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Das Dreckige Dutzend und die Niederträchtigen Neun-Zwei Kurzskalen zur Erfassung von Narzissmus, Machiavellismus, und Psychopathie [The Dirty Dozen and the Naughty Nine - Short scales for the assessment of narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy]

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Das Dreckige Dutzend und die Niederträchtigen Neun-Zwei Kurzskalen zur Erfassung von Narzissmus, Machiavellismus, und Psychopathie [The Dirty Dozen and the Naughty Nine - Short scales for the assessment of narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy]

Abstract

To investigate the interpersonally relevant personality dimensions narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism (the „Dark Triad“) three different and extensive questionnaires are currently needed. In three studies (N = 501; N = 828; N = 96) two questionnaires to assess the core aspects of the Dark Triad are presented and validated. The first instrument is a translation of the Dirty Dozen scales (Jonason & Webster, 2010), the second a psychometrically optimized version (the Naugthy Nine). The scales, comprising 4 and 3 items, respectively, show a good structure, internal consistencies, and stability. Moreover the scales show sufficient convergent associations to the standard measures of the Dark Triad, differentiated relations to other relevant personality constructs (e.g. Big Five-facets, aggression, sociosexuality) and predict characteristic behaviors. Implications for the assessment of the Dark Triad in research and applied contexts are discussed.
Das Dreckige Dutzend und die
Niederträchtigen Neun
Kurzskalen zur Erfassung von Narzissmus,
Machiavellismus und Psychopathie
Albrecht C. P. Küfner, Michael Dufner und Mitja D. Back
Zusammenfassung. Bei der Erfassung perso¨nlichkeitsrelevanter Eigenschaften kommen evaluativ negativere Dispositionen oft zu kurz.
Diese sind jedoch besonders in interpersonellen Situationen wichtig. Die „Dunkle Triade“, bestehend aus Narzissmus, Psychopathie und
Machiavellismus bietet die Mo¨glichkeit diese verwandten Konstrukte und ihre Effekte spezifisch zu untersuchen. Im deutschen
Sprachraum werden derzeit drei separate und umfangreiche Instrumente zu deren Messung beno¨tigt. In drei Studien (N=501; N=828; N
=96) wird die Validierungeiner deutschen Version (das „Dreckige Dutzend“) der „Dirty Dozen“-Kurzskalen (Jonason & Webster, 2010),
sowie eine psychometrisch optimierte Version (die „Niedertra¨chtigen Neun“) zur Erfassung der Kernaspekte der Dunklen Triade
vorgestellt. Die vier bzw. drei Items umfassenden Skalen beider Instrumente weisen eine gute Struktur, interne Konsistenz und Stabilita¨t
auf. Daru
¨ber hinaus zeigen die Skalen zufriedenstellende konvergente Beziehungen zu den Standardverfahren der Dunklen Triade,
differenzierte Zusammenha¨nge mit weiteren relevanten Perso¨ nlichkeitskonstrukten (z.B. Big Five-Facetten, Aggressivita¨t, Sozio-
sexualita¨t) und pra¨dizieren charakteristische Verhaltensweisen. Implikationen fu
¨r die Erfassung der Dunklen Triade in Forschungs- und
Anwendungskontexten werden diskutiert.
Schlu
¨sselwo¨rter: Narzissmus, Machiavellismus, Psychopathie, Dunkle Triade
The Dirty Dozen and the Naughty Nine: Short scales for the assessment of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy
Abstract. When assessing personality dimensions, potentially negative characteristics are often given little attention. However, they are
of particular importance in interpersonal situations. The Dark Triad, consisting of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, offers
the opportunity to investigate these constructs and their specific effects. For the assessment of the Dark Triad three different and extensive
questionnaires are currently used. In three studies (N=501; N=828; N=96) the validation of the German version of the Dirty Dozen
scales (Jonason & Webster, 2010) as well as a psychometrically optimized version (the Naugthy Nine) to assess core aspects of the Dark
Triad is presented. The scales show a good structure, internal consistencies, and stability. Moreover, the scales show sufficient convergent
associations to the standard measures of the Dark Triad, differentiated relations to other personality constructs (e.g., Big Five-facets,
aggression, sociosexuality), and predict characteristic behaviors. Implications for the assessmentof the Dark Triad in research and applied
contexts are discussed.
Key words: narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, Dark Triad
Bei der Untersuchung und Messung sozial relevanter in-
terindividueller Differenzen – Unterschieden zwischen
Menschen darin, wie sie sich in sozialen Situationen ver-
halten und andere wahrnehmen – ist es wichtig, u
¨ber glo-
bale Perso¨nlichkeitsdimensionen wie etwa die Big Five
hinaus zu gehen und insbesondere auch den Einfluss in-
terpersonell maladaptiver, antagonistischer Perso¨nlich-
keitseigenschaften zu beru
¨cksichtigen. Die Dunkle Triade
(Dark Triad), bestehend aus Narzissmus, Machiavellismus
und Psychopathie, ist ein Zusammenschluss solcher Kon-
strukte, die derartige Eigenschaften beschreiben. Bei der
Erfassung der Dunklen Triade sind bisher drei separate,
umfangreiche Instrumente no¨tig. Wir stellen die deutsche
Version eines mit zwo¨lf Items weitaus o¨ konomischeren
Instruments zur Erfassung der Dunklen Triade vor, mit dem
Narzissmus, Machiavellismus und Psychopathie reliabel
und valide erfasst werden ko¨nnen, sowie eine psychome-
trisch optimierte Version mit nur neun Items.
Konzeptualisierung der Dunklen Triade
Aus einer Vielzahl subklinischer Konstrukte und fu
¨rdie
nichtpathologische Population aus klinischen Modellen
abgeleiteten Eigenschaftsbeschreibungen hat sich in ju
¨n-
gerer Vergangenheit die Dunkle Triade als sehr popula¨res
Konzept in der Psychologie etabliert. In der Internet-
Wir danken Maarit Ochsmann, Jakob Funcke, Maria Kluge, Shahaf
Thaler, John F. Rauthmann, Jaap J. A. Denissen und Tanja M. Gerlach fu
¨r
die Hilfe bei der Datenerhebung, sowie Steffen Nestler fu
¨r hilfreiche
Kommentare zum Manuskript.
Diagnostica, 61 (2), 76 – 91 Hogrefe Verlag, Go¨ttingen 2014
DOI: 10.1026/0012-1924/a000124
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