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Hormones, sex and society: The science of physicology

... Section 2, after the introduction, documents the empirical approach to testing hypotheses 1-4, Section 3 tests hypothesis 5, and Section 4 discusses the empirical findings. Section 5 tests hypothesis 6 by venturing into evolutionary theory in the attempt to fathom the origin and physiological nature of sex and race difference in IQ and related achievement, in an eternal quest for a unified account of Molecular Man in a Molecular World (Nyborg, 1994(Nyborg, , 1997. ...
... The all bottom analysis looks for molecular interaction patterns among genotypes (evolved via universal molecular Darwinian selection) and same-level mass-molecular manifestations like body and brain structures, development, behavior, and the construction of culture and society. It is called Physicology, in which high-level terms like psyche, mind, culture, and society are substituted by low-level references to the physics and chemistry of brain functions and behavior (Nyborg, 1994;see later). Ceci, Ginther, Kahn, and Williams (2014) exemplify an all surface approach. ...
... Throughout this operation, the model should include only ultimate and proximate physiological variables with equal causal standing, i.e. there must be at least some bio-chemical similarity between ultimate and proximate agents, their biological mechanisms, and the effects they mediate through receptor molecules in specialized target tissues (Nyborg, 1994(Nyborg, , pp. 48-52, 2007. Throughout the development of such an ultimate-proximate connective matrix model, we must strive to prevent committing category errors by jumping between entirely different levels of explanation, e.g. chemical versus conceptual or cultural (Nyborg, 1997), as illustrated in Fig. 12. ...
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Jensen (1971) found that black girls score 3 IQ points higher than black boys, and white boys 1.5 IQ points higher than white girls. He, nevertheless, concluded that this did not support his Race. × Sex × Ability interaction theory. Jensen (1998) further analyzed data, some from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), and suggested that there is no sex difference in general intelligence, g. Other studies have questioned Jensen's null sex difference theory. The present study tested both theories with data from the ensuring NLSY97 survey, which represents the 15. + million 12-17. year old adolescents living in the US in 1997.Total sample analyses confirmed the existence of significant inverse white-black IQ sex differences, and disconfirmed the null sex difference theory.Separate race-age analyses demonstrated, however, that robust IQ sex differences materialize only after age 16, with no white-black interaction. At age 17, female IQ trails male by 3.6-7.03 points in three races, respectively.Classical IQ probability curves foretell that more males than females will enter the highest echelons of society, irrespective of race, and white Male/Female ratios at IQ 145 successfully predicted real-life sex differences in educational and occupational achievement. White males with IQ 55 can be expected to run a very high risk of encountering severe achievement problems, a risk shared to some extent with Hispanic male, but black females with this low IQ can be expected to perform worse than black males.The paper finally proposed models to account for the origin of sex and race differences in IQ and related educational and occupational differences, involving gene copy numbers, brain size, and steroid hormones. It was suggested that the evolutionary background and physiological nature of sex and race differences explain why social engineering fails to eradicate them.
... Other instances of cumulative cultural evolution were initiated in less extreme environmental conditions andbecause they were not compensatory in characterthey have 9 Helmuth Nyborg's (1994) suggestion that 'feminized', slower maturing 'neotenous androtypes' will differ from 'masculinized,' faster maturing gerontomorphic 'androtypes' by having more rounded and fragile skulls, wider hips, narrower shoulders, less physical strength, live in citiesas opposed to living in the countrysideand by receiving higher performance scores on ability tests, must also be understood as a post-biological anatomical development. Nyborg theorizes that certain ecological situations would favor the survival and reproduction of the 'masculinized androtypes' due to their sheer 'brutal force' while other ecological situations would favor the survival and reproduction of the 'feminized androtypes' due to their 'subtle tactics'. ...
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In suggesting that the rules that govern the evolution of cumulative culture are observed in all modern societies, gene-culture coevolution theory implies that the biases that affect the successful ‘ratcheting’ and efficient transmission of innovations are cross-cultural universals. In the modeling of the theory the stress is placed on demographic strength, the absence of which would render small and isolated populations vulnerable to the ‘treadmill effect’, the inevitable consequence of impaired social learning. However, the ethnographic literature documents small groups of isolated hunters and gatherers who have devised intricate risk-reduction networks that do not necessarily proliferate technological innovations and function only in low demographic settings. Moreover, with merit and abilities being equally distributed, the model-based and conformist biases that influence social learning in gene-culture coevolution theory become irrelevant and elaborate ‘leveling mechanisms’ inhibit the acquisition of status and prestige. As a result, no cultural models can rise to prominence and sway the trajectory of cultural change. Contrary to the predictions of the theory, these societies do not seem to be plagued by cultural loss and, instead of hopelessly running the treadmill and living in poverty, they have developed egalitarian and, to an extent, ‘affluent’ societies. The model forwarded in this paper resolves this apparent paradox by enrolling the hypothesis of ‘cultural neoteny’. It is contended that egalitarian societies – despite their simple (immediate-return) mode of subsistence – are not the vestiges of an ancestral/universal stage from which more complex (delayed-return) economies would linearly evolve, but a relatively recent and idiosyncratic achievement through ‘subtractive cultural evolution’. Keywords: anarchic theory in ethnography, cultural heterochrony, cumulative/subtractive cultural evolution, immediate-return/egalitarian societies, ratcheting/leveling mechanisms.
... Eysenck's reticulocortical circuit), learning and behaviour, and actual life outcomes. The strongest contemporary theory of this kind is Nyborg's (1994) view that the psychology of personality may be reduced entirely to biochemical explanations. However, a hard reductionism has been criticized on the basis that traits do not appear to be isomorphic with specific brain systems (Zuckerman, 2005). ...
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A definitive, authoritative and up-to-date resource for anyone interested in the theories, models and assessment methods used for understanding the many factes of Human personality and individual differences. Volume 1: Personality Theories and Models deals with the major theoretical models underlying personality instruments.
... One reviewer said that most psychologists would not understand this technical book on individual difference in psychoneuroendocrinology, but if they did, they would not accept its devastating critique of equality and dualism. The book was published 10 years later (Nyborg, 1994) by the same Praeger Press that published Jensen's book. It is one of the few current publishers who dare print politically incorrect and controversial DP books. ...
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Supporters of differential psychology and eugenics were allowed to freely reflect on the importance of individual differences, on how to avoid dysgenic development, and even on how to improve the human condition. This basic proviso for meaningful scientific inquiries changed radically around 1950 when the topics were banned and their adherents demonized, despite supportive evidence. The present paper provides examples of typical attacks and analyzes the reasons for this bizarre deviation from normal science. It points to some of the people and institutions responsible, discusses the unfair tools they use, and illustrates how damaging their inexcusable intellectual corruption has been for the academic life at many modern universities. It remains an important future task to find ways of breaking the spell and return differential psychology and eugenics to normal science again.
... Greater male size and female ability for childbearing, nursing, and sociability are also linked to hormonal differences between them (Berenbaum & Snyder, 1995). Nurturance and other prosocial skills were linked to adolescent and adult estrogen levels in females, both in humans (Nyborg, 1994) and in other mammalian species (Alexander & Hines, 2002;Carlson, 2001). A stronger drive in males for social status and power was found to be associated with testosterone levels (Archer, 2006;Schultheiss, Campbell, & McClelland, 1999;Tremblay, 2000). ...
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This article analyzes sex differences in communicative and exploratory abilities and mental disabilities from the rarely discussed perspective of sex differences in the shape of phenotypic distributions. The article reviews the most consistent findings related to such differences and compares them with the evolutionary theory of sex (ETS). The ETS considers sexual dimorphism as a functional specialization of a species into 2 partitions: variational and conservational. The analysis suggests that male superiority in risk and sensation seeking and physical abilities; higher rates of psychopathy, dyslexia, and autism; and higher birth and accidental death rates reflects the systemic variational function of the male sex. Female superiority in verbal abilities, lawfulness, socialization, empathy, and agreeableness is presented as a reflection of the systemic conservational function of the female sex. From this perspective psychological sex differences in communicative and exploratory abilities might not just be an accidental result of sexual selection or labor distribution in early humans. It might reflect a global functional differentiation tendency within a species to expand its phenotypic diversity and at the same time to conserve beneficial features in the species' behavior. The article also offers an addition to the ETS by suggesting that the male sex (variable partition) plays an evolutionary role in pruning of the redundant excesses in a species' bank of beneficial characteristics despite resistance from the conservational partition.
... Lewontin and other critics seem to miss that many neuroscientists successfully use brain imaging techniques to illustrate how important neurochemical parameters correlate with cognitive problem solving. The present editor (Nyborg, 1994) wrote an entire book on the molecular basis of human nature and intelligence. ...
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This chapter presents a case study of collective fraud in 20th century academia and the public media in connection with a demonization of Arthur Jensen. The chapter delineates some historical examples of persecution, and presents a simple model according to which Jensen's change of mind from largely neutral to a more biologically based thinking about restrictions on development collides with a strong Zeitgeist of unconditional equality and strongly prohibitive notions about inheritance. The account of the attacks on Jensen is divided into the immediate reactions around 1969-1971, and the later reactions, continuing until today. Further, the chapter addresses the questions of why people were afraid to acknowledge the conservative effect of genes on human development and behavior, and why they preferred to regress to plausibility arguments rather than to reality. Moreover an account of how destructive social reductionism is presented, characterizing large parts of the 20th century, could infect many levels of academia and large parts of the public sphere with a collective fraud that, on the surface of it, looked very much like a superior moral stance in questions of equality and defense of the deprived. The chapter concludes with a simple prescription to cure the academic disease of collective fraud in academia-breaking down the egalitarian fictions and beginning again to act like scientists and demand the right to free inquiry.
... Female senior executives perceive professional matters in a more general way than men. They collect more data related with a given problem and are able to refer to more points of view (Gorski, 1991, Nyborg, 1994. ...
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The aim of this study is the quantitative analysis of regularities related to female work time and value in view of gender mainstreaming. In order to examine the distribution of the two categories several statistical methods have been applied. They were used to identify and measure the influence of selected demographic and economic factors on work time distribution in Poland in the period of 1976–2004. If the above mentioned aims are achieved, they will be the empiric verification of Becker’s thesis concerning the application of economic approach in the analysis of non-market behaviour and non-monetary phenomena. Two research hypotheses were constructed: Hypothesis 1: In order to study female work time and value thoroughly it is necessary to include household work into consideration. Hypothesis 2: The value of women’s household work exceeds the value of their market work. The study consists of four chapters. The first one introduces the reader to the issue of female work with a special stress put on the division into the household and market work. The author explains the elementary terms related to the workforce market and presents selected work distribution models. Also, the chapter includes theories concerning sex discrimination and the principles of the new household economy. The second chapter deals with the methodology of research on the time and value of work. The author presents chronosophic methods used by the CSO to study population time use surveys, as well as her own work time distribution indices. Then, some chosen value concepts are presented in the view of the value of market goods and services produced in the non-market sphere. Moreover, the methodology of household work evaluation is discussed where traditional evaluation methods are extended by a method of integrated female work value. In the next, third chapter an analysis is carried out of the influence of selected demographic and economic factors on the work time distribution. Potential influence factors include sex, a female life cycle, socio-economic group a household belongs to and an average salary. By introducing the term of sensu largo and sensu stricte types of entrepreneurship the analysis is made of the Polish women’s work time distribution in comparison to other Baltic countries. Calculation results are presented in the form of statistical tables and charts. The fourth chapter is devoted to the value of female work in comparison with selected socio-economic problems. Also, a review of Polish and foreign studies on the value of female household and market work has been done. The author presents the structure and the drawbacks of the gross domestic product as the measure of social welfare. The chapter ends with the estimation results of the share of global female work value in the GDP and in those satellite time use surveys that include household work value. In the final chapter the dissertation on the distribution of time and value of female work is summed up. That includes conclusions of the quantitative analysis of regularities concerning the time and value of female work that has been carried out with gender mainstreaming in mind. Then the most powerful factors influencing the work time distribution in Poland in 1976–2004 are presented. It has been proved that the woman’s household work time is longer than her professional work time and that the value of her work in the household exceeds the value of her professional work. Therefore, in order to study the time and value of female work thoroughly, it is necessary to include into considerations the work performed in the household.
... The idea underlies the classic theories of Eysenck and Gray, in which individual differences in the brain (influenced by genetic variation) feed up the stack of "turtles," progressively influencing integrative brain systems (e.g., Eysenck's reticulo-cortical circuit), learning and behaviour, and actual life outcomes. The strongest contemporary theory of this kind is Nyborg's (1994) view that the psychology of personality may be reduced entirely to biochemical explanations. However, a hard reductionism has been criticized on the basis that traits do not appear to be isomorphic with specific brain systems (Zuckerman, 1991). ...
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Personality traits have been a central part of the study of personality for 70 years or more, from early studies by personologists to more recent studies by Cattell and Eysenck, and their associates. Most of the research has used data from self-report inventories and rating scales and these have posed problems, such as response distortion, that have become the focus of further research. Currently, there are attempts to assess personality traits through other means than self-report inventories, such as through genetic-biological analyses and from computer-generated approaches. A review of the history of personality traits, the recent attempt to define and limit personality structure to the ‘Big Five’, and the influence of these and related traits on behaviour is given in this chapter, which also details the theoretical emphases associated with the various approaches, especially in the current century.
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Celem niniejszej pracy jest ilościowa analiza prawidłowości w zakresie czasu i wartości pracy kobiet z zastosowaniem problematyki gender mainstreaming. Do badania dystrybucji obu kategorii zasadne jest wykorzystanie metod statystycznych. Posłużyły one do identyfikacji i pomiaru siły wpływu wybranych czynników demograficznych i ekonomicznych na dystrybucję czasu pracy w Polsce w latach 1976–2004 r. Realizacja powyższych celów stanowi empiryczną weryfikację postulatu Beckera, dotyczącego zastosowania podejścia ekonomicznego do analizy zachowań pozarynkowych i zjawisk niepieniężnych. Postawiono dwie hipotezy badawcze: Hipoteza 1: Do pełnego badania czasu i wartości pracy kobiet konieczne jest uwzględnienie pracy wykonywanej w gospodarstwie domowym. Hipoteza 2: Wartość pracy w gospodarstwie domowym przewyższa wartość pracy zawodowej kobiet. Praca składa się z czterech rozdziałów. Pierwszy stanowi wprowadzenie do problemu pracy kobiet ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem podziału na pracę domową i zawodową. Wyjaśniono w nim podstawowe pojęcia rynku pracy oraz przedstawiono wybrane modele podziału pracy. Zamieszczono także teorie związane z nierównością płci oraz założenia nowej ekonomii gospodarstwa domowego. Rozdział drugi zawiera metodologię badań nad czasem i wartością pracy. Zaprezentowano zarówno metody chronozoficzne, używane do badania budżetów czasu ludności przez GUS, jak i autorskie wskaźniki dystrybucji czasu pracy. W rozdziale przedstawiono wybrane koncepcje wartości z uwzględnieniem wartości dóbr i usług wytwarzanych w sferze nierynkowej. Omówiono także metodologię wyceny pracy domowej, rozszerzając klasyczne metody wyceny o metodę zintegrowanej wartości pracy kobiet. W kolejnym rozdziale, trzecim, przeprowadzono analizę wpływu wybranych czynników demograficznych i ekonomicznych na dystrybucję czasu pracy. Do potencjalnych czynników wpływu zaliczono płeć, cykl życia kobiety, grupę społeczno – ekonomiczną gospodarstwa domowego oraz przeciętne dochody. Wprowadzając pojęcie przedsiębiorczości sensu largo i sensu stricte dokonano analizy dystrybucji czasu pracy kobiet w Polsce na tle krajów regionu morza bałtyckiego. Wyniki obliczeń przedstawiono w postaci tablic statystycznych oraz zaprezentowano na wykresach. Rozdział czwarty poświęcono wartości pracy kobiet na tle wybranych problemów społeczno – ekonomicznych. Dokonano przeglądu badań polskich i zagranicznych w zakresie wartości pracy domowej i zawodowej kobiet. Opisano konstrukcję oraz mankamenty produktu krajowego brutto, jako miary społecznego dobrobytu. W końcowej części rozdziału zamieszczono wyniki estymacji udziału globalnej wartości pracy kobiet w PKB oraz w budżetach satelitarnych, uwzględniających wartość pracy w gospodarstwie domowym. W zakończeniu podsumowano rozważania nad dystrybucją czasu i wartości pracy kobiet. Zawarto w nim wnioski z ilościowej analizy prawidłowości w zakresie czasu i wartości pracy kobiet z zastosowaniem problematyki gender mainstreaming. Zidentyfikowano najsilniejsze czynniki wpływu na dystrybucję czasu pracy w Polsce w latach 1976–2004 r. Potwierdzono, że czas pracy domowej jest dłuższy od czasu pracy zawodowej kobiety, a wartość pracy w gospodarstwie przewyższa wartość pracy zawodowej. W związku z tym do pełnego badania czasu i wartości pracy kobiet konieczne jest uwzględnienie pracy wykonywanej w gospodarstwie domowym.
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