criteria for evaluating STEM learning environments and the challenges teachers face in implementing STEM. We define STEM as the integration of science, engineering, technology, and mathematics to focus on solving pressing individual and societal problems. Engaging students in STEM also means engaging learners in the design process. Design is integral to student thinking in the STEM world. The design process is very non-linear and iterative in its nature but requires clearly articulating and identifying the design problem, researching what is known about the problem, generating potential solutions, developing prototype designs (artifacts) that demonstrate solutions, and sharing and receiving feedback. With the integration of design, STEM education has the potential to support students in learning big ideas in science and engineering, as well as important scientific and engineering practices, and support students in developing important motivational outcomes such as ownership, agency and efficacy. Moreover, students who engage in STEM learning environments will also develop 21st century capabilities such as problem solving, communication, and collaboration skills.
... A central component of scientific literacy is the appropriate use of technology to support learning goals [38]. Similarly, Luu and Freeman found that the frequency of browsing the internet is positively associated with scientific literacy [39], and Rias and Zaman suggested that designers of multimediabased instruction should incorporate students' prior knowledge (i.e., scientific literacy) in their development of online learning environments [40]. ...
Article
This study examined the moderating effect of scientific literacy between self-regulated learning and quality online material, as well as that between teaching effectiveness and multidisciplinary learning outcomes. The study also tested how quality online material mediated the effects of scientific literacy, self-regulated learning, and teaching effectiveness on multidisciplinary learning outcomes. Survey data was collected from 242 participants to determine the appropriate scale structure by performing an exploratory factor analysis. Another set of data, comprising 922 participants, was also analysed to confirm the factor structure and build a predictive model. The results indicate that the mediating effects of quality online material on the relationship between scientific literacy, self-regulated learning, teaching effectiveness, and learning outcomes were supported. Quality online material and teaching effectiveness were identified as the most influential variables on multidisciplinary learning outcomes. In addition, scientific literacy was not only an effective moderator between self-regulated learning and quality online material, but also moderated the relationship between teaching effectiveness and multidisciplinary learning outcomes.
... Animated videos can be used to convey science concepts ranging in scale from minute to colossal. Computer models can be effective to help students think critically about science ideas and real life settings (Jones et al., 2003, Songer, 2007. Growing evidence supports the claim that animations are more easily perceived by students and effective when learning about dynamic events (Nicholls and Merkel, 1996;Pollock et al., 2002;O'Day, 2006, Tversky andMorrison, 2002). ...
Article
This exploratory study investigated three aspects of introductory undergraduate biology students’ understanding about cells. The study, which took place at the University of Maine with voluntary students in Basic Biology (“BIO100”) in the summer and fall of 2009, examined (1) students’ pre-course perceptions of cells as they exist in a living context and (2) gains in students’ perception and knowledge about cells after completing the one-semester course (BIO100). Results are based on lecture exam scores, pre-post surveys developed as a part of this thesis, and interviews with two groups of biology students. A total of 498 students participated in the study. Of that group, 25 students participated in either the pre- and post-instruction survey or an interview (summer survey (n=15) and fall interview (n=10)). Results suggest that (1) students enter BIO100 with inaccurate perceptions about how living cells vary in shape, size, and function, and that, (2) students’ factual knowledge about cells (such as the ability to identify parts of a cell) significantly improves during BIO100 but their contextual understanding (such as that cell size can range from a microscopic bacterium to a large ostrich egg) does not improve during the course. Suggestions are offered for how high school or undergraduate curriculum and assessments might be aligned not only to emphasize content knowledge, but also to help students acquire a more accurate perception of the diversity of cell structure and function in living contexts.
... Öğretmen adayları, BİT kullanarak "bilimi öğrenmek" veya "bilim yapmak" arasındaki farkı anlayabilirler (Songer, 2007). Son 20 yıldır, üniversitelerde öğretmen adayları sosyal medya (yani wiki ve bloglar), yanı sıra Power-Point, veritabanları ve elektronik tablolar gibi programlar öğretilerek yetiştirilmektedir. ...
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The purpose of this study is to determine the status of the use of 21st century skills in the slowmation development process by classroom teacher candidates and to reveal the competencies in using animation based on certain criteria. The participants of the study were 100 junior students (16 males, 84 females) at a mid-western university of Turkey. Embedded single-case design was used in this study. The data were collected through an open-ended questionnaire developed by the authors and validated by the field experts and students’ learning artifacts. Qualitative data were collected in a written form and examined through descriptive analysis technique. Results revealed that teacher candidates used most of the 21st century skills in the planning stage of slowmation except for the skills of “Creativity and Innovation” and “Entrepreneurship and Self-Direction”. When assessing animations according to the preset criteria, it was concluded that "Physical Events" related slowmation products reflected the most adequate level of understanding. In the slowmation development process, classroom teacher candidates used 21st century skills with different levels at each phase. In the planning phase, for example, teacher candidates have not utilized “Creativity and Innovation” skills to investigate different sources of the structured information even if they have partially used this skill in the other phases.
... However, it has very rarely before been applied with children specifically as the operators. An exception is BioKIDS 4 from the University of Michigan, through which children report on wildlife sightings (Parr, Jones, & Songer, 2002;Songer, 2007). ...
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This study identifies, characterizes, and represents children's and adolescents' perceptions of urban risks, using participatory mapping and Participatory Geographic Information Systems. Children and youth identified risks and georeferenced them using tools like CyberTracker, Google Earth and Google Maps embedded in a website. Data analysis showed that risk situations identified by the participants are real and concrete concerns, contextualized in their daily lives. This kind of study can be a starting point for community joint actions that include young people to help solve problems—from policy reviews, to effective structural and design changes, to general awareness-raising.
... Current reform efforts have highlighted, among other goals, the importance of developing students' conceptual understanding and skills in the practices of science (NGSS Lead States, 2013). Furthermore, there is an increased emphasis on science instruction that both engages students in authentic science experiences (Flemming, 2013;Jones, Childers, Stevens, & Whitley, 2012) and incorporates elements of instructional technology (Dani & Koenig, 2008;Songer, 2007). However, studies have shown that teachers in urban schools tend to have more constraints on science instructional time, and tend to employ primarily traditional science teaching methods (Barton, 2007). ...
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Inequalities in educational opportunity are well documented. Regardless of the nature of the disadvantage—low income, underrepresented minority status, or prior achievement—students from backgrounds associated with a given disadvantage have less access to educational opportunities. In this article, we use data from the 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education to explore how resources are allocated for science instruction specifically. We focus on how three kinds of resources—well-prepared teachers, material resources, and instruction itself—are allocated to classes that are homogeneously grouped by prior achievement level. Regardless of the resource, we find that classes of students with low prior achievement (as perceived by their teachers) have less access. Some of the differences are striking, particularly regarding access to material resources, while others are more subtle. There is also evidence that some policies do not impact teachers equally. For example, time allowed for teacher professional development is perceived differently by teachers in terms of its impact depending on the achievement level of students in the class. The study supports the assertion that what is known about ability grouping in general applies in science instruction specifically. When students with low prior achievement are grouped together, their classes have less access to critical resources for science learning opportunities, potentially widening the gap between them and their higher-achieving peers.
... The results from the study support the use of audio technology to ensure LD students are provided the same opportunities to learn and understand science as the mainstream cohort. Providing audio iBooks on the iPad emphasizes the importance of utilizing technology as a learning and assistive tool for all students, including those with an LD (Songer, 2007). ...
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With the current focus to have all students reach scientific literacy in the U.S, there exists a need to support marginalized students, such as those with Learning Disabilities/Differences (LD), to reach the same educational goals as their mainstream counterparts. This chapter examines the benefits of using audio assistive technology on the iPad to support LD students to achieve comprehension of science vocabulary and semantics. This research is composed of quantified data supported by qualitative information. Significant statistical evidence from pretest and posttest ANCOVA analysis reveals that audio technology is beneficial for seventh grade LD students when learning unfamiliar science content. Analysis of observations and student interviews support the quantified findings. This chapter provides useful information for the rising number of identified LD students and their parents and teachers by providing the benefits of using audio assistive technology to learn science. Audio assistive technology can be the tool to bridge the gap for LD students to achieve scientific literacy.
... The Learning Sciences has long been interested in how engaging with various kinds of digital representations of information and experience can facilitate learning and transformative change (e.g., Linn, Clark, & Slotta, 2003;Quintana, et al, 2004;Songer, 2007;Pea & Maldonado, 2006;Scardemalia & Bereiter, 1994). Recently, with the widespread nature of handheld devices such as smartphones and other wearable or portable technologies, there is great potential for such representations to be inclusive of a broad swath of learners' experiences within and across multiple sociocultural contexts (White, Booker, Ching, & Martin, 2012). ...
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Learners' physical performances can serve as focal objects for reflection and insight across a variety of contexts and content areas. This session brings together a set of projects that leverage the physical performances of learners, construct concrete and abstract representations of those performances, and investigate how learners reflect on and understand the relationships between their performances and target content-physics, health and fitness, data literacy and navigation, animal foraging, and climate change. The session will share findings and design principles from each of the studies around constructing technological scaffolds for physical performance reflections. The symposium highlights the various ways performance can be used to engage learners, and how different settings and learning goals affect the designs of performance representations.
... It is therefore important for teachers and students to be provided with instructional resources that enhance student understanding of the topic, for example through computer-based educational environments (Songer, 2007). The use of multimedia materials can transform the way students learn through visual engagement and promoting active learning (Plass et al., 2012). ...
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Climate change literacy plays a key role in promoting sound political decisions and promoting sustainable consumption patterns. Based on evidence suggesting that student understanding and interest in climate change is best accomplished through studying local effects, we developed a simulation/game exploring the impact of climate change on the declining water levels in Lake Mead. Because there are few evaluations of educational games using true control groups, this study also presents a randomized field trial evaluating the game. We randomly assigned 119 seventh graders to either a gamebased condition or control condition. Students in the experimental group played Losing the Lake; those in the control group viewed an earth science website. Students also completed pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest measures of their content understanding and interest in issues embodied in the game. We found that playing the game resulted in a significant increase in content knowledge, as measured by a 22-item assessment, especially on items related to household conservation and some basic concepts related to the greenhouse effect. The control group showed no effect. Playing the game also resulted in some increase in student interest. The Losing the Lake game illustrates how use of a water theme can be used to make climate change content more meaningful and relevant to students. Furthermore, the study shows, through a randomized control trial, that educational games can result in conceptual development, specifically on water flow (i.e., where drinking water comes from and where it goes once used), water conservation, and the difference between weather and climate. The Losing the Lake game can therefore be useful educationally in various locales as a case study in the nature of drought, climate change effects, and water conservation practices.
... These TMBI environments, given appropriate scaffolding , have demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing students' modeling-based thinking including qualitative and quantitative modeling, computational thinking, system perspectives, and help diversify and strengthen students' collaborative learning in science. Despite the rapid development, technologies are still poorly integrated into science education curricula (Songer, 2007 ) . There are many challenges as how to best utilize these programs and implement in different school contexts. ...
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Innovative manipulative materials are developed to help students learn complex scientific concepts. Students’ learning is facilitated and shaped by these materials and associated activities. Prescribed experience in a formal learning setting produces desired outcomes, but may also prevent generative learning and skills, including students’ ability to transfer what they learn to new contexts. In this paper, I document the learning processes of two in-service elementary teachers as they develop an understanding of the concept of balance in physics. Using the transformative modeling perspective and the transformational diagram as an analytical tool, I carefully examine the structure and characteristics of the learning materials and the interaction between the learners and the materials. I show that the development of the two teachers’ conceptual learning resides in, among other interactions, the constant transformations of the learning materials. The implications in science education are manifested in three proposed instructional strategies: (1) attending to both the structure of manipulative materials and their possible transformations; (2) providing a series of variations of materials and emphasizing the transformability among them; (3) transforming learning materials to model natural observations.
... Likewise, ICT responses indicated learning had moved beyond the use of word processes to the use of technologies that could be used to represent learning. The pre-service teachers had, as Songer (2007) described, begun to consider the difference between ICT 'for doing science' and ICT 'for learning science'. This latter finding was somewhat unexpected, as the information participants received in the lecture and workshop about Slowmation Animation was heavily biased towards the process of creating the animation, and not on aimed at the associated learning. ...
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Meta-learning relates to one's ability to have an awareness of one's self as a learner, and being able to use this ability to become a more effective learner. It is important for pre-service teachers to develop this self-awareness about their own cognitive processes so that they can become more skilled in their approach to learning and therefor teaching. They become better equipped to make conscious changes in their approaches to learning and become more productive, independent learners (Winters, 2011). The purpose of this study was to use an inquiry-based learning experience so that primary pre-service teachers could explore their understandings of inquiry and begin to develop a meta-learning approach by integrating an innovative technology into a science methods workshop. Effectively, the aim was to create a learning experience for pre-service teachers that would enable them to participate in modelled inquiry experiences during their university classes, using curriculum and materials that were aligned with the requirements of the Australian Curriculum: Science, and had a focus on teacher content knowledge (knowledge of science subject matter (e.g. biology, physics), and knowledge of classroom inquiry). Inquiry-based learning and teaching is central to Australia's national science curriculum – the Australian Curriculum: Science. Australian teachers are mandated to apply inquiry-based learning in their classrooms, but unfortunately very few classroom teachers have experienced a scientific inquiry, and even the most experienced teachers appear to have little knowledge of inquiry (Capps & Crawford, 2013). It is quite possible that most of Australia's teachers learnt science through the traditional approaches. Loucks-Horsley et.al. (2003), argue that it is very difficult for a teacher to teach in ways in which they have not learned themselves. Thus, this paper explores the impact of an inquiry-based learning experience, as part of a teacher training program, in terms of self-awareness and meta-learning.
... Computers have become an essential educational tool to organize, analyze, locate, and present information. Yet research on the relationship between computer usage and science learning is limited (Songer 2007). Wanting to know more about the role of computers in learning science, Odom et al. examined the association of middle school physical science achievement and computer usage with student-centered teaching practices and traditional teaching practices (2011). ...
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In our study of the impact of computer use in science classrooms, data analysis indicated that student achievement in science can be improved through frequent use of student-centered teaching practices and, conversely, degraded through frequent use of computers under the effects of traditional teaching practices. Based on that finding, we provide guidelines for using computers in science classes, including three examples of how computers and scientific models can be used for collecting data (students), designing a lab (teacher), and a combination of designing a lab and collecting data.
... Large-scale studies have shown the significant increase in achievement scores of students using technology as a learning tool (e.g., Lei & Zhao, 2007). Research in science classrooms clearly indicates that the use of technology has a positive influence on a wide variety of student learning outcomes, including understanding of science concepts and the development of scientific reasoning skills (Dani & Koenig, 2008;Schroeder, Scott, Tolson, Huang, & Lee, 2007;Songer, 2007). ...
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The integration of technology in teaching is still challenging for most teachers, even though there has been a historical growth of Internet access and available educational technology tools in schools. Teachers have not incorporated technology into their teaching for various reasons, such as lack of knowledge of technology, time, and support. In this study, three beginning science teachers who successfully achieved technology integration were followed for 3 years to investigate how their beliefs, knowledge, and identity contributed to their uses of technology in their classroom instruction. The findings demonstrate that the participating teachers were all intrinsically motivated to use technology in their teaching and this motivation allowed them to enjoy using technology in their instruction and kept them engaged in technology use. The major findings of the study are displayed in a model, which indicates that the internalization of the technology use comes from reflection and that teachers' use of technology in classroom instruction is constructed jointly by their technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge; beliefs; identity; and the resources that are available to them. The study has implications for teachers and teacher educators for successful technology integration into science classrooms. For the last two decades digital technologies have become inseparable from development and research in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. However, it has not been fully integrated into the field of education. Billions of dollars have been invested in technology to equip schools with educational technology tools, yet the vast majority of the teachers do not use technology in meaningful ways in their instruction (National Education Association [NEA], 2008; U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, 1995).
... Additionally, weblogs have been considered to be an important part in the participative Web 2.0, where internet users are being facilitated to become authors (O'Reilly, 2005), and potential elements of personal learning environments (Attwell, 2007;Dabbagh & Kitsantas, 2012). In science education, the focus of digital media is currently shifting from digital resources to cognitive tools (Jonassen, 1995;Songer, 2010). Rather than delivering and displaying information, cognitive tools support student inquiry and meaning making. ...
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The goal of this study was to compare how weblogs and traditional hand-written reflective learning protocols compare regarding the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies for knowledge acquisition as well as learning gains in secondary school students. The study used a quasi-experimental control group design with repeated measurements comparing weblogs and text-based reflective journals both with and without prompts. During a learning unit on the subject of climate change, students were assigned one to four experimental groups with different writing assignments and one control group that did not keep a learning protocol of any kind. Comparisons of pretest and posttest scores indicate that students in the experimental groups collectively outperform the students in the control group. Looking closer however, only the groups writing with the guidance of prompts showed better learning gains, while groups writing without prompts did not show significant differences when compared to the control group. There were no differences with respect to learning gains between groups writing weblogs and those writing with paper and pencil when supported by prompts. Without prompts however, students in the paper-and-pencil writing condition performed better than students writing blogs. For blogging students, prompts seemed to be more important to achieve greater learning gains. In addition, students showed greater use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies when guided by prompts. Also here, there were no differences with regard to the medium of writing. Both cognitive and metacognitive strategies were predictors of learning gains. In conclusion, the use of prompts can be considered as important scaffold when writing weblogs or paper based learning protocols http://earthlab.uoi.gr/theste/index.php/theste/article/view/146
Article
This was conducted to investigate the views of preservice teachers about learning Web 2.0 tools and using these tools to create educational digital content. The study was designed in qualitative research method. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to collect data from 18 preservice teachers studying in various programs in the faculty of education. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Findings showed that students emphasized the effortlessness of learning Web 2.0 tools and the convenience of designing and integrating educational digital content into the teaching and learning process. Although they indicated their concerns about utilizing these tools, they found these tools useful in terms of attracting attention, increasing learning retention, improving creative thinking and facilitating learning well as practical in terms of saving time, accessing resources and sharing information. They were very contented with using these tools that were supportive to improve the instructional practices in their own field even though very few of them thought differently. Finally, they were willing to utilize these tools in their future classroom settings.
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Effective teaching of science requires not only a broad spectrum of knowledge, but also the ability to attract students’ attention and stimulate their learning interest. Since the beginning of 21st century, VR/AR have been increasingly used in education to promote student learning and improve their motivation. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of 61 empirical studies that used VR/AR to improve K-12 science teaching or learning. Major findings included that there has been a growing number of research projects on VR/AR integration in K-12 science education, but studies pinpointed the technical affordances rather than the deep integration of AR/VR with science subject content. Also, while inquiry-based learning was most frequently adopted in reviewed studies, students were mainly guided to acquire scientific knowledge, instead of cultivating more advanced cognitive skills, such as critical thinking. Moreover, there were more low-end technologies used than high-end ones, demanding more affordable yet advanced solutions. Finally, the use of theoretical framework was not only diverse but also inconsistent, indicating a need to ground VR/AR-based science instruction upon solid theoretical paradigms that cater to this particular context.
Thesis
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تقويم الاداء المهني لمدرسي المواد التربوية في معاهد اعداد المعلمين والمعلمات على وفق معايير الجودة الشاملة Evaluating the Professional Performance of Educational Subjects’ Teachers at the Teacher Training Institutes in the Light of Total Quality Standards
Article
In order to understand the role of digital technology to mediate class interaction, and support English learners’ language and content learning in a content classroom, this qualitative case study investigates class interactions in a grade 5 Science classroom. Data include a 13-week period of classroom observation, field notes, interviews with the teacher and six English learners, as well as other relevant artifacts. Findings show that technology use in teaching plays an important role in semiotic mediation by juxtaposing the representation of scientific phenomenon and concepts proposed by one mode against the representations presented by other modes. Technology also has a potential to fill the gap between teacher and student discourse, helping students to connect academic meanings with their individual understanding.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to chronicle the author's becoming in a world of virtual learning communities (VLCs) and spaces. She considers her narrative of becoming in a world of VLCs and spaces important as it might resonate with many experienced lecturers and teachers who grew up in an era with no internet and no (or very little) technological tools, and who now suddenly find themselves thrust into an age where smartphones and various other mobile devices are inescapable. These smart devices such as iPhones, Macbooks, online programs, and so forth make university life frenetic not only for the author but for her students as well. This means we are all busy beyond belief with a seemingly relentless push to make everything we do and experience faster and faster. In this chapter, the author wants to share how the needs of her students, who are referred to as “digital natives” motivated her in her becoming in a world of VLCs.
Article
This study aimed to explore whether the integration of virtual reality and augmented reality used in a specially designed science book could improve the students' science concept learning outcomes. A true experimental research design was conducted to check the effectiveness of the specially designed book in terms of learners' achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 80 fifth-grade students, divided into a control and an experimental group. The results revealed that using mixed reality (augmented reality and virtual reality) as a learning supplement to the printed book could improve students' learning outcomes, particularly for low spatial ability students. Finally, recommendations for future practices and research are discussed.
Article
Developing understanding of models and proficiency with modeling practice is challenging for both teachers and students. This 2 year study first investigated existing instructional strategies employed by teachers while teaching Earth and Space Science with dynamic physical models. Summer professional development introduced a conceptual framework, based on analogical reasoning, to help students strengthen and deepen the connections they make between a model and its real-world referent. The framework draws explicit attention to correspondences and non-correspondences between model and referent, an often overlooked component of modeling practice which underpins the ability to evaluate and thus improve a model. Teachers were guided to reflect on their own instructional use of models and to plan for integrating specific instructional strategies around models into their Year 2 practice. Classroom observation data reveal that from Year 1 to Year 2, teachers shifted from a more didactic approach in which they used physical models primarily as tools for demonstration towards more student engagement with models as problem-solving tools. On an assessment measuring their students’ ability to reason with and about models, pre-post learning gains were higher in Year 2 than Year 1 across students at all ability levels. Together, these findings present evidence that teachers can learn to guide their students towards using physical models in ways that approximate key aspects of how scientists use runnable models, as envisioned by the Developing and Using Models practice of the Next Generation Science Standards.
Article
This study focused on the integration of technologies in regular science teaching within the pedagogical framework of modeling-based instruction (MBI), a well-established instructional method in science education, and aimed to identify new trends of technology integration in MBI, explore the particular features (Interactivity, Collaboration, and Scaffolding) and affordances of new technologies, and examine the effect of technology-supported MBI on students learning outcomes. By analyzing empirical MBI studies from 2000 to 2010 through a meta-analysis and qualitatively reviewing studies from 2011-2016, this study shared three major findings: (1) computer-based software was the most commonly used technology in MBI, with Internet and mobile technologies rarely used, thus indicating an alarming gap between technology advancement and its integration in education; (2) the majority of technologies used in MBI were considered highly-interactive, but collaborative and scaffolding features of MBI technologies were rarely discussed in MBI literature; (3) technology-supported MBI had an overall much higher effect size on students' science learning performance. Implications and suggestions for future research were also discussed.
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This chapter discusses current and future research trends of technology-enhanced science teaching and learning and probes into several new learning technologies, which will highly influence science teaching and learning in the future. These technologies include digital assessment, automatic feedback system, ubiquitous learning (u-Learning), augmented reality (AR) technology, and gesture-based technology. This chapter also conducts literature review and analysis on empirical researches about applying these learning technologies in teaching and learning. It also brings up the research direction future studies can focus on. Based on the “Media Debates” in 1990s and the following development of learning theories, as well as research statements and findings about learning technologies, “the three key elements of effective learning technology implementation” are concluded: nature of ICT, mediation model, and transforming model. This chapter also discusses the three elements and proposes suggestions for following researches on science teaching and learning.
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This summary reviews the four chapters dealing with the development and implementation of innovative curriculum materials. These chapters provide a snapshot of diverse innovative curriculum materials to promote student teaching and learning in Science in Asia. Education for sustainable development (ESD) has been the central theme of two closely related curriculum reform movements in the history of Science education: Environmental education and Science-Technology-Society (STS) education. Innovative education resources, particularly digital ones, are becoming available at an unprecedented pace; one essential issue is integration of digital recourses into teachers’ current curriculum. Teacher professional development courses must consider the process of innovation adoption. In addition, the effect of integrating digital recourses must be evaluated. No matter how effective innovative curriculum materials may prove to be during its development and evaluation stages, scaling up innovative curriculum materials is a totally different and new challenge. In Asia, countries have a history of placing strong emphasis on disciplinary structures and cross-grade progression, while Western countries have a history of placing strong emphasis on cross-disciplinary nature of Science; there is much to be learned between the Asia countries and Western countries themselves.
Article
This study explores the use of technology in instruction in a primary level classroom. Though many researchers and educators advocate for the incorporation of technology into science instruction, little is known about the effects of the implementation of various types of educational technology. Here, we investigate the effects of the incorporation of a data collection and analysis interface, the Spark™, on the scientific literacy of a group of second grade students in the United States. Treatment and control group comparisons indicate that the use of this technology during a lesson designed to investigate the relationships between physical variables increases the likelihood that students will represent their ideas graphically. PACS 01.50.-i - Educational aids. PACS 01.50.F- - Audio and visual aids.
Article
China has implemented curricular reforms with a focus on inquiry learning in physics education. As has been the case in other countries around the world, teachers have generally supported the intentions of the curriculum in relation to inquiry pedagogy but, in the face of high stakes assessment and other issues, have struggled to implement it appropriately in classroom teaching. Interactive simulations - computer-based 'virtual experiments' in which students can enter values and both observe and record the results - have considerable potential for supporting teachers' use of inquiry approaches to the development of concepts in physics. This paper outlines the Chinese context of the study along with a novel instructional sequence developed and tested by the authors for the purpose of scaffolding inquiry instruction using interactive simulations. The paper describes a pilot study of the classroom use of the ISIS instructional sequence, including measurement of students' development of physics concepts, their confidence in their own understanding and their development of the skills of scientific inquiry. The sequence was found to be effective for conceptual development.
Article
This study investigated whether the implementation of constructivist- oriented data-logging activities in high school chemistry classroom would enhance students' conceptual understanding and their metacognition. Participants comprised 96 eleventh-grade Chinese students separated into two groups. The data-logging based learning environment (DBLE) group was equipped with data-loggers and engaged in constructivist-oriented inquiry activities. The comparison or traditional group was taught in a lecture-oriented manner, and spent much time on solving textbook problems. An eight-item Conceptual Understanding of Hydrolysis and Titration (CUHT) test and an adapted metacognition questionnaire were administered to all participants. Results showed that constructivist uses of data-logging in chemistry teaching seem to further develop students' understanding of chemistry concepts and their metacognition. The study indicated that students' metacognition is significantly associated with their conceptual understanding in chemistry.
Chapter
This chapter offers a brief overview of the main ideas underlying the learning object (LO) paradigm, with special emphasis placed on pedagogical aspects. Requirements for the interoperability and reusability of learning objects (LOs) are discussed, with attention drawn to the need of developing new metadata models to fully benefit from this approach. The authors also claim a wider utilization of LO principle design based on educational research, to improve the chances of promoting efficient learning. A literature review on technology and science education is also provided, revealing a gap between computer and learning science, in relation to the embracement of the LO paradigm. Reflections on this situation and implications for the science education community are also included. Finally, one project on computer-supported science education is analyzed from the perspective of interoperability and reusability.
Article
Using a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent pretest/posttest control group design, the researchers examined the effects of online collaborative learning on eighth-grade student’s sense of community in a physical science class. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative activities in a faceto- face learning environment, whereas students in the experimental group participated in online collaborative activities using the Edmodo educational platform in a hybrid learning environment. Students completed the Classroom Community Scale survey as a pretest and posttest. Results indicated that the students who participated in the face-to-face classroom had higher overall sense of community and learning community than students who participated in collaborative activities in the online environment. Results and implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.
Article
This quantitative, quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design examined the effects of online collaborative learning on middle school students' science literacy. For a 9-week period, students in the control group participated in collaborative face-to-face activities whereas students in the experimental group participated in online collaborative activities using the Edmodo educational platform. Students at a public middle school in central Virginia completed both a pretest and a posttest consisting of the Misconceptions-Oriented Standards-Based Assessment Resources for Teachers (MOSART) assessment to measure science misconceptions as an aspect of science literacy. Results indicated that the students who participated in collaborative activities in the traditional classroom had fewer science misconceptions than students who participated in collaborative activities in the online environment. Moreover, from pretest to posttest, the students in the experimental group increased in their science misconceptions. Suggestions for practice and future research are discussed in light of these results.
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