Article

2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation Adversely Affects Reproductive Function in Male Mouse, Mus musculus by Inducing Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress.

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Abstract

Abstract Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long term and short term biological effects which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of microwave emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long term effects of low level microwave irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low level 2.45 GHz MW radiation (CW for 2hr/day for 30 days, power density=0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR=0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and i-NOS was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to non-ionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species mediated pathway.

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... Exposure to cell phone radiation may induce OS leading to enhanced lipid peroxidation and changes in the body's antioxidant activities. The increase in lipid peroxidation (Oksay et al., 2014;Shahin et al., 2014) and 8-hydroxy-2 0 -deoxyguanosine activity, a marker of nucleic acid damage, may harm the sperm fertilizing potential (Atasoy et al., 2013). Although seminal plasma has a high endogenous antioxidant ability to protect spermatozoa from oxidative damage (Fraga et al., 1991), cell phone exposure leads to the induction of OS through the generation of ROS in the sperm plasma membrane by activation of NADH oxidase (Aitken and Curry, 2011;Shi et al., 2012;Jamaludin et al., 2017;Ding et al., 2018). ...
... It has been found that OS, nitric oxide levels, and total oxidant status were increased following exposure to RF-EMR (Wiesner et al., 2008). These observations are consistent with a decrease in the spermatogonia and Leydig cell enzymatic antioxidant capacity (Shahin et al., 2014;Almášiová et al., 2018). Spermatozoa seem to be particularly vulnerable to RF-EMR induced OS. ...
... Several other authors have confirmed the association between decreased epididymal weight and reduced sperm count in an animal model Saygin et al., 2011;Shahin et al., 2014). In humans, the few studies available have yielded mixed results. ...
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In the last decades, the universal use of mobile phones has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation environmental pollution. The steady growth in mobile phone usage has raised concerns about the effects of phone radiation on male reproductive health. Epidemiological studies report a sharp decline in sperm counts in developing countries, and worldwide with c. 14% of couples having difficulties to conceive, many of which are attributed to a male infertility factor. Environment and lifestyle factors are known to contribute to male infertility. Exposure to heat, radiation, or radioactivity might induce damage to biological tissue organs, including the testis. Given the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, the potential adverse effects of the resulting environmental radiation needs to be elucidated further. It seems to be an apparent relationship between the increased exposure to mobile phone radiofrequency and sperm quality decline, but the evidence is not conclusive. Our review summarizes the evidence concerning the possible adverse effects of cell phone radiation on the male reproductive system, with a focus on sperm quality. Also, we critically analyze the effects of elevated testicular temperature and oxidative stress on male fertility and how these factors could interfere with the physiological activities of the testis.
... They provided scarce information on the dosimetry, and the actual exposure in the brain is likely to be different from the estimated whole-body SAR values. However, an increased ROS production was found in the brain of rodents at higher SAR values (>1 W/kg) [35,43,54,55]. Ertilav et al. reported an increase in ROS in hippocampal neurons as well as in dorsal root ganglia after RF-EMF exposure of young female Wistar rats [43]. ...
... In adult Wistar rats, significant changes in sperm count and vitality, morphological changes, and increased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation in sperm and their precursor stages were found after RF-EMF exposure with a 3G/UMTS signal (SAR: 0.26 W/kg) for 45 days (2 h/day), concomitantly with a decrease in sperm with active mitochondria [146]. Similar results were reported by Shahin et al. [55]. Yet again, significant decreases in sperm count and vitality were found, which were associated with an increase in various oxidative stress markers (ROS, NO, MDA) and a decrease in antioxidative activities (SOD, GST, CAT). ...
... Yet again, significant decreases in sperm count and vitality were found, which were associated with an increase in various oxidative stress markers (ROS, NO, MDA) and a decrease in antioxidative activities (SOD, GST, CAT). In addition, the amount of iNOS was increased in the precursors of sperm and in Leydig cells [55]. These findings indicate functional and morphological impairment of spermatozoa by RF-EMF exposure, associated with an increase in ROS. ...
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Concomitant with the ever-expanding use of electrical appliances and mobile communication systems, public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the extremely-low-frequency and radiofrequency range has become a widely debated environmental risk factor for health. Radiofrequency (RF) EMF and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) MF have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially leading to cellular or systemic oxidative stress, was frequently found to be influenced by EMF exposure in animals and cells. In this review, we summarize key experimental findings on oxidative stress related to EMF exposure from animal and cell studies of the last decade. The observations are discussed in the context of molecular mechanisms and functionalities relevant to health such as neurological function, genome stability, immune response, and reproduction. Most animal and many cell studies showed increased oxidative stress caused by RF-EMF and ELF-MF. In order to estimate the risk for human health by manmade exposure, experimental studies in humans and epidemiological studies need to be considered as well.
... Among these species, Kunming mice were mainly chosen by Chinese scholars in their studies [119,120]. Swiss mice were more commonly used by scholars from other countries [2,15,16,40,95,[121][122][123]. In addition, BALB/c mice were also used to study the effects of microwave radiation on learning and memory functions. ...
... It was reported that microwave radiation might cause damage to reproductive functions, such as changes in sex hormone (such as testosterone and estradiol) levels and sperm parameters [7,19,[191][192][193]. Enzyme immunoassays [122] and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) [19,[193][194][195] were widely used in studies of sex hormone levels after exposure to microwave radiation. A hemocytometer was implemented to assess spermatozoa motility and count [122,191,196]. ...
... Enzyme immunoassays [122] and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) [19,[193][194][195] were widely used in studies of sex hormone levels after exposure to microwave radiation. A hemocytometer was implemented to assess spermatozoa motility and count [122,191,196]. Eosinnigrosin staining and supra-vital staining could also be used to study sperm viability [122,191,192]. ...
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Microwave radiation has been widely used in various fields, such as communication, industry, medical treatment, and military applications. Microwave radiation may cause injuries to both the structures and functions of various organs, such as the brain, heart, reproductive organs, and endocrine organs, which endanger human health. Therefore, it is both theoretically and clinically important to conduct studies on the biological effects induced by microwave radiation. The successful establishment of injury models is of great importance to the reliability and reproducibility of these studies. In this article, we review the microwave exposure conditions, subjects used to establish injury models, the methods used for the assessment of the injuries, and the indicators implemented to evaluate the success of injury model establishment in studies on biological effects induced by microwave radiation.
... The age of the animal used in the studies varied, ranging from prenatal age (Ozorak et al. 2013), weanlings (14 and 21 days for rats) , early adults, i.e. 6 to 8 weeks for mice (Atasoy et al. 2013;Saygin et al. 2016;Delavarifar et al. 2018;Jonwal et al. 2018) and 10 weeks for rats (Kesari and Behari 2010;Kumar et al. 2011). Other studies used adult mice and rats aged 12 to 24 weeks (Saygin et al. 2011;Shahin et al. 2014;Mahmoudi et al. 2015;Akdag et al. 2016;Bilgici et al. 2018). ...
... The generator for the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation were derived from various sources which include horn antenna (Kesari and Behari 2010;Kumar et al. 2011;Shahin et al. 2014;Jonwal et al. 2018), monopole antenna (Saygin et al. 2016;Bilgici et al. 2018), half-wave dipole antenna (Saygin et al. 2011;Ozorak et al. 2013;Oksay et al. 2014;Akdag et al. 2016 (Dasdag et al. 2015;Shokri et al. 2015) and Wi-Fi gateway (Atasoy et al. 2013). The studies vary in terms of distance between samples and the generator and duration of exposure. ...
... Most of the studies defined control or sham group as the group that received no exposure of RF-EMR as the generator was switched off and only received cage restriction stress (Kesari and Behari 2010;Saygin et al. 2011Saygin et al. , 2016Kumar et al. 2011;Atasoy et al. 2013;Ozorak et al. 2013;Almasiova et al. 2014Almasiova et al. , 2018Oksay et al. 2014;Shahin et al. 2014;Shokri et al. 2015;Akdag et al. 2016;Bilgici et al. 2018;Jonwal et al. 2018;Simaiova et al. 2018). On the other hand, the sham group in the study done by Mahmoudi et al. (2015) and Delavarifar et al. (2018) were exposed to non-energizing Wi-Fi router which refers to a switched on Wi-Fi router without any data exchange between the linked devices. ...
Article
Extensive use of Wi-Fi has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) pollution in environment. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter on male reproduction health. However, there are conflicting findings between studies. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on both animal and human male reproductive system. A computerized database search performed through MEDLINE via Ovid and PUBMED with the following set of keywords: ‘Wi-Fi or WiFi or wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi router or WiFi router or electromagnetic or radiofrequency radiation’ AND ‘sperm or spermatozoa or spermatogenesis or semen or seminal plasma or testes or testis or testosterone or male reproduction’ had returned 526 articles. Only 17 studies conformed to pre-set inclusion criterion. Additional records identified through Google Scholar and reviewed article further revealed six eligible articles. A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system.
... On the other hand, histopathological examination of testicular tissues in terms of necrosis and spermatogenesis showed that significantly increased coagulation necrosis and decreased spermatogenesis. Studies have also been reported in the literature investigating possible non thermal effects on the reproductive system (Oksay et al. 2014, Shahin et al. 2014, Kesari & Behari 2010, Ozorak et al. 2013). Oksay T et al. 2014, showed that increased lipid peroxidation, reduced GSH (glutation) and GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) in the rat testis tissue exposed 2.45 GHz EMF at 0.1 W/kg SAR value during 60 min/ day for 30 days. ...
... Oksay T et al. 2014, showed that increased lipid peroxidation, reduced GSH (glutation) and GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) in the rat testis tissue exposed 2.45 GHz EMF at 0.1 W/kg SAR value during 60 min/ day for 30 days. Shahin et al. 2014, reported that 2.45 GHz microwave radiation at 0.018 W/kg SAR during 2 h/day for 30 days decrease sperm count and decrease seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules in A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t mice. Also they noted reduction in testicular 3β-HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels. ...
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Purpose: To investigate the inflammatory effect and testicular damage on rats exposed to low level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at 2.45 GHz microwave radiation. Methods: Twenty two Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group and not exposed to EMF. Group 2 was exposed to low level EMF (average E-field 3.68± 0.36 V/m, whole body average SAR, 0.0233W/kg, in 10g tissue) at 2.45 GHz for 1 hour/day for 30 consecutive days. At the end of the study, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-32 (IL-32), C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured in rat serum and IL-6, IL-10, IL-32 were measured in rat testis tissue. Furthermore, testicular tissues were evaluated histopathologically in terms of spermatogenesis and coagulation necrosis. Results: Serum IL-6 and CRP levels were found to be significantly different in the study group compared to the control group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found in serum IL-10, IL-32 levels and testis tissue IL-6, IL-10, IL-32 levels compared to the control group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, histopathological evaluation of testicular tissue revealed a significant difference in necrosis and spermatogenesis when compared with the control group (p < 0.05) Conclusions: It may be concluded that low level EMF at 2.45 GHz increases inflammation and testicular damage and negative impact on male reproductive system function.
... Previous study showed that the certain type of occupational EMR exposure decreased testosterone levels (Saygin et al., 2009). Shahin et al. (2014) applied 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation for 2 h day 21 during 30 days and found a decrease in testosterone levels in the exposed group of mice. Similarly, Kumar et al. (2011, and Meena et al. (2014) showed that 2.45 GHz EMR exposure caused a decrease in testosterone levels. ...
... Dasdag et al. (2015) exposed rats to 2.4 GHz EMR for 24 h day 21 during 12 months and showed that the diameter of seminiferous tubules and thickness of tunica albuginea decreased by long term exposure. Shahin et al. (2014) exposed rats to the nonthermal low-level 2.45 GHz EMR (CW for 2 h day 21 during 30 days, power density 0.029812 mW cm 22 and SAR 0.018 W kg 21 ), and they observed that EMR irradiation induced a significant decrease in a sperm count and sperm viability, along with the decrease in a seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules. They suggested that the possible mechanism of EMR chronic exposure to non-ionizing EMR may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) transmitted by wireless devices (2.45 GHz), which may cause physiopathological or ultrastructural changes, in the testes of rats. We addressed if the supplemental gallic acid (GA) may reduce these adverse effects. Six-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. Forty eight rats were equally divided into four groups, which were named: Sham, EMR only (EMR, 3 h day-1 for 30 days), EMR+GA (30 mg/kg/daily), and GA (30 mg/kg/daily) groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels increased (p=0.001 for both) in EMR only group. TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels decreased in GA treated group significantly (p=0.001 and p=0.045, respectively). Total antioxidant status (TAS) activities decreased in EMR only group and increased in GA treatment group (p=0.001 and p=0.029, respectively). Testosterone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels decreased in EMR only group, but this was not statistically significant. Testosterone and VEGF levels increased in EMR+GA group, compared with EMR only group (p=0.002), and also increased in GA group compared with the control and EMR only group (p=0.044 and p=0.032, respectively). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and calcitonin gene releated peptide (CGRP) staining increased in tubules of the testes in EMR only group (p<0.001 for both) and decreased in tubules of the testes in EMR+GA group (p<0.001 for all parameters). In EMR only group, most of the tubules contained less spermatozoa, and the spermatozoon counts decreased in tubules of the testes. All these findings and the regenerative reaction, characterized by mitotic activity, increased in seminiferous tubules cells of the testes in EMR+GA group (p<0.001). Long term EMR exposure resulted in testicular physiopathology via oxidative damage and inflammation. GA may have ameliorative effects on the prepubertal rat testes physiopathology.
... Mice of experimental group were exposed to 2.45 GHz MW radiation at overall average Power density of 0.0248 mW/cm 2 and overall average SAR value of 0.0146 W/Kg. The SAR value was estimated for body length parallel to the electric field, as per actual placement of the mouse (Gandhi et al., 1977;Shahin et al., 2013Shahin et al., , 2014. The exposure at overall average power density of 0.0248 mW/cm 2 did not cause any elevation in the ambient temperature of animal cage as well as mice rectal temperature. ...
... Immunohistochemistry was performed in a 2-step procedure by using Vectastain ABC kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, California). In the first step, after initial deparafinization in xylene and rehydration in graded series of alcohol, slides were incubated with goat-full length p53 antisera (dilution 1:100), rabbit-Bax antisera (dilution 1:100), rabbit-pro-Caspase-3 antisera (dilution 1:100), and mouse-full length/ uncleaved PARP-1 antisera (dilution 1:100) for 24 h in humid chamber, respectively (Shahin et al., 2014). In second step, slides were incubated with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins for 30 min. ...
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A close association between microwave (MW) radiation exposure and neurobehavioral disorders has been postulated but the direct effects of MW radiation on central nervous system still remains contradictory. Present study was performed to understand the effect of short (15 days) and long-term (30 and 60 days) low level MW radiation exposure on hippocampus with special reference to spatial learning and memory and its underlying mechanism in Swiss strain male mice, Mus musculus. Twelve-weeks old mice were exposed to 2.45 GHz MW radiation (continuous-wave (CW) with overall average Power density of 0.0248 mW/cm(2) and overall average whole body SAR value of 0.0146 W/Kg) for 2h/day over a period of 15, 30 and 60 days). Spatial learning and memory was monitored by Morris Water Maze. We have checked the alterations in hippocampal oxidative/nitrosative stress, neuronal morphology and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive executioner Caspase- (pro-Caspase-3) and uncleaved PARP-1 in the hippocampal subfield neuronal and non-neuronal cells (DG, CA1, CA2 and CA3).We observed that, short-term as well as long-term 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure increases the oxidative/nitrosative stress leading to enhanced apoptosis in hippocampal subfield neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Present findings also suggest that learning and spatial memory deficit which increases with the increased duration of MW exposure (15<30<60 days) is correlated with a decrease in hippocampal subfield neuronal arborization and dendritic spines. These findings led us to conclude that exposure to continuous-wave MW radiation leads to oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53 dependent/independent activation of hippocampal neuronal and non-neuronal apoptosis associated with spatial memory loss.
... [11] Long-term effects Mobile phone radiations may affect brain function and cause several neurological disorders such as (some changes in neurobehavioral functions and neuropsychatric problems), especially in whom are inhabitants living near mobile phone towers and chronic exposure to nonionizing microwave radiation may lead to infertility through free radical/oxidative species-mediated pathway. [12,13] In a study conducted in Amritsar, Punjab, India, a correlation between mobile phone use (exposure to radio frequency radiations), DNA and chromosomal damage in lymphocytes of mobile phones users was observed. Such damages can have long-term consequences in terms of increased the risk of neoplasia or other age-related changes. ...
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Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. Mobile communication is now essentially ruling in our daily activities through better connectivity and intelligent, smart phone services. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential health risks. There is increasing concern that the use of mobile phones may be associated with decreased semen quality and infertility. The most sensitive tissues to the damaging effects of cell phones are testicular tissues through increased oxidative stress, heating and radiation. Cell phone radiation may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm count, motility, and viability, thus impairing male fertility. This should be supported by mass media to raise awareness among people regarding the possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions from mobile phones and to minimize its exposure. This study is a brief review of the recent data about the effect of cell phones in male infertility.
... Immunohistochemistry for GnRH-I (dilution 1:2500), full-length p53 (sc 6243, F-393, dilution 1:50), Bax (sc 6236, dilution 1:50), pro-caspase-3 (sc 7148, dilution 1:50) and uncleaved/full-length PARP-1 (sc 8007, dilution 1:50) was performed in a two-step procedure using the Vectastain ABC Kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA). In the first step, after initial deparafinization in xylene and rehydration in a graded series of alcohol, different sections of testes were incubated with antibodies with specificity to the GnIH, p53, Bax, pro-caspase-3 and uncleaved PARP-1 antibodies ( purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology) for 24 h in a humid chamber (Shahin et al., 2014). The second step was incubation with horseradishperoxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin for 30 min. ...
Article
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Reproductive performance of many avian species, including Japanese quail, is reported to be modulated by specific temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations. Accordingly, it has been shown that the serotonin precursor 5-HTP and the dopamine precursor l-DOPA given 8 h apart induce gonadal suppression and given 12 h apart lead to gonadal stimulation, while other temporal relationships were found to be ineffective. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 8- and 12-h phase relation of neural oscillations on testicular responses including expression of GnRH-I, GnIH, pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive and active executioner caspase-3, and the uncleaved DNA repair enzyme PARP-1. Testicular volume and mass decreased significantly in 8-h quail and increased in 12-h quail compared with controls. Expression of ir-GnIH, p53, Bax and active-caspase-3 increased and that of GnRH-I, pro-caspase-3 and uncleaved PARP-1 decreased in 8-h quail compared with controls. A TUNEL assay also confirmed testicular regression in these quail. Testes of 12-h quail exhibited significantly increased expression of GnRH-I, pro-caspase-3 and uncleaved PARP-1 compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that differential response of avian testes to 8- and 12-h phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic neural oscillations may be attributed to autocrine/paracrine action of GnIH expression, which is upregulated in regressed testes, leading to apoptotic changes, and downregulated in developed testes, causing apoptotic inhibition. It is concluded that specific phase relation of neural oscillations may modulate the local testicular GnRH-GnIH system and alter the apoptotic mechanism in quail testes. Moreover, these findings highlight the physiological effects of time-dependent drug delivery, including the specific time intervals between two drugs.
... FSH acts via receptors on BioMed Research International the Sertoli cells to stimulate spermatogenesis, and LH induces Leydig cells to synthesize and secrete T [24]. In a previous experiment, 12-week-old male mice were exposed to 2.45 GHz microwaves (2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0:029812 mW/cm 2 ) and experienced a reduction in the serum levels of T [25]. However, many other studies have reported conflicting results. ...
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Objective: To investigate the effects of exposure to 5.8 GHz microwaves on testicular structure and function of male adult rats. Methods: After 30 days of exposure, we evaluated sperm quality by determining sperm concentration and quantifying the number of abnormal sperm. Testicular morphology was investigated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), stem cell factor (SCF), and transferrin (TRF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We also used western blotting to determine the levels of GDNF and SCF and apoptosis-related protein (caspase-3) in the testis. Results: Compared with the sham group, there were no significant differences in terms of sperm count, sperm abnormality, and the levels of T, FSH, LH, GDNF, SCF, and caspase-3 in the microwave group. Conclusion: Under the experimental conditions, 5.8 GHz microwave exposure has no obvious effect on testicular structure and function of rats.
... Immunohistochemistry for GnRH-II (1:3000) in brain sections were performed in a two-step procedure by using Vectastain ABC kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA). In the first step, after initial deparafinization in xylene and rehydration in graded series of alcohol, sections were incubated with GnRH-II antibody for 24 hrs in humid chamber [50]. incubated with antibody diluent, without the primary antibody included, is also processed. ...
Article
Birds time their daily and seasonal activities in synchronization with circadian and annual periodicities in the environment, which is mainly provided by changes in photoperiod/day length conditions. Photoperiod appears to act at the level of eye, pineal and encephalic/deep brain photoperception and thus entrain the hypothalamic clock as well as reproductive circuitry in different avian species. In this article our focus of study is to elucidate out the underlying molecular mechanism of modulation of the hypothalamic reproductive circuitry following the photoperception through the hypothalamic photoreceptor cells and the subsequent alteration in the reproductive responses in quail, kept under different simulated photoperiodic conditions. Present study investigated the different simulated photoperiodic conditions induced hypothalamic DBP-GnRH-GnIH system mediated translation of photoperiodic information and subsequent exhibition of differential photosexual responses (scoto-/photo-sensitivity and refractoriness) in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Paired testes weight and paired testicular volume increased 15.9 and 22.6-fold respectively in scotorefractory quail compare to that of scotosensitive phase and 12.8 and 24.3-fold in photosensitive quail compare to that of photorefractory phase. The pineal/eye melatonin (through melatonin receptor subtype Mel1cR) and hypothalamic deep brain photoreceptor (DBPs) cells directly modulate the hypothalamic GnRH-I/II and GnIH system and thus exhibit testicular stimulation or regression in response to different photoperiodic conditions (PS, PR, SS and SR). The hypothalamic alteration of DBP(s) and GnRH-GnIH system thus may induce the testicular stimulation in PS and SR quail and testicular regression in SS and PR quail.
... Experimental investigation suggests that radiofrequency fields are not tumor initiators and that if they are related to carcinogenicity, this would be by tumor promotion or by increasing the uptake of carcinogens in cells (3). Epidemiological studies in populations concentrate on a possible causal relationship between MP use and the occurrence of brain tumors, acoustic neuromas, tumors of the salivary glands, and leukemia and lymphomas (1,4,10,11,23,24). One of the more vigorously debated issues is whether mobile phone radiation is able to cause DNA damage. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic fields on BALB/c strain mice on their health, body weight, behavior characteristics, hematological parameters and histopathological findings in the brain. The mice of the experimental groups were exposed to electromagnetic waves by using Nokia 230 and Samsung 19300 Galaxy S III mobile phones situated at 2 cm from the cages. In the present study, it can be concluded that the exposure of mice to mobile phone radiation had an effect on the structure of the brain, behavior and body weight. The waves of mobile phones increased activity characteristics and changed some behavioral categories of mice and also decreased their body weight. Histopathological examination revealed mild edema of neutrophils and degeneration of some neurons and glial cells in the brains of experimental mice. The results of the present study showed that a using mobile phone had an influence on in vivo systems.
... [8] Indian experimental animal studies conducted on rats have additionally shown that mobile phone radiations may affect brain function and cause several neurological disorders and chronic exposure to nonionizing microwave (MW) radiation may lead to infertility via free radical/oxidative species-mediated pathway. [9], [10] In a study conducted on inhabitants living near mobile phone towers, higher risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in neurobehavioral functions were observed, therefore, advocating due caution in such regard. [11] A systematic review on the health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone towers, however, did not indicate an association between any health outcome and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure at levels typically encountered in people's everyday environment. ...
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Mobile communication is now essentially ruling our daily lives through better connectivity and intelligent smartphone services. There has been a tremendous growth in Indian communication industry along with growing concerns regarding health effects of mobile radiation exposure. Concerns posed are especially regarding carcinogenesis and other health-related effects of mobile radiation exposure. In the effort to establish or refute any such concerns, many studies have been undertaken in the past three decades, mostly case-control designs or cross-sectional surveys. However, most of them considerably failed to establish causal association primarily owing to potential biases and errors in their conduct and analysis. Past cohort studies have provided contradictory results leading to continued uncertainty regarding tumorigenic potential of mobile radiation exposure. In India, there remains a huge knowledge gap pertaining to this particular topic and only few studies are presently underway such as the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) cell phone study in the National capital region (NCR). International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields associated with wireless phone use as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B), causing major concerns worldwide among mobile companies and subscribers equivocally. The World Health Organization (WHO) is presently carrying formal risk assessment of all studied health outcomes from radio frequency field's exposures and is likely to publish it by the year 2016.
... 12 There were suggestions that free radical-mediated pathway might be involved in the adverse effects of RF exposure on testosterone secretion. 13 Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) are oxides of rare earth elements and attracted much attention in their biological applications due to the switch between Ce 3+ and Ce 4+ on the surface of CeO 2 NPs structure. 14 The preparation method, particle size, exposure route, and cell type studied have been found to influence the biological effects of CeO 2 NPs. 15 Particles with smaller size have a larger surface area per mass unit and hence, they were found to be potentially more active as antioxidant and UV shield. ...
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Fenju Qin,1,2 Tao Shen,1 Honglong Cao,3 Junchao Qian,4 Dan Zou,1 Mingkang Ye,1 Hailong Pei21Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, People’s Republic of China; 4Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, People’s Republic of ChinaIntroduction: The ratio of Ce3+,/Ce4+, in their structure confers unique functions on cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) containing rare earth elements in scavenging free radicals and protecting against oxidative damage. The potential of CeO2NPs to protect testosterone synthesis in primary mouse Leydig cells during exposure to 1,800 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation was examined in vitro.Methods: Leydig cells were treated with different concentrations of CeO2NPs to identify the optimum concentration for cell proliferation. The cells were pretreated with the optimum dose of CeO2NPs for 24 hrs and then exposed to 1,800 MHz RF at a power density of 200.27 μW/cm2, (specific absorption rate (SAR), 0.116 W/kg) for 1 hr, 2 hrs, or 4 hrs. The medium was used to measure the testosterone concentration. The cells were collected to determine the antioxidant indices (catalase [CAT], malondialdehyde [MDA], and total antioxidant capacity [T-AOC]), and the mRNA expression of the testosterone synthase genes (Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd-3β) and clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, and Rorα).Results: Our preliminary result showed that 128 μg/mL CeO2NPs was the optimum dose for cell proliferation. Cells exposed to RF alone showed reduced levels of testosterone, T-AOC, and CAT activities, increased MDA content, and the downregulated genes expression of Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd-3β, Clock, Bmal1, and Rorα. Pretreatment of the cells with 128 μg/mL CeO2NPs for 24 hrs followed by RF exposure significantly increased testosterone synthesis, upregulated the expression of the testosterone synthase and clock genes, and increased the resistance to oxidative damage in Leydig cells compared with those in cells exposed to RF alone.Conclusion: Exposure to 1,800 MHz RF had adverse effects on testosterone synthesis, antioxidant levels, and clock gene expression in primary Leydig cells. Pretreatment with CeO2NPs prevented the adverse effects on testosterone synthesis induced by RF exposure by regulating their antioxidant capacity and clock gene expression in vitro. Further studies of the mechanism underlying the protective function of CeO2NPs against RF in the male reproductive system are required.Keywords: CeO2NPs radiofrequency radiation, Leydig cell, testosterone synthesis, clock genes, antioxidant
... A study by Cam et al. (2014) is not included since it is missing important information on exposure and has severe weaknesses in the design. Shahin et al. (2014) exposed or sham-exposed groups of 20 Swiss mice to continuous-wave 2450 MHz EMF for 2 hours per day during 30 days. The average whole-body SAR was 0.018 W/kg. ...
... This further had impaired the overall process of sperm maturation (Akbari & Jelodar 2013). Shahin et al. (2014) had similar results in which their study saw significant reduction in diameter and injury to the testes after RF-EMW exposure of 2 h/day for 30 days. ...
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Health hazard through smart phone radiation has been associated with male infertility. The suspected prime mediator is the NOX5 enzyme. When activated, the additional pathway for free radical production will damage sperm's DNA. However, conclusive evidence is still lacking. Thus, this study was conducted to comprehend the detrimental effect of the radiation towards sperm parameters by using rat as a model. Parameters measured include sperm concentration, viability, DNA damage status and NOX5 level on sperm. This study consisted of two phases. The first phase was conducted to determine the optimal radiation frequency emitted from the smart phone. The radiation frequencies that were evaluated were 0 MHz (control), 4200 MHz without multiple connection mode (minimum frequency) and 9700 MHZ with multiple connection modes (maximum frequency). Each exposure setting represented one group. Each group consists of eight rats, which received exposure for 6 h/day for two consecutive weeks. All parameters measured showed significant differences. Optimum frequency for significant changes to sperm parameters were identified as the minimum frequency. Second part of the research involved the determination of optimum exposure duration. The optimal frequency obtained was used in combination with exposure duration of 0 h (control), 2, 4 and 6 h. Each group had 8 rats and exposure was conducted for 2 weeks. The results showed a significant difference for all parameters following 4 h of exposure. Following this, evaluation of DNA damage status through NOX5 activity was done by using the optimum setting where 0 MHz/0 h as a control and 4200 MHz/4 h per day for up to 2 weeks. The results showed significant differences of NOX5 fluorescent intensity between the two groups. In conclusion, although smart phone emitted low radiation, it can decrease sperm concentration, viability and increase DNA damage through ROS production. NOX5 pathway has been proven to be the likely pathway of ROS induced RF-EMW.
... 21 While a number of human and animal studies have reported no change in male reproductive hormones at exposure to EMF, 11,[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] others have claimed that exposure to EMF can decrease testosterone levels. 18,20,[31][32][33][34][35] Even in some cases, increases in testosterone, LH, and FSH have been reported. 27,31,33,36,37 Power plants are workplaces that generate electric and magnetic fields due to the existence of various equipment, such as turbines, generators, internal combustion engines, and cooling towers, which causes staff exposure to these fields and affect their health. ...
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Background and aims: Today, human beings are exposed to the ELF magnetic field of electrical equipment and power lines, which can damage Leydig cells and alter the secretion of reproductive hormones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to ELF magnetic field and the level of some reproductive hormones in male power plant workers. Materials and methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out among all male employees of different units of the selected power plant around Tehran, Iran. All participants were asked to complete demographic data sheets and General Health questionnaire, on condition of consent and meeting the inclusion criteria. Time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to magnetic field of 122 men was measured by IEEE Std C95.3.1 method using TES 1393 Gauss meter. Based on the exposure level, subjects were divided into three groups. Serum Levels of Free Testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in participants were determined. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and the relationships between variables were assessed by linear regression and correlation using SPSS v.25 software. Results: There was no significant statistical correlation between the level of ELF exposure and serum levels of free testosterone, LH, and FSH, (r = 0.158). Serum levels of LH decreased significantly with age and duration of work experience (P < .05, r = -.25, P = .005, r = -.203, P = .025). Conclusion: There was no relationship between exposure to magnetic field in power plants and reproductive hormone levels, although it is impossible to make definitive comments without using more accurate methods to estimate male fertility.
... Our experimental data consider the received power at a specific point from the source, as it actually occurs for the diverse wireless devices sending energy to humans. Shown by Figure 8, extrapolating to the case n = 0 gives values around those reported by [20] and [22] (110 mW/Kg and 180 mW/Kg, respectively), which produces reproductive dysfunction in male mice. ...
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Split ring resonators (SRRs) have been used extensively in metamaterials, showing a strong localization and enhancement of fields, which significantly improves the sensitivity and resolution of the electromagnetic field sensors. We propose the development of an electric field sensor for 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band applications, by modifying the renowned SRR to contain three concentric pairs of rings. The reduced size makes the sensor affordable for experiments by inserting it in phantoms in order to measure the specific absorption rate (SAR). Power was transmitted from a patch antenna to SRR, with a varying set of distances 1λ, 2λ, 3λ, or 5λ. Experimental measurements of power were conducted with and without a cylindrical distilled-water phantom with agar (4.54%) and NaCl (0.95%). We then computed the electric and magnetic fields and the SAR using these experimental readings of power for different distances. Our sensor was able to measure power values from 20 nW to 0.3 µW with no phantom, and 1 nW to 10 nW with a phantom, in accordance with the values reported for radiofrequency (RF) dosimetry. The sensitivity as a function of the distance determined for the specific case of a phantom was 0.3 µW/cm.
... The total ROS generation in the fresh homogenate of tissue was assessed by using the method of Bejma et al. 2000 [27] with slight modification [28]. Briefly, the homogenate was diluted in PBS to obtain a concentration of 25 μg tissue protein/ml. ...
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Background: Oxidative stress and renal apoptosis play a significant role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. has been traditionally used as anti-ageing and health promotive tonic. The purpose of this study was to investigate its nephroprotective effect and mechanism via antioxidant and antiapoptotic potential in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. Methods: The chemical composition of aqueous extract of Pueraria tuberosa (PTY-2r) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (55 mg/kg body weight) in rats. After 60 days, the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 6/each group), namely DN control (DN) group-2, DN rats treated with PTY-2r at the dose of 50 mg/100 g, group-3 and 100 mg/100 g, group-4 p.o. for 20 days. The normal rats were chosen as a normal control (NC) group-1. PTY-2r was orally given to the rats for 20 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) & glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined in the kidney tissue of DN rats. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was measured by immunofluorescence. Results: GC-MS analysis of PTY-2r indicated the presence of 37 compounds among them 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (17.80%), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (17.03%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (5.18%) and 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z) - (6.69%) were found in the higher amount. A significant increase in ROS and LPO was observed along with the decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, responsible for oxidative stress in the kidney of DN rats. Since, high oxidative stress induces apoptosis in target cells, as shown by significantly decreased expression of Bcl-2 along with increased expression of Bax, active Caspase-3 & cleaved PARP-1 in DN control rats, suggesting apoptosis. The PTY-2r treatment significantly raised the activity of antioxidant enzymes, suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis thus, prevented urinary albumin excretion in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: The findings suggest that PTY-2r exerted the nephroprotective potential against STZ induced DN rats via suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis due to the presence of different bioactive compounds. ᅟ.
... 21 While a number of human and animal studies have reported no change in male reproductive hormones at exposure to EMF, 11,[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] others have claimed that exposure to EMF can decrease testosterone levels. 18,20,[31][32][33][34][35] Even in some cases, increases in testosterone, LH, and FSH have been reported. 27,31,33,36,37 Power plants are workplaces that generate electric and magnetic fields due to the existence of various equipment, such as turbines, generators, internal combustion engines, and cooling towers, which causes staff exposure to these fields and affect their health. ...
... In their study, Kesari et al. showed an increase in MN counts, caspase 3 levels, and apoptosis rates in mice due to radiation exposure from a 3G cell phone (Kesari et al. 2014). Shahin et al. found decreased sperm count in male Swiss mice after exposure to low radio frequency of a mobile phone (Shahin et al. 2014) which suggests that extended use of a mobile phone may cause reduced fertility. The bone marrow is the most proliferative tissue in the body and developing physiological systems are more sensitive as compared with stable ones so that the maximum effect of radiation can be assumed to occur in this tissue. ...
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The biological effects of radiation emitted by mobile telephone base station antennas are still controversial. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field frequency range of 1200-1400 MHz, from a mobile phone base station on erythropoietic cells in the rat bone marrow. Out of a total of 48 rats, 24 were exposed for 2 h each day for 7, 14, 30, and 60 days to electromagnetic radiation at specific absorption rate (SAR) levels 1.165 W/kg. Electromagnetic field-exposed rats were compared with sham-exposed control rats. The animals of the sham-exposed control group and each radio frequency electromagnetic field-exposed group were killed on the final day of exposure. Bone marrow smears were examined. In comparison with the sham-exposed animals, the findings revealed significantly increased polychromatic erythrocytes (P < 0.05) on experimental days 30 and 60. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was also significantly increased on experimental day 30 (P < 0.05). Pair-wise comparison of data obtained after 7 and 14 days, electromagnetic field exposure, did not reveal statistically significant differences between sham-exposed and radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure groups. The findings revealed a transient effect on the erythropoietic cells in the rat bone marrow and the sporadic appearance of micronucleated immature bone marrow red cells.
... The authors concluded that chronic EMF exposure may reduce levels of plasma testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/estradiol in males (Wang et al., 2016). Many animal studies have also reported that exposure to EMF can reduce serum or plasma testosterone (Kesari and Behari, 2012;Ozguner et al., 2005;Shahin et al., 2014). For instance, decreased testosterone levels may lead to EMF-induced damage in Leydig cells (Sepehrimanesh et al., 2014). ...
... Their results showed a significant decrease in the levels of sperm glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD activity and histone kinase after exposure; furthermore, the results also indicated a decrease in the G2/M transition phase of the cell cycle in the exposed group. Shahin et al. (57) have also shown a decrease in sperm count and sperm viability at a non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz microwave radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density 0.029812 mW/cm 2 and SAR 0.018 W/Kg) in male mice. Furthermore, Wu et al. (58) have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling can be activated by microwave radiation in testis, which may provide novel clues into the preventive and therapeutic strategies for the impairment of spermatogenesis and male fertility by microwave radiation. ...
... Certain studies on humans report that exposure to EMFs does not cause any changes to male reproductive indices (Hjollund et al., 1998;Møllerløkken et al., 2012). Many animal studies report that exposure to EMFs can cause reductions in reproductive indices such as testosterone (Kesari & Behari, 2012;Sepehrimanesh et al., 2014;Shahin et al., 2014) but can in some cases increase testosterone (Forgács et al., 2004). It is clear that the male reproductive system is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (Y. . ...
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The present study aims to investigate the effects of using the supplementation of vitamin E and Omega 3 fatty acids on reproductive indices among workers in an automobile parts manufacturing plant. The effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on certain sex hormones and sperm parameters will also be assessed. The participants were deployed into four groups as per the double-blind block randomization method. Semen parameters and sex hormones of the participants were analyzed before and after 3-month consumption of supplements. The level of workers’ exposure to low-frequency magnetic and electrical fields was measured through the recommendation of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Univariate analysis of variance indicated that exposure to electric fields had a statistically significant effect on sperm count, morphology, and motility. The simultaneous consumption of vitamin E + Omega 3 had a statistically significant effect on sperm morphology and motility.
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An enormous increase in the application of wireless communication in recent decades has intensified research into consequent increase in human exposure to electromagnetic (EM) radiofrequency (RF) radiation fields and potential health effects, especially in school children and teenagers, and this paper gives a snap overview of current findings and recommendations of international expert bodies, with the emphasis on exposure from Wi-Fi technology indoor devices. Our analysis includes over 100 in vitro , animal, epidemiological, and exposure assessment studies (of which 37 in vivo and 30 covering Wi-Fi technologies). Only a small portion of published research papers refers to the “real” health impact of Wi-Fi technologies on children, because they are simply not available. Results from animal studies are rarely fully transferable to humans. As highly controlled laboratory exposure experiments do not reflect real physical interaction between RF radiation fields with biological tissue, dosimetry methods, protocols, and instrumentation need constant improvement. Several studies repeatedly confirmed thermal effect of RF field interaction with human tissue, but non-thermal effects remain dubious and unconfirmed.
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Introduction: Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim: To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results: The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion: Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the regular use of headphones.
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Present study investigated the long-term effects of mobile phone (1800 MHz) radiation in stand-by, dialing and receiving modes on the female reproductive function (ovarian and uterine histo-architecture, and steroidogenesis) and stress responses (oxidative and nitrosative stress). We observed that mobile phone radiation induces significant elevation in ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, total carbonyl content and serum corticosterone coupled with significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes in hypothalamus, ovary and uterus of mice. Compared to control group, exposed mice exhibited reduced number of developing and mature follicles as well as corpus lutea. Significantly decreased serum levels of pituitary gonadotrophins (LH, FSH), sex steroids (E2 and P4) and expression of SF-1, StAR, P-450scc, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, cytochrome P-450 aromatase, ER-α and ER-β were observed in all the exposed groups of mice, compared to control. These findings suggest that mobile phone radiation induces oxidative and nitrosative stress, which affects the reproductive performance of female mice.
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Teknolojik gelismeler, gunluk yasantimizin bir parcasi haline gelmistir. Bu gelismeler yasamimizi kolaylastiran tum aletlerdir (cep telefonu, bilgisayar, televizyon, elektrikli ev aletleri, uydu antenler, kablolu iletisim sistemleri vs.). Bu aletlerden yayilan elektromanyetik radyasyon (EMR) ureme sistemini de bir cok yonden etkimektedir.. Bu etkiler, erkekte infertilite, sperm sayisinda azalmalar ve kadinda infertilite, adet bozukluklari, dusuk artmasi, ostrojen duzeyi artisi olarak gorulmektedir.
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This study helps us to understand the interrelationship between the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) and testicular activity. In the first part of the experiment, NO activity (nitrite and nitrate concentration; in the plasma and testes and NOS (nitric oxide synthase) expression; in testis) was analyzed in sexually immature and mature laboratory male mouse, Musmusculus. In the second experiment immature mice were administered with NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg/100 g body weight) and mature with NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 0.25 mg/100 g body weight) intraperitoneally for 7 days. In the third experiment, both immature and mature mice were administered with testosterone propionate (TP) for 7 days intramuscularly. Results indicate increased NO level and intense expression of ir-NOS (immunoreactive NOS) in sexually immature mice compared to mature. Although NOS inhibitor has no effect on plasma testosterone level of immature mice; NO donor has suppressed testosterone in mature mice. Further, testosterone injection decreased NO level in both the age groups of mice. It is concluded that NO and gonadal activity exhibit inverse relationship not only in control/ basal condition but experimental induction of increased NO level may suppress gonadal activity while exogenous testosterone may suppress NO activity. These findings not only suggest the inverse NO-gonadal relationships but also indicate that modulation of NO activity may affect gonadal activity and vice versa under different physiological / experimental conditions.
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With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed. In addition, the present review also evaluates metabolomic effects of GSM-modulated EMFs on the male and female reproductive systems in recent human and animal studies. In this context, experimental and epidemiological studies which examine the impact of mobile phone radiation on the processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis are examined in line with current approaches.
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Deleterious effects of MW radiation on the male reproduction are well studied. Previous reports although suggest that 2.45 GHz MW irradiation induced oxidative and nitrosative stress adversely affects the male reproductive function but the detailed molecular mechanism occurring behind it has yet to be elucidated. The aim of present study was to investigate the underlying detailed pathway of the testicular apoptosis induced by free radical load and redox imbalance due to 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure and the degree of severity along with the increased exposure duration. Twelve‐week old male mice were exposed to 2.45 GHz MW radiation [continuous‐wave (CW) with overall average Power density of 0.0248 mW/cm2 and overall average whole body SAR value of 0.0146 W/kg] for 2 hr/day over a period of 15, 30, and 60 days. Testicular histology, serum testosterone, ROS, NO, MDA level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, expression of pro‐apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), anti‐apoptotic proteins (Bcl‐2 and Bcl‐xL), cytochrome‐c, inactive/active caspase‐3, and uncleaved PARP‐1 were evaluated. Findings suggest that 2.45 GHz MW radiation exposure induced testicular redox imbalance not only leads to enhanced testicular apoptosis via p53 dependent Bax‐caspase‐3 mediated pathway, but also increases the degree of apoptotic severity in a duration dependent manner.
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To investigate the potential cytotoxicity of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on central nervous system, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were exposed to 2.856 GHz RF radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg for 8 h a day for 2 days in 35 mm Petri dishes. During exposure, the real-time variation of the culture medium temperature was monitored in the first hour. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration, and cell apoptosis rate were assessed immediately after exposure by flow cytometry. The results showed that the medium temperature raised about 0.93 °C, but no significant changes were observed in apoptosis, ROS levels or intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration after treatment. Although several studies suggested that RF radiation does indeed cause neurological effects, this study presented inconsistent results, indicating that 2.856 GHz RF radiation exposure at a SAR of 4 W/kg does not have a dramatic impact on PC12 cells, and suggests the need for further investigation on the key cellular endpoints of other nerve cells after exposure to RF radiation.
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Background and Objective: Use of cell-phone cause adverse effect of radiations in many people. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of cell-phone radiation during pregnancy on serum level of the testosterone, FSH, LH and sex cell lines in 60-day old offspring male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 rat's dams were randomly allocated into control, sham and interventional groups. Animals in control group have not been affected with the radiation and the interventional groups were exposed to cell-phone radiation from the beginning of pregnancy as much as 4 hours daily for 14 days. The sham group over the same period was exposed around cell-phone turning on without conversation. After childbirth and maturity 10 male offspring of different groups separated and after phlebotomizing, testosterone, FSH, LH was measured for each offspring. After anestasia, testis was removed, weighted, measured and throught histological method leydig, sertoli, spermatogonia and spermatid cells were counted for each offspring. Results: weight and size of the testis, the volume of seminiferous tubules, the volume of interstitial tissues of seminiferous tubules, and spermatocytes, spermatid, sertoli and spermatogonia cells numbers were significantly reduced in interventional group in compare to control and sham groups (P<0.05) but reduction of leydig cells, FSH, testosterone and increasing level of LH in interventional group did not change significantly in comparision with control and sham groups. Conclusion: Cell-phone radiations during pregnancy caused significantly reducing in sex cell lines but do not cause significant effect on FSH, LH and testosterone level in mature male offspring. Cite this article as: Zia Z, Hosseini SE. [Effect of cell-phone radiation during pregnancy on serum level of the testosterone, FSH, LH and sex cell lines in 60-day old offspring male rats]. J Gorgan Uni Med Sci. Winter 2017; 18(4): 56-61.
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The presence of hazardous agents in workplaces has raised concerns regarding their possible impacts on male reproductive system. The present study investigated the individual and combined effects of exposure to heat stress and electromagnetic fields with low-frequency characteristics on the levels of sex hormones in two foundry sections (Aluminum and Cast Iron) of an automobile parts manufacturing plant. The level of workers' exposure (n = 110) to each of the mentioned stressors, was measured through standard methods and for each person and the time-weighted average (TWA) of exposure was calculated. The participants of each sections were classified into separate exposure groups based on the 33rd and 66th percentile of the level of to heat stress and electromagnetic fields exposure. In order to determine serum sex hormones, blood samples were taken from all participants between 7-9 am and then the blood samples were analyzed by ELISA method. In total of two sections, the lowest mean testosterone levels was observed in the third exposure group of the electromagnetic fields (magnetic field>1.40 μT; electric field >0.42 V/m), however, the mean difference in testosterone levels between the three different groups of exposure wasn’t statistically significant (P > 0.05). According to the results of Logistic Regression, the electric field had the greatest effect on testosterone levels as the main male hormone. Drawing a definitive conclusion regarding the effects of each harmful physical hazards is difficult due to the existence of psychological stressors and other environmental stressors such as chemical pollution, ergonomic hazards and other physical stressors.
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An ever-increasing use of wireless devices over the last decades has forced scientists to clarify their impact on living systems. Since prenatal development is highly sensitive to numerous noxious agents, including radiation, we focused on the assessment of potential adverse effects of microwave radiation (MR) on testicular development. Pregnant Wistar albino rats (3 months old, weighing 282±8 g) were exposed to pulsed MR at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm², and a specific absorption rate of 1.82 W/kg for 2 hours/day throughout pregnancy. Male offspring were no longer exposed to MR following birth. Samples of biological material were collected after reaching adulthood (75 days). In utero MR exposure caused degenerative changes in the testicular parenchyma of adult rats. The shape of the seminiferous tubules was irregular, germ cells were degenerated and often desquamated. The diameters of the seminiferous tubules and the height of the germinal epithelium were significantly decreased (both at ∗∗p<0.01), while the interstitial space was significantly increased (∗∗p<0.01) when compared to the controls. In the group of rats prenatally exposed to MR, the somatic and germ cells were rich in vacuoles and their organelles were often altered. Necrotizing cells were more frequent and empty spaces between Sertoli cells and germ cells were observed. The Leydig cells contained more lipid droplets. An increased Fluoro Jade - C and superoxide dismutase 2 positivity was detected in the rats exposed to MR. Our results confirmed adverse effects of MR on testicular development.
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Potential suppression of fertility due to mobile phone radiation remains a focus of researchers. We conducted meta-analyses on the effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality using recent evidence and propose some perspectives on this issue. Using the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, WOS, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases, we retrieved and screened studies published before December 2020 on the effects of mobile phone use/mobile phone RF-EMR on sperm quality. Thirty-nine studies were included. Data quality and general information of the studies were evaluated and recorded. Sperm quality data (density, motility, viability, morphology, and DFI) were compiled for further analyses, and we conducted subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses. The pooled results of human cross-sectional studies did not support an association of mobile phone use and a decline in sperm quality. Different study areas contributed to the heterogeneity of the studies. In East Europe and West Asia, mobile phone use was correlated with a decline in sperm density and motility. Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure could decrease the motility and viability of mature human sperm in vitro. The pooled results of animal studies showed that mobile phone RF-EMR exposure could suppress sperm motility and viability. Furthermore, it reduced sperm density in mice, in rats older than 10 weeks, and in rats restrained during exposure. Differences regarding age, modeling method, exposure device, and exposure time contributed to the heterogeneity of animal studies. Previous studies have extensively investigated and demonstrated the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm. In the future, new standardized criteria should be applied to evaluate potential effects of mobile phone RF-EMR dosages. Further sperm-related parameters at the functional and molecular levels as well as changes in biological characteristics of germ cells should be evaluated. Moreover, the impact of mobile phone RF-EMR on individual organs should also be examined.
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The potential health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have currently raised considerable public concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EMF exposure on levels of plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of an electric power plant. Seventy-seven male workers with high occupational EMF exposure and 77 male controls with low exposure, matched by age, were selected from a cross-sectional study. Moreover, high EMF exposure group was with walkie-talkies usage and exposed to power frequency EMF at the work places for a longer duration than control group. A questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant information, including sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and EMF exposures. Plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, melatonin, NF-κB, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP27, and TET1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EMF exposure group had statistically significantly lower levels of testosterone (β = -0.3 nmol/L, P = 0.015), testosterone/estradiol (T/E2) ratio (β = -15.6, P = 0.037), and NF-κB (β = -20.8 ng/L, P = 0.045) than control group. Moreover, joint effects between occupational EMF exposure and employment duration, mobile phone fees, years of mobile phone usage, and electric fees on levels of testosterone and T/E2 ratio were observed. Nevertheless, no statistically significant associations of EMF exposures with plasma estradiol, melatonin, HSP70, HSP27, and TET1 were found. The findings showed that chronic exposure to EMF could decrease male plasma testosterone and T/E2 ratio, and it might possibly affect reproductive functions in males. No significant associations of EMF exposure with inflammatory pathway biomarkers were found.
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This study helps us to understand the interrelationship between the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) and testicular activity. In the first part of the experiment, NO activity (nitrite and nitrate concentration; in the plasma and testes and NOS (nitric oxide synthase) expression; in testis) was analyzed in sexually immature and mature laboratory male mouse, Musmusculus. In the second experiment immature mice were administered with NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg/100 g body weight) and mature with NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 0.25 mg/100 g body weight) intraperitoneally for 7 days. In the third experiment, both immature and mature mice were administered with testosterone propionate (TP) for 7 days intramuscularly. Results indicate increased NO level and intense expression of ir-NOS (immunoreactive NOS) in sexually immature mice compared to mature. Although NOS inhibitor has no effect on plasma testosterone level of immature mice; NO donor has suppressed testosterone in mature mice. Further, testosterone injection decreased NO level in both the age groups of mice. It is concluded that NO and gonadal activity exhibit inverse relationship not only in control/ basal condition but experimental induction of increased NO level may suppress gonadal activity while exogenous testosterone may suppress NO activity. These findings not only suggest the inverse NO-gonadal relationships but also indicate that modulation of NO activity may affect gonadal activity and vice versa under different physiological / experimental conditions.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic microwave exposure on sperm count, sperm morphology, and the morphology of rat testis and epididymes. Continuous wave microwave radiation (9450 MHz) specific absorption rate 1.80 W/kg and power density 2.65 mW/cm(2), was administered for 1 h a day for 13, 26, 39, and 52 days, which corresponded to 1, 2, 3, and 4 cycles of seminiferous epithelium, in mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were sacrificed under Ketalar anesthesia the day after exposure. Then epididymal sperm count, sperm morphology, and the weights of testis, epididymes, seminal vesicles, and prostate were determined. Histologic examinations of testis and epididymes were performed. The parameters were compared with sham groups. Epididymal sperm count decreased significantly only in the 52-day exposure group (p < 0.05). The percentage of abnormal sperm count changed significantly in the 26-, 39-, and 52-day exposure groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively). The weights of testis and epididymes also changed significantly in the 26-, 39-, and 52-day exposure groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). Necrotic tubules, interstitial edema, perforated and necrotic tubules, decrease of spermatogenesis, and absent germinal epithelium in some tubules were observed in the exposed rat testes. In addition, we observed atrophy, interstitial edema, mononuclear cell infiltration, and increased fibroblastic activity in the exposed rat epididymes. We concluded that epididymal sperm count and morphology and weight and morphology of testis and epididymes were affected by chronic prolonged microwave exposure. The incidence of symptoms mentioned here depended on exposure duration.
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Present study examines biological effects of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation in Parkes strain mice. Forty-day-old mice were exposed to CW (continuous wave) microwave radiation (2 h/day for 30 days). Locomotor activity was recorded on running wheel for 12 days prior to microwave exposure (pre-exposure), 7 days during the first week of exposure (short-term exposure) and another 7-day spell during the last week of the 30-day exposure period (long-term exposure). Morris water maze test was performed from 17th to 22nd day of exposure. At the termination of the exposure, blood was processed for hematological parameters, brain for comet assay, epididymis for sperm count and motility and serum for SGOT (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamate
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The aim of present study was to investigate the changes in the testicular expression of aromatase, ER alpha, ER beta and iNOS protein and correlate these with serum testosterone and nitric oxide levels, to elucidate the role of estrogen and nitric oxide in the testis during aging. This study showed localization of aromatase and ER alpha mainly in the Leydig cell and showed close correlation of testicular aromatase level with circulating testosterone level suggesting that estrogen may be modulating testicular steroidogenesis. Localization ER alpha mainly in the mitotically active germ cell suggest possible role of estrogen in germ cell proliferation. This study showed basal level of nitric oxide during reproductively active period, whereas increased serum nitric oxide coincides with decreased testicular activity in old age. This study showed inverse correlation between aromatase and NO level. Treatment with either SNP or L-NAME on testicular steroidogenic factor (3-beta HSD/ StAR) or germ cell survival factor (Bcl2) showed that increased NO causes decreased steroidogenesis and increased germ cell apoptosis. In conclusion this study suggest that estrogen modulate steroidogenesis and germ cell survival in reproductively active period whereas in old age decreased estrogen concentration causes increased nitric oxide which in turn decreases testicular steroidogenesis and germ cell apoptosis.
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Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.
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A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility.
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The present study investigates the effect of free radical formation due to mobile phone exposure and effect on fertility pattern in 70-day-old male Wistar rats (sham exposed and exposed). Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 35 days to mobile phone frequency. The specific absorption rate was estimated to be 0.9 W/kg. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.007) showed a decrease, while an increase in catalase (P < 0.005) was observed. Malondialdehyde (P < 0.003) showed an increase and histone kinase (P = 0.006) showed a significant decrease in the exposed group. Micronuclei also show a significant decrease (P < 0.002) in the exposed group. A significant change in sperm cell cycle of G(0)-G(1) (P = 0.042) and G(2)/M (P = 0.022) were recorded. Generation of free radicals was recorded to be significantly increased (P = 0.035). Our findings on antioxidant, malondialdehyde, histone kinase, micronuclei, and sperm cell cycle are clear indications of an infertility pattern, initiated due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is concluded that radiofrequency electromagnetic wave from commercially available cell phones might affect the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa.
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Antimicrobial drugs have been reported to have adverse effects on male fertility. The present study reports the role of α- tocopherol on metronidazole and tetracycline induced reproductive alterations in albino rats. Male albino rats (5/group) were treated with 20 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> bw day<sup>-1</sup> metronidazole or 60 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> tetracycline with or without 15 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> bw α-tocopherol for 8 weeks. The reversibility of effects after 4 weeks recovery period was determined in separate groups of 5 rats. The control groups received distilled water (vehicle) and 15 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> day<sup>-1</sup> α- tocopherol for 8 weeks. Metronidazole and tetracycline significantly (p<0.05) reduced the weight of the epididymis, sperm count, motility and serum testosterone levels and increased the activity of endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the testis. Alpha-tocopherol significantly (p<0.05) decreased the weight of the testis, epididymis, sperm motility and serum testosterone levels. Co-administration of metronidazole or tetracycline with α-tocopherol caused significant restoration in sperm indices and SOD activity while it produced no effect on testosterone secretion. The results suggest that the effects of metronidazole and tetracycline on male reproductive functions, which are partially reversible, could be mediated via a reduction in serum testosterone level and probably also via the free radical generating mechanism.
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Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.
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The exposure of male mice to radiofrequency radiations from mobile phone (GSM) base stations at a workplace complex and residential quarters caused 39.78 and 46.03%, respectively, in sperm head abnormalities compared to 2.13% in control group. Statistical analysis of sperm head abnormality score showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in occurrence of sperm head abnormalities in test animals. The major abnormalities observed were knobbed hook, pin-head and banana-shaped sperm head. The occurrence of the sperm head abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent. The implications of the observed increase occurrence of sperm head abnormalities on the reproductive health of humans living in close proximity to GSM base stations were discussed.
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Addition of the divalent cation ionophore, A23187, to washed populations of human spermatozoa resulted in a sudden burst of production of reactive oxygen species which peaked within 3-5 min. This activity was dependent upon the presence of calcium in the external medium and was unaffected by the mitochondrial inhibitors, oligomycin, antimycin and rotenone. Studies with scavengers of reactive oxygen species revealed that, while reagents directed against singlet oxygen and the hydroxyl radical were without effect, cytochrome C reduced the response to A23187 by about 50%, suggesting that the superoxide anion radical is a major product of the activated human spermatozoon. The clinical implications of these studies stem from the considerable variation observed between individuals in the levels of reactive oxygen species produced by the spermatozoa. This variability was shown to be inversely related to the ability of the spermatozoa to exhibit sperm-oocyte fusion on exposure to A23187; defective samples exhibited a basal level of reactive oxygen species production which was 40 times that observed with normal functional cells.
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have beneficial or detrimental effects on sperm functions depending on the nature and the concentration of the ROS involved, as well as the moment and the location of exposure. Excessive generation of ROS in semen, mainly by neutrophils but also by abnormal spermatozoa, could be a cause for infertility. Hydrogen peroxide is the primary toxic ROS for human spermatozoa. Low concentrations of this ROS do not affect sperm viability but cause sperm immobilization mostly via depletion of intracellular ATP and the subsequent decrease in the phosphorylation of axonemal proteins. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide induce lipid peroxidation and result in cell death. On the other hand, the superoxide anion appears to play a major role in the development of hyperactivation and capacitation. The observations that: (i) exogenously generated superoxide anions induce hyperactivation and capacitation; (ii) capacitating spermatozoa themselves produce elevated concentrations of superoxide anion over prolonged periods of time; and (iii) removal of this ROS by superoxide dismutase prevents sperm hyperactivation and capacitation induced by various biological fluids, stress the importance of the superoxide anion in these processes.
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We attempted to determine reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa of patients with idiopathic infertility and healthy donors, and observe whether increased production was due to decreased seminal plasma reactive oxygen species scavengers. Reactive oxygen species production by spermatozoa and seminal plasma antioxidants was assayed in 18 patients with idiopathic infertility and 10 controls. Reactive oxygen species formation and seminal plasma antioxidants were measured by luminol and lucigenin dependent chemoluminescence, and enzymatic methods, respectively. Higher reactive oxygen species production was observed in 16 of the 18 patients (88.8%, p < 0.0001 versus controls). Seminal plasma superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and total sulfhydryl group levels in infertile patients were significantly lower than in controls. Decreased seminal plasma antioxidant activity and increased reactive oxygen species production can be responsible for idiopathic male infertility.
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Nitro blue tetrazolium has been used to intercept O2⁻ generated enzymically or photochemically. The reduction of NBT by O2⁻ has been utilized as the basis of assays for superoxide dismutase, which exposes its presence by inhibiting the reduction of NBT. Superoxide dismutase could thus be assayed either in crude extracts or in purified protein fractions. The assays described are sensitive to ng/ml levels of super-oxide dismutase and were applicable in free solution or on polyacrylamide gels. The staining procedure for localizing superoxide dismutase on polyacrylamide electrophoretograms has been applied to extracts obtained from a variety of sources. E. coli has been found to contain two superoxide dismutases whereas bovine heart, brain, lung, and erthrocytes contain only one.
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Objective To determine the incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in semen of a population of patients consulting for infertility. Design The incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in whole semen and in washed spermatozoa was studied. The values obtained were correlated with semen parameters. The effect of the type of sperm washing on reactive oxygen species formation was also investigated. Setting Semen samples from patients consulting for infertility and control subjects were obtained by masturbation after 3 days of sexual abstinence. Reactive oxygen species formation was measured in whole semen, sperm suspension washed by Percoll gradients, or repeated centrifugations. Sperm motility parameters were measured by computer-aided sperm analysis. Patients, Participants Fertile control men and an unselected population of patients consulting for infertility. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Reactive oxygen species formation by fresh semen specimen or washed spermatozoa was measured in a computer-driven LKB 1251 Luminometer (LKB-Wallac, Turku, Finland). Results Reactive oxygen species formation was detected in 40% of the semen with spermatozoa from infertile patients, whereas none was found in 6 azoospermic men and 10 control men. The level of reactive oxygen species formation was inversely correlated to the semen volume, the percentage of motile spermatozoa, and sperm linearity both in semen and in Percoll-washed spermatozoa. Washing by repeated centrifugation-resuspension increased 20- to 50-fold sperm reactive oxygen species formation. This enhancement was caused by the centrifugation itself and by the removal of seminal plasma. Both morphologically normal and abnormal spermatozoa produced reactive oxygen species. Conclusion The data suggest that reactive oxygen species formation by spermatozoa may be a significant cause for male infertility.
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To study the effect of microwave radiation on the early stages of pregnancy (implantation) and DNA damage in brain cells, female mice were exposed to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field (EMF) for 2 hours/ day at power density of 0.1250 mW/cm2 for the period of 30 days (pre-mating period, 22 days; mating period, 5 days; post mating period, 3 days). The results indicate asymmetrical implantation in the two horns of the uterus in addition to alteration in embryo positioning and altered embryo spacing in exposed mice as compared to control. The microwave radiation also induced significant DNA break in brain cells. Our findings point towards microwave radiation induced adverse effects on early embryonic development (implantation) as well as increased DNA damage in brain cells, although further studies are required to understand the extent and the mechanism of these effects. In view of the increased use of microwaves in the modern society and MW induced pathogenesis reported earlier as well as in the present study, it is necessary to define the safer use and threshold limit of the non-ionizing radiation in terms of its biological effects.
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The rear halves of the bodies of anaesthetized male C3H mice were exposed for 30 min to 2·45 GHz microwave radiation and the effects on the testes were compared to those produced by direct heating. Effects were observed which are consistent with the hypothesis that heat damage is the primary effect of microwave exposure. Damage measured six days after exposure ranged in severity from depletion of the spermatocytes to extensive necrosis of the germinal epithelium. Temperature-sensitive probes implanted in the testes revealed a threshold effect for depletion of the spermatocytes of approximately 39°C and an LD650 (50 per cent cell death after 6 days) of about 41°C after microwave exposure or direct heating. The corresponding effective threshold effect and LD650 expressed in terms of absorbed microwave power were 20 W kg−1 and 30 W kg−1. However, it is probable that a conscious animal is better able to regulate testicular temperature and hence adjust to higher dose-rates.
Article
The present experiment was designed to study the 2.45 GHz low-level microwave (MW) irradiation-induced stress response and its effect on implantation or pregnancy in female mice. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to MW radiation (continuous wave for 2 h/day for 45 days, frequency 2.45 GHz, power density = 0.033549 mW/cm(2), and specific absorption rate = 0.023023 W/kg). At the end of a total of 45 days of exposure, mice were sacrificed, implantation sites were monitored, blood was processed to study stress parameters (hemoglobin, RBC and WBC count, and neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio), the brain was processed for comet assay, and plasma was used for nitric oxide (NO), progesterone and estradiol estimation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes- superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-were determined in the liver, kidney and ovary. We observed that implantation sites were affected significantly in MW-irradiated mice as compared to control. Further, in addition to a significant increase in ROS, hemoglobin (p < 0.001), RBC and WBC counts (p < 0.001), N/L ratio (p < 0.01), DNA damage (p < 0.001) in brain cells, and plasma estradiol concentration (p < 0.05), a significant decrease was observed in NO level (p < 0.05) and antioxidant enzyme activities of MW-exposed mice. Our findings led us to conclude that a low level of MW irradiation-induced oxidative stress not only suppresses implantation, but it may also lead to deformity of the embryo in case pregnancy continues. We also suggest that MW radiation-induced oxidative stress by increasing ROS production in the body may lead to DNA strand breakage in the brain cells and implantation failure/resorption or abnormal pregnancy in mice.
Article
The present study investigates the effect of 10-GHz microwave radiation on the fertility pattern of 70-day-old male rats (sham exposed and exposed), which were exposed for 2 h/d for 45 days continuously at a specific absorption rate of 0.014 W/kg and a power density of 0.21 mW/cm(2). Results show a significant change in the level of reactive oxygen species, histone kinase, apoptotic cells, and percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in the exposed group compared with the sham-exposed group. The study concludes that there is a significant effect of microwave radiations on the reproductive pattern in male rats, which is a causative factor of male infertility.
Article
The object of present study is to investigate the effects of 50 GHz microwave frequency electromagnetic fields on reproductive system of male rats. Male rats of Wistar strain were used in the study. Animals 60 days old were divided into two groups--group I sham exposed and group II experimental (microwave exposed). During exposure, rats were confined in Plexiglas cages with drilled ventilation holes for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a specified specific absorption rate of 8.0 x 10(-4) W/kg. After the last exposure, the rats were sacrificed immediately and sperms were collected. Antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase), histone kinase, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed in sperm cells. Result shows a significant decrease in the level of sperm GPx and SOD activity (p < or = 0.05), whereas catalase shows significant increase in exposed group of sperm samples as compared with control (p < 0.02). We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean activity of histone kinase as compared to the control (p < 0.016). The percentage of cells dividing in a spermatogenesis was estimated by analyzing DNA per cell by flow cytometry. The percentage of apoptosis in electromagnetic field exposed group shows increased ratio as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.004). There were no significant differences in the G(0)/G(1) phase; however, a significant decrease (p < 0.026) in S phase was obtained. Results also indicate a decrease in percentage of G(2)/M transition phase of cell cycle in exposed group as compared to sham exposed (p < 0.019). We conclude that these radiations may have a significant effect on reproductive system of male rats, which may be an indication of male infertility.
Article
The object of this study is to investigate the effects of 50-GHz microwave radiation on the brain of Wistar rats. Male rats of the Wistar strain were used in the study. Animals of 60-day age were divided into two groups-group 1, sham-exposed, and group 2, experimental (microwave-exposed). The rats were housed in a temperature-controlled room (25 degrees C) with constant humidity (40-50%) and received food and water ad libitum. During exposure, rats were placed in Plexiglas cages with drilled ventilation holes and kept in an anechoic chamber. The animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 45 days continuously at a power level of 0.86 microW/cm(2) with nominal specific absorption rate 8.0 x 10(-4) w/kg. After the exposure period, the rats were killed and homogenized, and protein kinase C (PKC), DNA double-strand break, and antioxidant enzyme activity [superoxides dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] were estimated in the whole brain. Result shows that the chronic exposure to these radiations causes DNA double-strand break (head and tail length, intensity and tail migration) and a significant decrease in GPx and SOD activity (p = or<0.05) in brain cells, whereas catalase activity shows significant increase in the exposed group of brain samples as compared with control (p = or<0.001). In addition to these, PKC decreased significantly in whole brain and hippocampus (p < 0.05). All data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. We conclude that these radiations can have a significant effect on the whole brain.
Article
To evaluate effects of cellular phone radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) during talk mode on unprocessed (neat) ejaculated human semen. Prospective pilot study. Center for reproductive medicine laboratory in tertiary hospital setting. Neat semen samples from normal healthy donors (n = 23) and infertile patients (n = 9). After liquefaction, neat semen samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot (experimental) from each patient was exposed to cellular phone radiation (in talk mode) for 1 h, and the second aliquot (unexposed) served as the control sample under identical conditions. Evaluation of sperm parameters (motility, viability), reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of semen, ROS-TAC score, and sperm DNA damage. Samples exposed to RF-EMW showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and viability, increase in ROS level, and decrease in ROS-TAC score. Levels of TAC and DNA damage showed no significant differences from the unexposed group. Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.
Article
The reaction of lipid peroxides in animal tissues with thiobarbituric acid was dependent on pH of the reaction mixture as was the case for linoleic acid hydroperoxide. The optimum pH was found to be 3.5. Taking this fact into consideration, a standard procedure for the assay of lipid peroxide level in animal tissues by their reaction with thiobarbituric acid was developed as follows. Ten percent ( tissue homogenate was mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, acetate buffer (pH 3.5), and aqueous solution of thiobarbituric acid. After heating at 95°C for 60 min, the red pigment produced was extracted with n-butanol-pyridine mixture and estimated by the absorbance at 532nm. As an external standard, tetramethoxy-propane was used, and lipid peroxide level was expressed in terms of nmol malondialdehyde. Using this method, the liped peroxide level in the liver of rats suffering from carbon tetrachloride intoxication was investigated. The results were in good agreement with previously reported data obtained by measuring diene content.
Article
Zusammenfassung Nachweis histologischer Veränderungen am Hodengewebe 2 Monate alter Schweizer Mäuse nach Mikrowellenbestrahlung. Es ergab sich, dass eine nichtionisierende Bestrahlung bei 1,7 GHz und einer Intensität von 50 mW/cm2 während 30–40 min die Samenbildung verändert.
Article
The aim of this study was to identify potential androgen-regulated proteins (ARP) that might mediate the supportive effects of testosterone on spermatogenesis. Adult rats were injected with ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS) to destroy Leydig cells and thus induce complete testosterone withdrawal. Other EDS-treated rats were injected with 25 mg testosterone esters (TE) every 3 days to maintain quantitatively normal spermatogenesis. A timeframe for the study of androgen action on spermatogenesis was deduced from enumeration of degenerating germ cells at stage VII of the spermatogenic cycle in perfusion-fixed testes from rats in the early stages (4 to 8 days) after EDS treatment. Based on this data and changes in testicular interstitial fluid volume, long seminiferous tubule segments were isolated from control rats and from EDS-treated rats (+/- TE-supplementation) at stages II-V, VI-VIII, or IX-XII, 2 days to 6 days after EDS treatment. Seminiferous tubule segments were incubated for 22 hours with 60 microCi 35S-labelled methionine. Incorporation into newly synthesized proteins in the seminiferous tubule culture medium (= secreted proteins) or in seminiferous tubule lysates (= intracellular proteins) was determined by trichloroacetic acid-precipitation followed by analysis using two-dimensional sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In control rats, incorporation of 35S-methionine into proteins secreted by isolated seminiferous tubules was more than twice as great at stages VI-VIII than at stages II-V or IX-XII. This doubling in methionine incorporation into stages VI-VIII secreted proteins was abolished, however, 4 days after EDS treatment (when germ cell degeneration at stage VII was only just evident). A similar change occurred 4 days after testosterone withdrawal induced by immunoneutralization of luteinizing hormone. In the latter case and after EDS treatment, TE-supplementation of rats from day 0 maintained the normal control pattern of methionine incorporation into seminiferous tubule secreted proteins, although 6 days after EDS and TE treatment, incorporation into stages VI-VIII secreted proteins was 19% lower (P less than 0.05) than in the control group. In contrast, incorporation of methionine into proteins secreted by seminiferous tubules at stages II-V and IX-XII was unaffected by EDS and TE pretreatment, as was incorporation into intracellular proteins at all stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Article
To determine the incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in semen of a population of patients consulting for infertility. The incidence of reactive oxygen species formation in whole semen and in washed spermatozoa was studied. The values obtained were correlated with semen parameters. The effect of the type of sperm washing on reactive oxygen species formation was also investigated. Semen samples from patients consulting for infertility and control subjects were obtained by masturbation after 3 days of sexual abstinence. Reactive oxygen species formation was measured in whole semen, sperm suspension washed by Percoll gradients, or repeated centrifugations. Sperm motility parameters were measured by computer-aided sperm analysis. Fertile control men and an unselected population of patients consulting for infertility. None. Reactive oxygen species formation by fresh semen specimen or washed spermatozoa was measured in a computer-driven LKB 1251 Luminometer (LKB-Wallac, Turku, Finland). Reactive oxygen species formation was detected in 40% of the semen with spermatozoa from infertile patients, whereas none was found in 6 azoospermic men and 10 control men. The level of reactive oxygen species formation was inversely correlated to the semen volume, the percentage of motile spermatozoa, and sperm linearity both in semen and in Percoll-washed spermatozoa. Washing by repeated centrifugation-resuspension increased 20- to 50-fold sperm reactive oxygen species formation. This enhancement was caused by the centrifugation itself and by the removal of seminal plasma. Both morphologically normal and abnormal spermatozoa produced reactive oxygen species. The data suggest that reactive oxygen species formation by spermatozoa may be a significant cause for male infertility.
Article
Irradiation by pulsed microwaves (9.4 GHz, 1 microsecond pulses at 1,000/s), both with and without concurrent amplitude modulation (AM) by a sinusoid at discrete frequencies between 14 and 41 MHz, was assessed for effects on the immune system of Balb/C mice. The mice were immunized either by sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or by glutaric-anhydride conjugated bovine serum albumin (GA-BSA), then exposed to the microwaves at a low rms power density (30 microW/cm2; whole-body-averaged SAR approximately 0.015 W/kg). Sham exposure or microwave irradiation took place during each of five contiguous days, 10 h/day. The antibody response was evaluated by the plaque-forming cell assay (SRBC experiment) or by the titration of IgM and IgG antibodies (GA-BSA experiment). In the absence of AM, the pulsed field did not greatly alter immune responsiveness. In contrast, exposure to the field under the combined-modulation condition resulted in significant, AM-frequency-dependent augmentation or weakening of immune responses.
Article
A simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous visualization of glutathione peroxidase and catalase on polyacrylamide gels is described. The procedure included: (1) running samples on a 7.5% polyacrylamide gel, (2) soaking the gel in a certain concentration of reduced glutathione (0.25-2.0 mM), (3) soaking the gel in GSH plus H2O2 or cumene hydroperoxide, (4) finally staining with a 1% ferric chloride 1% potassium ferricyanide solution. The best concentration of glutathione for simultaneous visualization of glutathione peroxidase in mouse liver homogenates and also it is specific for glutathione peroxidase since other peroxidases such as lactoperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase cannot be visualized. Using this method, it was found that unlike catalase, glutathione peroxidase is heat resistant (68 degrees C, 1 min), but sensitive to 10 mM sodium iodoacetate.
Article
Catalase activity was determined in human semen by measuring the oxygen burst with a Clark electrode, after H2O2 addition. Significant catalase activities (mean +/- SD) were found in migrated, motile spermatozoa (44 +/- 17 nmoles O2/min/10(8) cells) and in seminal plasma of normozoospermic men (129 +/- 59 nmoles O2/min/ml). It has been demonstrated that seminal catalase originated from prostate; however, its activity was not correlated with the usual prostatic markers (such as citric acid and zinc). Our data suggest a multiglandular function secreted by this organ. The catalase activities measured in seminal samples from asthenozoospermic, infertile men were found lower than those from normozoospermic subjects. The understanding of the relative contribution of the different enzyme systems against O2 toxicity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) seem to be a priority area of research to understand disturbances of sperm function.
Article
The amount of testosterone required for quantitative maintenance of spermatogenesis has been re-evaluated using techniques aimed at minimizing the synthesis of testosterone after removal of the testis. Adult male rats were treated with ethane dimethane-sulphonate (EDS) to destroy the Leydig cells, and were supplemented with 25, 5 or 1 mg testosterone esters by injection every 3 days for 21 days. Serum hormone levels, testicular morphology and spermatogenesis were assessed and the intratesticular levels of testosterone compared in testes either removed under ether anaesthesia and placed in liquid nitrogen (right testis) or removed after collection of blood and placed in ice (left testis). Data for testosterone-supplemented rats were compared with those for control rats and rats treated with EDS alone. All doses of testosterone suppressed LH and FSH levels in serum to within the hypophysectomized range, and Leydig cell regeneration in EDS-treated rats was prevented completely. Treatment of EDS-injected rats with 25 or 5 mg testosterone maintained testicular weight, the number of germ cells and the diameter of seminiferous tubules at stage VII within or above the control range, although there was a significant increase in the number of degenerating pachytene spermatocytes at stage VII with 5 but not 25 mg testosterone; none of these parameters was maintained at control levels by a dose of 1 mg testosterone. Levels of testosterone in testosterone-supplemented rats differed little between testes collected in ice and liquid nitrogen, but in controls and rats treated with EDS alone, testosterone levels were overestimated by 75 and 27% respectively when comparing testes collected in ice with those collected in liquid nitrogen. This suggests that synthesis of testosterone does occur after removal and cooling of the testes. Using the data for testes collected in liquid nitrogen, the present results suggest that intratesticular levels of testosterone need to be maintained at 24–46% of control values (i.e. higher than previously shown) for quantitative maintenance of spermatogenesis, although it is argued that even these values probably still represent underestimates. J. Endocr. (1988) 117, 19–26
Article
The effects on testicular function of pulse-modulated microwave radiation (PM MWR, 1.3 GHz) and of conventional heating were studied in the rat. Anesthetized adult males (Sprague-Dawley, 400-500 g) were treated then killed at specific intervals with respect to the 13-day cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. PM MWR at 7.7 mW/g (90 min) yielded a modest decline in daily sperm production (DSP) that derived primarily from effects on primary spermatocytes. PM MWR at 4.2 mW/g was ineffective. The mean intratesticular temperature during the former reached 40 degrees C and did not exceed 38 degrees C during the latter. MWR considerably in excess of 7.7 mW/g yielded decrements in virtually all germ cell types, with primary spermatocytes again being most markedly affected. Using conventional heating, intratesticular temperatures in excess of 39 degrees C for 60 min were required for significant decrements in DSP. Levels of circulating follicle-stimulating hormone and of leutinizing hormone were resistant to either treatment. We conclude that the damage threshold and the differential sensitivity of immature germ cells to PM MWR can be adequately explained by the consequent macroscopic heating.
Article
Nitro blue tetrazolium has been used to intercept O2− generated enzymically or photochemically. The reduction of NBT by O2− has been utilized as the basis of assays for superoxide dismutase, which exposes its presence by inhibiting the reduction of NBT. Superoxide dismutase could thus be assayed either in crude extracts or in purified protein fractions. The assays described are sensitive to ng/ml levels of super-oxide dismutase and were applicable in free solution or on polyacrylamide gels. The staining procedure for localizing superoxide dismutase on polyacrylamide electrophoretograms has been applied to extracts obtained from a variety of sources. E. coli has been found to contain two superoxide dismutases whereas bovine heart, brain, lung, and erthrocytes contain only one.
Article
Acute exposure to hamsters to microwave energy (2.45 GHz; 25 mW/cm2 for 60 min) resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages that were significantly more viricidal to vaccinia virus as compared to sham-exposed or normal (minimum-handling) controls. Macrophages from microwave-exposed hamsters became activated as early as 6 h after exposure and remained activated for up to 12 days. The activation of macrophages by microwave exposure paralleled the macrophage activation after vaccinia virus immunization. Activated macrophages from vaccinia-immunized hamsters did not differ in their viricidal activity when the hamsters were microwave- or sham-exposed. Exposure for 60 min at 15 mW/cm2 did not activate the macrophages while 40 mW/cm2 exposure was harmful to some hamsters. Average maximum core temperatures in the exposed (25 mW/cm2) and sham groups were 40.5 degrees C (+/- 0.35 SD) and 38.4 degrees C (+/- 0.5 SD), respectively. In vitro heating of macrophages to 40.5 degrees C was not as effective as in vivo microwave exposure in activating macrophages to the viricidal state. Macrophages from normal, sham-exposed, and microwave-exposed hamsters were not morphologically different, and they all phagocytosed India ink particles. Moreover, immune macrophage cytotoxicity for virus-infected or noninfected target cells was not suppressed in the microwave-irradiated group (25 mW/cm2, 1 h) as compared to sham-exposed controls, indicating that peritoneal macrophages were not functionally suppressed or injured by microwave hyperthermia.
Article
Adult male mice had the posterior halves of their bodies exposed at 44 W/kg in a waveguide system to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation for 30 min. They were killed sequentially over 10 weeks and assessed for decreased sperm count and abnormal sperm morphology. The response in each assay was maximal 2-4 weeks after the exposure. This corresponds to microwaves having their greatest effect on spermatids and spermatocytes. Male fertility, assessed as the proportion of normal sperm per epididymis, was compared with results of an earlier study on dominant lethality. It is concluded that reduced male fertility correlates well with reduced pregnancy rate but less well with pre-implantation survival. Whilst microwaves clearly induced abnormally shaped sperm, those which achieved fertilization cannot have possessed a dominant mutation which would result in the post-implantation death of the embryo.
The rear halves of the bodies of anaesthetized male C3H mice were exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and the effects on the testes were compared to those produced by direct heating. Effects were observed which are consistent with the hypothesis that heat damage is the primary effect of microwave exposure. Damage measured six days after exposure ranged in severity from depletion of the spermatocytes to extensive necrosis of the germinal epithelium. Temperature-sensitive probes implanted in the testes revealed a threshold effect for depletion of the spermatocytes of approximately 39 degrees C and an LD50 6 (50 per cent cell death after 6 days) of about 41 degrees C after microwave exposure or direct heating. The corresponding effective threshold effect and LD50 6 expressed in terms of absorbed microwave power were 20 W kg-1 and 30 W kg-1. However, it is probable that a conscious animal is better able to regulate testicular temperature and hence adjust to higher dose-rates.