Article

Neurophysiological Correlates of Cognitive Absorption in an Enactive Training Context

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Abstract

Various aspects of intrinsic motivation have long been theorized as key determinants of learning achievement. The present research seeks deeper insights into these intrinsically motivating mechanisms by investigating neurophysiological correlates of cognitive absorption in the context of enactive learning, specifically simulation-based training on the use of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. An experiment was conducted in which 36 student trainees used ERP software to make decisions while running a simulated company. Consistent with flow theory, skill, difficulty, and their interaction significantly influenced cognitive absorption (R2 = .16). Five neurophysiological measures were captured for each trainee: EEG alpha, EEG beta, electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate, and heart rate variability. Each of the five neurophysiological measures explained significant unique variance in cognitive absorption over and above skill, difficulty, and their interaction, and collectively more than doubled the explained variance to R2 = .34. Overall, cognitive absorption was positively related to a more relaxed, less vigilant state. Cognitive absorption was significantly related to the training outcome. These findings provide new insights into the psychological states that are conducive to experiencing cognitive absorption during enactive training.

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... However, physiological data about users can likely provide "a richer account of user cognition than that obtained from any other source, including the user himself" (Minnery and Fine 2009, p. 73). This assumption is reflected in the vast amount of literature that examines cognition and especially creativity by means of neuroscientist methods (e.g., Gaskin et al. 2017;Jausovec and Bakracevic 1995;Léger et al. 2014;Wagner et al. 2005). ...
... Most studies utilizing methods of neuroscience to study creativity and cognition use medical grade equipment to collect body signals from participants (e.g., Léger et al. 2014;Wagner et al. 2005). While this equipment is capable of collecting body signals with high precision, the costs of such equipment are also quite high. ...
... Gaskin et al. (2017), for example, claim that the cost for professional heart rate monitors, EEG devices, and blood oxygen sensors is multiple thousands of dollars. Another issue with high-cost equipment is that it constraints the sample size as can be seen by various studies with low sample size in this area (e.g., Jausovec and Bakracevic 1995;Léger et al. 2014). Besides high cost and low sample sizes, medical grade equipment usually requires the user to be heavily tethered in order to measure body signals. ...
Book
Collaborative innovation networks are cyberteams of motivated individuals, and are self-organizing emergent social systems with the potential to promote health, happiness and individual growth in real-world work settings. This book describes how to identify and nurture collaborative innovation networks in order to shape the future working environment and pave the way for health and happiness, and how to develop future technologies to promote economic development, social innovation and entrepreneurship. The expert contributions and case studies presented also offer insights into how large corporations can creatively generate solutions to real-world problems by means of self-organizing mechanisms, while simultaneously promoting the well-being of individual workers. The book also discusses how such networks can benefit startups, offering new self-organizing forms of leadership in which all stakeholders are encouraged to collaborate in the development of new products.
... Users in a state of flow are engaged, intrinsically motivated and are therefore more likely to retain the e-learning material. It follows that we might also measure cognitive absorption using physiological indicators, such as heart rate or brain activity, as demonstrated by Léger, et al. (2014). ...
... The relationship between frustration and memory load has been explored in the context of perceived ease of use by de Guinea et al. (2014), where it was found that when frustration is low, memory load has a positive effect on the perceived ease of use of a technology. Negative EEG alpha is typically thought to be generated when users are alert (Klimesch, 1999;Grimes 2008), while positive alpha is used by Léger et al. (2014) to measure the state of relaxation implicit in cognitive absorption. EEG alpha should therefore be explored to understand the impact of EEG alpha on germane cognitive load. ...
... Building on the work of Léger et al. (2014) we seek to use electroencephalogram to measure the frequency of EEG alpha, EEG beta and EEG theta, and correlate it with the degree of perceived cognitive load. With successful EEG measurement, we are able to specify benchmark indices for appropriate learning difficulty. ...
Conference Paper
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By understanding the psychophysiological factors behind successful e-learning, we aim to identify new techniques that improve participant retention and engagement. Past work has explored the relationship between Electroencephalography (EEG) and learning constructs, such as Cognitive Load and Cognitive Absorption. We believe that the unique application of an e-learning environment warrants an extension of existing theories. Our goal is to develop and validate a model explaining the role of Cognitive Load on Knowledge Gained. This research provides the foundation to then apply this model to create a neuroadaptive learning system. We describe an experiment that uses noninvasive tools to validate this model and explore the viability of off-the-shelf EEG for data collection in e-learning experiments. Potential theoretical contributions are discussed and results from a technical pilot are provided.
... Tetris, Pacman) (Ewing, Fairclough, and Gilleade, 2016;Barros et al., 2018;Peifer et al., 2014), factual knowledge (Keller et al., 2011), mental arithmetic Katahira et al., 2018) or chess (Tozman, Zhang, and Vollmeyer, 2017). Also, the DM paradigm has been parametrised for durations of multiple seconds to multiple hours (see Kennedy, Miele, andMetcalfe, 2014 andUlrich, Keller, andGrön, 2016a for very short, Keller, 2016 andLéger et al., 2014 for very long instances). However, the majority of work utilises ranges of 4-8 minutes per difficulty condition (Keller, 2016). ...
... Following this thought, they suggest that flow is possibly represented in the body by a rare configuration of the two ANS branches, the state of non-reciprocal co-activation that is considered to emerge when the body requires an increased precision level for calibrating the situational provision of energy in challenging situations (Berntson, Quigley, and Lozano, 2007). Lastly, Léger et al. (2014) propose that high concentration and attention in flow are reflected by a stable, less volatile state of physiological and affective activation. While all of these propositions have received some (early) support, to align the differences in these propositions, more research is needed to consolidate empirical findings into a common understanding. ...
... Therefore, increased Alpha power in a particular region indicates a reduction of neural activity. In the present corpus, one study finds increased Alpha power with higher flow self-reports (Léger et al., 2014). This finding is supported in its direction by a quasi-experimental comparison of difficulty conditions, in which frontal Alpha power becomes maximal at right frontal sites during increased and balanced difficulty situations (Labonté-Lemoyne et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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The experience of flow is a unique sensation of complete task absorption and effortless action that is highlighted as a correlate of peak performances, personal and social growth, and general well-being. For organisations, higher flow frequencies, therefore, relate to a more engaged, skilled, and productive workforce. Especially as global phenomena like increasing knowledge work demand and low worker engagement are developing, organisations could strongly benefit from fostering workers’ flow experiences. However, facilitating flow represents a substantial challenge due to the variety of workers’ abilities, tasks and workplace configurations. Knowledge workers are faced with unstructured and complex tasks, that require numerous domain-specific abilities and cooperation with others. Workplaces are diversifying with boundaries disappearing between centralized and digitally-mediated workspaces. This variety means that only person-, task- and situation-independent approaches can deliver comprehensive flow support. For this reason, research on the experiences neurophysiological basis is increasingly pursued. On this basis, adaptive Neuro-Information Systems (NeuroIS) could be developed that are able to detect flow continuously (especially through wearable sensor systems), and that can provide flow-supporting mechanisms. Presently, despite these efforts, the knowledge on how to detect flow with neurophysiological measures is sparse, highly fragmented, and lacks experimental variety. On the individual level, competing propositions exist that have not been consolidated through cross-situational, and multi-sensor observation. On the group level, almost no research has been conducted to investigate neurophysiological correlates in social interactions, particularly not in digitally-mediated interactions. This dissertation addresses these gaps through the cross-situational observation of flow using wearable ECG and EEG sensor systems. In doing so, limitations in the present state of experimental flow research are addressed that refer to central shortcomings of established paradigms for the controlled elicitation of flow experiences. Specifically, two experiments are conducted with manipulations of difficulty, naturalism, autonomy, and social interaction to investigate the question of how flow elicitation can be intensified, and the experience detected more robustly across situations. These investigations are based on an extensive integration of the theoretic and empiric literature on flow neurophysiology. Altogether, the results suggest flow to be represented by moderate physiological activation and mental workload, by increased attentional task engagement and by affective neutrality. Especially EEG features indicate a diagnostic potential to separate lower from higher flow intensities by the reflection of optimal and non-optimal (individual and group) task difficulties. To catalyse, that the positive promises of fostering flow in individuals and social units, can be realised, avenues to advance flow facilitation research are outlined.
... The correlation analysis showed the responsiveness of smartphone was positively correlated with the relative power of Alpha band (Table 10). This finding is supported by the research of Léger, Davis, Cronan, and Perret (2014). They found that the alpha band is positively correlated with flow. ...
... Higher Alpha does point to the idea that faster response was obtained under the higher UX condition. Further, Alpha is associated with relaxed wakefulness and subjective feelings of relaxation, well-being, and reduced anxiety (Léger et al., 2014;Nah, Yelamanchili, & Siau, 2017;van Boxtel et al., 2012). Their results also provide support for our study. ...
... Delta rhythm is most prominent during deep sleep or drowsiness but can also be present in the waking state (Léger et al., 2014;Nacke, 2010). In this view, decreased Delta power leads to good performance and indicates high arousal and alertness. ...
Article
UX (User experience) can influence important user behaviors, including user preference, purchasing decisions, and customer loyalty. The ability to assess UX during the product trial has practical significance for design and improvement of products. In this article, two smartphones with different UX were selected through a focus group. In the EEG (electroencephalography) experiment, we explored the brain signal of users when using two smartphones to complete three tasks. The brain signal of each participant was recorded through Curry Neuroimaging Suite software (Version 7.0, Compumedics Limited, Abbotsford, Australia) when they were using the smartphones. Then results from behavioral, subjective and neural responses were analyzed. The behavioral results showed that participants completed the three tasks faster by using a smartphone with a higher score of UX. The subjective results showed a significant difference between the two smartphones. The patterns of cortical activity were obtained in the five principal frequency bands, Delta (1–4 Hz), Theta (4–8 Hz), Alpha (8–13 Hz), Beta (13–30 Hz) and Gamma (30–45 Hz). The results indicated that a smartphone with higher scores of UX could evoke stronger relative power of Alpha (fronto-central, parietal and partieto-occipital regions), Delta (frontal region) and Gamma rhythms (C3 site), but weaker relative power of Beta (left central region) and Theta rhythms (frontal and parieto-occipital regions). Also, the correlation analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between EEG and behavioral results. User’s subjective experience had a significant positive correlation with the relative power of Gamma band, but a negative correlation with Beta and Theta bands (approximately significant with p = .078 and p = .071). There were also significant correlations between EEG results and sub-items of UX. Our findings suggest that the difference in EEG may be taken as an evaluating indicator of user perception when using products without interruption.
... Zhu and Morosan (2014) argued that compared with flow, CA is more relevant in the context of IT. Therefore, although CA and flow might be relevant and similar constructs by nature (Kaur et al., 2016;Léger et al., 2014), CA is more applicable in the context that the study aims to explore. ...
... CA is a type of intrinsic motivation (Léger et al., 2014). People immerse in a specific IT for their own sake and a sense of enjoyment. ...
... They are not aware of the passing of time and feel heightened enjoyment during the course of using the app, for the sense of flow is smooth and fluent, and is not impeded to the slighted extent. The holistic experience of using MIM is the biggest reward to users (Léger et al., 2014). Accordingly, if an MIM can generate greater CA within users by not only satisfying users' needs in communication, but also their motivations with its various services, it is expected that users would feel it more difficult to interrupt their current behaviors, which contributes to more satisfying experience (Reychav and Wu, 2015b;Wu et al., 2014). ...
Article
Purpose Can mobile instant messaging (MIM) make people entering into the state of cognitive absorption (CA)? The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether CA can help explain users’ satisfaction during the process of MIM, while interactivity and interest are operated as determinants of CA as well as directly associated with satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach This study proposes a satisfaction model that is adapted from the CA theory to investigate MIMs users’ satisfaction with two determinants, interactivity and interest. Specifically, CA is operated as a second-order formative construct with four reflective dimensions, including curiosity, focused immersion, heightened enjoyment and temporal dissociation. Partial least square structural equation modeling was applied to evaluate the causal links of the model with the data collected from 472 LINE users who all had long using experience. Findings The results showed that CA in MIM, fueled by interactivity and interest, is positively related to satisfaction. Interactivity and interest themselves were also significantly associated with satisfaction. Among them, interactivity has the most influence on satisfaction, followed by interest and CA. Surprised, curiosity and focused immersion did not formative CA in MIM. Research limitations/implications The present study focuses on user satisfaction of a specific MIM (LINE) and collects data from users within a specific region (Taiwan). Other researchers must take these constrains into consideration when referencing this study. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study which confirmed that people still enter into the state of CA when using MIM on smartphone, even though the using environment is drastically different from that on desktop. It indicates that prior theories in CA with desktop-based software are still applicable and serve as a basis for more studies in the mobile context to a certain extent, but other factors should also be considered. As interactivity and interest are conducive to CA, leading to user satisfaction, an MIM app can be more popular if the two factors are incorporated.
... AB is associated with vivid fantasy, decreased self-awareness, and increased alterations in consciousness states (Pekala et al., 1985). Furthermore, AB is involved in experience, creativity, and the manifestation of flow experiences; additionally, it significantly affects the severity of psychopathological symptoms (Wild et al., 1995;Léger et al., 2014). ...
... Furthermore, in patients with SSD, AB is a strong predictor of the intensity of both positive and negative symptoms (Cicero et al., 2016). However, they are adaptive in cases where a person is immersed in social/physical reality or a computer-generated virtual environment (Léger et al., 2014). AB is involved in deconstructing the spatial and temporal context of cognition; further, it facilitates engagement in an unusual and wide range of sensory, spiritual, and dissociative experiences (Luhrmann, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study aimed to examine magical ideation and absorption traits across non-clinical and clinical groups to determine their potential adaptive and maladaptive functions. Method: We enrolled 760 healthy participants from neighboring communities (female = 53.2%). Moreover, we recruited 318 patients (female = 66.5%), which included 25, 183, and 110 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders, respectively. Potentially adaptive and maladaptive sociocognitive functions were measured to determine the role of magical ideation and self-absorption in patients with psychiatric disorders. Results: The degree of magical ideation and absorption gradually increased in the following order: anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Furthermore, enhanced self-absorption-related enhanced consciousness traits were essential indicators of the presence of self-integration weakness in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Conclusion: Magical ideation and psychological absorption may be considered as mental model construction functions, which result in both gains and handicaps in social adaptation.
... Physiological indicators of work are useful in occupational health to enhance the prevention of long term stress effects [3] as they provide rich information on user cognition [28]. Important physiological indicators include cardiovascular measures (blood volume pulse, heart rate, HRV) [28][29][30]. ...
... Work stress influences the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and affects cardiovascular measures, such as heart rate (HR) and HRV [29]. During a cognitive effort due to stress, HR increases while HRV decreases. ...
Article
Work-related stress can negatively impact psychophysiological well-being and recovery. However, this has not received adequate attention in the construction industry. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of work pressure on physiological health. To achieve the aim, HRV and sleep health data were collected from 56 construction personnel using wearable technologies, followed by a post-experiment interview. The experimental data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis. The study deduced that although construction personnel were subjected to excessive sympathetic nervous activity resulting in an increased need for recovery, proper recovery was disrupted due to excessively reduced parasympathetic activities during the day. The result indicated that construction personnel are exposed to excessive cardiovascular risk factors, increasing their vulnerability to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and other adverse health outcomes. The findings will impact individual and organizational practices necessary to boost sleep health for proper cardiovascular and cognitive functioning. Get article here using 50 days free access: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cfe83IhXMprzd
... The triangulation of measures also makes it possible to anticipate the potentially interesting results that will answer the client's questions. This triangulation is achieved through a mosaic of proven collection methods [5,30,31]. The use of several data collection technologies of variable nature (physiological, psychological, and behavioral) ensures an enriched data collection. ...
... By aggregating and triangulating the arsenal of empirical data collected, the laboratory's researchers have succeeded in creating a methodology for simplifying and making the data more accessible. The results of this methodology are the visualizations of the interactions through the creation of UX heatmaps [5,30,31]. These heatmaps offer an "easy to interpret UX evaluation tool which contextualizes users' signals while interacting with a system. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recent research has called for the use of enriched measures, that is, psychophysiological measures of emotional and cognitive states, in user experience (UX) testing. This chapter investigates how these enriched measures can inform user experience evaluation while maintaining agility and speed in managing UX projects. Using a multiple case approach, this chapter presents the analysis of 12 recent user experience projects in which enriched measures were used. Lessons learned with regard to challenges encountered are outlined. They emphasize on: (1) the nature of the research question impacts the completion time and the complexity of the project; (2) the need to communicate and coordinate between all parties; (3) the need to anticipate the collected measurements and enhanced results using a mosaic of hybrid collection methods; (4) the nature of the results adapted to underline the operational side without reducing the quality of the work performed; and (5) the time constrains influenced and influencing the pre-tests and project’s granularity. This chapter concludes with lessons learned from an agile/UX development approach in the realization of Sprint projects.
... Taking Peifer's [8] psychophysiological definition of flow forward, Léger et al. [14] suggest that most of the flow components, if captured strictly by explicit, self-reported measures, tend to suffer from mono-method biases and from their retrospective nature. Specifically, Léger et al.'s and De Guinea's [20,21] results establish that self-reported measures correlate only moderately with their respective psychophysiological state conducive to perceived flow (engagement r 2 = 0.37, p < 0.01 and cognitive load r 2 = 0.58, p < 0.01). In both studies, participants had to make business decisions while running a simulated company. ...
... Indeed, software solutions, like Facereader [43], make it possible to automatically differentiate basic facial expressions through video recorded with a HD webcam. For example, recent game user research has used the arousal-valence model in their assessment of physiological flow in a group context [20,44]. Other games user research has used automatic facial emotion detection to examine how to enhance the e-sport experience [45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of video game tutorials is to help players easily understand new game mechanics and thereby facilitate chances of early engagement with the main contents of one’s game. The mobile game market (i.e., phones and tablets) faces important retention issues caused by a high number of players who abandon games permanently within 24 h of downloading them. A laboratory experiment with 40 players tested how tutorial presence and player expertise impact on users’ psychophysiological states and continuous-use intentions (CUIs). The results suggest that in a simple game context, tutorials have a positive impact on non-expert players’ perceived state of flow and have no effect on expert players’ perceived flow. The results also suggest that flow has a positive impact on CUIs for both experts and non-experts. The theoretical contributions and managerial implications of these results are discussed.
... Gamification scholars argue that the utilitarian elements can effectively keep the trainees focused on the main objectives and tasks (Sitzmann, 2011), the processing of which is charged by the cognitive structure of the human brain (Kahneman, 2013). On the other hand, the hedonic elements induce a flowlike experience of the trainees by creating an immersive artificial environment (Léger, Davis, Cronan, & Perret, 2014). Such an experience is said to be processed by the affective structure of the brain (Kahneman, 2013). ...
... Such an experience is said to be processed by the affective structure of the brain (Kahneman, 2013). During a gamification process, its utilitarian and hedonic elements activate the cognitive and affective processing of the human brain in such an iterative and interactive fashion that the trainee is neither overly stressed by the goals and challenges nor overly controlled by the automatic flow of the simulation, making gamification an effective instructional method (Léger, Davis, et al., 2014, Tennyson & Jorczak, 2008. In examining cognitive and affective information processing, the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion (ELM) (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981) is an appropriate theoretical basis for identifying the factors that influence one's attitude toward gamification. ...
... These domains include human-computer interaction and decision support systems. For instance, name please [3] used HRM to evaluate the impact of computerized agents on bidding behaviour in electronic auctions and name please [4] used neurophysiological correlates to investigate cognitive absorption in enactive training. There are many promising applications of real-time heart rate (HR) data as feedback signal in various IS domains, such as technostress applications [5], e-learning systems [6,7], financial decision making [8][9][10], and electronic auctions [11][12][13][14]. ...
... In an IS context, HR data are becoming increasingly valuable as a source of information about a subject's affective states [3,4,48]. The recently explored methods for remote HRM using rPPG [15] promise a low-cost application without interfering in a professional work environment, enabling less obtrusive measurements in situ. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As a source of valuable information about a person's affective state, heart rate data has the potential to improve both understanding and experience of human-computer interaction. Conventional methods for measuring heart rate use skin contact methods, where a measuring device must be worn by the user. In an Information Systems setting, a contactless approach without interference in the user's natural environment could prove to be advantageous. We develop an application that fulfils these conditions. The algorithm is based on remote photoplethysmography, taking advantage of the slight skin color variation that occurs periodically with the user's pulse. When evaluating this application in an Information Systems setting with various arousal levels and naturally moving subjects, we achieve an average root mean square error of 7.32 bpm for the best performing configuration. We find that a higher frame rate yields better results than a larger size of the moving measurement window. Regarding algorithm specifics, we find that a more detailed algorithm using the three RGB signals slightly outperforms a simple algorithm using only the green signal.
... Notably, the authors indicated a need for flow measures to be adapted to the dynamic nature of the experience, which is something that survey measures had thus far been limited at achieving. Recent research on the topic of flow and cognitive absorption have yielded robust psychophysiological measures that can overcome the real-time challenge (Léger, 2014), however these can be deemed inappropriate for the classroom environment. Pearce and Howard (2004) sought to overcome the limitations of questionnaire instruments by constructing a flow process measure that consists of a simple ratio of perceived challenge and skill. ...
Article
Full-text available
The expansion of technical concepts into everyday business practices suggests a need for effectively teaching difficult subjects to non-technical users. This paper describes hands-on analogy, an innovative method for teaching technically difficult concepts using interactive, experiential learning activities and a gamified exercise. We demonstrate our technique by investigating Hadoop Hands On, an exercise designed to teach MapReduce. Students experienced how MapReduce functions work conceptually by envisioning students as compute and tracking nodes in a Hadoop system and playing cards as data processed to complete two tasks of varying complexity. A study of 56 students was conducted to validate the exercise and demonstrated the impact of triggered flow on perceived understanding. The main contributions of this work are 1) an alternative learning approach that communicates a technically difficult concept through analogy and 2) the demonstration of the role of flow in facilitating learning using this approach. We recommend using this approach to teach technically difficult concepts to non-technical students who can more easily comprehend the benefits of distributed computing methods interactively in a way that complements the traditional lecture approach.
... All videos and neurophysiological signals were recorded and synchronized with Noldus Observer XT and Syncbox (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) ( Figure 5). All the synchronization was done based on Léger et al., (2014) guidelines [40,41]. The EEG data was recorded from 32 Ag-AgCl preamplified electrodes mounted on the actiCap and with a brainAmp amplifier (Brainvision, Morrisville). ...
Article
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Design is about understanding the system and its users. Although User Experience (UX) research methodologies aim to explain the benefits of a holistic measurement approach including explicit (e.g., self-reported) and implicit (e.g., automatic and unconscious biophysiological reactions) data to better understand the global user experience, most of the personas and customer journey maps (CJM) seen in the literature and practice are mainly based on perceived and self-reported users’ responses. This paper aims to answer a call for research by proposing an experimental design based on the collection of both explicit and implicit data in the context of an authentic user experience. Using an inductive clustering approach, we develop a data driven CJM that helps understand, visualize, and communicate insights based on both data typologies. This novel tool enables the design development team the possibility of acquiring a broad portrait of both experienced (implicit) and perceived (explicit) users’ experiences.
... The case study uses the Python stack to build elements of a P3 speller brain computer interface (BCI) [9,10] and includes data collected in this paradigm as part of a neurotechnology hackathon at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada in 2019. This application was chosen because of its applicability to attention-related IS constructs that have been described in the IS literature [11][12][13][14]. The source files for this case and the related tutorial are provided publicly and can be retrieved from GitHub at https://github.com/cdconrad/py-bci. ...
Chapter
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As the NeuroIS field expands its scope to address more complex research questions with electroencephalography (EEG), there is greater need for EEG analysis capabilities that are relatively easy to implement and adapt to different protocols, while at the same time providing an open and standardized approach. We present a series of open source tools, based on the Python programming language, which are designed to facilitate the development of open and collaborative EEG reserach. As supplementary material, we demonstrate the implementation of these tools in a NeuroIS case study and provide files that can be adapted by others for NeuroIS EEG research .
... The concept of immersion is seen by Brown and Cairns (2004) as a conceptual state of mind that can engross subjects to be less aware of their surroundings and of themselves. It relates to feeling deeply engaged with a medium, which enhances cognitive absorption (Léger, Davis, Cronan, & Perret, 2014). This absorption is attributed to two facets of immersion. ...
Article
Over the past few decades, cinemas have been using diverse and immersive technologies to enhance the moviegoer's experience. One of these technologies is a vibrokinetic motion seat, which provides high fidelity haptic feedback perfectly synchronized with the movie scenes. This article investigates the effect of this technology on product placement memorization. Using electroencephalography to measure implicit memorization and a brand recognition task to measure explicit memorization, we studied the difference between an artistically enhanced high fidelity vibro-kinetic feedback cinema experience and a traditional audiovisual cinematic experience. Results of a within-subject experiment suggest that there is no difference between these two conditions for explicit memorization. However, for implicit memorization, the high fidelity vibro-kinetic experience produces increased frontal amplitude on the P3 component of the event-related potential, whereas the classical audio-visual cinematic experience produces increased parietal amplitude on the P3 component of the eventrelated potential. This suggests that the high fidelity vibro-kinetic experience has an implicit effect on a spectator's memorization, which is in line with prior research in that it points to the creation of a stronger associative network leading to more complete memories.
... [32][33][34] Previous studies have shown that the HRV was associated with human neurocognitive activities. [35][36][37][38] In addition, it has been proved that the heart rate (HR) is an indicator of the primary responses of the autonomic nervous activities. [39][40][41] The aim of this research was to nd out whether there were physiological differences between novice drivers and experienced drivers. ...
Article
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The primary purpose of the study is to distinguish the differences in driving skill between novice and experienced drivers from the viewpoint of human cognitive behavior. Firstly, EEG (electroencephalogram) signals were collected using EEG acquisition equipment called Neuroscan. The δ sub-band and EOG (electrooculogram) signals were extracted from the EEG. Furthermore, the eye movement rate and the sample entropy (SampEn) values of δ sub-bands were calculated. Finally, the heart rate variability (HRV) characteristics, calculated using the SampEn algorithm, were used to analyze driving skill. The final result showed that human physiological signals (EEG, EOG and ECG (electrocardiogram)) could effectively distinguish different driving skills.
... Among other findings, this study shows that the suggested EEG measure has some predictive power for an outcome such as e-loyalty. In a study of neurophysiological correlates of cognitive absorption in the context of IS training, Léger et al. (2014a) found that subjects with high EEG Alpha and low EEG Beta frequency bands reported being more cognitively absorbed than subjects who did not display these characteristics. In a multimodal experimental study that synchronously captured the EEG and eye-tracking data, Léger et al. (2014c) demonstrated the distinctive differences between neurophysiological responses associated with the following cognitive processes: the attentional reaction to email pop-up notification, the cognitive processing of the email pop-up notification, and the motor planning activity involved in opening or not the email. ...
... Because of this, electroencephalogram (EEG) and FMRi are the most commonly used techniques to measure CNS responses (Valenza et al., 2016). In addition, EEG has been used to measure engagement (Castellar, E Voigt A., Jan N. & Marinazzo, D.& Looy, 2016;Cirett Galán & Beal, 2012;Shestyuk et al., 2019) and it can detect the perceived cognitive absorption (Conrad & Bliemel, 2016;Léger et al., 2014). Changes on cardiovascular dynamics by specific emotional states (Marín-Morales et al., 2019) can be measured using electrocardiogram devices (ECG). ...
Article
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This issue gathers all the articles presented at the scientific conference ConVRgence (VRIC) which took place during Laval Virtual World 2020 (April 22-24).
... Neurophysiological signals have been considered as promising measurements of emotional characteristics and can capture students' learning process that go beyond acquisition of knowledge (Léger, Davis, Cronan, & Perret, 2014;Ochoa & Worsley, 2016). Positive evidences on the correlation between interpersonal neurophysiological synchrony and interaction are consistently reported in recent years. ...
Preprint
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Interpersonal physiological synchrony has been consistently found during collaborative tasks. However, few studies have applied synchrony to predict collaborative learning quality in real classroom. This study collected electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) in naturalistic class sessions, and compared the physiological synchrony between independent task and group discussion task. Since each student learn differently and not everyone prefers collaborative learning, participants were sorted into collaboration and independent dyads based on collaborative behaviors before data analysis. The result showed that during groups discussions, high collaboration pairs produced significantly higher synchrony than low collaboration dyads (p = 0.010). Given the equivalent engagement level during independent and collaborative tasks, the difference of physiological synchrony between high and low collaboration dyads was triggered by collaboration quality. Building upon this result, the classification analysis was conducted, indicating that EDA synchrony can predict collaboration quality (AUC = 0.767, p = 0.015).
... Behavioral data were captured from the recording of the screen interface allowing the user's actions to be monitored. Emotional arousal and valence were used to form an affect circumplex (Russel, 1980;Guinea & Markus, 2009;Léger et al., 2014). This model is a popular dimensional approach to define all affective states according to these two fundamental psychophysiological dimensions (Russell, 1980). ...
Chapter
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In this article, we propose a visualization approach that presents the user’s cognitive and emotional states in conjunction with the actual journey of the user on a web interface. Specifically, we have designed a new visualization method which contextualizes the user’s physiological and behavioral data while interacting with a web-based information system in the financial services industry. The proposed approach brings together the user’s behavior with his/her cognitive and emotional states to produce a rich overview of his/her experience. Combining these methods produces key insights into the user experience and facilitates an understanding of the evolution of the experience since it highlights where the user was on the interface when s/he experienced a given cognitive and emotional state. Results from an illustrative case suggest that the proposed visualization method is useful in conveying where participants deviate from the optimal path and facilitates the identification of usability issues on web interfaces.
... Similar evidence from the educational technology literature is that Roca (2008) studied 172 university learners and found that cognitive absorption significantly improves the continued intention to use LMS. Another paper, by Léger et al. (2014), concluded that cognitive absorption by 36 students had a significant effect on learning outcomes. ...
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This research examines the effect of having a tracking technology in a learning management system (LMS) that reports the effect of perceiving other students’ interactions on a learner’s intention to keep using LMS in the future. The main underlying theory is herd behaviour theory which argues that crowd behaviour affects the perceptions of the observers. In this paper, we proposed and found that tracking technology will affect a learner’s perceptions of cognitive absorption and that perception of self-regulation from using an LMS. These perceptions are found to influence the learner’s intention to keep using the LMS in the future positively. This research developed a new tracking technology in response to weaknesses noted in the literature and validated by interviewing teachers. Its effects were tested on 151 university students taking a computer science module. This research contributes to knowledge by integrating herd behaviour theory into the design of LMS and offers a new perspective on learners’ interactions with educational technologies.
... While flow facilitation is still a major challenge [3,5], due to the complex requirements (e.g. absence of distractions, structure of the task, challenge of the task, physiological and psychological state of the individual, etc.) [3,5], especially the advancements on flow physiology [6,7] propose interesting avenues for supportive bio-adaptive systems [8][9][10]. However, at present most of the physiological research is conducted in highly controlled game tasks, leaving gaps to understand flow physiology in more unstructured tasks that are typical in knowledge work [4,11]. ...
Chapter
We report on a first exploration of a new paradigm to study flow physiology in knowledge work that we call controlled experience sampling (cESM) in order to build a bridge for flow physiology research to more unstructured tasks. Results show that the approach elicits a consistent flow experience with intensities as least as high as in an established difficulty-manipulated math task. Yet, significantly lower stress perceptions and heart rate variability (HRV) responses are found in the cESM approach which highlights gaps and consequences for the diagnostic potential of HRV features for the understanding of flow physiology and automated flow observation in bio-adaptive systems.
... Like theta activity, alpha band power has also frequently been linked to cognitive load as it has been empirically demonstrated to decrease with increased task difficulty and increased memory load [121] [117] [118]. Beta waves are high-frequency, low-amplitude brain oscillations that are generally associated with task vigilance and focused attention [122][123][124]. Previous studies have found that beta power decreases with increasing processing demand and working memory load [125]. ...
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Following the renaissance of Virtual Reality (VR) in the last decade, there has been a surge of hype surrounding the use of immersive technologies in education. In just a few years, the number of articles discussing this topic has increased exponentially, and some have even started to propose VR to be the ultimate medium for learning. Nevertheless, the scarcity of rigorous empirical eval- uations, as well as conflicting initial evidence, suggest that we still know very little about how we learn in VR. To this aim, in this dissertation, I explore the intersections between learning and immersive virtual technology, in an attempt to uncover ways to design more effective virtual tools for learning. Building on prior work, this dissertation begins by establishing its scope of inquiry, advocating for the need to move away from the existing techno-centric view of VR and suggests to consider this media as a complex system that consists of both – unique technological features, as well as spe- cialized virtual content. Expressing the distinctiveness of VR, and acknowledging its capabilities to alter traditional modes of representation and interaction, this thesis highlights the importance of centering on the unique affordances of this new medium in its design. In this work, I argue that it is not VR per se, but the way it has been designed that will ultimately define its success in educa- tion. Following this rationale, my work firstly attempts to understand how we can combine knowledge from human cognition, psychology and behavioral insights to understand the efficacy of learning in VR. Secondly, it tries to use that knowledge to guide the design of VR applications that improve learning and training. To answer these questions, I set up an integrated multidimensional research strategy that combines cognitive learning measures, affective self-reports, cognitive load instru- ments and advanced psychophysiological methods of EEG and eye tracking. These are used to setup four studies that evaluate VR with adult learners in university and organizational settings. Findings provide important implications for the field of educational VR research and are intended to be used as evidence-based guidelines for the design of immersive virtual learning tools. Ulti- mately, my hope is to encourage research initiatives that reconcile the mind, the body and the environment in their studies of learning, as well as to inspire the development of more sustainable and effective learning technologies for the future.
... The most established theory links the experience of flow to high levels of the SNS activity (Kivikangas, 2006;de Manzano et al., 2010). The reported positive association between the electrodermal activity (EDA) as a robust indicator of sympathetic arousal (Critchley and Nagai, 2013) and flow (Nacke and Lindley, 2010;Léger et al., 2014;Ulrich et al., 2016Ulrich et al., , 2014 confirms this theory. Increased flow while playing a video game was reported to be related to an increased heart rate Bian et al., 2016), a faster respiration rate (Bian et al., 2016;Tian et al., 2017), high levels of salivary cortisol (Keller et al., 2011), and lower heart-rate variability (HRV) measures, specifically lower high-frequency (HF) HRV (Chanel et al., 2011;Keller et al., 2011;Harmat et al., 2015;Harris et al., 2016;De Sampaio Barros et al., 2018;Kozhevnikov et al., 2018). ...
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The flow state-an experience of complete absorption in an activity-is linked with less self-referential processing and increased arousal. We used the heart-evoked potential (HEP), an index representing brain-heart interaction, as well as indices of peripheral physiology to assess the state of flow in individuals playing a video game. 22 gamers and 21 non-gamers played the video game Thumper for 25 min while their brain and cardiorespiratory signals were simultaneously recorded. The more participants were absorbed in the game, the less they thought about time and the faster time passed subjectively. On the cortical level, the fronto-central HEP amplitude was significantly lower while playing the game compared to resting states before and after the game, reflecting less self-referential processing while playing. This HEP effect corresponded with lower activity during gameplay in brain regions contributing to interoceptive processing. The HEP amplitude predicted the level of absorption in the game. While the HEP amplitude was overall lower during the gaming session than during the resting states, within the gaming session the amplitude of HEP was positively associated with absorption. Since higher absorption was related to higher performance in the game, the higher HEP in more absorbed individuals reflects more efficient brain-heart interaction, which is necessary for efficient game play. On the physiological level, a higher level of flow was associated with increased overall sympathetic activity and less inhibited parasympathetic activity toward the end of the game. These results are building blocks for future neurophysiological assessments of flow.
... Indeed, it relates to the sympathetic nervous system, an automatic response to different situations [48]. The easy to use and reliable physiological measure has been widely used in NeuroIS research [48][49][50][51][52]. Often captured via electrodes on the palm of the hand, it is sensitive to the variations in skin pore dilation and sweat gland activation, which are in in turn sensitive to changes in emotional arousal [53,54]. ...
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The rapid rise of voice user interface technology has changed the way users traditionally interact with interfaces, as tasks requiring gestural or visual attention are swapped by vocal commands. This shift has equally affected designers, required to disregard common digital interface guidelines in order to adapt to non-visual user interaction (No-UI) methods. The guidelines regarding voice user interface evaluation are far from the maturity of those surrounding digital interface evaluation, resulting in a lack of consensus and clarity. Thus, we sought to contribute to the emerging literature regarding voice user interface evaluation and, consequently, assist user experience professionals in their quest to create optimal vocal experiences. To do so, we compared the effectiveness of physiological features (e.g., phasic electrodermal activity amplitude) and speech features (e.g., spectral slope amplitude) to predict the intensity of users’ emotional responses during voice user interface interactions. We performed a within-subjects experiment in which the speech, facial expression, and electrodermal activity responses of 16 participants were recorded during voice user interface interactions that were purposely designed to elicit frustration and shock, resulting in 188 analyzed interactions. Our results suggest that the physiological measure of facial expression and its extracted feature, automatic facial expression-based valence, is most informative of emotional events lived through voice user interface interactions. By comparing the unique effectiveness of each feature, theoretical and practical contributions may be noted, as the results contribute to voice user interface literature while providing key insights favoring efficient voice user interface evaluation.
... To date, flow research involving cardiovascular measures has produced mixed results (see Knierim, Rissler, Dorner, Maedche, & Weinhardt, 2018, for an overview). Whereas some evidence points to SNS dominance during flow (Bian et al., 2016;De Manzano, Theorell, Harmat, & Ullén, 2010;Gaggioli, Cipresso, Serino, & Riva, 2013;Keller, Bless, Blomann, & Kleinböhl, 2011), other studies have identified heightened PSNS activation during flow in the form of a decreased HR (Drachen, Nacke, Yannakakis, & Pedersen, 2010) and increased HRV (Léger, Davis, Cronan, & Perret, 2014;Peifer, Schächinger, Engeser, & Antoni, 2015;Tozman, Magdas, MacDougall, & Vollmeyer, 2015). However, these studies have investigated mostly physical activities of widely divergent kind. ...
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Fiction reading is a popular leisure activity associated with a variety of pleasurable experiences, including suspense, narrative transportation, and—as indicated by recent empirical studies—also flow. In the context of fiction reading, flow—generally defined as a pleasurable state of mind experienced during an optimally stimulating activity—is specifically related to an optimal balance between text-driven challenges and the reader’s capabilities in constructing a mental story model. The experimental study reported here focused on the psychophysiological underpinnings of flow in the reading context. Cardiovascular data were collected from 84 participants both during a relaxation baseline prior to reading and during reading. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three versions of a chapter from Homer’s Odyssey. According to statistical readability indices, these versions were low, intermediate, or high in readability, and hence in cognitive challenge. Flow was measured immediately after reading with a self-report scale that was tailored to assess reading-specific flow experiences. Regression analyses revealed that cardiovascular activation patterns measured before reading that are reflective of parasympathetic dominance—that is, an inner state associated with relaxation and cognitive fluency—moderated flow experiences during reading. In line with the stipulations of flow theory in regard to matching challenge levels being the key determinant for flow, this pattern supported subsequent flow experiences only in response to text versions of high or intermediate, but not of low cognitive challenge. Differences in cardiac vagal tone during reading were, however, not sensitive to our experimental modifications and not predictive of flow experiences.
... Neurophysiological signals have been considered as promising measurements of emotional characteristics and can capture students' learning process that go beyond acquisition of knowledge (Léger et al., 2014;Ochoa and Worsley, 2016). Positive evidences on the correlation between interpersonal neurophysiological synchrony and interaction are consistently reported in recent years. ...
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Interpersonal physiological synchrony has been consistently found during collaborative tasks. However, few studies have applied synchrony to predict collaborative learning quality in real classroom. To explore the relationship between interpersonal physiological synchrony and collaborative learning activities, this study collected electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) during naturalistic class sessions and compared the physiological synchrony between independent task and group discussion task. The students were recruited from a renowned university in China. Since each student learn differently and not everyone prefers collaborative learning, participants were sorted into collaboration and independent dyads based on their collaborative behaviors before data analysis. The result showed that, during group discussions, high collaboration pairs produced significantly higher synchrony than low collaboration dyads ( p = 0.010). Given the equivalent engagement level during independent and collaborative tasks, the difference of physiological synchrony between high and low collaboration dyads was triggered by collaboration quality. Building upon this result, the classification analysis was conducted, indicating that EDA synchrony can identify different levels of collaboration quality (AUC = 0.767 and p = 0.015).
... In the educational technology literature, Roca (2008) studied 172 university learners and found that cognitive absorption significantly improves the continued intention to use LMS. Another paper, by Léger et al. (2014), studied 36 students, and concluded that cognitive absorption has a significant effect on the learning outcomes. Therefore, scholars have found in e-learning systems a close association between the PCA and the intention to continue use, as in the study by Venter and Swart (2018) on a computer science undergraduate programme in South Africa on learning simulation modelling and as in the study of 730 undergraduate students in Malaysia who used an e-learning platform (Salimon et al., 2021). ...
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This research, using goal setting theory, proposes a new educational intervention to improve the perceptions of a Learning management System (LMS) as an organising technology, so as to improve the intention to continue using it. This research developed Visualised Weekly Learning Outcomes (VWLO) as a mechanism for exposing learners to the required learning outcomes week by week. The research used the Partial Least Square Method to analyse 151 responses from an IT university course and found that the perceived ease of use and usefulness of the VWLO, as an intervention , improves the learners' perception of self-regulation and cognitive absorption from the LMS, which in turn affects the learners' intention to continue using the LMS.
... EDA was measured with a portable apparatus. Previous research using similar apparatuses showed that ecological validity was not affected due to the non-intrusive nature of the equipment [36][37][38]. Portability was necessary since the participants were standing and moving. The device consisted of a BITalino (r)evolution Freestyle Kit (PLUX Wireless biosignals S.A.) [39] installed in a 3D-printed box that hung on the belt of the subjects (see Figure 4). ...
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As gaming spectatorship has become a worldwide phenomenon, keeping the spectator in mind while designing games is becoming more important. Here, we explore the factors that influence spectators’ engagement. Through the use of GRiD Crowd, a game akin to life-size Pong, different levels of spectator influence on the game were tested and their impact on engagement via arousal measures were analyzed. Spectator influence on the game was accomplished via smartphone, where 78 participants put in different audience compositions (alongside friends or strangers) were tested. We found that when the spectators had an impact on the game, higher levels of emotional arousal were recorded, which generated an increase in engagement. These results provide a suggestion of design that could be used by game designers who wish to engage their spectatorship, a segment of their target market that is becoming impossible to ignore.
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The flow state is defined by intense involvement in an activity with high degrees of concentration and focused attention accompanied by a sense of pleasure. Video games are effective tools for inducing flow, and keeping players in this state is considered to be one of the central goals of game design. Many studies have focused on the underlying physiological and neural mechanisms of flow. Results are inconsistent when describing a unified mechanism underlying this mental state. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the physiological and neural correlates of flow and explains the relationship between the reported physiological and neural markers of the flow experience. Despite the heterogeneous results, it seems possible to establish associations between reported markers and the cognitive and experiential aspects of flow, particularly regarding arousal, attention control, reward processing, automaticity, and self-referential processing.
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Multitasking using information systems (IS) often results in a blurring between personal and work lives. Prior literature overwhelmingly points to negative effects of traditional multitasking. Surprisingly, research on IS multitasking is relatively scarce. To address this gap, we hypothesize and test a research model of IS multitasking. Contrary to prior research, we find that IS multitasking yields significant positive outcomes. Our study has implications for attitudes toward IS multitasking, designing training activities, and multitasking systems.
Chapter
Creativity is a key driver of success for organizations in the digital age. Managers engaged in evaluating the creativity of new ideas are often subject to a myriad of technology-mediated distractors that compete for their attention. In this work in progress paper, we investigate whether attentional overload results in an upward bias for IT-mediated creativity evaluations. We report on promising early results that examines this phenomenon and set out to study its implications on IT design complexity.
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As technology evolves, studies of user emotion in naturalistic settings in an utetherd manner becomes more and more necessary. To achieve this goal, we present a proposed architecture for synchronized automatic facial emotion recognition and physiological recording in a mobile environment in an IS context. We describe a pilot study using this infrastructure and lessons learned for researchers who wish to employ this setup in the future.
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The current study examines how interactive data visualization can augment the persuasive potential of health information. In an experiment using an obesity-awareness website (N = 248), we manipulated the level of interactivity in a data visualization tool that featured obesity prevalence in the U.S. and measured participants’ absorption into the website, perceived issue severity, content perceptions, and intentions to prevent/treat obesity. Our data demonstrated that lower BMI participants reported greater cognitive absorption when highly interactive data visualization was available on the website. Subsequently, greater cognitive absorption into the website led to higher perceived issue severity, greater content perceptions, and higher obesity prevention intentions among lower BMI participants but not among higher BMI participants.
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Predicting flow intensities from unobtrusively collected sensor data is considered an important yet challenging endeavor for NeuroIS scholars aiming to understand and support flow during IS use. In this direction, a limitation has been the focus on cross-subject models built on data collected in controlled laboratory settings. We investigate the potential of predicting flow in the field through personalized models by collecting report and ECG data from a clerical worker over the course of two weeks. Results indicate that a lack of variation in flow experiences during this time likely diminished these potentials. Through pre-training feature selection methods, model accuracies could be achieved that nonetheless approach related cross-subject flow prediction work. Novel recommendations are developed that could introduce more flow variation in future flow field studies to further investigate the within-subject predictability of flow based on wearable physiological sensor data.
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NeuroIS scholars increasingly rely on more extensive and diverse sensor data to improve the understanding of information system (IS) use and to develop adaptive IS that foster individual and organizational productivity, growth, and well-being. Collecting such data often requires multiple recording devices, which leads to inflated study cost and decreased external validity due to greater intrusion in natural behavior. To overcome this problem, we investigated the potential of using an around-the-ear electrode array capable of capturing neural and cardiac activity for detecting an additional set of variables, namely facial muscle activity. We find that reading, speaking, chewing, jaw clenching, and six posed emotion expressions can be differentiated well by a Random Forest classifier. The results are complemented by the presentation of an open-source signal acquisition system. Thereby, an economical approach for naturalistic NeuroIS research and artefact development is provided.
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Flow represents a valuable daily life experience as it is linked to performance, growth, and well-being. As flow support is still a major challenge due to a lack of automatic and unobtrusive detection methods, NeuroIS scholars face the opportunity to devise measurement approaches for flow experience during IS use and, moreover, flow supporting, adaptive NeuroIS. This work presents the first results from a controlled experience sampling field study in which experiences were observed using video recordings during a week of scientific writing. Novel behavioral features (face and head activity) with negative flow-report correlations are identified. Together, the results contribute to the NeuroIS community by providing an extended concept of flow as a state of behavioral efficiency, the identification of novel correlates, and recommendations for economical and feasible extensions of the study approach.
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Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to enrich education but little is known about how unique affordances of immersive technology might influence leaning and cognition. This study investigates one particular affordance of VR, namely environmental embeddedness, which enables learners to be situated in simulated or imagined settings that contextualize their learning. A sample of 51 university students were administered written learning material in a between-subjects design study, wherein one group read text about sarcoma cancer on a physical pamphlet in the real world, and the other group read identical text on a virtual pamphlet embedded in an immersive VR environment which resembled a hospital room. The study combined advanced EEG measurement techniques, learning tests, and cognitive load measures to compare conditions. Results show that the VR group performed significantly better on a knowledge transfer post-test. However, reading in VR was found to be more cognitively effortful and less time-efficient. Findings suggest the significance of environmental embeddedness for learning, and provide important considerations for the design of educational VR environments, as we remediate learning content from non-immersive to immersive media.
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NeuroIS is a field in Information Systems (IS) that makes use of neuroscience and neurophysiological tools and knowledge to better understand the development, adoption, and impact of information and communication technologies. The fact that NeuroIS now exists for more than a decade motivated us to comprehensively review the academic literature. Investigation of the field's development provides insights into the status of NeuroIS, thereby contributing to identity development in the NeuroIS field. Based on a review of N=200 papers published in 55 journals and 13 conference proceedings in the period 2008-2017, we addressed the following four research questions: Which NeuroIS topics were investigated? What kind of NeuroIS research was published? How was the empirical NeuroIS research conducted? Who published NeuroIS research? Based on a discussion of the findings and their implications for future research, which considers results of a recent NeuroIS survey (N=60 NeuroIS scholars), we conclude that today NeuroIS can be considered an established research field in the IS discipline. However, our review also indicates that further efforts are necessary to advance the field, both from a theoretical and methodological perspective.
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We propose a novel approach to measuring the collaboration of knowledge workers, using body sensing smartwatches to capture psychometric data about individuals in a team. In a proof of concept study, we collected 2653 samples of body signals by equipping 15 people with our body sensing smartwatch over the course of 3 days during a design workshop. Additionally, we polled the users about their self-perceived team creativity at the end of each day. By employing multiple linear regression models, we found that body signals tracked by the smartwatch correlate significantly with the perceived team creativity reported by the individuals. Comparing those correlations with known predictors of creativity such as mood states and personality traits, we found that movement-related body signals predict creativity on the same accuracy level as mood states and personality traits do.
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Objective We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles aimed at the evaluation of certified flight instructors’ (CFI) performance in a training context and a scoping review of potential research avenues given the previously identified gaps. Background As the demand for pilots will continue to grow significantly in the coming decades, so will the demand for CFIs, and for ways to improve their existing performance. Understanding performance factors of CFIs could benefit their training and help meet the increasing demand for pilots. Method State-of-the-art research on the subject was surveyed via a systematic review of performance factors of CFIs and a scoping review to identify areas where other fields of research could inform CFI performance evaluation. Result Only 20 articles since 1965 have directly assessed performance factors of CFIs. Their focus has mostly been on communication and educational processes. The scoping review brings forward concepts from cognitive psychology and psychophysiology as means of improving the current understanding of CFI situation awareness and task management. Conclusion Very little work has been done on CFI situation awareness and task management. These are the two main domains in which psychophysiological tools could provide a clear understanding of the attentional and decisional processes at play while developing situation awareness in a dynamic environment and quantify the task load affecting it.
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NeuroIS is a research field in which neuroscience theories and tools are used to better understand information systems phenomena. At present, NeuroIS is still an emerging field in information systems, and the number of available studies is limited. Because researchers who plan or execute NeuroIS research need to understand the status of the existing empirical research published in relevant journals, we have analyzed 78 empirical articles and put forward an integrative framework for understanding what existing NeuroIS research focuses on. Our framework is built upon stimulus–organism–response theory, which explains that stimulus factors can affect users’ psychological processes, which further lead to their responses. Then, we review the collected articles and summarize their findings to give more details of NeuroIS studies. Through this literature review, we identify several opportunities for future NeuroIS research in terms of influencing factors, measurement instruments, and subjects. We believe that our work will provide some meaningful insight for future NeuroIS research.
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Voice-controlled intelligent assistants use a conversational user interface (CUI), a system that relies on natural language processing and artificial intelligence to have verbal interactions with end-users. In this research, we propose a multi-method approach to assess user experience with a smart voice assistant through triangulation of psychometric and psychophysiological measures. The approach aims to develop a richer understanding of what the users experience during the interaction, which could provide new insights to researchers and developers in the field of voice assistant. We apply this new approach in a pilot study, and we show that each method captures a part of emotional variance during the interaction. Results suggest that emotional valence is better captured with psychometric measures, whereas arousal is better detected with psychophysiological measures.
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NeuroIS approach is used in this research in order to improve the decision-making process and the Decision Support System (DSS), which is a particular kind of information system, for the FITradeoff method. In this research the decision-makers (DMs) behavior is investigated when they are solving Multi-Criteria Decision Making/Aiding problems, considering the holistic evaluation process. In this research, neuroscience experiments were constructed to investigate the holistic evaluation process using graphical and tabular visualizations. These experiments were applied to more than 150 management engineering students. As a result, using an electroencephalogram, the Alpha-Theta Diagram has been proposed, which is a new concept to classify the DMs patterns of behavior, considering Theta (4–8 Hz) and Alpha (8–13 Hz) activities. Based on this diagram, improvements can be suggested to be included in the FITradeoff DSS specially for problems involved in a ranking order context.
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This paper introduces the idea of drawing upon the cognitive neuroscience literature to inform IS research (herein termed “NeuroIS”). Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience are uncovering the neural bases of cognitive, emotional, and social processes, and they offer new insights into the complex interplay between IT and information processing, decision-making, and behavior among people, organizations, and markets. The paper reviews the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature to propose a set of seven opportunities that IS researchers can use to inform IS phenomena, namely (1) localizing the neural correlates of IS constructs, (2) capturing hidden mental processes, (3) complementing existing sources of IS data with brain data, (4) identifying antecedents of IS constructs, (5) testing consequences of IS constructs, (6) inferring the temporal ordering among IS constructs, and (7) challenging assumptions and enhancing IS theories. The paper proposes a framework for exploring the potential of cognitive neuroscience for IS research and offers examples of potentially fertile intersections of cognitive neuroscience and IS research in the domains of design science and human-computer interaction. This is followed by an example NeuroIS study in the context of e-commerce adoption using fMRI, which spawns interesting new insights. The challenges of using functional neuroimaging tools are also discussed. The paper concludes that there is considerable potential for using cognitive neuroscience theories and functional brain imaging tools in IS research to enhance IS theories.
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Behavioral beliefs – perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use – have been identified as the most influential antecedents of individuals’ information systems use intentions and behaviors within the technology acceptance model. However, little research has been aimed at investigating the implicit (automatic or unconscious) determinants of such cognitive beliefs, and more importantly, the potential nonlinear relationships of such antecedents with explicit (perceptual) ones. As such, this paper theorizes that implicit neurophysiological states – memory load and distraction - and explicit – engagement and frustration - antecedents interact in the formation of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. In order to test the study’s hypotheses, we conducted an experiment that measured neurophysiological states while individuals worked on instrumental and hedonic tasks using technology. The results show that, as theorized, implicit and explicit constructs interact together, and thus, have a nonlinear effect on behavioral beliefs. Specifically, when engagement is high, neurophysiological distraction does not affect perceived usefulness, whereas when engagement is low, neurophysiological distraction has a negative and significant effect on usefulness. The results also show that when frustration is high, neurophysiological memory load has a negative effect on perceived ease of use, whereas when it is low, neurophysiological memory load has a positive effect on perceived ease of use. This study makes several contributions, including the demonstration of the importance of emotional perceptions for moderating the effects of neurophysiological states on behavioral beliefs.
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Psychophysiological methods are becoming more popular in game research as covert and reliable measures of affective player experience, emotions, and cognition. Since player experience is not well understood, correlations between self-reports from players and psychophysiological data may provide a quantitative understanding of this experience. Measurements of electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) allow making inferences about player arousal (i.e., excitement) and are easy to deploy. This paper reports a case study on HR and EDA correlations with subjective gameplay experience, testing the feasibility of these measures in commercial game development contexts. Results indicate a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between psychophysiological arousal (i.e., HR, EDA) and self-reported gameplay experience. However, the covariance between psychophysiological measures and self-reports varies between the two measures. The results are consistent across three different contemporary major commercial first-person shooter (FPS) games (Prey, Doom 3, and Bioshock).
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This study investigated relationships among peak performance, flow, goal orientation, and perceived ability in an attempt to ascertain possible conceptual bases to peak performance. Collegiate athletes (N=200) answered a questionnaire that assessed mastery and competitive goal orientations, perceived ability, flow, and experience in best and worst competitive performances. It was hypothesized that the psychological process of flow underlies peak performance and is associated with a mastery oriented focus and high perceived ability. These predicted relationships were supported by both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Analysis of athletes’ best performances indicated a total focus on performance, and other characteristics of flow were key to the perception of a superior state of functioning. In contrast, overconcern with the outcome, reflecting a competitive orientation, was often associated with athletes’ worst performances. These associations suggest that investigating positive performance states fr...
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End-User Training (EUT) has enjoyed a rich tradition of research in Information Systems. However, with the growing pace of change in technology and the dynamic nature of business, organizations are spending an increasing amount of money on end-user training. Training methods are also changing with little research to support new approaches. Thus, extensive research is required in the future. To be credible, end-user training research should preserve and build upon the significant literature that exists, both in IS and Education. This paper provides a review of EUT literature focusing on training methods. It summarizes research findings, while pointing out key future research issues.
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Flow—the pleasant state of absorption of a person with an activity—has rarely been investigated from a physiological perspective. However, interest in such studies is growing fast. Only recently, researchers started to apply psychophysiological measures to study flow-experiences. In order to contribute to this ongoing research, this chapter aims to report and integrate existing theories and findings concerning the physiology of flow-experience and to stimulate further investigation. The first part of this chapter will give an overview about existing literature explicitly dealing with the psychophysiology of flow. A theoretical psychophysiological framework is then developed on the basis of prominent stress theories. The third part discusses physiological correlates of flow, integrating existing literature on flow and related concepts such as attention and cognitive control. The chapter ends with an integrative definition of flow-experience, practical implications, and an outlook on future research perspectives.
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This research addresses flow theory according to which the compatibility of skills and task demands involved in an activity elicits flow experiences that render the activity intrinsically rewarding. Departing from correlational research, we applied experimental paradigms designed to test the impact of a skills-demands-compatibility on the emergence of flow in computerized tasks. On the one hand, the results from self-reports support the balance hypothesis and indicate that skills-demands-compatibility results in a pleasurable flow experience. On the other hand, the results also indicate that skills-demands-compatibility resulted in (a) reduced heart rate variability indicating enhanced mental workload, and (b) stress as indicated by relatively high levels of salivary cortisol. These results indicate that flow experiences combine subjectively positive elements with physiological elements reflecting strainful tension and mental load.
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Piloting an aircraft is a complex task that places demands on several aspects of a pilot's cognitive capabilities. Because of the multifaceted nature of flying, several measures are required to identify the effects of these demands on the pilot. Several psychophysiological measures were recorded so that a wider understanding of the effects of these demands could be achieved. Heart rate, heart rate variability, eye blinks, electrodermal activity, topographically recorded electrical brain activity, and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded. Ten pilots flew an approximately 90-min scenario containing both visual and instrument flight conditions. To determine the reliability of the psychophysiological measures, the pilots flew the same scenario twice. The responses during the 2 flights were essentially identical. Cardiac and electrodermal measures were highly correlated and exhibited changes in response to the various demands of the flights. Heart rate variability was less sensitive than heart rate. Alpha and delta bands of the brain activity showed significant changes to the varying demands of the scenarios. Blink rates decreased during the more highly visually demanding segments of the flights.
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Over the past decade, there have been many changes in the tools we use to design, the ways information can be represented and the underpinning theories that drive educational experiences. This paper will focus on several examples of software design that have been pedagogically successful and have demonstrated what is possible in software design and online learning. Contrasts will be made with some examples of the current push into e‐learning and how best to structure learning environments to ensure student participation and high quality learning outcomes especially when students come from differing backgrounds and cultural traditions.Garantir la qualité de l'e-learning: créations de Tasks attirantes. Durant les dix dernières années, il y a eu beaucoup de changements dans les outils que nous avions l'habitude de concevoir, les façons de présenter l'information et les théories sous-jacentes qui étaient derrière les références éducatives. Cet article mettra l'accent sur plusieurs exemples de conceptions de software qui ont été réussies au plan pédagogique et ont montré ce qui est possible dans la conception du software et de l'apprentissage en ligne. De façon contrastée nous développerons des exemples d'introduction en e-learning et nous montrerons comment on peut au mieux structurer les environnements éducatifs pour s'assurer de la participation des étudiants et de la bonne qualité des résultats, en particulier lorsque les étudiants viennent d'horizons et de traditions culturels différents.Qualität von e Learning sichern: Das Schaffen von ansprechenden Aufgaben. Im letzten Jahrzehnt gab es vie Änderungen an den Tools, die wir zum Entwerfen von Möglichkeiten benutzen, Informationen und die dahinter verborgenen Theorien, die Bildungserfahrung steuern, zu erstellen. Diese Präsentation wird sich auf einige Beispiele von Softwaredesign konzentrieren, die pädagogisch erfolgreich waren und zeigen, was heute alles in Softwaredesign und Online-Lernen möglich ist. Einige Beispiele der aktuellen e-Learning Verheißung und Gestaltungsrezepte zur Strukturierung von Lernumgebungen, um die Mitarbeit der Studenten und Lernqualität zu sichern, werden als Kontrast dienen, insbesondere bezogen auf Studenten mit unterschiedlichen Vorerfahrungen und unterschiedlichen kulturellen Traditionen.
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What constitutes a good life? Few questions are of more fundamental importance to a positive psychology. Flow research has yielded one answer, providing an understanding of experiences during which individuals are fully involved in the present moment. Viewed through the experiential lens of flow, a good life is one that is characterized by complete absorption in what one does. In this chapter, we describe the flow model of optimal experience and optimal development, explain how flow and related constructs have been measured, discuss recent work in this area, and identify some promising directions for future research. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
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This article presents and empirically evaluates a conceptual model of how training can impact the acceptance of information systems within the organization. Specifically, the training of end users is explored via an extensive field study of 100 middle- and upper-level managers from 20 companies. The results indicate that (1) a positive relationship exists between the computer-related training an individual receives and his/her computer-related ability, and (2) a positive relationship exists between the computer-related ability of an end user and his/her acceptance of information systems products and technologies.
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A significant trend is underway to apply entertainment game technologies to training environments, the Serious Games movement. These training games will be delivered through traditional technologies such as desktop computers as well as mobile computers, embedded in operational equipment and mixed reality technologies. The design and development of effective training using these technologies is challenging. There is often deep conflict between ensuring that the desired instructional goals are met while at the same time staying true to key benefits of games for training--engagement, fun, and complexity of the training scenario. The unpredictability of games impedes control of training variables and poorly designed games may result in negative training effects. Yet, trainers realize that many current training systems and instructional methods are ineffective, lack real world complexity and are boring. There is a need to bridge the gap between proven simulation and other training systems, and gaming entertainment technologies. Authoring tools are needed to ensure these new systems are used effectively. Our team has been investigating how to develop an instructional design authoring tool that supports the entire process from identifying training requirements through the delivery of regular and embedded training. We developed the Simulation-game Instructional Systems Design (SG-ISD) Model which has been mapped to ensure it supports official Instructional Systems Development (ISD) processes for effective design while integrating game processes (e.g., Waterfall Method) and best practices. We have integrated this model into a prototype authoring system. This prototype supports the upfront analysis and design process while enabling any game engine to be used as the development and delivery platform. The output of the design and development phase of using the tool is an interactive Training Support Package (iTSP) that enable local trainers to modify pre-developed game scenarios for local use and understand the effects those changes will have on meeting the TSPs training objectives and evaluation. This paper will report on the research that led into the design of the tool, validation by instructional designers and training experts, and examples of how systems like this can ensure better development and delivery of simulation- game training.
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It has been proposed that the Army needs a high-level training capability for asymmetric missions. Current training programs are focused on conventional warfare and are mainly limited to units that are co-located. Where training capability exists, the scenarios have limited interactivity and fail to address a variety of cross-cultural communication issues that troops encounter in the real world. U.S. Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Command, Simulation, and Training Technology Center in Orlando, Florida, has been conducting an Army Technology Objective (ATO) using massively multi-player (MMP) gaming technology to address these issues. The objective of the ATO is to develop a large-scale, persistent, distributed simulation environment to train soldiers. The research is focused on evaluating the use of MMPs for Army training for operations in asymmetric warfare environments. Weapons of mass destruction, terrorists' actions, crowd and hostage situations, peacekeeping, psychological operations, and civil affairs will be possible interactions faced by the users. OneSAF Objective System computer generated entities will augment the large numbers of real people who will populate the scenarios. The various Armed Forces will be able to engage in such simulation environments anytime, anywhere, using standard personal computers (PCs) connected via the Internet. The paper details research in the formative evaluation of Internet-based training using soldier participants and gaming technologies. Initial test results with the 101 st Airborne Division of Fort Campbell, Kentucky, and the Illinois Army National Guard are presented to indicate the potential such technology has to meet new asymmetric training needs and optimize use of soldiers' time while preparing for live training events and actual deployment. The paper also addresses the tools needed to build the training environments and required After Action Review capabilities.
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Training in information technology (IT) tools has traditionally been defined in terms of skills. Consequently, training methods and approaches have focused almost exclusively on ensuring that a trainee acquire the skills required to use an IT tool, and in a specific domain. With the advent and increasing use of enterprise-wide IT architectures, such as client/server, integrated processes such as workflow systems and integrated packages such as SAP, this narrow view of training will prove to be inadequate in preparing the workforce of the future. To train such a workforce, we propose a re-conceptualization of training based on a hierarchy of knowledge levels that a trainee will need. We then use this hierarchy to propose an integrated framework that can be used to develop a comprehensive training strategy. We offer directions for research that is needed to use our model to develop effective training strategies.