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Botany of the Berembun Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

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A botanical inventory of the lowland, hill and lower montane forest in selected compartments in the Berembun Forest Reserve (FR), Negeri Sembilan, that covers Gunung Telapak Burok (1193 m altitude), Bukit Lantai, Bukit Tangga, Jeram Toi and Loji Air Pantai produced a list of 122 families, 312 genera and 552 species of vascular plants, which includes past collections. Of these, 131 are new records for Negeri Sembilan, 80 are endemic to Peninsular Malaysia (14.5% endemism), six are hyper-endemic to the Berembun FR and 18 are rare being known from less than five localities in Peninsular Malaysia. The most speciose family was Rubiaceae (18 genera, 52 species), followed by Palmae (9 genera, 24 species) and Zingiberaceae (8 genera, 22 species) and the most speciose genera were Asplenium (Aspleniaceae), Diplazium (Woodsiaceae) and Ficus (Moraceae). Species of conservation importance include the hyper-endemics, e.g. Haniffia cyanescens var. cyanescens (Zingiberaceae) and Psychotria albopedunculata (Rubiaceae); Dipterocarpus lacutangulus (Dipterocarpaceae), which in Peninsular Malaysia may be of hybrid origin and is known from one other population in Perak; Maingaya malayana (Hamamelidaceae) a monotypic genus previously known from Penang, and the G. Bubu area in Perak; and species distributed in south Selangor and north Negeri Sembilan include Begonia klossii, and B. rhoephila (Begoniaceae), Calamus calospatha (Palmae), Henckelia winkleri (Gesneriaceae) and Staurogyne longispica (Acanthaceae). Piptospatha sp. (Araceae) may be a species new to science.
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Malayan Nature Journal 2009, 61(2), 143 - 189
Botany of the Berembun Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
C.-L. LIM1, M.Y. SITI-MUNIRAH and R. KIEW
A botanical inventory of the lowland, hill and lower montane forest in selected compartments in the
Berembun Forest Reserve (FR), Negeri Sembilan, that covers Gunung Telapak Burok (1193 m
altitude), Bukit Lantai, Bukit Tangga, Jeram Toi and Loji Air Pantai produced a list of 122 families,
312 genera and 552 species of vascular plants, which includes past collections. Of these, 131 are
new records for Negeri Sembilan, 80 are endemic to Peninsular Malaysia (14.5 % endemism), six
are hyper-endemic to the Berembun FR and 18 are rare being known from less than five localities in
Peninsular Malaysia. The most speciose family was Rubiaceae (18 genera, 52 species), followed by
Palmae (9 genera, 24 species) and Zingiberaceae (8 genera, 22 species) and the most speciose
genera were Asplenium (Aspleniaceae), Diplazium (Woodsiaceae) and Ficus (Moraceae). Species
of conservation importance include the hyper-endemics, e.g. Haniffia cyanescens var. cyanescens
(Zingiberaceae) and Psychotria albopedunculata (Rubiaceae); Dipterocarpus ?acutangulus
(Dipterocarpaceae), which in Peninsular Malaysia may be of hybrid origin and is known from one
other population in Perak; Maingaya malayana (Hamamelidaceae) a monotypic genus previously
known from Penang, and the G. Bubu area in Perak; and species distributed in south Selangor and
north Negeri Sembilan include Begonia klossii, and B. rhoephila (Begoniaceae), Calamus calospatha
(Palmae), Henckelia winkleri (Gesneriaceae) and Staurogyne longispica (Acanthaceae). Piptospatha
sp. (Araceae) may be a species new to science.
Keywords: Berembun Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, vegetation, botanical checklist, endemics.
INTRODUCTION
The highest point of the Berembun Forest Reserve (FR) in Negeri Sembilan is
Gunung Telapak Burok at 1193 m (2o 50’ 28.8" N; 102o 04’ 08.3" E) that is located
about 19 km northeast of Seremban on the Seremban to Kuala Klawang road (Fig 1).
This summit is reached from the Jelebu Pass along the 11.3 km-long road to the
telecommunication station. The road at first climbs steeply, skirting Bukit Tangga
(2o 50’ 37.8" N; 102o 00’ 43.8" E, 615 m) and Bukit Lantai (2o 50’ 11.8" N; 102o
01’ 58.8" E, 835 m), and then follows the ridge to the summit (Fig 2). A few streams
flow from the peak with Sungai Segalek flowing to the south of Bukit Tangga and
Sg. Batang Penar flowing southwest to Loji Air Pantai (Pantai Water Treatment
Plant) at 2o 48’ 07.0" N; 102o 01’ 26.7" E, 217 m. Sungai Batang Toi flows northwest
1 Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia. limchunglu@frim.gov.my
Manuscript submitted 10 March 2009
Manuscript accepted 4 May 2009
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from Bukit Lantai to Jeram Toi, a well-known recreation area. Gunung Telapak
Burok and the surrounding hills are relatively isolated from the Main Range to the
north by the Sg. Kenaboi valley.
Based on information provided by the Negeri Sembilan Forestry Department,
Berembun FR is a water catchment area and has not been logged except along the
road to summit that was constructed in 1972 to facilitate the erection of and access
to the telecommunication station. The trigonometric point stands within the
compound. The entire summit was cleared for the telecommunication station and
more recently a further area below the summit has been cleared for more
telecommunication installations. Road construction has created steep, bare earth
slopes and the resulting erosion has caused severe siltation far from the road itself,
many of the streambeds now being covered in up to 30 cm of coarse sand. Opening
of the forest has created conditions for secondary species to invade the roadside, as
well as to enable the invasion of weedy species, presumably brought up on the
tyres of vehicles.
The rocky stream area at Jeram Toi has been developed as recreation forest
and facilities such as concrete paths and steps in the forest, changing rooms and
toilets, and a dam to create a swimming pool have been constructed. The major
change to the flora in the recreation area is the practice of clearing undergrowth
and seedlings to maintain hygiene. In the long term, this will prevent regeneration
of the forest. In Loji Air Pantai, there are a few small orang asli orchards planted
with durian (Durio zibethinus, Bombacaceae).
HISTORY OF BOTANICAL EXPLORATION
Based on the Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System (BRAHMS)
database of herbarium specimens in the Forest Research Institute Malaysia herbarium
(KEP), the earliest collection from the Berembun FR was made in 1918 by Kingsey,
Deputy Conservator of Forests, who collected Mallotus penangensis
(Euphorbiaceae).
The first botanical exploration of the area was by Ridley in 1920 when he
stayed at the rest house at the Jelebu Pass and explored the Bukit Tangga area
(Ridley 1922). His specimens comprising 23 collecting numbers, are deposited in
the Singapore Herbarium (SING) and the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew (K). In 1922, based on these specimens, he described 21 new species (Table 1).
While some of these have since proved to be widespread species, several remain
rare, and five are still known only from this area.
Following Ridley, many botanists have each collected a few specimens but
without making a systematic survey. Even so several interesting discoveries have
been made. In 1923, Mohd Nur collected Dipterocarpus ?acutangulus,
Dipterocarpaceae, an enigmatic dipterocarp for which its true identity is still under
study. In 1967, Dransfield discovered the largest umbrella-leaf palm,
Johannesteijsmannia magnifica, Palmae (Dransfield 1972) and later Latiff (1989)
discovered the rare and endangered Ampelocissus floccosa, Vitaceae at Jeram Toi.
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Table 1. New species described by Ridley from Bukit Tangga (BT), Negeri Sembilan. 1species
relocated in the present expedition.
Original name Current name (if different) Status
Alpinia campanaria Ridl. Alpinia javanica Blume var. widespread
javanica
Amomum spiceum Ridl.1BT and P. Tioman
Amorphophallus elegans Ridl. BT and Thailand
Areca latiloba Ridl. Areca montana Ridl.1widespread
Borreria parviceps Ridl. Spermacoce parviceps Terengganu, Negeri
(Ridl.) I.M.Turner1Sembilan, Malacca
and Singapore
Cephaelis melanocarpa Ridl. Psychotria albopedunculata endemic to BT
I.M.Turner1
Cyrtandra patula Ridl. Selangor, Perak and
Thailand (rare)
Ebermaiera longispica Ridl. Staurogyne longispica BT and Selangor
(Ridl.) Ridl.
Ervatamia pauciflora Ridl. var. Tabernaemontana widespread
minor corymbosa Roxb. ex Wall.1
Ficus patens Ridl. Ficus fulva Reinw. ex Blume1widespread
Gaertnera rigida Ridl. Gaertnera oblanceolata Pahang, Selangor and
King & Gamble var. Negeri Sembilan
diversifolia (Ridl.)
Beusekom1
Kampferia cyanescens Ridl. Haniffia cyanescens (Ridl.) endemic to BT
Holttum var. cyanescens1
Loxocarpus minima Ridl. Henckelia minima (Ridl.) widespread in south and
A.Weber1east
Neuwiedia ocrea Ridl. Neuwiedia zollingeri widespread
Rchb.f. var. singapureana
(Baker) deVogel
Pandanus pilaris Ridl. BT, Kuala Lumpur and
Johor
Pavetta graciliflora Wall. ex Ridl. widespread
Pinanga glaucescens Ridl.1widespread
Psychotria atroviridis Ridl. endemic to BT
Sphinctacanthus malayanus Ridl. Cosmianthemum knoxiifolium Selangor, Negeri
(C.B.Clarke) Sembilan and Thailand
B.Hansen1(rare)
Strobilanthes latebrosa Ridl. endemic to BT
Thrixspermum iodochilus Ridl. endemic to BT
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From 1976, Piggott collected 118 species of ferns and five species of lycophytes
(Piggott 1977, 1982) from about 900 m to the summit of G. Telapak Burok among
which Dryopteris integriloba (Dryoteridaceae) was a new record for Peninsular
Malaysia. Her specimens are deposited at K and SING..
In 1999, the Berembun FR was selected as one of the sites for a nationwide
Virgin Jungle Reserve survey and the forest around Loji Air Pantai was surveyed
by a team of botanists from KEP that resulted in a list of 376 species, including the
discovery of Henckelia winkleri (Gesneriaceae, Fig 3) previously known only from
G. Angsi, a lower peak at 825 m a.s.l. to the south and Maingaya malayana
(Hamamelidaceae) previously known only from Penang and Kledang-Saiong FR,
Perak.
Between 7–11 April 2008, our survey investigated six areas to the west and
south of G. Telapak Burok (Fig 2, Table 2) that covered different altitudes as well
as different types of terrain, namely ridge, valley and stream. The aim of the
expedition was to conduct a comprehensive botanical inventory based on the
collection of fertile specimens of vascular plants with herbarium specimens deposited
in KEP with duplicates to other herbaria, as well as voucher specimens for sterile
material. Particular attention was paid to relocating the endemic and rare species;
and to record changes in vegetation in relation to altitude.
Table 2. Collecting sites in the Berembun Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan.
Pt Location Forest type Latitude-longitude Altitudinal
range (m)
1 Summit of G. lower montane 2o 50’ 28.8" N; 102o 04’ 08.3" E 1000–1193
Telapak Burok
2 Below summit of upper hill 2o 49’ 52.7" N; 102o 02’ 22.2" E 900–1000
G. Telapak Burok dipterocarp
and Bukit Lantai
3 Around Bukit hill to upper hill 2o 50’ 11.8" N; 102o 01’ 58.8" E 600–800
Lantai dipterocarp
4 Bukit Tangga hill dipterocarp 2o 50’ 37.8" N; 102o 00’ 43.8" E 550–615
5 Jeram Toi toward lowland and hill 2o 51’ 53.9" N; 102o 00’ 55.3" E 200–650
Bukit Lantai dipterocarp
6 Around Loji Air lowland and hill 2o 48’ 07.0" N; 102o 01’ 26.7" E 200–700
Pantai dipterocarp
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Figure 1. Gunung Telapak Burok (•), Negeri
Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia.
Figure 2. Map of the Berembun Forest
Reserve area, Negeri Sembilan (Numbers
indicate the collecting sites, see Table 2)
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TOPOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION TYPES
In Jeram Toi, lowland forest occurs on steep slopes, which higher up give way to
gentler terrain that merges with hill dipterocarp forest. Further up a huge area of
saddle (c. 430–480 m) is found between Sg. Batang Toi and a tributary of Sg.
Gemansir. Upstream of Sg. Batang Toi, the saddle slowly merges into a steep slope
before coming to a higher narrow saddle (c. 650 m) between Bukit Lantai at the
south and an unnamed summit to the north. The tarred road between Bukit Tangga
and Bukit Lantai is built on this slope following the contour and is therefore less
steep. The slope up to Bukit Tangga (615 m) south of the tarred road is relatively
gentler. The entire hill is very flat, almost like a plateau, except for the distinct
summit of Bukit Tangga. Two streams originate from the summit area, one to the
south (tributary of Sg. Segalek) and one to the north (tributary of Sg. Asahan Batak).
Bukit Lantai (793 m) to the east of Bukit Tangga has gentler slopes to the south,
through which flow a network of tributaries of Sg. Batang Toi. The streams are
slow flowing and the banks are mostly rocky. In Loji Air Pantai, a ridge with
moderate steepness lies exactly to the north. The ridge marks the boundary between
the water catchment area to the east and logged-over forest to the west. Further
north of the ridge, a C-shaped ridge runs from west to east, with the highest point at
687 m.
Lowland dipterocarp forest (200–300 m)
The lowland mixed dipterocarp forest at the entrance of the Jeram Toi Recreational
Park (227 m) is drained by Sg. Batang Toi. Compared with other habitats, riverine
vegetation is most biodiverse and species distribution is more dependent on
microhabitat than on elevation, there being little distinction between the riverine
flora in lowland and hill dipterocarp forest. At Jeram Toi the torrential stream (about
5–10 m wide) is rocky with almost vertical cascades. In Loji Air Pantai, the network
of rocky streams of Sg. Batang Penar that drains the lowland forest is gentle in
gradient. The Sg. Batang Toi is about 3 m wide. The rocky stream banks are
dominated by Saraca cauliflora (Leguminosae), Saurauia pentapetala
(Actinidiaceae), Barringtonia macrostachya (Lecythidaceae), Helicia attenuata
(Proteaceae) and Syzygium spp. (Myrtaceae). Moist rocks above the stream support
ferns, such as Microsorum heterocarpum (Polypodiaceae), and among the herbs
that cling to moist boulders are Argostemma unifolioide (Rubiaceae) and Henckelia
minima (Gesneriaceae). The palm Iguanura wallichiana grows by small streams.
In some places, Donax grandis (Maranthaceae) dominates the understorey above
streams. On earth banks by rivers Diplazium tomentosum and D. crenatoserratum
(Woodsiaceae), Ophiorrhiza spp. (Rubiaceae), Cyrtandra pendula and C. cupulata
(Gesneriaceae) are frequently encountered.
On slopes, common tree species encountered at this elevation are Shorea
leprosula, S. macroptera (Dipterocarpaceae), Campnosperma auriculatum
(Anacardiaceae), Scaphium macropodum (Sterculiaceae) and Elaeocarpus stipularis
(Elaeocarpaceae) and Maesa ramentacea (Maesaceae). In Loji Air Pantai, there is
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a huge patch of comparatively extensive lowland forest (presumably protected from
harvesting by the forest being a water catchment area) and here species like
Goniothalamus tortilipetalus, Polyalthia obliqua (Annonaceae), Maingaya
malayana and Gnetum gnemon (Gnetaceae) are found. Common understorey species
are Lasianthus ridleyi (Rubiaceae), species of Rinorea (Violaceae) and Baccaurea
(Euphorbiaceae) and shrubs of Annonaceae. Stachyphrynium latifolium
(Maranthaceae), Henckelia crinita (Gesneriaceae) and Peliosanthes teta
(Convallariaceae) are common species on the forest floor.
Hill Dipterocarp Forest (300–750 m)
Hill dipterocarp forest is the most extensive forest type in the Berembun FR. It is
dominated by dipterocarps, namely Dipterocarpus cornutus, D. crinitus, D.
verrucosus, Hopea dryobalanoides, Shorea acuminata, S. bracteolata, S. leprosula,
S. macroptera, S. ovalis, S. parvifolia ssp. parvifolia and S. maxwelliana. Other co-
dominants include Koompassia malaccensis (Leguminosae) and Santiria apiculata
(Burseraceae). The lower strata of the forest consists of Memecylon excelsum
(Memecylaceae), Mallotus penangensis, Elaeocarpus nitidus (Elaeocarpaceae),
Anaxagorea javanica (Annonaceae) and Xanthophyllum affine (Polygalaceae).
Further up on steep hill slopes, canopy species like Xerospermum noronhianum
(Sapindaceae), Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae), Sindora coriacea
(Leguminosae) are prevalent. Shorea platyclados (Dipterocarpaceae) and
Dipterocarpus ?acutangulus occur at about 520 m.
The understorey layer is dominated by palms, such as Iguanura wallichiana,
Johannesteijsmannia magnifica, Licuala longipes and Pinanga disticha. Other
common species include species of Amomum (Zingiberaceae), Cyathea contaminans
(Cyatheaceae) and Zanthoxylum myriacanthum (Rutaceae). In the herb layer, Labisia
pumila (Myrsinaceae), Globba cernua ssp. porphyria, G. patens var. costulata
(Zingiberaceae), Phyllagathis rotundifolia, P. griffithii and species of Argostemma
(Rubiaceae) and Sonerila (Melastomataceae) that are abundant on the forest floor.
Abundant palms include Pinanga disticha and P. malaiana in wet valleys and clumps
of Oncosperma horridum on hill slopes. Johannesteijsmannia magnifica is rather
common on steep slopes, but with scattered populations.
Among all the areas of hill dipterocarp forest, the most pristine forest occurrs
above 500 m on the C-shaped ridge in Loji Air Pantai. Here healthy stands of
mature Shorea curtisii (Dipterocarpaceae) with dbh (diameter at breast height) above
1 m were observed with some individuals even reaching 2 m dbh.
Upper Hill Dipterocarp (750–1000 m)
At about 850–950 m, an extensive stand of Shorea curtisii dominates steep slopes
by the tarred road. The canopy is about 30 m tall and continuous. The Sg. Silang
that at about 900–950 m runs to the south is a small stream is less than 2 m wide. It
is rocky with huge boulders and gentle earth banks. The dominant trees species in
its valley include Knema oblongifolia and Horsfieldia majuscula (Myristicaceae),
Caryota maxima (Palmae), Pseuduvaria macrophylla (Annonaceae), Ficus
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glandulifera, F. laevis and F. lepicarpa (Moraceae). The understorey layer is
dominated by palms (Iguanura wallichiana, Pinanga disticha and Pinanga
glaucescens) and the banana, Musa violascens (Musaceae). Common herbaceous
species are Henckelia platypus and Cyrtandra pendula, and abundant gingers,
Etlingera coccinea and Globba spp. (Zingiberaceae). The riverine vegetation is
exceptionally rich in Araceae, such as Schismatoglottis brevicuspis, Alocasia
inornata and Piptospatha sp. nov. Climbing plants such as Poikilospermum
cordifolium (Urticaceae), Hoya coriacea (Asclepiadaceae) and Fagraea oblonga
(Gentianaceae) are common. Didymochlaena truncatula (Dryopteridaceae) is locally
abundant between boulders in the river.
The tree canopy of ridge forest at about 1000 m is patchy, discontinuous and
reaches about 25 m high. Trees do not exceed 50 cm dbh. The emergents include
dipterocarps, Shorea platyclados and Vatica heteroptera (Dipterocarpaceae) with
gymnosperms, Dacrycarpus imbricatus and Podocarpus neriifolius (Podocarpaceae)
as notable components of the canopy. The palms, Areca montana and Licuala glabra
var. selangorensis, the shrub Tabernaemontana corymbosa (Apocynaceae) and the
tree fern Cyathea contaminans are common in the understorey. The undergrowth
layer is very poor in species compared with that on the slopes. Hanguana malayana
(Hanguanaceae), Cosmianthemum knoxiifolium (Acanthaceae), Argostemma
elatostemma and Oxyspora bullata (Melastomataceae) occur as scattered
individuals. A common climber observed was Mussaenda villosa (Rubiaceae).
Epiphytes are almost entirely absent.
Lower Montane Forest (1000–1193 m)
The summit of Gunung Telapak Burok at 1193 m does not support upper montane
forest. In the lower montane forest, oaks (Castanopsis acuminatissima, Lithocarpus
lucidus and Lithocarpus rassa, Fagaceae) and laurels (Actinodaphne macrophylla,
A. sesquipedalis and Beilschmiedia lucidula, Lauraceae) are dominant. The palms,
Caryota maxima and Livistona jenkinsiana are a conspicuous element of the canopy
that reaches 10 m high. In the understorey layer, palms like Licuala glabra var.
selangorensis, Nenga macrocarpa (Palmae), Pandanus sp. (Pandanaceae), gingers
like Amomum hastilabium (Zingiberaceae), and Trivalvaria dulbia (Annonaceae)
are abundant. The forest floor is dominated by Argostemma elastostemma
(Rubiaceae), Henckelia platypus and H. winkleri, Hanguana malayana,
Amischotolype marginata (Commelinaceae) and Labisia pumila. Among the
climbers are Aeschynanthus pulcher (Gesneriaceae) and species of Smilax
(Smilacaceae). Epiphytes are abundant, including lycophytes (Huperzia phlegmaria,
Lycopodiaceae), ferns (11 genera, 12 species) and orchids (5 genera, 6 species).
On the north and east, the summit area is steep but is gentler to the south
where the Sg. Batang Penar runs toward the south. It is a rocky stream, at first less
than 1 m wide with gentle earth banks and slopes, then broadening to about 2 m
wide. The understorey is lush with species like Arisaema roxburghii (Araceae),
several species of Henckelia and Cyrtandra pendula on the shaded stream bank.
Arisaema scorthechinii and Piptospatha sp. nov. (Araceae) anchor themselves to
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boulders in the stream, the former above the water level while the latter is a
rheophyte, able to withstand the water current.
Effects of disturbance
Disturbance has resulted from road building and logging on the lower slopes at
about 400–900 m. Here, further away from the roadside, poorly-stocked logged-
over forest was observed, especially on the slopes of Bukit Tangga where the canopy
is not continuous. Some common trees are Shorea leprosula and S. maxwelliana
but the forest is rich in secondary species, such as Eurya acuminata (Theaceae),
Pternandra echinata (Melastomataceae), Knema laurina var. laurina
(Myristicaceae) and several species of Annonaceae, namely Cyathocalyx pruniferus,
Mezzettia parviflora, Monocarpia marginalis, Xylopia caudata and X. ferruginea.
In forest gaps, Endospermum diadenum (Euphorbiaceae), Campnosperma
auriculatum, Alstonia macrophylla (Apocynaceae) and Adinandra sp. (Theaceae)
are common trees. In addition, the large bamboo Dendrocalamus pendulus
(Gramineae) is common and its fallen leaves blanket the ground preventing the
growth of the herb layer or regeneration by tree seedlings. Another difference is the
small size of the dominant trees compared with the fine specimens seen in the
undisturbed catchment area of Loji Air Pantai.
The opening of the forest canopy along the road has led to the invasion of
secondary forest species (Fig 4). Between 300–900 m in hill dipterocarp forest
from the foothill of G. Telapak Burok to Bukit Lantai (c. 400–900 m), exposed
slopes on road cuttings are colonized by Melastoma malabathricum, Clidemia hirta
(Melastomataceae), thickets of Dicranopteris linearis as well as Tetracera indica
(Dilleniaceae). Other common secondary tree species are Bridelia tomentosa,
Macaranga gigantea, M. triloba and Mallotus macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae).
Dissochaeta pallida (Melastomataceae) and Uncaria cordata var. cordata are
common climbers. At higher elevations (750–1000 m) in upper hill dipterocarp
forest Elaeocarpus polystachyus (Elaeocarpaceae) is common in more disturbed,
exposed areas, together with Dicranopteris linearis and Dipteris conjugata. In the
lower montane forest at 1000–1193 m the road side is dominated by clumps of
Joinvillea borneensis (Joinvilleaceae), thickets of Schizostachyum grande
(Gramineae) and tree ferns (Cyathea contaminas), below which the ferns Pteridium
aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae), Dicranopteris curriana (Gleichiniaceae) and
Nephrolepis davalloides (Nephrolepidaceae) are abundant.
The summit area is deforested and degraded due to the presence of the
telecommunication station.
The road has also opened up the area to exotic weed species probably brought
in on soil on vehicle tyres. Some like Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha
(Acanthaceae) and Elephantopus mollis (Compositae) are common from the foot
to the summit, while others like Cuphea carthagenensis (Lythraceae) and Erechtites
valerianifolia (Compositae) are found only at upper elevations in the montane forest.
Yet other species like Lindernia crustacea and Torenia polygonoides
(Scrophulariaceae) are confined to areas that are regularly waterlogged.
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Figure 3. Henckelia winkleri with handsome snow-white flowers with bright yellow nectar guides
is common in Gunung Telapak Burok and Bukit Lantai area. [photo credit: K. Imin]
Figure 4. Forest by the road to Gunung Telapak Burok is degraded by the invasion of secondary
forest species but forest on the distant hillside is undisturbed.
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THE FLORA
A total of 856 specimens were collected, which together with those of previous
collectors, include 122 families, 312 genera and 552 species of vascular plants
recorded from the Berembun FR (Table 3, Appendix 1).
Table 3. Number of families, genera and species collected from the Berembun Forest Reserve,
Negeri Sembilan.
Families Genera Species
Ferns and lycophytes 28 58 139
Gymnosperms 2 2 2
Monocotyledons 18 74 113
Dicotyledons 74 178 298
One species of Piptospatha (Araceae) is probably new to science (P. Boyce,
pers. comm.). It is unusual for Piptospatha not only in being found at a high altitude
but also it is distinct in the venation on the abaxial leaf surface being tessellate, in
contrast to the usual striate venation of the other species (Piptospatha elongata, P.
perakensis and P. ridleyi). According to Turner (1997), 131 species, about a quarter
of those collected, are new records for Negeri Sembilan (Appendix 2). This is an
indication that the flora of Negeri Sembilan is still not well known, apart from the
Pasoh FR, which has been intensively studied (Davies et al. 2003). However, at
Pasoh, upper hill dipterocarp and montane forest are not represented. For other
hills in Negeri Sembilan, there are 297 collections from G. Angsi (825 m) and 141
from G. Tampin (764 m) in KEP but neither of these hills has been the subject of a
systematic survey.
The most-collected families with 15 or more species (Table 4) are Rubiaceae
followed by Palmae, Zingiberaceae and Orchidaceae and for genera with eight or
more species (Table 5) are Asplenium (Aspleniaceae), Diplazium (Woodsiaceae)
and Ficus (Moraceae). Some genera that are usually common in Peninsular Malaysia,
such as Syzygium (Myrtaceae), were poorly represented because only fertile plants
were collected. However, from the record of voucher specimens, Dipterocarpaceae,
Fagaceae and Myrtaceae are the dominant families in the Berembun FR area.
Concentrating on collecting in the summit area of G. Telapak Burok, Piggott
(1977, 1982) enumerated 108 fern species. This is twice as many as our expedition
collected (52 spp.). The difference is ascribed to her systematically combing the
whole summit area over an extended period of time and that then the forest was
less exposed to disturbance. However, we have added two species, Lindsaea
bouillodii (Lindsaeaceae) and Asplenium phyllitidis ssp. malesicum (Aspleniaceae),
to Piggott’s list.
Table 4. The seven most collected families in the Berembun Forest Reserve
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area, Negeri Sembilan.
Family Genera Species
Rubiaceae 18 52
Palmae 9 24
Zingiberaceae 8 22
Orchidaceae 19 20
Annonaceae 12 18
Polypodiaceae 10 17
Thelypteridaceae 7 15
Table 5. The five most collected genera in the Berembun Forest Reserve
area, Negeri Sembilan.
Genus Species
Asplenium 10
Diplazium 10
Ficus 10
Calamus 8
Lindsaea 8
Altitudinal variation
Among the forest types, lower montane forest was the most distinct both in
physiognomy, for example, in its lower canopy, denser understorey, mossy tree
trunks and abundance of epiphytes, especially orchids, and in species composition.
Some species were confined to lower montane forest and were not recorded below
1000 m, namely filmy ferns Trichomanes sp., the palms Caryota maxima and
Livistona jenkinsiana, the shrub Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae), herbs like
Justicia sumatrana (Acanthaceae) and Sanicula europea (Umbelliferae) and
epiphytes like Adenoncos sumatrana, Appendicula anceps, Bulbophyllum
ovalifolium and Dendrobium roseatum (Orchidaceae), as well as Dischidia
astephana (Asclepiadaceae). In fact, about 30% of orchid species were only collected
here.
The difference between the upper hill, hill and lowland dipterocarp forest
was not so distinct either in physiognomy or in species composition. However, the
high ridge flora at 900–1000 m harboured some species not seen elsewhere, such
as Garcinia urophylla (Guttiferae), Areca montana, Dacrycarpus imbricatus,
Piptospatha sp. nov. and Cosmianthemum knoxiifolium.
A few species, such as Johannesteijsmannia magnifica, Licuala longipes and
Haniffia cyanescens var. cyanescens (Zingiberaceae, Fig. 5) are only found at
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intermediate elevations between 300 and 700 m. While a few species hardly reached
above 500 m altitude, e.g., Goniothalamus tortilipetalus, Argostemma unifolioide,
Stachyphrynium latifolium and Gastrodia javanica (Orchidaceae).
Along the road, a few species of weedy and secondary forest species appeared
to display altitudinal zonation, e.g., Cuphea carthagenensis and Pteridium aquilinum
are restricted to the summit area, while Mallotus penangensis and Dendrocalamus
pendula occurred up to about 700 m, although elsewhere the latter two are known
to occur up to about 1000 m.
A few species are indifferent to altitude, their distribution rather being dictated
by habitat, for example Donax grandis and Hanguana malayana (wet areas),
Henckelia winkleri (shaded, moist slopes) and Camptandra parvula (Zingiberaceae)
on shaded, wet banks.
Endemicity, rare and endangered species
Figure 5. Haniffia cyanescens var. cyanescens, a spectacular ginger, is hyper-endemic in Bukit
Tangga, Negeri Sembilan. [photo credit: A.R. Rafidah]
Among the species collected, 80 species are endemic to Peninsular Malaysia
including peninsular Thailand (Appendix 3). Percentage endemism (14.5%, 80 out
of 552 species) is similar to that recorded by Chua et al. (2006) in the G. Aais FR,
Pahang (10.9%) and by Chua and Saw (2006) from the Krau Game Reserve (14.8%).
If ferns and lycophytes are excluded, percentage endemism rises to 19.1%. Six
taxa, Piptospatha sp. nov., Psychotria albopedunculata and P. atroviridis
(Rubiaceae), Haniffia cyanescens var. cyanescens, Strobilanthes latebrosa
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(Acanthaceae) and Thrixspermum iodochilus (Orchidaceae), are hyper-endemic and
currently known only from the Berembun FR.
Nine species listed in Table 1 were not relocated in this expedition. These
include three of the hyper-endemic species (Psychotria atroviridis, Strobilanthes
latebrosa and Thrixspermum iodochilus) as well as Alpinia javanica var. javanica
(Zingiberaceae), Amorphophallus elegans (Araceae), Cyrtandra patula
(Gesneriaceae), Neuwiedia zollingeri var. singapureana (Orchidaceae), Pandanus
pilaris (Pandanaceae) and Staurogyne longispica (Acanthaceae). Ampelocissus
floccosa previously collected by Latiff (1989) was also not relocated. Among them,
Thrixspermum iodochilus is the most critical because it is known only from the
type specimen. The fern Dryopteris integriloba in Peninsular Malaysia is only known
from G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1982) but elsewhere it is recorded from northern
Vietnam and China.
Dipterocarpus acutangulus is a common species in north Borneo. In Peninsular
Malaysia, it is only known from Dinding FR, Perak and Bukit Lantai at 700–900 m
(Ashton and Appanah, 2004), where its identity is in doubt hence the question
mark in D. ?acutangulus. The reason for this is that it is hypothesised that it is a
hybrid between Dipterocarpus costatus and D. verrucosus because it has features
of the leaf, stipule and fruit that are intermediate between these two species (Chan,
Y.C., pers. comm.). Furthermore, seed germination is very poor, which is another
indication of hybridization. In Berembun FR, D. costatus is confined to hill and
upper hill forest above 700 m on the southern slope of Bukit Lantai, while D.
verrucosus is common in lowland and hill forests below 600 m at Jeram Toi and
Bukit Tangga. Until a molecular study on these populations is carried out, no
conclusion can be made as to the status of this taxon.
Apart from the hyper-endemics that are of conservation importance because
of their restricted distributions, a further 18 species are considered rare because
from literature search and herbarium specimens, they are known from less than
five localities in Peninsular Malaysia (Table 6).
Also rare are saprophytic plants that are only found on the forest floor in
deeply shaded primary forest. Four species, Didymoplexis pallens, Didymoplexiella
ornata and Gastrodia javanica (Orchidaceae) and Thismia arachnites
(Burmanniaceae) were all recorded in the lowland forest.
Phytogeography
Ridley (1922) had noted that the flora of Bukit Tangga showed similarities with
that of the Selangor hills and this is supported by the distribution of several rare
species known only from here and as far north as the Gombak valley (Table 6).
These species include Begonia klossii (Fig 6), Begonia rheophila (Kiew 2005),
Calamus calospathus, Cosmianthuthmum knoxiifolium (but there is also a dubiously
identified specimen from Thailand), Johannesteijsmannia magnifica and Staurogyne
longispica. However, its flora is poorer than that of the peaks in the Main Range
probably due to its lower elevation and its isolation.
Other taxa are more widely distributed to the north on the West Coast
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Table 6. Species known from the Berembun Forest Reserve and less than five other localities in
Peninsular Malaysia.
Family Species Locality
Acanthaceae Cosmianthemum knoxiifolium1Bukit Tinggi, G. Nuang (Selangor); G. Angsi
(Negeri Sembilan)*
Acanthaceae Staurogyne longispica Ulu Gombak (Selangor)
Begoniaceae Begonia klossii1Ulu Yam, Gombak Valley,
G. Nuang (Selangor)
Begoniaceae Begonia reginula1Ulu Serting (Negeri Sembilan); Ulu Setiu-
Ulu Berang area (Terengganu)
Begoniaceae Begonia rheophila1Gombak and Langat Valleys, Bukit Hitam
(Selangor)
Burmanniaceae Thismia arachnites1Taiping Hill (Perak); Kenyir Dam area
(Terengganu)
Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpus ?acutangulus1Dindings FR (Perak)**
Gesneriaceae Henckelia winkleri1G. Angsi (Negeri Sembilan)
Hamamelidaceae Maingaya malayana1Penang Hill; Kledang-Saiong (Perak)
Orchidaceae Chrysoglossum ornatum1Fraser’s Hill (Pahang)
Palmae Calamus calospathus1Bukit Lagong, Ulu Semenyih (Selangor)
Palmae Johanesteijsmannia magnifica1Sg. Lalang (Selangor); G. Angsi
(Negeri Sembilan)
Pandanaceae Pandanus pilaris Kuala Lumpur, Johor
Rubiaceae Gaertnera oblanceolata var. Fraser’s Hill, G. Tahan (Pahang); Bukit
diversifolia1Hitam (Selangor); Bukit Sutu (Negeri
Sembilan)**
Umbelliferae Sanicula europea1Cameron Highlands (Pahang)
Zingiberaceae Amomum macrodous1Kinta (Perak)
Zingiberaceae Amomum spiceum1Pulau Tioman (Pahang)
Zingiberaceae Globba patens var. costulata1Cameron Highland, Fraser’s Hill (Pahang);
Bukit Kutu, Sg. Lalang (Selangor)
*also from Thailand; ** also from Borneo, 1 species relocated by the present expedition
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mountains: Amomum macrodous (Zingiberaceae), Artabotrys oxycarpus
(Annonaceae), Cyrtandra patula, Dipterocarpus ?acutangulus, Enicosanthum
congregatum (Annonaceae), Malaxis perakensis (Orchidaceae), Maingaya
malayana and Phlogacanthus brevis (Acanthaceae) and as far north as Penang and
the Bintang Range, var. penangiana of Haniffia cyanescens (Zingiberaceae).
For several West Coast species the Berembun FR is the southern-most locality,
for example, Amomum macrodous, Argostemma yappii (Rubiaceae), Caryota
maxima, Cyathea borneensis, Dichroa febrifuga, Gaertnera oblanceolata
(Rubiaceae), Globba patens var. costulata, Glycosmis chlorosperma var. lindleyana
(Rutaceae), Justicia sumatrana, Lasianthus politus (Rubiaceae), Livistona
jenkinsiana, Pinanga glaucescens, Psychotria birchiana (Rubiaceae), Sanicula
europea, Sarcandra glabra (Chloranthaceae) and Tupistra grandis
(Convolvulaceae).
Beside the species endemic to Berembun FR, only one other species Henckelia
winkleri (also found on G. Angsi) is endemic to Negeri Sembilan.
Species distributed in east and south Peninsular Malaysia are relatively few:
Figure 6. Collecting Begonia klossii, a species narrowly endemic to Selangor and Negeri Sembilan.
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Begonia reginula (Terengganu), Amomum spiceum (Pulau Tioman) and Spermacoce
parviceps (Terengganu, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca and Singapore).
CONCLUSIONS
The flora of the Berembun FR is botanically interesting because it is the locality
for 131 new records for Negeri Sembilan. It also has relatively high endemism
(about 14.5%) for the Peninsula’s flora as well as six hyper-endemic species,
including one putative new species, and one other endemic to Negeri Sembilan. It
also has several interesting species, notably, Dipterocarpus ?acutangulus (known
from only one other locality in Peninsular Malaysia), the fern Dryopteris integriloba
(its only known locality in Peninsular Malaysia) and the second collection of
Chrysoglossum ornatum (Orchidaceae) previously known only from Fraser’s Hill,
Pahang. Although the closest affinity is with the flora of the West Coast mountains,
especially the adjacent hills in Selangor, a few species have distributions to the
south and east. The fact that so many new records were recorded shows that the
flora of Negeri Sembilan is still relatively unknown.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The botanical team gratefully acknowledges the permission given by the Negeri Sembilan Forestry
Department to carry out this expedition. The expedition was funded by the Ministry of Science,
Technology and Innovation under the Flora of Peninsular Malaysia Project No. 01-04-01-000 Khas.
We are indebted to L.G. Saw who first suggested the project and to all the members of the Floral
Biodiversity Programme and Conservation & Biodiversity Informatic Branch, FRIM, who made
the expedition a success and to BRAHMS (Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System)
for enabling data access from the KEP collection and generating the checklist and labels. We appreciate
the assistance of M. Hamidah in generating the map and of K. Mat-Salleh (Annonaceae), P.C.
Boyce (Araceae), H. Beentje (Compositae), R. Jaman (ferns), M. Sugumaran (Gentianaceae), W.J.J.O.
de Wilde (Myristicaceae), T. Utteridge (Opiliaceae), L.G. Saw (Palmae), K.M. Wong
(Selaginellaceae), A. Latiff (Vitaceae) and Y.Y. Sam & A. Julius (Zingiberaceae) in specimen
identification.
REFERENCES
Ashton, P.S. and Appanah, S. 2004. Foresters’ Manual of Dipterocarps. Forest Research Institute
Malaysia and Malaysian Nature Society: Malayan Forest Records No. 16. 519 pp.
Chua, L.S.L., Chung, R.C.K. Sam, Y.Y., Chan, Y.C., Kamarudin, S., Markandran, M., Nor Ezzawanis,
A.T., Hamidah, M., Lau. K.H. 2006. A checklist of seed plants at Gunung Aais Forest Reserve,
Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 59: 121-152.
Chua, L.S.L. and Saw, L.G. 2006. Plants of Krau. Forest Research Institute Malaysia: Malayan
Forest Records No. 126. pp. 227.
Davies, S.J., Nur Supardi, M.N., LaFrankie, J.V. and Ashton, P.S. 2003. The trees of Pasoh Forest:
stand structure and floristic composition of the 50-ha forest research plot. In Pasoh Ecology
of a Lowland Rain Forest in Southeast Asia, ed. Okuda, T. et al. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.
Pp. 35-50.
Dransfield, J. 1972. The genus Johannesteijsmannia H.E.Moore Jr. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore
26: 63-83.
Kiew, R. 2005. Begonias of Peninsular Malaysia. Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications
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(Borneo), and Singapore: Singapore Botanic Gardens, pp. 208.
Latiff, A. 1989. Portraits of Threatened Plants. 19. Ampelocissus floccosa (Ridl.) Galet. Malayan
Naturalist. 42: 3-5.
Piggott, A.G. 1977. The fern flora of Gunong Telapak Burok. Malayan Nature Journal 31: 93-112.
Piggott, A.G. 1982. Additions to the fern flora of Gunong Telapak Burok. Malayan Nature Journal
35: 189-190.
Ridley, H.N. 1922. New and rare Malayan plants. Journal of Straits Branch of the Royal Asiastic
Society 86: 295-311.
Turner, I.M. 1997. A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 47: 1-
757.
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Appendix 1. Vascular plants recorded from the Berembun Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan.
E = endemic in Peninsular Malaysia (including peninsular Thailand)
NS = new record for Negeri Sembilan
LYCOPHYTES
LYCOPODIACEAE
Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic.Serm.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2346)
Huperzia phlegmaria (L.) Rothm.
Epiphyte, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63030, FRI 63050)
Huperzia sp.
(Intermediate between H. phlegmaria and H.
nummularifolia)
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggot 2305)
SELAGINELLACEAE
Selaginella alutacia Spring
Terrestrial selaginella, alt: 835 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55421)
Selaginella intermedia (Blume) Spring
Terrestrial creeping selaginella, alt: 421–
1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 54587, FRI 56575, FRI 63037, FRI
63040)
Selaginella ornata (Hook. and Grev.) Spring
Terrestrial selaginella, alt: 476 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60038)
NS Selaginella padangensis Hieron.
Terrestrial erect selaginella, alt: 300 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60014)
Selaginella roxburghii (Hook. and Grev.)
Spring var. roxburghii
Terrestrial selaginella, alt: 250–939m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 54610, FRI 55422, FRI 57917, FRI
66512, Piggot 2343)
Selaginella stipulata (Blume) Spring
Erect or creeping selaginella, alt: 250–above
900 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 55423, FRI 55737, FRI
57089, FRI 57921, Piggot 2340)
Selaginella willdenowii (Desv.) Baker
Erect rhizomatous selaginella, alt: 476 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60037)
FERNS
ADIANTACEAE
Antrophyum semicostatum Blume
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1702)
Haplopteris angustifolia (Blume) E.H.Crane
Epiphyte on trees and rocks, alt: 939 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54608)
Haplopteris ensiformis (Sw.) E.H.Crane
Creeping rhizomatous epiphyte, alt: 991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54621)
Haplopteris scolopendrina (Bory) C.Presl
Creeping rhizomatous epiphyte, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63044)
Vaginularia trichoidea Fée
Fern growing among mosses on a tree trunks,
alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2475)
ASPLENIACEAE
Asplenium affine Sw.
Epiphyte on rocks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1767)
Asplenium batuense Alderw.
Climbing fern on tree trunks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2061)
Asplenium caudatum G.Forst.
Epiphyte, sometimes on rocks, alt: above
900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1859)
Asplenium nidus L.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2196)
Asplenium nitidum Sw.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2063)
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Asplenium pellucidum Lam.
Herb on on trees and rocks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2155)
Asplenium phyllitidis D.Don ssp. malesicum
Holttum
Creeping rhizomatous fern, alt: 954 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54602)
NS Asplenium scortechinii Bedd.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1964)
Asplenium tenerum G.Forst.
Epiphyte, creeping on the tree trunk, alt:
900–1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54600,
FRI 63032, Piggott 1831)
Asplenium unilaterale Lam.
Fern on rocks and stream banks, alt: above
900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1831)
BLECHNACEAE
Blechnum finlaysonianum Wall. ex Hook. and
Grev.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1738)
Blechnum orientale L.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1880)
CYATHEACEAE
NS Cyathea borneensis Copel.
Tree fern to 5 m tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63046)
Cyathea contaminans (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.
Tree fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2223)
Cyathea glabra (Blume) Copel.
Tree fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1910)
Cyathea hymenodes Mett.
Tree-fern to 3.5 m tall, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1733)
Cyathea latebrosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.
Tree fern to 3 m tall, alt: 973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54591)
Cyathea moluccana R.Br.
Tree fern, trunk to 50 cm tall, alt: 738–
above 900 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55435,
Piggott 2184)
DAVALLIACEAE
Davallia angustata Wall. ex Hook. and Grev.
Epiphyte and lithophyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1951)
E Davallia corniculata T.Moore
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2641)
Davallia divaricata Blume
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1830)
Davallia repens (L.f.) Kuhn
Fern on rocks and trees, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1649)
Davallia trichomanioides Blume var. lorrainii
(Hance) Holttum
Fern on rocks and trees, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1828)
DENNSTAEDTIACEAE
E Dennstaedtia ampla (Baker) Bedd.
Creeping fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2478)
Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J.Sm.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1871)
Histiopteris stipulacea (Hook.) Copel.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1923, Piggott
1926)
Microlepia speluncae (L.) T.Moore
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1938)
Appendix 1. Continued
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NS Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) C.Presl
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2136)
Odontosoria chinensis (L.) J.Sm. var.
chinensis
Fern, alt: 991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54619)
Odontosoria divaricata H.Christ
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2043)
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
Thicket-forming fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1805)
Pteridium esculentum (G.Forst.) Cockayne
Thicket-forming fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2220)
DIPTERIDACEAE
Dipteris conjugata Reinw.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2205)
DRYOPTERIDACEAE
Bolbitis appendiculata (Willd.) K.Iwatsuki
Fern on rocks by streams, alt: 470 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60028)
Bolbitis heteroclita (C.Presl) Ching
Creeping rhizomatous fern, alt: 998 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54605, Piggott 2290)
Bolbitis sinuata (C.Presl) Hennipman
Fern on rocky streams, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2160)
Didymochlaena trunculata (Sw.) J.Sm.
Terrestrial fern, alt: 900–932 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54599,
Piggott 1827)
Dryopteris integriloba C.Chr.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1652, Piggott 1862)
Elaphoglossum callifolium (Blume) T.Moore
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1709)
Lomagramma perakensis Bedd.
Climbing fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1946, Piggott
2179)
Teratophyllum rotundifoliatum (R.Bonap.)
Holttum
Climbing fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1920)
GLEICHENIACEAE
Dicranopteris curranii Copel.
Thicket-forming terrestrial fern, alt: 900–
1145 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54629,
Piggott 1736)
Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.f.) Underw. var.
montana (Holttum) Holttum
Thicket-forming terrestrial fern, alt: above
900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1883)
Diplopterygium longissimum (Blume) Nakai
Thicket-forming terrestrial fern, alt: above
900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2056)
Gleichenia truncata (Willd.) Spreng.
Thicket-forming terrestrial fern, alt: above
900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1877)
GRAMMITIDACEAE
Prosaptia alata (Blume) H.Christ
Epiphyte, often creeping on tree trunk, alt:
620–1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54604,
FRI 57115, FRI 63031, Piggott 1756, Piggott
1944)
Prosaptia barathrophylla (Baker) M.G.Price
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2208)
NS Prosaptia celebica (Blume) Tagawa and
K.Iwatsuki
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2211)
Appendix 1. Continued
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164
HYMENOPHYLLACEAE
Cephalomanes javanicum (Blume) Bosch
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2132)
Cephalomanes obscurum (Blume) K.Iwatsuki
Fern on streambanks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2048)
Crepidomanes auriculatum (Blume)
K.Iwatsuki
Climbing fern on small trees, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1759, Piggott
2065)
Crepidomanes bipunctatum (Poir.) Copel.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1654)
Crepidomanes maximum (Blume) K.Iwatsuki
Creeping rhizomatous fern, alt: 954–1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54601,
FRI 63049, Piggott 1696, RK 2650)
Crepidomanes minutum (Blume) K.Iwatsuki
Fern on trees and rocks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1752)
Hymenophyllum javanicum Spreng.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1755)
Vandenboschia birmanica (Bedd.) Ching
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2301)
LINDSAEACEAE
Lindsaea bouillodii H.Christ
Terrestrial fern, alt: 973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54593)
Lindsaea cultrata (Willd.) Sw.
Terrestrial fern, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63033)
Lindsaea doryophora K.U.Kramer
Creeping fern, alt: 737–973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54589, FRI 55431,
Piggott 1764)
Lindsaea ensifolia Sw.
Creeping rhizomatous fern, alt: 980–991 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54620,
FRI 63065, Piggot 2309)
NS Lindsaea napaea Alderw.
Creeping rhizomatous fern, alt: 973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54588, FRI 54595, Piggot
2637)
Lindsaea oblanceolata Alderw.
Climbing fern on tree trunks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2047)
Lindsaea parastica (Roxb. ex Griff.) Hieron.
Epiphyte, occasionally terrestrial, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63025)
Lindsaea repens (Bory) Thwaites var. pectinata
(Blume) Mett. ex Kuhn
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1632, Piggott
1757, SA 712)
Tapeinidium luzonicum (Hook.) K.U.Kramer
Fern on steep rocky slopes, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2130)
Tapeinidium pinnatum (Cav.) C.Chr.
Fern on rocks by streams, alt: 738 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55436,
Piggott 2193, SA 710)
LOXOGRAMMACEAE
Loxogramme avenia (Blume) C.Presl
Fern on trees and rocks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1699)
NS Loxogramme centicola M.G.Price
Fern, on trees and rocks, alt: 998 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54606)
Loxogramme subecostata (Bory) C.Presl
Creeping rhizomatous fern, clinging on
boulder, alt: 332 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57946)
LYGODIACEAE
Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R.Br.
Climbing fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1914)
Appendix 1. Continued
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165
MARATTIACEAE
NS Angiopteris angustifolia C.Presl
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1724)
Angiopteris evecta (G.Forst.) Hoffm.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2190)
NEPHROLEPIDACEAE
Nephrolepis davalloides (Sw.) Kunze
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1874)
Nephrolepis hirsutula (G.Forst.) C.Presl
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1889)
OLEANDRACEAE
Oleandra pistillaris (Sw.) C.Chr.
Shrubby fern, often epiphytic, alt: above
900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2187)
POLYPODIACEAE
Aglaomorpha heraclea (Kunze) Copel.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1721, Piggott
1852)
Belvisia mucronata (Fée) Copel.
Creeping rhizomatous fern, on tree trunks,
alt: 900–937 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54614, Piggott 1707,
Piggott 1844)
NS Belvisia spicata (L.f.) Mirbel ex Copel.
Epiphyte, alt: 900–1145 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54627,
Piggott 1847)
Drynaria rigidula (Sw.) Bedd.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1751)
Goniophlebium persicifolium (Desv.) Bedd.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1538)
Lecanopteris pumila Blume ex Copel.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1825)
Lemmaphyllum accedens (Blume) Donk
Creeping rhizomatous epiphyte, alt: 939 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54613,
FRI 63041, Piggott 1823)
Microsorum heterocarpum (Blume) Ching
Terrestrial or epiphytic fern on boulder, alt:
332 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57947)
Microsorum punctatum (L.) Copel.
Creeping rhizomatous fern, on trees and
rocks, alt: 900–1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63029, Piggott 1822,
Piggott 1901, Piggott 1942)
Microsorum sarawakense (Baker) Ching
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1545)
NS Microsorum zippelii (Blume) Ching
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2181)
Pyrrosia lanceolata (L.) Farwell
Epiphyte, alt: 476–1145 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54626,
FRI 60039)
Pyrrosia rasamalae (Racib.) Shing
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1752)
Selliguea enervis (Cav.) Ching
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1935)
Selliguea stenophylla (Blume) Parris
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1712)
Selliguea triloba (Houtt.) M.G.Price
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1715, 1718)
Appendix 1. Continued
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166
PSILOTACEAE
Psilotum complanatum Sw.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2142)
PTERIDACEAE
Pteris ensiformis Burm.f.
Terrestrial fern, alt: 250–above 900 m
Jeram Toi, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 50228,
Piggott 1514)
Pteris tripartita Sw.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1907)
Pteris venulosa Blume
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1806)
Pteris vittata L.
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2052)
Taenitis blechnoides (Willd.) Sw.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900–973 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54590, Piggott 2198)
NS E Taenitis dimorpha Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2639)
SINOPTERIDACEAE
Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2054)
TECTARIACEAE
Pleocnemia hemiteliiformis (Racib.) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2168, 2169)
Pleocnemia irregularis (C.Presl) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: 731–1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54586,
FRI 63052, FRI 66526)
Tectaria crenata Cav.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1819)
Tectaria singaporeana (Hook. and Grev.) Copel.
Terrestrial fern, alt: 387–above 900 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, G. Telapak
Burok (FRI 60032, FRI 65261, Piggott 1820)
THELYPTERIDACEAE
Chingia pseudoferox Holttum
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1727, Piggott
2157)
Christella arida (D.Don) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1868)
Christella parasitica (L.) Lév.
Terrestrial fern, alt: 900–1047 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64270, Piggott 2202)
Christella subpubescens (Blume) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1639)
Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) Ching
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1803, 1842)
Mesophlebion motleyanum (Hook.) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1940)
Pronephrium affine (Bl.) Presl
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2174)
NS Pronephrium peltatum (Alderw.) Holttum var.
peninsulare Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2297)
Pronephrium triphyllum (Sw.) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: 910 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54596, Piggott 2306)
Sphaerostephanos heterocarpus (Blume)
Holttum
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1957)
Sphaerostephanos larutensis (Bedd.) C.Chr.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2057)
Appendix 1. Continued
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167
Sphaerostephanos megaphyllus Mett.
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1932)
Sphaerostephanos penniger (Hook.) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: 932 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54597)
Sphaerostephanos polycarpus (Blume) Copel.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1832)
Sphaerostephanos porphyricolus Copel.
Terrestrial fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1954)
Trigonospora ciliata (Benth.) Holttum
Terrestrial fern, alt: 900–939 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54609, Piggott 2234)
VITTARIACEAE
Anthrophyum callifolium Blume
Fern on rocks and tree trunks, alt: 470 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60027)
Vittaria angustifolia Blume
Fern on rocks and tree trunks, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 2134)
Vittaria elongata Sw.
Epiphyte, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1962)
Vittaria scolopendrina (Bory) Thwaites
Fern on trees by rivers, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1770, 1818)
WOODSIACEAE
Diplazium accedens Blume
Erect rhizomatous fern, alt: 900–1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63053, Piggott 1960)
ENS Diplazium angustisquamatum (Holttum)
Parris
Terrestrial fern, alt: 932 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54598)
Diplazium bantamense Blume
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1948)
Diplazium cordifolium Blume
Terrestrial fern, alt: 900–939 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54611,
Piggott 1826)
Diplazium crenatoserratum (Blume) T.Moore
Terrestrial, erect fern, alt: 548 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55749)
Diplazium malaccense C.Presl
Rhizomatous fern, alt: 900–973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54594, Piggott 1912)
Diplazium polypodioides Blume
Fern, alt: 900–939 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54612,
Piggott 1917)
Diplazium sorzogonense (C.Presl) C.Presl
Fern, alt: above 900 m
G. Telapak Burok (Piggott 1886, Piggott
2059)
Diplazium subserratum (Blume) T.Moore
Terrestrial fern, alt: 900–939 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 54607,
Piggott 1704)
Diplazium tomentosum Blume
Erect rhizomatous fern, alt: 401–1120 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 55430, FRI 55731, FRI
57090, FRI 63024, FRI 65262, Piggott 1865,
Piggott 1904)
GYMNOSPERMS
GNETACEAE
Gnetum gnemon L.
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 300 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60129)
PODOCARPACEAE
NSDacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) deLaub.
Tree to 40 m tall, alt: 994 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56571)
MONOTYLEDONS
ARACEAE
Aglaonema nebulosum N.E.Br.
Erect herb to 60 cm tall, alt: 548 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55746)
Appendix 1. Continued
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168
Aglaonema simplex Blume
Erect herb to 120 cm tall, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60656)
Alocasia inornata Hort.
Rhizomatous, succulent herb to 190 cm tall,
alt: 932 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56584)
Alocasia perakensis Hemsl.
Terrestrial herb, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59359, FRI 60659)
E Amorphophallus elegans Ridl.
Tuberous herb to 1 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
Anadendrum microstachyum Baker and
Alderwer
Climbing herb to 1.5 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55241)
Arisaema roxburghii Kunth
Tuberous herb, alt: 270–452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 50230, FRI 65264, FRI
65276)
Arisaema scortechinii Hook.f.
Tuberous herb to 50 cm tall, alt: 1102–
1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55238, FRI 59358,
FRI 59403)
ENS Piptospatha sp. nov.
Herb to 10 cm tall, alt: 937–1102 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56604,
FRI 59405)
NS Rhaphidophora sylvestris Engl.
Climber up to 4 m, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 57100)
Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb.) Zoll. and
Moritzi
Herb to 60 cm tall, alt: 445 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57914)
NS Scindapsus scortechinii Hook.f.
Slender creeper, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55229)
BURMANNIACEAE
ENS Thismia arachnites Ridl.
Saprophytic herb to 10 cm tall, alt: 348–
432 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56632, FRI 57907, FRI
57928)
COMMELINACEAE
Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl.) I.M.Turner
Slender herb to 1 m tall, alt: 452–1193 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 55441, FRI 55454, FRI
55741, FRI 59365, FRI 65283)
Amischotolype marginata Hassk.
Creeping herb to 2 m long, alt: 419–1193 m
Jeram Toi, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 57936,
FRI 60645)
Pollia secundiflora (Blume) Backer
Erect herb to 1.5 m tall, alt: 445 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56626)
CONVALLARIACEAE
Peliosanthes teta Andrews ssp. humilis
(Andrews) Jessop
Rhizomatous, stemless herb, to 50 cm tall,
alt: 300–1193 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 55434, FRI 57102, FRI
57925, FRI 59363, FRI 60125)
NS Tupistra grandis Ridl.
Stemless herb to 50 cm tall, alt: 368 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65256)
COSTACEAE
Costus globosus Ridl.
Herb to 2 m tall, alt: 731 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55465)
CYPERACEAE
Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R.Forst. and G.Forst.)
Dandy ex Hutch. and Dalziel
Creeping herb to about 50 cm tall, alt:
1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64262)
Appendix 1. Continued
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169
NS Mapania cuspidata (Miq.) Uittien
Dwarf pandan-like herb, to 70 cm tall, alt:
939 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56593)
Mapania palustris (Hassk. ex Steud.) Fern.-Vill.
var. palustris
Large tufted herb, alt: 721 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55424)
Scleria sumatrensis Retz.
Tall tufted erect herb to 4 m tall, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60166)
DRACAENACEAE
Dracaena chiniana I.M.Turner
Dracaena to 45 cm tall, alt: 266–476 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 47037, FRI 60036)
Dracaena elliptica Thunb.
Treelet to 3m tall, alt: 1120–1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59360, FRI 63019)
ENS Dracaena pendula Ridl.
Shrub to 2 m tall, alt: 954 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56598)
GRAMINEAE
Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P.Beauv.
Creeping grass to 50 cm tall, alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59828)
Centotheca lappacea (L.) Desv.
Rosette grass to 1 m tall, alt: 250–726 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55469, FRI
65273)
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
Loosely tufted grass to 50 cm tall, alt: 1117 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59832)
Lophatherum gracile Brongn.
Grass to 1 m tall, often forming loose
rosettes, alt: 932–1038 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56580,
FRI 64272)
Panicum sp.
Thicket-forming, clumping grass to 1.8 m
tall, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60167)
Paspalum longifolium Roxb.
Tufted grass to 125 cm tall, alt: 1117 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59833)
NS Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb.) Kunth
Much-branched grass to 60 cm tall, alt:
1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59849)
Schizostachyum zollingeri Steud.
Bamboo to 15 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 37521)
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R.Br. var. major (Büse)
Baaijens
Densely tufted grass to 90 cm tall, alt: 1117 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59830)
Themeda arguens (L.) Hack.
Tufted grass to 120 cm tall, often reddish,
alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59824)
Themeda villosa (Poir.) A.Camus
Clumping grass 2-4 m tall, alt: 250–1117 m
Jeram Toi, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59831,
FRI 65275)
NS Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.)
Honda
Tufted herb to 3 m tall, alt: 250–1038 m
Jeram Toi, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59834,
FRI 65274)
HANGUANACEAE
Hanguana malayana (Jack) Merr.
Herb to 2 m tall, terrestrial orin swampy
areas, alt: 537–1193 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 55734, FRI 59174, FRI 60639)
JOINVILLEACEAE
Joinvillea adscendens Brongn. and Gris. ssp.
borneensis (Becc.) Newell
Clumped reed-like herb to 4.5 m tall, alt:
1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55248)
MARANTACEAE
Phrynium pubinerve Blume
Terrestrial herb to 2 m tall, alt: 954–1193 m
Appendix 1. Continued
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170
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56585,
FRI 60650, RK 2643)
E Stachyphrynium griffithii (Baker) K.Schum.
Herb to 3 m tall, alt: 31 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 47012)
Stachyphrynium latifolium (Blume) K.Schum.
Clumping, tufted herb to 1.5 m tall, alt:
300–565 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 56574,
FRI 59807, FRI 60117)
MUSACEAE
Musa violascens Ridl.
Slender banana to 3 m tall, alt: 270–937
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai
(FRI 56603, FRI 60145, FRI 64255)
ORCHIDACEAE
Adenoncos sumatrana J.J.Sm.
Epiphyte to 15 cm long, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60654)
Anoectochilus albolineatus C.S.P.Parish and
Rchb.f.
Terrestrial orchid to 12 cm tall, alt: 421 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 56577)
Appendicula anceps Blume
Epiphyte to 45 cm long, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60649)
NS Appendicula reflexa Blume
Epiphyte to 60 cm long, alt: 250 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65271)
Bulbophyllum ovalifolium (Blume) Lindl.
Epiphyte, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60653)
Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames
Herb to 75 cm tall
G. Telapak Burok (SA 707)
NS Chrysoglossum ornatum Blume
Large-leaved creeping orchid to 70 cm tall,
alt: 309–1193
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak
Burok (FRI 59812, FRI 60123, FRI 60642)
Didymoplexiella ornata (Ridl.) Garay
Tuberous leafless saprophyte to 80 cm tall,
alt: 388 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57909)
Didymoplexis pallens Griff.
Leafless saprophyte to 12 cm tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65280)
Gastrodia javanica (Blume) Lindl.
Saprophyte to 38 cm tall, alt: 226 m
Loji Air Pantai(FRI 60018)
Liparis cespitosa (Lam.) Lindl.
Clumping orchid to 10 cm tall, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60643)
Malaxis perakensis (Ridl.) Holttum
Semi-erect, clumping orchid, alt: 528–739 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55450,
FRI 60131)
Neuwiedia zollingeri Rchb.f. var.
singapureana (Baker) de Vogel
Stout rooted orchid to 30 cm tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
E Phaius pauciflorus (Blume) Blume pallidus
(Ridl.) Holttum
Orchid to 1 m tall, alt: 347 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65266)
Plocoglottis javanica Blume
Terrestrial orchid to 1 m tall, alt: 356 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65267)
Spathoglottis plicata Blume
Terrestrial orchid to 2 m tall, alt: 392–600
Bkt. Tangga , G. Telapak Burok (FRI
59820, FRI 60662)
Tainia maingayi Hook.f.
Creeping orchid to 125 cm tall, alt: 820 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59351)
E Thrixspermum iodochilus Ridl.
Epiphyte about 10 cm long
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
Tropidia curculigoides Lindl.
Terrestrial orchid to 1 m tall, alt: 476 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57942)
Appendix 1. Continued
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171
PALMAE
Areca montana Ridl.
Single-stemmed palm, alt: 556–1007 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56564, FRI
56565, FRI 64251, Ridley s.n.)
Calamus blumei Becc.
Clustering rattan climbing to 15 m tall, alt:
500 m
Bkt. Tangga (JD 4997)
E Calamus calospathus (Ridl.) W.J.Baker and
J.Dransf.
Solitary erect rattan to 10 m long, alt: 537 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60530)
Calamus castaneus Griff.
Stemless rattan about 1.5 m tall, alt: 372–
557 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60532, FRI
65268)
Calamus diepenhorstii Miq.
Clustering rattan, climbing to 20 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (SFN 33132)
Calamus insignis Griff.
Climbing rattan, alt: 500 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 37411)
Calamus lobbianus Becc.
Solitary rattan, stem to 2 m tall, alt: 556 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 4580, FRI 60537, SFN
33123)
Calamus oxleyanus Teijsm. and Binn. var.
oxleyanus
Solitary or clustering rattan to 5 m long, alt:
500 m
Bkt. Tangga (JD 4996)
E Calamus sedens J.Dransf.
Rattan, often stemless, to 2 m tall, alt: 555
m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60538)
Daemonorops angustifolia (Griff.) Mart.
Thicket-forming rattan to 40 m tall, alt: 553 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60535)
Daemonorops calicarpa (Griff.) Mart.
Thicket-forming, usually stemless, rattan, alt:
555 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60536)
Daemonorops verticillaris Griff.) Mart. var.
straminous
Usually solitary rattan to 15 m long
Bkt. Tangga (SFN 33126)
NS Iguanura wallichiana (Wall. ex Mart.) Hook.f.
Gregarious palm to 2 m tall, alt: 300–1102 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga,
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55230,
FRI 55739, FRI 57104, FRI 57911, FRI
60015, RE 3870)
E Johannesteijsmannia magnifica J.Dransf.
Solitary stemless umbrella palm, leaves to
5 m long, alt: 319–360 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 44188, FRI 47265)
E Korthalsia scortechinii Becc.
Clustering ant-inhabited high-climbing
rattan, alt: 610 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60534)
ENS Licuala glabra Griff. var. selangorensis
Becc.
Fan palm to 2 m tall, alt: 1007–1102 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55228,
FRI 56563)
Licuala longipes Griff.
Stemless fan palm barely 1 m tall, alt:
300–580 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga
(FRI 55729, FRI 57941, FRI 60118, FRI
60147)
Nenga macrocarpa Scort. ex Becc.
Solitary palm to 7 m tall, alt: 1050 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55244)
Nenga pumila H.Wendl. var. pachystachya
(Blume) Fern.-Vill.
Clustering palm to 6 m tall, alt: 737–1000 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 4581, FRI 66511, RK 2640)
Pinanga disticha (Roxb.) Blume ex H.Wendl.
Clumping usually simple-leaved palm to
1.5 m tall, alt: 309–1102 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga,
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55232,
Appendix 1. Continued
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172
FRI 55446, FRI 55744, FRI 56590, FRI
57933, FRI 60023)
Pinanga glaucescens Ridl.
Solitary palm to 3 m tall, alt: 270–963 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai,
G. Telapak Burok (RK 2645, FRI 56589, FRI
60146, Ridley s.n.)
Pinanga malaiana (Mart.) Scheff.
Clumping palm occasionally to 6 m tall, alt:
456–836 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI
4584, FRI 4585, FRI 55429, FRI 57093, FRI
65282)
E Pinanga paradoxa Scheff.
Solitary palm 1-2 m tall, alt: 556 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55750)
E Pinanga scortechinii Becc.
Usually solitary palm to 5 m tall, alt: 548 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64254)
PANDANACEAE
Pandanus pilaris Ridl.
Bushy pandan, leaves 2.5 m long, alt: 650 m
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
SMILACACEAE
Smilax calophylla A.DC.
Slender straggling shrub to 2.5 m tall, alt:
991–1102 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55243,
FRI 56614)
TACCACEAE
Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl.
Herb to 1 m tall, alt: 528–1120 m
Loji Air Pantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI
60144, FRI 63047)
ZINGIBERACEAE
Alpinia javanica Blume var. javanica
Ginger to 3 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
Alpinia rafflesiana Wall. ex Baker
Ginger to 1.5 m tall, alt: 276 m
Loji Air Pantai(FRI 60041)
Alpinia scabra (Blume) Baker
Ginger to 3 m tall, alt: 565–836 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55420, FRI 59803)
Alpinia sp.
Erect ginger to 1.2 m tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63056)
E Amomum hastilabium Ridl.
Ginger to 2.5 m tall, alt: 1055 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59408)
ENS Amomum macrodous Scort.
Ginger to 60 cm tall, alt: 729–1193 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 57105,
FRI 59362, FRI 63043)
E Amomum micranthum Ridl.
Ginger to 1 m tall, alt: 590 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 57113)
E Amomum spiceum Ridl.
Ginger 4 m tall, alt: 476–1120 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak
Burok (FRI 60035, FRI 63055, FRI 64256,
Ridley s.n.)
NS Amomum uliginosum J.König
Ginger to 3 m tall, alt: 266 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 47041)
Amomum sp.
Terrestrial ginger, alt: 820 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59355)
Camptandra parvula (King ex Baker) Ridl.
Tufted ginger to 15 cm tall, alt: 548–991 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56611, FRI
57111, FRI 59813)
Elettariopsis sp.
Ginger to 1 m tall, alt: 421–729 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55442, FRI
56576)
Etlingera coccinea (Blume) S.Sakai and
Nagam
Ginger to 4 m tall, alt: 727 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66517)
Etlingera maingayi (Baker) R.M.Sm.
Creeping ginger to 3 m tall, alt: 731 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55468)
Etlingera metriocheilos (Griff.) R.M.Sm.
Appendix 1. Continued
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173
Ginger to 4 m tall, alt: 720 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55443)
Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) R.M.Sm.
Ginger 2-4 m tall, alt: 610 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 40052)
ENS Globba cernua Baker ssp. porphyria
S.N.Lim
Ginger about 1 m tall, alt: 394–1193 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 56615, FRI 57114, FRI
57919, FRI 57938, FRI 59804, FRI 60641,
FRI 66502)
ENS Globba patens Miq. var. costulata
Ginger to 60 cm tall, alt: 419–1193 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55414,
FRI 56616, FRI 57095, FRI 60644)
E Haniffia cyanescens (Ridl.) Holttum var.
cyanescens
Ginger to 80 cm tall, alt: 510–737 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55428, FRI
59838, Ridley s.n.)
E Scaphochlamys malaccana Baker
Erect ginger, alt: 721 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66507)
ENS Scaphochlamys oculata (Ridl.) Holttum
Creeping ginger about 40 cm tall, alt: 250–
565 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 40121, FRI
50229, FRI 59806)
DICOTYLEDONS
ACANTHACEAE
Asystasia gangetica (L.) T.Anderson ssp.
micrantha (Nees) Ensermu
Scrambling herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 392 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64257)
Cosmianthemum knoxiifolium (C.B.Clarke)
B.Hansen
Shrub to 1.3 m tall, alt: 1007 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56567, Ridley
s.n.)
NS Justicia sumatrana C.B.Clarke
Bushy shrub to 2.5 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55245, FRI 55246)
ENS Phlogacanthus brevis C.B.Clarke
Shrub to 2 m tall, alt: 309 m
Loji Air Pantai(FRI 60021)
Staurogyne longispica (Ridl.) Ridl.
Herb to 60 cm tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
E Strobilanthes latebrosa Ridl.
Shrub to 2 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
ENS Strobilanthes rufosepala C.B.Clarke
Decumbent herb to 50 cm tall, alt: 1000 m
G. Telapak Burok (RK 2651)
ACTINIDIACEAE
Saurauia pentapetala (Jack) Hoogland
Small tree 8 m tall, alt: 698 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66527)
ANISOPHYLLEACEAE
NS Anisophyllea scortechinii King
Small tree to 10 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64916)
ANNONACEAE
ENS Alphonsea lucida King
Shrub to 3 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104895)
ENS Artabotrys oxycarpus King
Liana to 25 m long, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59184)
ENS Cyathocalyx pruniferus (Merr.) J.Sinclair
Tree to 23 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64906)
ENS Enicosanthum congregatum (King) Airy
Shaw
Tree to 4 m tall, alt: 350 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57929)
ENS Enicosanthum fuscum (King) Airy Shaw
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64917)
ENS Goniothalamus curtisii King
Appendix 1. Continued
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174
Tree to 10 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64918)
NS Goniothalamus tortilipetalus M.R.Hend.
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 309–460 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai (FRI 57943, FRI
60025)
NS Meiogyne monosperma (Hook.f. and
Thomson) Heusden
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64919)
NS Mitrella kentii (Blume) Miq.
Liana, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59183)
Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff.) J.Sinclair
Tree to 20 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104889)
Polyalthia cauliflora Hook.f. and Thomson var.
beccarii (King) J.Sinclair
Small tree to 6 m tall, alt: 548 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 59814)
Polyalthia clavigera King
Tree to 15 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 37520)
Polyalthia obliqua Hook.f. and Thomson
Treelet to 10 m tall, alt: 309–470 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60024,
FRI 60029, KEP 109404)
Polyalthia stenopetala (Hook.f. and Thomson)
Ridl.
Tree to 10 m tall, alt: 471 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60137,
KEP 109405)
Polyalthia sp.
Tree, alt: 580 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59179)
Pseuduvaria macrophylla (Oliv.) Merr.
Tree to 12 m tall, alt: 939–991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56591, FRI 56608)
NS Trivalvaria dubia (Kurz) J.Sinclair
Treelet to 3.5 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55247)
NS Xylopia malayana Hook.f. and Thomson var.
malayana
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64920)
APOCYNACEAE
Tabernaemontana corymbosa Roxb. ex Wall.
Shrub or small tree to 10 m, alt: 1007–
1085 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56562, FRI
55249, Ridley s.n.)
Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume
Treelet to 2 m tall, alt: 445–580 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai (FRI 65278, FRI
60148)
Tabernaemontana peduncularis Wall.
Shrub to 5 m, alt: 452–528 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai (FRI 56621, FRI
60132)
ARALIACEAE
Schefflera oxyphylla (Miq.) R.Vig.
Epiphytic climber to 3 m tall, alt: 565–744 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 57109, FRI 59808,
FRI 66513)
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
ENS Thottea dependens (Planch.) Klotzsch
Shrub to 2.5 m tall, alt: 471 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65281)
ASCLEPIADACEAE
Dischidia astephana Scort. ex King and Gamble
Slender creeping epiphytic myrmecophyte,
alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59357)
Dischidia hirsuta (Blume) Decne.
Hairy twining epiphyte, alt: 1038 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64274)
Hoya campanulata Blume
Slender shrubby epiphytic, alt: 332 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57949)
Hoya coriacea Blume
Stout twining epiphyte, alt: 954 m
Appendix 1. Continued
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175
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56599)
BEGONIACEAE
E Begonia holttumii Irmsch.
Herb to 1 m tall, alt: 753 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55462)
ENS Begonia klossii Ridl.
Creeping rhizomatous herb, on rocks alt:
404–998 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54603, FRI 65263)
E Begonia reginula Kiew
Rhizomatous lithophyte to 5 cm tall, alt: 226 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60044)
ENS Begonia rhoephila Ridl.
Creeping herb, on rocks alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63045)
BURSERACEAE
Canarium patentinervium Miq.
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 457 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 15119)
CAMPANULACEAE
Laurentia longiflora (L.) Peterm.
Herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 744–1193 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55453,
FRI 59356)
CELASTRACEAE
Glyptopetalum quadrangulare Prain ex King
Small tree to 6 m tall, alt: 836 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55417)
CHLORANTHACEAE
Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdc.
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 250–753 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai
(FRI 55461, FRI 56633, FRI 60043)
NS Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai ssp.
brachystachys (Blume) Verdc.
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 1038–1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59361, FRI 63042,
FRI 64271)
CHRYSOBALANACEAE
NS Parinari elmeri Merr.
Tree to 32 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64907)
COMPOSITAE
Ageratum conyzoides L.
Herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 250–1145 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 64260, FRI 64263, FRI 65272)
Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC.
Shrub to 4 m tall, alt: 1047 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64268)
NS Elephantopus mollis Kunth
Herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 270–392 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 60165,
FRI 64259)
Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC.
Stolonous herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 250–1145 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56573, FRI 57927, FRI
59825)
Erechtites valerianifolia (Wolf) DC.
Herb to 1.5 m tall, alt: 1090–1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59822, FRI 63059)
Erigeron sumatrensis Retz.
Herb to 2 m tall, alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64264)
Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn.
Herb to 1.5 m tall, alt: 548 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 59811)
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.
Herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64265)
CONNARACEAE
Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll.) Leenh.
Big woody climber with stems to 5 cm thick
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104890)
CONVOLVULACEAE
E Argyreia kunstleri (Prain) Prain ex Ooststr.
Twining liana to 30 m high, alt: 290–470 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 57112,
FRI 60026)
ENS Argyreia maingayi (C.B.Clarke) Hoogl.
Twining liana, alt: 727–1120 m
Appendix 1. Continued
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176
Bkt. Lantai, Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 55445, FRI 63054, KEP 109409)
Merremia hederacea (Burm.f.) Hallier f.
Twining or prostrate vine, alt: 1047 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54630)
CRYPTERONIACEAE
Crypteronia paniculata Blume var. paniculata
Tree to 27 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104876)
DILLENIACEAE
Dillenia sumatrana Miq.
Tree to 20 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104900)
DIPTEROCARPACEAE
Dipterocarpus ?acutangulus Vesque
Tree, alt: 700–900 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 46742, FRI
46743, SFN 11813)
Hopea sangal Korth.
Large tree
Bkt. Tangga (Mohd. Din 63852)
Shorea hopeifolia (F.Heim) Symington
Very tall buttressed tree
Bkt. Tangga (Mohd. Din 63851)
Shorea ovalis (Korth.) Blume
Large tree, alt: 457 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 13778)
Vatica odorata (Griff.) Symington
Tree
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104891)
EBENACEAE
Diospyros andamanica (Kurz) Bakh.
Tree to 20 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (SFN 11806)
Diospyros cauliflora Blume
Tree to 17 m tall, alt: 475 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60124)
Diospyros latisepala Ridl.
Tree to 16 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (SFN 11816)
NS Diospyros pendula Hasselt ex Hassk.
Tree to 30 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64921)
Diospyros sumatrana Miq.
Tree to 30 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56628)
ELAEOCARPACEAE
Elaeocarpus nitidus Jack
Tree to 24 m tall, alt: 980 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63066)
ENS Elaeocarpus rugosus Roxb.
Tree to 39 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64908)
EUPHORBIACEAE
Antidesma neurocarpum Miq.
Treelet to 8 m tall, alt: 359 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56638)
ENS Antidesma pahangense Airy Shaw
Tree to 7 m tall, alt: 937 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56602)
NS Antidesma stipulare Blume
Shrub to 5 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64922)
NS Aporosa prainiana King ex Gage
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64923)
Baccaurea parviflora (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg.
Tree to 5 m tall, alt: 309–537 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55730,
FRI 60022, FRI 60139)
NS Blumeodendron calophyllum Airy Shaw
Tree to 18 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64909)
Croton laevifolius Blume
Tree to 12 m tall, alt: 364 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 56634, KEP
109412)
Glochidion rubrum Blume
Treelet to 6 m tall, alt: 592 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55742)
NS Koilodepas longifolium Hook.f.
Appendix 1. Continued
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177
Small tree, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64924)
NS Macaranga diepenhorstii Müll.Arg.
Tree to 24 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64925)
NS Macaranga puncticulata Gage
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 980 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63061)
NS Mallotus peltatus (Geisel.) Müll.Arg.
Tree to 6 m tall, alt: 705 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55459)
E Mallotus penangensis Müll.Arg.
Tree to 15 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (FMS 1951)
Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook.f.
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 270–592 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 50232, FRI
55740)
Phyllanthus urinaria L.
Herb to 60 cm tall, alt: 1038 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59835)
NS Trigonostemon laevigatus Müll.Arg.
Tree to 7 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64926)
FAGACEAE
Castanopsis schefferiana Hance
Tree 10-24 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104866, KEP 104870)
Castanopsis tunggurut (Blume) A.DC.
Tree to 25 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (FMS 1961)
E Lithocarpus erythrocarpus (Ridl.) A.Camus
Tree to 24 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104881)
Lithocarpus hystrix (Korth.) Rehder
Tree to 30 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 27593)
FLACOURTIACEAE
NS Casearia capitellata Blume
Treelet to 4 m tall, alt: 580 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60150)
ENS Casearia clarkei King
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64910)
ENS Hydnocarpus kunstleri (King) Warb. var.
tomentosa (King) Sleumer
Tree to 21 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64911)
GENTIANACEAE
NS Fagraea oblonga King and Gamble
Epiphytic shrub, climber or small tree, alt:
939–1193 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56592,
FRI 59364, FRI 63057)
GESNERIACEAE
Aeschynanthus pulcher G.Don
Creeping epiphyte, alt: 1038–1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59837, FRI 60658,
RK 2641)
NS Aeschynanthus radicans Jack
Creeping epiphytic or epilithic herb, alt:
446 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57913)
ENS Aeschynanthus rhododendron Ridl.
Erect shrub to 60 cm tall, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60648)
NS Agalmyla parasitica (Lam.) Kuntze
Climbing epiphytic shrub
G. Telapak Burok (SA 709)
ENS Cyrtandra cupulata Ridl.
Herb to 1 m tall, alt: 300–1193 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga,
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56579,
FRI 56636, FRI 57912, FRI 60130, FRI
60143, FRI 60646, FRI 60652, FRI 60655,
FRI 65269)
E Cyrtandra patula Ridl.
Spreading shrub to 2 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
Cyrtandra pendula Blume
Creeping herb, alt: 300–1000 m
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM177
178
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 57944, FRI 59407, FRI
60126, FRI 66521)
Cyrtandra wallichii (C.B.Clarke) B.L.Burtt
Herb to 1 m tall, alt: 753–840 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55418, FRI 55747, FRI
66524)
Henckelia crinita (Jack) Spreng.
Erect, woody herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 230–
731 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 47039, FRI 50233, FRI
55466, FRI 57923, FRI 57934, FRI 60017, RK
2384)
E Henckelia minima (Ridl.) A.Weber
Tiny lithophyte, to 5 cm tall, alt: 309–730 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai
(FRI 57110, FRI 57940, FRI 57948, FRI
60020, Ridley s.n.)
Henckelia platypus (C.B.Clarke) A.Weber
Erect, woody herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 780–
1102 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55233, FRI 56581, FRI
56609, FRI 57088, FRI 57092)
E Henckelia winkleri (Ridl.) A.Weber
Erect herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 737–1102 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55235,
FRI 55426)
GUTTIFERAE
E Calophyllum ferrugineum Ridl. var.
oblongifolium (T.Anderson) P.F.Stevens
Tree to 30 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104862)
NS Garcinia eugeniifolia Wall. ex T.Anderson
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64912)
ENS Garcinia maingayi Hook.f.
Tree to 21 m tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56668)
ENS Garcinia pyrifera Ridl.
Tree to 18 m tall, alt: 308 m
Jeram Toi (RC 161)
Garcinia urophylla Scort. ex King
Treelet to 12 m tall, alt: 994 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56570)
HAMAMELIDACEAE
ENS Maingaya malayana Oliv.
Tree to 27 m tall, alt: 305–309 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60122, RC 64)
HYDRANGEACEAE
NSDichroa febrifuga Lour.
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 1120
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63051)
ICACINACEAE
Gomphandra sp.
Treelet to 5 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 57097)
NS Medusanthera gracilis (King) Sleumer
Treelet to 9 m tall, alt: 739 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66520)
IXONANTHACEAE
Ixonanthes icosandra Jack
Tree to 30 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 109418)
LABIATAE
Clerodendron deflexum Wall.
Treelet to 4 m tall, alt: 1005 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59406)
Clerodendron villosum Blume
Treelet to 4 m tall, alt: 265 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60169)
Clerodendrum paniculatum L.
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 226 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60045)
Clerodendron sp.
Treelet to 2 m tall, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60651)
NS Hyptis brevipes Poit.
Herb to 1.5 m tall, alt: 1047 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64269)
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM178
179
Vitex gamosepala Griff.
Tree to 18 m tall, alt: 731 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55467)
Vitex vestita Wall. ex Schauer
Tree to 8 m tall, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60164)
LAURACEAE
NS Alseodaphne perakensis (Gamble) Kosterm.
Tree to 12 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64913)
NS Beilschmiedia lucidula (Miq.) Kosterm.
Tree to 21 m tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56670)
NS Beilschmiedia madang Blume
Tree to 24 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64927)
Beilschmiedia perakensis Gamble
Tree to 10 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 109422)
NS Cryptocarya ferrea Blume
Tree to 22 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64928)
NS Cryptocarya rugulosa Hook.f.
Tree to 40 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64929)
NS Litsea ferruginea (Blume) Blume
Tree to 21 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64930)
NS Litsea magnifica (Miq.) Fern.-Vill.
Small tree, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64931)
LECYTHIDACEAE
Barringtonia macrostachya (Jack) Kurz
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 445 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57939)
LEGUMINOSAE
Archidendron contortum (Martelli)
I.C.Nielsen
Treelet to 10 m tall, alt: 580 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59181)
NS Cynometra malaccensis Meeuwen
Tree to 40 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64932)
Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd.) DC.
Trailing herb, alt: 401 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54624)
E Fordia lanceolata Ridl.
Tree to 10 m, alt: 380 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65259)
Intsia palembanica Miq.
Large-buttressed tree to 55 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (Jassin 1964)
Saraca cauliflora Baker
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 419 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57937)
LORANTHACEAE
Loxanthera speciosa Blume
Shrubby mistletoe, alt: 421 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 56558a)
E Macrosolen platyphyllus (King) Danser
Shrubby mistletoe, alt: 712 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56595)
Scurrula ferruginea (Roxb. ex Jack) Danser
Slender bushy mistletoe, alt: 421–712 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56618, FRI
56558b)
LYTHRACEAE
Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J.F.Macbr.
Herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64261)
MAESACEAE
Maesa ramentacea Wall. ex Roxb.
Small tree to 15 m tall, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59188)
MALPIGHIACEAE
Brachylophon curtisii Oliv.
Shrub to 2 m tall, alt: 823 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66503)
MALVACEAE
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM179
180
Sida rhombifolia L.
Shrub to 1 m tall, alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59827)
MELASTOMATACEAE
E Anerincleistus pauciflorus Ridl. var.
pauciflorus
Shrub to 6 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 57103)
Dissochaeta pallida (Jack) Blume
Liana, alt: 726–731 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55447, FRI 55470)
Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. ex Blume) Blume
Epiphytic shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 730 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66518)
Melastoma malabathricum L. var.
malabathricum
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 980 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63064)
E Oxyspora bullata (Griff.) J.f.Maxwell
Shrub to 4 m tall, alt: 270–836 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga,
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55416, FRI 55439, FRI
57932, FRI 59182, FRI 59809)
E Phyllagathis griffithii (Hook.f. ex Triana) King
Herb with slender creeping stem, to 20 cm
tall, alt: 737 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55427)
Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Jack) Blume
Creeping herb, alt: 280–826 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI
55415, FRI 57926)
Pternandra echinata Jack
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 419 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 57096)
Sonerila moluccana Roxb.
Herb to 15 cm tall, alt: 300–1120 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga,
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55460,
FRI 55738, FRI 57924, FRI 59176, FRI
60120, FRI 63028, FRI 66506)
Sonerila pallida Stapf
Herb, alt: 731–735 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55437, FRI 55449)
Sonerila picta Korth. var. concolor Ridl.
Succulent herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59401)
Sonerila picta Korth. var. picta
Succulent herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 820–991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56610, FRI 59352)
ENS Sonerila repens Stapf
Fleshy creeping herb, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59402)
Sonerila tenuifolia Blume
Herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 57099)
MELIACEAE
Aglaia exstipulata (Griff.) W.Theob. ssp.
exstipulata
Tree to 25 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 109408)
Aglaia malaccensis (Ridl.) Pannell
Tree to 27 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104869)
Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm. and Binn.
Treelet to 3 m tall, alt: 991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54617)
Aglaia sp.
Treelet to 4 m tall, alt: 363 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65258)
Aphanamixis sumatrana (Miq.) Harms
Treelet to 6 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55242)
Chisocheton sp.
Treelet to 3 m tall, alt: 733 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 57108)
NS Dysoxylum dumosum King
Bushy tree to 6 m tall, alt: 580 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60149)
Lansium domesticum Corrêa
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 266 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 47036)
MELIOSMACEAE
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM180
181
NS Meliosma pinnata (Roxb.) Maxim. ssp.
ridleyi (King) Beusekom
Shrub or tree to 20 m tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56669)
MEMECYLACEAE
Memecylon amplexicaule Roxb.
Tree to 18 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104897)
MENISPERMACEAE
Cyclea laxiflora Miers
Slender climber to 15 m long, alt: 265 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60170)
sp. 1
Climber up more than 50-60 m, alt: 718 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 57106)
sp. 2
Ground creeper, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56620)
MORACEAE
ENS Ficus aurata (Miq.) Miq. var. pedunculata
Corner
Shrub or small tree to 9 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 109421)
Ficus benjamina L.
Large strangler, alt: 991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56607)
Ficus chartacea (Wall. ex Kurz) King
Treelet to 9 m tall, alt: 737–963 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56561, FRI 66509, KEP
109411)
Ficus fulva Reinw. ex Blume
Small tree to 18 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
NS Ficus glandulifera (Wall. ex Miq.) King
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 980 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63063)
Ficus grossularioides Burm.f.
Shrub to 9 m tall, alt: 276–1038 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak
Burok (FRI 55419, FRI 59836, FRI 60042)
NS Ficus laevis Blume
Small tree or epiphyte, alt: 954 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56586)
Ficus lepicarpa Blume
Tree to 12 m tall, alt: 932–937 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56605, FRI 59178)
Ficus sagittata Koen. ex Vahl
Climber, alt: 753 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66525)
Ficus sinuata Thunb.
Small tree, alt: 420–744 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55452, FRI
57935)
MYRISTICACEAE
NS Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook.f. and
Thomson) Warb. var. eugeniifolia
Tree to 30 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64933)
NS Horsfieldia majuscula (King) Warb.
Tree to 25 m tall, alt: 816–954 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55413,
FRI 56596, FRI 63039)
NS Horsfieldia tomentosa Warb.
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 537 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55733)
ENS Knema oblongifolia (King) Warb.
Tree to 13 m tall, alt: 356–939 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56601, FRI
65257)
NS Knema patentinervia (J.Sinclair) W.J.deWilde
Tree to 16 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64934)
MYRSINACEAE
Ardisia colorata Roxb.
Shrub or treelet to 8 m tall, alt: 744–1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55451,
FRI 63058)
NS Ardisia maingayi King and Gamble
Creeping shrub to 1 m tall, alt: 1102–1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 57098, FRI 59366,
FRI 60640)
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM181
182
NS Ardisia villosa Roxb.
Treelet to 1.5 m tall, alt: 592–1055 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55743, FRI 59410,
FRI 66508)
Ardisia sp. 1
Treelet to 3 m tall, alt: 470–994 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56572,
FRI 60141)
Ardisia sp. 2
Treelet to 3 m tall, alt: 300 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60135)
Labisia pumila (Blume) Fern.-Vill.
Herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 445–1102 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 57101, FRI 59810, FRI 65277)
MYRTACEAE
NS Syzygium attenuatum (Miq.) Merr. and
L.M.Perry ssp. attenuatum
Tree to 6 m tall, alt: 1114 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 16616)
NS Syzygium diospyrifolium (Wall. ex Duthie)
S.N.Mitra
Small tree, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64935)
ENS Syzygium politum (King) I.M.Turner
Small tree to 25 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64936)
Syzygium pyrifolium (Blume) DC.
Tree to 18 m tall, alt: 522 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 13780)
Syzygium ridleyi (King) P.Chantaranothai and
J.Parn.
Tree to 30 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 109407)
NEPENTHACEAE
Nepenthes gracilis Korth.
Slender climber to 6 m long, alt: 401 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54623)
NS Nepenthes sanguinea Lindl.
Climber, alt: 1100 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 40060)
OPILIACEAE
Lepionurus sylvestris Blume
Treelet to 3 m tall, alt: 973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59173)
OXALIDACEAE
Oxalis barrelieri L.
Erect herb to 1.5 m tall, alt: 401 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54622)
NS Oxalis corniculata L.
Prostrate herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64266)
PENTAPHRAGMATACEAE
Pentaphragma begoniifolium (Roxb.) G.Don
Herb to 20 cm tall
Bkt. Tangga (SA 1165)
PIPERACEAE
Piper muricatum Blume
Subshrub to 60 cm tall, alt: 300 m
Loji Air Pantai(FRI 60016)
Piper stylosum Miq.
Erect herb to 70 cm tall, alt: 378–445 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65260, FRI 56629)
Piper sp. 1
Erect herb to 1 m tall, alt: 359 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56635)
Piper sp. 2
Erect herb to 60 cm tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63022)
POLYGALACEAE
Polygala paniculata L.
Erect herb to 50 cm tall, alt: 392 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64258)
Polygala venenosa Juss. ex Poir.
Shrub to 5 m tall, alt: 270–744 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai
(FRI 55432, FRI 59187, Ridley s.n.)
Xanthophyllum eurhynchum Miq. ssp.
maingayi (Hook.f. ex A.W.Benn.) Meijden
Tree
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 109415)
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM182
183
Xanthophyllum wrayi King
Shrub or small tree to 10 m tall, alt: 1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 60657)
PROTEACEAE
NS Helicia attenuata (Jack) Blume
Small tree to 20 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64937)
ROSACEAE
Prunus arborea (Blume) Kalkman
Tree to 1 m tall, alt: 973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54592)
Prunus polystachya (Hook.f.) Kalkman
Tree to 36 m tall, alt: 840 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66504)
NS Rubus moluccanus L.
Climber and scrambling shrub, alt: 705 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66522)
RUBIACEAE
Argostemma elatostemma Hook.f.
Creeping herb to 10 cm tall, alt: 994–1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 56569,
FRI 63021)
NS Argostemma longifolium Benn.
Erect herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 300–1120 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai, G.
Telapak Burok (FRI 55455, FRI 55456, FRI
55458, FRI 55425, FRI 57091, FRI 57915,
FRI 60013, FRI 60034, FRI 63035)
ENS Argostemma unifolioide King
Tuberous herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 250 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 50227)
ENS Argostemma unifolium Benn.
Tuberous herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 368 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65253)
ENS Argostemma yappii King
Succulent herb to 30 cm tall, alt: 565–1120 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55444,
FRI 55448, FRI 55735, FRI 63038, FRI
66514)
Argostemma sp. 1
Hairy, semierect herb, alt: 932 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56582)
Argostemma sp. 2
Creeping herb, alt: 565–809 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55412, FRI
55736, FRI 66510)
Argostemma sp. 3
Creeping herb, alt: 250–452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57916, FRI 57920)
Chassalia chartacea Craib
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 300–430 m
Jeram Toi, Loji Air Pantai (FRI 56622, FRI
60138)
NS Gaertnera oblanceolata King and Gamble
var. diversifolia (Ridl.) Beusekom
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 973 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59171,
Ridley s.n.)
Gaertnera oblanceolata King and Gamble var.
oblanceolata
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 580 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59180)
Gardeniopsis longifolia Miq.
Shrub or treelet to 8 m tall, alt: 368–445 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56625, FRI 65255)
Hedyotis philippinensis (Willd. ex Spreng.)
Merr. ex C.B.Rob.
Herb to 1 m tall, alt: 270 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 57945)
Ixora umbellata Koord. and Valeton
Treelet to 2 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55239)
Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack
Shrub to 1 m tall, alt: 991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56617)
Lasianthus densifolius Miq.
Treelet to 5 m tall, alt: 510–954 m
Bkt. Tangga, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56597, FRI
59815)
E Lasianthus filiformis King and Gamble
Shrub to 1 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (SFN 11800)
Lasianthus inaequalis Blume
shrub to 2 m tall, alt: 729 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66516)
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM183
184
Lasianthus lowianus King and Gamble
Shrub to 2 m tall, alt: 737 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66519)
Lasianthus maingayi Hook.f.
Shrub or treelet to 3 m tall, alt: 450–539 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55745, FRI
57922, FRI 64252, SFN 11783)
E Lasianthus politus Ridl.
Shrub or treelet to 6 m tall, alt: 973 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59172)
ENS Lasianthus ridleyi King and Gamble
Shrub to 2 m tall, alt: 300 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60128)
Lasianthus sp. 1
Treelet to 1.5 m tall, alt: 820 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59353)
Lasianthus sp. 2
Treelet, alt: 735 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55440)
Mussaenda villosa Wall. ex Hook.f.
Shrub or climber, alt: 963 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56560)
ENS Mycetia flava (Ridl.) Ridl.
Shrub to 2 m tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63036)
Mycetia malayana (Wall. ex Ridl.) Craib
Shrub or treelet to 4 m tall, alt: 268 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60168)
Ophiorrhiza communis Ridl.
Herb to 50 cm tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63034)
ENS Ophiorrhiza pallidula Ridl.
Slightly woody-stemmed herb, alt: 356–991 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 54616, FRI
55438, FRI 65270)
Ophiorrhiza remotiflora Ridl.
Herb to 70 cm tall, alt: 932 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59175)
Ophiorrhiza sp.
Erect herb to 60 cm tall, alt: 300 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60133)
Pavetta graciliflora Wall. ex Ridl.
Shrub or small tree to 5 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
NS Pavetta naucleiflora R.Br. ex G.Don
Shrub to 4 m tall, alt: 1102 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59404)
E Pavetta salicina (Ridl.) Bremek.
Shrub or small tree to 6 m tall, alt: 1120 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63023)
E Psychotria albopedunculata I.M.Turner
Shrub to 1 m tall, alt: 1120 m
Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok (FRI
63048, Ridley s.n.)
E Psychotria atroviridis Ridl.
Subshrub to 30 cm tall
Bkt. Tangga (Ridley s.n.)
ENS Psychotria birchiana King and Gamble
Shrublet to 70 cm tall, alt: 991 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56613)
Psychotria calocarpa Kurz
Shrub
Bkt. Tangga (SFN 11790)
E Psychotria griffithii Hook.f.
Shrub to 1 m tall, alt: 556 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64253)
Psychotria malayana Jack
Treelet to 4.5 m tall, alt: 372–1055 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok
(FRI 55748, FRI 57931, FRI 59409)
Psychotria rostrata Blume
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 300–809 m
Loji Air Pantai, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 60119,
FRI 66501)
Psychotria sp.
Erect woody herb to 70 cm tall, alt: 937 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56606)
NS Psydrax nitidum (Craib) K.M.Wong
Small tree to 5 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64905)
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM184
185
Rennellia elliptica Korth.
Shrub or tree to 8 m tall, alt: 378–937 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Lantai (FRI 57908, FRI
54615)
Rennellia sp.
Small tree to 6 m tall, alt: 753 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 66523)
Rothmannia macrophylla (R.Br. ex Hook.f.)
Bremek.
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 59816)
Spermacoce ocymoides Burm.f.
Herb, often creeping, ascending to 50 cm,
alt: 392 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 59818, FRI 59821)
E Spermacoce parviceps (Ridl.) I.M.Turner
Slender erect herb, alt: 1145 m
Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok (FRI
59826, Ridley s.n.)
Uncaria cordata (Lour.) Merr. var. cordata
Liana, alt: 921 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56619)
Uncaria lanosa Wall. glabrata (Blume) Ridsdale
Slender liana, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59185)
Urophyllum macrophyllum Korth.
Shrub to 4 m tall, alt: 840–998 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56587, FRI 66505)
Urophyllum streptopodium Wall. ex Hook.f.
Tree to 7 m tall, alt: 537 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 55732)
Urophyllum sp.
Treelet to 1.8 m tall, alt: 522 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56630)
RUTACEAE
ENS Glycosmis chlorosperma (Blume) Spreng.
var. lindleyana (Swingle) B.C.Stone
Treelet to 2 m tall, alt: 359–565 m
Jeram Toi, Bkt. Tangga (FRI 56639, FRI
59805)
NS Luvunga crassifolia Tanaka
Big liana with hooks, alt: 820 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 59354)
Melicope latifolia (DC.) T.G.Hartley
Tree to 20 m tall, alt: 744–1102 m
Bkt. Lantai, G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55234,
FRI 55433, FRI 56594)
NS Melicope macrocarpa (King) T.G.Hartley
Tree to 20 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104882)
Zanthoxylum myriacanthum Wall. ex Hook.f.
Thorny trunked tree to 25 m tall, alt: 460 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 15120)
SAPINDACEAE
Guioa diplopetala (Hassk.) Radlk.
Tree to 18 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104867)
Lepisanthes senegalensis (Poir.) Leenh.
Tree to 20 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104898)
SAPOTACEAE
NS Palaquium semaram H.J.Lam
Tree to 45 m tall, alt: 510 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64914)
SCROPHULARIACEAE
Lindernia crustacea (L.) F.Muell.
Creeping herb to 20 cm tall, alt: 980 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63060)
Scoparia dulcis L.
Herb to 60 cm tall, alt: 1117 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64267)
Torenia polygonoides Benth.
Slender prostrate herb, alt: 980 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 63062)
SIMAROUBACEAE
Eurycoma apiculata Benn.
Treelet to 5 m tall, alt: 445 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56627)
STERCULIACEAE
Appendix 1. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM185
186
NS Heritiera elata Ridl.
Coppery-crowned tree to 33 m tall, alt: 510
m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 64915)
NS Leptonychia caudata (Wall. ex G.Don) Burret
Shrub or tree to 12 m tall, alt: 359 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56637)
NS Scaphium linearicarpum (Mast.) Pierre
Tree to 36 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64938)
NS Sterculia rubiginosa Vent. var. setistipula
(Merr.) Tantra
Small tree, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64939)
SYMPLOCACEAE
Symplocos adenophylla Wall. ex G.Don
adenophylla
Shrub or tree to 15 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 104879)
Symplocos fasciculata Zoll.
Tree to 15 m tall, alt: 579 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 56631)
Symplocos rubiginosa Wall. ex DC.
Tree to 18 m tall
Bkt. Tangga (KEP 109403)
THYMELAEACEAE
NS Wikstroemia polyantha Merr.
Shrub or treelet to 7 m tall, alt: 997 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56568)
TORRICELLIACEAE
Aralidium pinnatifidum (Jungh. and de Vriese)
Miq.
Shrub or treelet to 10 m tall, alt: 270 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 59186)
ULMACEAE
NS Celtis rigescens (Miq.) Planch.
Tree to 40 m tall, alt: 452 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 64940)
Appendix 1. Continued
UMBELLIFERAE
NS Sanicula europea L.
Herb to 75 cm tall, alt: 1145 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 59829)
URTICACEAE
NS Poikilospermum cordifolium (Barg.-Petr.)
Merr.
Hemi-epiphyte, alt: 954 m
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 56600)
NS Procris frutescens Blume
Fleshy shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 368 m
Jeram Toi (FRI 65254)
VERBENACEAE
Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl
Herb to 1 m tall, alt: 1100–1193 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 55250, FRI 60660)
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl
Shrub to 1 m tall, alt: 392–1193 m
Bkt. Tangga, G. Telapak Burok (FRI
59819, FRI 60661)
VIOLACEAE
Rinorea horneri (Korth.) Kuntze
Shrub to 3 m tall, alt: 300 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60121)
VITACEAE
Cayratia mollissima (Wall.) Gagnep.
Slender climber, alt: 421 m
Bkt. Tangga (FRI 56578)
NS Nothocissus spicifera (Griff.) Latiff
Climber, alt: 1038 m
G. Telapak Burok (FRI 64273)
NS Tetrastigma dubium (Lawson) Planch.
Climber, alt: 528 m
Loji Air Pantai (FRI 60134)
Tetrastigma pedunculare (Wall. ex Lawson)
Planch.
Liana, lowland and hill forest, alt: 753
Bkt. Lantai (FRI 55463)
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM186
187
Appendix 2. Species from Berembun FR that are new records for Negeri Sembilan.
Ferns and lycophytes
Aspleniaceae Asplenium scortechinii
Cyatheaceae Cyathea borneensis
Dennstaedtiaceae Microlepia strigosa
Grammitidaceae Prosaptia celebica
Lindsaeaceae Lindsaea napaea
Marattiaceae Angiopteris angustifolia
Polypodiaceae Belvisia spicata
Polypodiaceae Loxogramme centicola
Polypodiaceae Microsorum zippelii
Selaginellaceae Selaginella padangensis
Woodsiaceae Diplazium
angustisquamatum
Gymnosperms
Podocarpaceae Dacrycarpus imbricatus
Monocotyledons
Araceae Rhaphidophora sylvestris
Araceae Scindapsus scortechinii
Burmanniaceae Thismia arachnites
Convallariaceae Tupistra grandis
Cyperaceae Mapania cuspidata
Dracaenaceae Dracaena pendula
Gramineae Pogonatherum crinitum
Gramineae Thysanolaena latifolia
Orchidaceae Appendicula reflexa
Orchidaceae Chrysoglossum ornatum
Palmae Iguanura wallichiana
Palmae Licuala glabra var.
selangorensis
Zingiberaceae Amomum macrodous
Zingiberaceae Amomum uliginosum
Zingiberaceae Globba cernua var.
porphyria
Zingiberaceae Globba patens var. costulata
Zingiberaceae Scaphochlamys oculata
Dicotyledons
Acanthaceae Justicia sumatrana
Acanthaceae Phlogacanthus brevis
Acanthaceae Strobilanthes rufosepala
Anisophylleaceae Anisophyllea scortechinii
Annonaceae Alphonsea lucida
Annonaceae Artabotrys oxycarpus
Annonaceae Cyathocalyx pruniferus
Annonaceae Enicosanthum congregatum
Annonaceae Enicosanthum fuscum
Annonaceae Goniothalamus curtisii
Annonaceae Goniothalamus
tortilipetalus
Annonaceae Meiogyne monosperma
Annonaceae Mitrella kentii
Annonaceae Trivalvaria dubia
Annonaceae Xylopia malayana var.
malayana
Aristolochiaceae Thottea dependens
Begoniaceae Begonia klossii
Begoniaceae Begonia rhoephila
Chloranthaceae Sarcandra glabra ssp.
brachystachys
Chrysobalanaceae Parinari elmeri
Compositae Elephantopus mollis
Convolvulaceae Argyreia maingayi
Ebenaceae Diospyros pendula
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus rugosus
Euphorbiaceae Antidesma pahangense
Euphorbiaceae Antidesma stipulare
Euphorbiaceae Aporosa prainiana
Euphorbiaceae Blumeodendron calophyllum
Euphorbiaceae Koilodepas longifolium
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga diepenhorstii
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga puncticulata
Euphorbiaceae Mallotus peltatus
Euphorbiaceae Trigonostemon laevigatus
Flacourtiaceae Casearia capitellata
Flacourtiaceae Casearia clarkei
Flacourtiaceae Hydnocarpus kunstleri var.
tomentosa
Gentianaceae Fagraea oblonga
Gesneriaceae Aeschynanthus radicans
Gesneriaceae Aeschynanthus
rhododendron
Gesneriaceae Agalmyla parasitica
Gesneriaceae Cyrtandra cupulata
Guttiferae Garcinia eugeniifolia
Guttiferae Garcinia maingayi
Guttiferae Garcinia pyrifera
Hamamelidaceae Maingaya malayana
Hydrangeaceae Dichroa febrifuga
Icacinaceae Medusanthera gracilis
Labiatae Hyptis brevipes
Lauraceae Alseodaphne perakensis
Lauraceae Beilschmiedia lucidula
Lauraceae Beilschmiedia madang
Lauraceae Cryptocarya ferrea
Lauraceae Cryptocarya rugulosa
Lauraceae Litsea ferruginea
Lauraceae Litsea magnifica
Leguminosae Cynometra malaccensis
Melastomataceae Sonerila repens
Meliaceae Dysoxylum dumosum
Meliosmaceae Meliosma pinnata ssp.
ridleyi
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM187
188
Moraceae Ficus aurata var. pedunculata
Moraceae Ficus glandulifera
Moraceae Ficus laevis
Myristicaceae Gymnacranthera
farquhariana var. eugeniifolia
Myristicaceae Horsfieldia majuscula
Myristicaceae Horsfieldia tomentosa
Myristicaceae Knema oblongifolia
Myristicaceae Knema patentinervia
Myrsinaceae Ardisia maingayi
Myrsinaceae Ardisia villosa
Myrtaceae Syzygium attenuatum ssp.
attenuatum
Myrtaceae Syzygium diospyrifolium
Myrtaceae Syzygium politum
Nepenthaceae Nepenthes sanguinea
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata
Proteaceae Helicia attenuata
Rosaceae Rubus moluccanus
Rubiaceae Argostemma longifolium
Rubiaceae Argostemma unifolioide
Rubiaceae Argostemma unifolium
Rubiaceae Argostemma yappii
Rubiaceae Gaertnera oblanceolata
var. oblanceolata
Rubiaceae Lasianthus ridleyi
Rubiaceae Mycetia flava
Rubiaceae Ophiorrhiza pallidula
Rubiaceae Pavetta naucleiflora
Rubiaceae Psychotria birchiana
Rubiaceae Psydrax nitidum
Rutaceae Glycosmis chlorosperma
var. lindleyana
Rutaceae Luvunga crassifolia
Rutaceae Melicope macrocarpa
Sapotaceae Palaquium semaram
Sterculiaceae Heritiera elata
Sterculiaceae Leptonychia caudata
Sterculiaceae Scaphium linearicarpum
Sterculiaceae Sterculia rubiginosa var.
setistipula
Thymelaeaceae Wikstroemia polyantha
Ulmaceae Celtis rigescens
Umbelliferae Sanicula europea
Urticaceae Poikilospermum cordifolium
Urticaceae Procris frutescens
Vitaceae Nothocissus spicifera
Vitaceae Tetrastigma dubium
Appendix 2. Continued
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM188
189
Ferns and lycophytes
Woodsiaceae Diplazium
angustisquamatum
Monocotyledons
Araceae Amorphophallus elegans
Araceae Piptospatha sp. nov.
Burmanniaceae Thismia arachnites
Dracaenaceae Dracaena pendula
Marantaceae Stachyphrynium griffithii
Orchidaceae Dendrobium roseatum
Orchidaceae Phaius pauciflorus
var. pallidus
Orchidaceae Thrixspermum iodochilus
Palmae Calamus calospathus
Palmae Calamus sedens
Palmae Johannesteijsmannia
magnifica
Palmae Korthalsia scortechinii
Palmae Licuala glabra var.
selangorensis
Palmae Pinanga paradoxa
Palmae Pinanga scortechinii
Zingiberaceae Amomum hastilabium
Zingiberaceae Amomum macrodous
Zingiberaceae Amomum micranthum
Zingiberaceae Amomum spiceum
Zingiberaceae Globba cernua ssp.
porphyria
Zingiberaceae Globba patens var. costulata
Zingiberaceae Haniffia cyanescens var.
cyanescens
Zingiberaceae Scaphochlamys malaccana
Zingiberaceae Scaphochlamys oculata
Dicotyledons
Acanthaceae Phlogacanthus brevis
Acanthaceae Strobilanthes latebrosa
Acanthaceae Strobilanthes rufosepala
Annonaceae Alphonsea lucida
Annonaceae Artabotrys oxycarpus
Annonaceae Cyathocalyx pruniferus
Annonaceae Enicosanthum congregatum
Annonaceae Enicosanthum fuscum
Annonaceae Goniothalamus curtisii
Aristolochiaceae Thottea dependens
Begoniaceae Begonia holttumii
Begoniaceae Begonia klossii
Begoniaceae Begonia reginula
Begoniaceae Begonia rhoephila
Appendix 3. Species from Berembun FR that are endemic to Peninsular Malaysia (including
peninsular Thailand).
Convolvulaceae Argyreia kunstleri
Convolvulaceae Argyreia maingayi
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus rugosus
Euphorbiaceae Antidesma pahangense
Euphorbiaceae Mallotus penangensis
Fagaceae Lithocarpus erythrocarpus
Flacourtiaceae Casearia clarkei
Flacourtiaceae Hydnocarpus kunstleri
var. tomentosa
Gesneriaceae Aeschynanthus
rhododendron
Gesneriaceae Cyrtandra cupulata
Gesneriaceae Cyrtandra patula
Gesneriaceae Henckelia minima
Gesneriaceae Henckelia winkleri
Guttiferae Calophyllum ferrugineum
var. oblongifolium
Guttiferae Garcinia maingayi
Guttiferae Garcinia pyrifera
Hamamelidaceae Maingaya malayana
Leguminosae Fordia lanceolata
Loranthaceae Macrosolen platyphyllus
Melastomataceae Anerincleistus pauciflorus
var. pauciflorus
Melastomataceae Oxyspora bullata
Melastomataceae Phyllagathis griffithii
Melastomataceae Sonerila repens
Moraceae Ficus aurata var.
pedunculata
Myristicaceae Knema oblongifolia
Myrtaceae Syzygium politum
Rubiaceae Argostemma unifolioide
Rubiaceae Argostemma unifolium
Rubiaceae Argostemma yappii
Rubiaceae Lasianthus filiformis
Rubiaceae Lasianthus politus
Rubiaceae Lasianthus ridleyi
Rubiaceae Ophiorrhiza pallidula
Rubiaceae Pavetta salicina
Rubiaceae Psychotria albopedunculata
Rubiaceae Psychotria atroviridis
Rubiaceae Psychotria birchiana
Rubiaceae Psychotria griffithii
Rubiaceae Spermacoce parviceps
Rutaceae Glycosmis chlorosperma
var. lindleyana
B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3).pmd 8/20/2009, 9:42 AM189
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Article
Stand structure and floristic composition of the 50-ha Forest Research Plot in Pasoh Forest Reserve (Pasoh FR) are described. Pasoh FR was found to have extremely high tree species diversity. In the 50-ha plot there were 338,924 trees with a total basal area of 1,659 m2, comprising 818 tree species in 295 genera and 81 families. The Euphorbiaceae (85 species) was the most species-rich family. The Dipterocarpaceae dominated the forest with 27% of the basal area, and eight of the top 10 basal-area contributing species. The Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Burseraceae were the next most important large trees in the plot. Shorea had the highest basal area and stem number. Syzygium was the richest genus with 45 species. As with other Asian tropical forests there were many speciose genera in the plot; 11 genera had ≧ 12 species. Floristic composition and stand structure varied across the 50-ha plot in relation to edaphic and topographic variation. Multivariate analyses revealed three main community types: a swamp community in the lowest areas of the plot, a hill community, and an alluvial forest community in mid to lower elevations in the plot. In addition, the alluvial community appears to be divisible into three types based on differences in soil properties. In addition to describing species characteristic of each of these community types, we also describe some of the distinctive life-history and evolutionary characteristics of the Pasoh FR. This chapter provides a basis for future work at Pasoh FR.
Also rare are saprophytic plants that are only found on the forest floor in deeply shaded primary forest. Four species, Didymoplexis pallens, Didymoplexiella ornata and Gastrodia javanica (Orchidaceae) and Thismia arachnites B050-07-MJ-61-2-(3) Foresters' Manual of Dipterocarps
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