Article

Global Energy Storage Demand for a 100% Renewable Electricity Supply

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Abstract

This study demonstrates – based on a dynamical simulation of a global, decentralized 100% renewable electricity supply scenario – that a global climate-neutral electricity supply based on the volatile energy sources photovoltaics (PV), wind energy (onshore) and concentrated solar power (CSP) is feasible at decent cost. A central ingredient of this study is a sophisticated model for the hourly electric load demand in >160 countries. To guarantee matching of load demand in each hour, the volatile primary energy sources are complemented by three electricity storage options: batteries, high-temperature thermal energy storage coupled with steam turbine, and renewable power methane (generated via the Power to Gas process) which is reconverted to electricity in gas turbines. The study determines – on a global grid with 1°x1° resolution – the required power plant and storage capacities as well as the hourly dispatch for a 100% renewable electricity supply under the constraint of minimized total system cost (LCOE). Aggregating the results on a national level results in an levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) range of 80-200 EUR/MWh (on a projected cost basis for the year 2020) in this very decentralized approach. As a global average, 142 EUR/MWh are found. Due to the restricted number of technologies considered here, this represents an upper limit for the electricity cost in a fully renewable electricity supply.

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... In addition, the irruption of Renewable Energy Systems (RES), mainly solar and wind, which began to be exploited in the 2010s, in 2020 represented more than 20% of the total energy generation of In this sense, for hydrogen (H2) development as an energy vector, RES resources play a crucial role in the transition towards a clean and sustainable energy system [9][10][11]. The main challenge in the transition to 100% RES is a variable and intermittent nature [12][13][14]. It requires technical adaptation, particularly balancing variable supply and variable demand for energy [15]. ...
... Therefore, the estimation and projection of costs for the green H2 must be carried out with care to obtain precise In this sense, for hydrogen (H 2 ) development as an energy vector, RES resources play a crucial role in the transition towards a clean and sustainable energy system [9][10][11]. The main challenge in the transition to 100% RES is a variable and intermittent nature [12][13][14]. It requires technical adaptation, particularly balancing variable supply and variable demand for energy [15]. ...
... Sustainability 2021, 13, 13681 ...
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The paper presents a complete value chain for the use of green hydrogen in a port facility. The main objective was to propose the sizing of the main components that make up green hydrogen to ensure the supply of 1 MWe in replacing the diesel generator. The energy demand required for the port was determined by establishing the leading small and large-scale conventional energy-consuming equipment. Hence, 60 kgH2 was required to ensure the power supply. The total electrical energy to produce all the hydrogen was generated from photovoltaic solar energy, considering three-generation scenarios (minimum, maximum and the annual average). In all cases, the energy supply in the electrolyzer was 3.08 MWe. In addition, the effect of generating in the port facility using a diesel generator and a fuel cell was compared. The cost of 1 kgH2 could be 4.09 times higher than the cost of 1 L of diesel, meaning that the output kWh of each system is economically similar. In addition, the value of electrical energy through a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) was a maximum of 79.79 times the value of a liter of diesel. Finally, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) was calculated for two conditions in which the MWe was obtained from the fuel cell without and with the photovoltaic solar plant.
... Earlier versions already contained a coupled power and heat sector transition [136], power sector transition [137], [138] and power sector overnight scenario [139]. The LUT-ESTM links to the first hourly global 0.45 • × 0.45 • mapping of a costoptimized solar-wind-battery-e-methane-GT hybrid energy system [140]. It also detailed insights for previously neglected regions in the Global South [141] and identified new effects not observed before, such as a battery-PtX effect [142] and a new pattern to mitigate the challenges of the monsoon in India [143]. ...
... Following these five leading teams with at least 20 articles in the field are six further teams with at least ten articles on 100% RE system analyses, as well as the contribution of Sørensen for whom his last article has been published posthumously in 2020. The six other teams are Duic et al. [170]- [172], German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) [163], [173], [174], Reiner Lemoine Institute (RLI) [140], [175], [176], Lenzen et al. [177], [178], Johnsson et al. [179]- [181], and Blakers et al. [46], [182], [183]. VOLUME 10, 2022 FIGURE 3. 100% RE system analyses per country. ...
... However, while it is true that keeping a system with variable sources stable is more complex, a range of strategies can be employed that are often ignored or underutilized in critical studies: oversizing solar and wind capacities; strengthening interconnections [68], [82], [132], [143], [277], [278]; demand response [279], [172], e.g. smart electric vehicles charging using delayed charging or delivering energy back to the electricity grid via vehicle-to-grid [181], [280]- [282]; storage [40]- [43], [46], [83], [140], [142], such as stationary batteries; sector coupling [16], [39], [90]- [92], [97], [132], [216], e.g. optimizing the interaction between electricity, heat, transport, and industry; power-to-X [39], [106], [134], [176], e.g. ...
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Research on 100% renewable energy systems is a relatively recent phenomenon. It was initiated in the mid-1970s, catalyzed by skyrocketing oil prices. Since the mid-2000s, it has quickly evolved into a prominent research field encompassing an expansive and growing number of research groups and organizations across the world. The main conclusion of most of these studies is that 100% renewables is feasible worldwide at low cost. Advanced concepts and methods now enable the field to chart realistic as well as cost- or resource-optimized and efficient transition pathways to a future without the use of fossil fuels. Such proposed pathways in turn, have helped spur 100% renewable energy policy targets and actions, leading to more research. In most transition pathways, solar energy and wind power increasingly emerge as the central pillars of a sustainable energy system combined with energy efficiency measures. Cost-optimization modeling and greater resource availability tend to lead to higher solar photovoltaic shares, while emphasis on energy supply diversification tends to point to higher wind power contributions. Recent research has focused on the challenges and opportunities regarding grid congestion, energy storage, sector coupling, electrification of transport and industry implying power-to-X and hydrogen-to-X, and the inclusion of natural and technical carbon dioxide removal (CDR) approaches. The result is a holistic vision of the transition towards a net-negative greenhouse gas emissions economy that can limit global warming to 1.5°C with a clearly defined carbon budget in a sustainable and cost-effective manner based on 100% renewable energy-industry-CDR systems. Initially, the field encountered very strong skepticism. Therefore, this paper also includes a response to major critiques against 100% renewable energy systems, and also discusses the institutional inertia that hampers adoption by the International Energy Agency and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as well as possible negative connections to community acceptance and energy justice. We conclude by discussing how this emergent research field can further progress to the benefit of society.
... via demand flexibility or sector coupling as well as interconnection of larger areas . Other studies estimate storage demand based on matching supply with demand scenarios in high temporal and spatial resolution (Bogdanov et al. 2019;Pleßmann et al. 2014); however, they are commonly aiming for finding a cost optimal rather than a climate optimal solution. ...
... In comparison with other studies, Pleßmann et al. (2014) find the storage demand for 100% renewable electricity without demand flexibility and electrification of heat and transport with a storage fraction = 0.5 and independence time Δt i = 0.06 a (Table S1). Bogdanov et al. (2019) provide a scenario for storage demand after allowing for demand flexibility and sector coupling, reducing the need for storage compared to the current demand pattern to minimize system costs. ...
... For fulfilling current electric energy demand profiles, independence time Δt i = 0.06 a and storage fraction = 0.5 are necessary ["current demand" in Fig. S3 and Table S1 based on Pleßmann et al. (2014)]. This scenario with fixed demand leads to a probability to exceed 1.5 °C between 60 and 100% without learning and 50% and 80% with learning. ...
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The worsening climate crisis impels society to accelerate climate action. The attainable speed of the energy transition is ultimately limited by the available energy to build the replacing renewable infrastructures. Decarbonizing the energy system by replacing dispatchable fossil with variable renewable power requires energy storage to match supply with demand. Current storage technologies are energetically expensive to build and operate, thus the demand for storage shapes the fastest possible transition and the probability to exceed 1.5 °C heating. This study explores and quantifies the effect of demanded storage and its technological progress on the fastest possible transition constrained only by energy. The simulation results using three exemplary storage technologies show that storage substantially delays the transition and increases the probability to exceed 1.5 °C heating. Technological progress, if materialized fast, can reduce energy costs of storage; however, storage demand remains a critical driver for climate risks. Consequently, minimizing storage demand through a supply-driven power system effectively reduces climate risks-a paradigm shift towards a solar-aligned "sunflower society". Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41247-022-00097-y.
... Therefore, a new energy system ( Figure 5) will be based on a more electrified, efficient, interconnected, and cleaner energy sector [39, 41,42,48,49]. were developed for different regions and countries to design 100% renewable energy systems efficiently and successfully by the 2050 horizon [40][41][42]45,46,48,[51][52][53][54][55]. Technologies for taking advantage of renewable energy sources are cost-competitive compared to conventional energy sources and in various applications [56]. ...
... On the other hand, electric city vehicles are a reality, where electrification should even be seen as part of balancing services in local electricity grids [50], however, biofuels and green synthetic fuels will be part of the solution [49]. In this context, several studies were developed for different regions and countries to design 100% renewable energy systems efficiently and successfully by the 2050 horizon [40][41][42]45,46,48,[51][52][53][54][55]. Technologies for taking advantage of renewable energy sources are cost-competitive compared to conventional energy sources and in various applications [56]. ...
... However, it is estimated that by 2050, investment in the electric battery capacity will increase from 80 GWh to 351 GWh per year [65]. On the other hand, it is necessary to assume that losses in the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy are part of the cost-effective operation of a renewable energy system [51]. ...
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Climate change already affects all inhabited regions of the world, with human influence contributing to many observed changes in climate extremes and to mitigate this trend, important decisions have been taken by different world organizations and countries to achieve global net-zero emissions. At the European Union level (EU27 countries), two of the main pillars for achieving carbon neutrality are: (1) The “Energy Efficiency First principle” in the formulation of energy policy and in taking relevant investment decisions and (2) the electrification of the energy sector, supported by generating electricity through endogenous renewable energy sources. In this context, a comprehensive review was carried out on what has been developed by the scientific community and main international energy organizations on the electrification of the energy sector. Additionally, with the purpose of better understanding the state of the art of a country regarding the decarbonization process, the Portuguese energy vectors were identified in terms of which ones can and should be electrified by 2050, based on the data available from Eurostat (2019). Portugal is a country highly dependent on imported energy (78%), where the largest energy vector is from oil and petroleum products (68%) mostly used in the transport sector, where the electrification of the sector will be increased gradually until 2050. However, other decarbonized solutions, such as biofuels and synthetic (green) fuels cannot be ruled out and should be the subject of future work and considered for the decarbonization goals to be achieved in 2050. The main conclusions reflect that there is still a long way to go, much like the rest of the world, as it is necessary to electrify the equivalent to almost all the energy presently imported by Portugal, a tough challenge considering the need for its generation to be decarbonized. In this context, energy efficiency must play an equivalently important role to significantly reduce current energy demand, leading to more cost-effective and resilient energy services.
... If the production cannot be shifted the value of lost load is high, [11]. [24,25] 300-370 e/for meter, (costs for control infrastructure [25] Depending on process and customer [11] 0 N/A [25] 1-24 h It depends on process and customer [11] Very Premature [11] (continued on next page) Days -Months [11,22] Proven/Developing [11] Power to Heat 100%/min (1) [24,25,45,50] 380-700 e/kW [24,25,45,50] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.06-0.076 e/kWh/y (without CO2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.024 e/kWh/y) [25] 7.6-15 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,50] 147 [39] 25-50 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/ Completely commercialized [25] Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants (CCGT) 2-4 h (cold start), 60-90 min (hot start) (cold start 3-4 h) [24][25][26]30] 55-62 (49-52 with CCS) [24,25,45,49,50] 684-1250 e/kW (750-820 e/kW) [24,25,50] 1078 −1216 e/kW with CCS [45] 2013 e/kW Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel [49] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.04-0.06 ...
... If the production cannot be shifted the value of lost load is high, [11]. [24,25] 300-370 e/for meter, (costs for control infrastructure [25] Depending on process and customer [11] 0 N/A [25] 1-24 h It depends on process and customer [11] Very Premature [11] (continued on next page) Days -Months [11,22] Proven/Developing [11] Power to Heat 100%/min (1) [24,25,45,50] 380-700 e/kW [24,25,45,50] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.06-0.076 e/kWh/y (without CO2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.024 e/kWh/y) [25] 7.6-15 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,50] 147 [39] 25-50 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/ Completely commercialized [25] Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants (CCGT) 2-4 h (cold start), 60-90 min (hot start) (cold start 3-4 h) [24][25][26]30] 55-62 (49-52 with CCS) [24,25,45,49,50] 684-1250 e/kW (750-820 e/kW) [24,25,50] 1078 −1216 e/kW with CCS [45] 2013 e/kW Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel [49] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.04-0.06 ...
... [24,25] 300-370 e/for meter, (costs for control infrastructure [25] Depending on process and customer [11] 0 N/A [25] 1-24 h It depends on process and customer [11] Very Premature [11] (continued on next page) Days -Months [11,22] Proven/Developing [11] Power to Heat 100%/min (1) [24,25,45,50] 380-700 e/kW [24,25,45,50] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.06-0.076 e/kWh/y (without CO2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.024 e/kWh/y) [25] 7.6-15 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,50] 147 [39] 25-50 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/ Completely commercialized [25] Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants (CCGT) 2-4 h (cold start), 60-90 min (hot start) (cold start 3-4 h) [24][25][26]30] 55-62 (49-52 with CCS) [24,25,45,49,50] 684-1250 e/kW (750-820 e/kW) [24,25,50] 1078 −1216 e/kW with CCS [45] 2013 e/kW Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel [49] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.04-0.06 e/kWh/y (w/o CO 2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.06 e/kWh/y) [25] 15-20 e/kW/y fixed and 0.002-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,49,50] Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel 46.3 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003 e/kWh/y variable [49] 5064 [39] 30-40 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/Completely commercialized [25] Combined Heat and Power Plants (CHP) 5 h (cold start) (CCGT-CHP), 50-85 min (hot start) (CCGT-CHP) [25] 46 (CCGT-CHP) [24,25,46] 16 000 e/kW (micro CHP) 3400 e/kW (small scale-CHP) 1000 e/kW (CCGT-CHP) Heat storage: 9.5 to 24.3 e/kW el /year [25] 900 e/kW [46] 0.02 e/kWh (micro CHP) 0.028 e/kWh (mini CHP) 0.003 e/kWh (CCGT-CHP), excluding fuel costs [25] 2.8% of investment cost [46] 106.75 HECHP, 334 distributed HECHP [40] 20-40 (20) [25,46] 4-12 Hours [25] Fully Mature/Completely Commercialized [25] Biogas Power Plants (BGPP) ...
Article
Existing international standards address harmonic orders up to the 40th or 50th (at 2 or 2.5 kHz for a 50 Hz network). Modern converters effectively suppress components within that range, but they also tend to shift emission to higher frequencies. Recently reported cases of disturbances in modern distribution grids specifically attributed to supraharmonics (harmonic components within the 2–150 kHz range) have drawn interest in associated research. Grid-connected PV systems utilizing PWM-controlled inverters inject supraharmonic currents into the distribution network at their point of connection. Comprehension of their electrical behavior, including their impact on grid supraharmonic levels, can be achieved through extensive simulation studies. In this paper, a three-phase PV system is simulated using models successfully already developed for single phase PV inverters that increase simulation speed by avoiding time-consuming procedures. Current and voltage waveforms as well as supraharmonic levels are presented. The simulation results are compared with real measurements obtained from an operating small rooftop PV system and evaluated. Additional simulations are carried out using different values for system parameters and their respective impact on supraharmonic levels is assessed. Moreover, this paper presents real supraharmonics’ measurements from a grid-connected 8kWp PV system.
... If the production cannot be shifted the value of lost load is high, [11]. [24,25] 300-370 e/for meter, (costs for control infrastructure [25] Depending on process and customer [11] 0 N/A [25] 1-24 h It depends on process and customer [11] Very Premature [11] (continued on next page) Days -Months [11,22] Proven/Developing [11] Power to Heat 100%/min (1) [24,25,45,50] 380-700 e/kW [24,25,45,50] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.06-0.076 e/kWh/y (without CO2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.024 e/kWh/y) [25] 7.6-15 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,50] 147 [39] 25-50 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/ Completely commercialized [25] Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants (CCGT) 2-4 h (cold start), 60-90 min (hot start) (cold start 3-4 h) [24][25][26]30] 55-62 (49-52 with CCS) [24,25,45,49,50] 684-1250 e/kW (750-820 e/kW) [24,25,50] 1078 −1216 e/kW with CCS [45] 2013 e/kW Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel [49] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.04-0.06 ...
... If the production cannot be shifted the value of lost load is high, [11]. [24,25] 300-370 e/for meter, (costs for control infrastructure [25] Depending on process and customer [11] 0 N/A [25] 1-24 h It depends on process and customer [11] Very Premature [11] (continued on next page) Days -Months [11,22] Proven/Developing [11] Power to Heat 100%/min (1) [24,25,45,50] 380-700 e/kW [24,25,45,50] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.06-0.076 e/kWh/y (without CO2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.024 e/kWh/y) [25] 7.6-15 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,50] 147 [39] 25-50 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/ Completely commercialized [25] Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants (CCGT) 2-4 h (cold start), 60-90 min (hot start) (cold start 3-4 h) [24][25][26]30] 55-62 (49-52 with CCS) [24,25,45,49,50] 684-1250 e/kW (750-820 e/kW) [24,25,50] 1078 −1216 e/kW with CCS [45] 2013 e/kW Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel [49] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.04-0.06 ...
... [24,25] 300-370 e/for meter, (costs for control infrastructure [25] Depending on process and customer [11] 0 N/A [25] 1-24 h It depends on process and customer [11] Very Premature [11] (continued on next page) Days -Months [11,22] Proven/Developing [11] Power to Heat 100%/min (1) [24,25,45,50] 380-700 e/kW [24,25,45,50] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.06-0.076 e/kWh/y (without CO2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.024 e/kWh/y) [25] 7.6-15 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,50] 147 [39] 25-50 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/ Completely commercialized [25] Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plants (CCGT) 2-4 h (cold start), 60-90 min (hot start) (cold start 3-4 h) [24][25][26]30] 55-62 (49-52 with CCS) [24,25,45,49,50] 684-1250 e/kW (750-820 e/kW) [24,25,50] 1078 −1216 e/kW with CCS [45] 2013 e/kW Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel [49] 0.013 $/kWh/y (6.5 $/GJ fuel price) [24] 0.04-0.06 e/kWh/y (w/o CO 2 costs) (Cold start costs: 0.06 e/kWh/y) [25] 15-20 e/kW/y fixed and 0.002-1 e/kWh/y variable [45,49,50] Gas combined cycle CCS Oxyfuel 46.3 e/kW/y fixed and 0.003 e/kWh/y variable [49] 5064 [39] 30-40 (30) [25,45,50] N/A [25] Fully mature/Completely commercialized [25] Combined Heat and Power Plants (CHP) 5 h (cold start) (CCGT-CHP), 50-85 min (hot start) (CCGT-CHP) [25] 46 (CCGT-CHP) [24,25,46] 16 000 e/kW (micro CHP) 3400 e/kW (small scale-CHP) 1000 e/kW (CCGT-CHP) Heat storage: 9.5 to 24.3 e/kW el /year [25] 900 e/kW [46] 0.02 e/kWh (micro CHP) 0.028 e/kWh (mini CHP) 0.003 e/kWh (CCGT-CHP), excluding fuel costs [25] 2.8% of investment cost [46] 106.75 HECHP, 334 distributed HECHP [40] 20-40 (20) [25,46] 4-12 Hours [25] Fully Mature/Completely Commercialized [25] Biogas Power Plants (BGPP) ...
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Applying the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC in Greece, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) share in gross final consumption (GFC) of energy should reach at least 18% by 2020. Subsequently, according to the Greek National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP), the RES share in GFC of energy must reach at least 35% by 2030 and the RES share in the GFC of electricity must reach at least 61%, respectively. Based on estimates it was found that installed capacity of at least 9 GW of Renewable Energy (RE) power plants is needed to achieve the above milestones. The installed capacity of variable RE (vRE) power plants (wind and photovoltaic power plants) in Greece during 2017–2030 is expected to be tripled. To achieve such high penetration of variable RES (vRES) in the power systems flexibility issues and needs inevitably arise. System operators seek to identify the most suitable flexibility options combination to meet the challenges posed by high penetration of vRES in the power systems. This paper reviews the different flexibility options (e.g. demand response, energy storage, power to X, supply side etc.) that exist and are tools for the transitioning into a flexible power system. In addition, twenty-three (23) different flexibility options are described and twelve (12) quantitative (numerical) and qualitative parameters are considered. For each of these parameters, data have been obtained from an extensive literature review. Focusing the Greek energy system as an example, all options and parameters are further analyzed presenting their technical characteristics, their economic, technical, and social barriers as well as their environmental impacts in order to assess which flexibility options are most suitable for the Greek power system for the optimization of RES penetration.
... In this regard, Neetzow [23] shows that renewable energies are indeed able to first replace flexible generation (e.g., gas-fired power plants) and later inflexible generation (e.g., coal and nuclear). Apart from specifically looking at the Japanese energy system, several studies are available looking at possible transformation pathways for the global energy system [24][25][26][27][28]. Hereby, Bogdanov et al. [26], Ram et al. [27] present a power system based on 100% renewables for the whole world. ...
... For each regular season ∈ , a random number between ( − 1) 8760 | | + 1 and 8760 | | − 24 is chosen. 4 Then, it is ensured that each season starts with the first hour of the day by calculating = − ( 24). Therefore, all stochastic scenarios for all seasons start in the same hour of the day-and night-time hours are equal in all cases. ...
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With Japan’s current plans to reach a fully decarbonized society by 2050 and establish a hydrogen society, substantial changes to its energy system need to be made. Due to the limited land availability in Japan, significant amounts of hydrogen are planned to be imported to reach both targets. In this paper, a novel stochastic version of the open-source multi-sectoral Global Energy System Model in conjunction with a power system dispatch model is used to analyze the impacts of both availability and price of hydrogen imports on the transformation of the Japanese energy system considering a net-zero emission target. This analysis highlights that hydrogen poses a valuable resource in specific sectors of the energy system. Therefore, importing hydrogen can indeed positively impact energy system developments, although up to 19mt of hydrogen will be imported in the case with the cheapest available hydrogen. In contrast, without any hydrogen imports, power demand nearly doubles in 2050 compared to 2019 due to extensive electrification in non-electricity sectors. However, hydrogen imports are not necessarily required to reach net-zero emissions. In all cases, however, large-scale investments into renewable energy sources need to be made.
... (Final) Energy demands and weather time series are given exogenously for each modeled time slice, with the model computing the optimal flows of energy, and resulting needs for capacity additions and storages. 6 Additional demands through sector-coupling are derived endogenously. Constraints, such as energy balances (ensuring all demand is met), maximum capacity additions (e.g. to limit the useable potential of renewables), RES feed-in (e.g. to ensure grid stability), emission budgets (given either yearly or as a total budget over the modeled horizon) are given to ensure proper functionality of the model and yield realistic results. ...
... Model structure of the GENeSYS-MOD implementation used in this study. 6 GENeSYS-MOD offers various storage options: Lithium-ion and redox-flow batteries, pumped hydro storages, compressed air electricity storages, gas (hydrogen and methane) storages, and heat storages. There is no uncertainty about e.g. ...
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With the energy sector being one of the largest sources of global greenhouse-gas emissions, a swift change in the ways of energy generation and consumption is needed for a fulfilment of climate goals. But while the existence of global warming and the resulting need for action are widely agreed upon, there is a lot of discussion around the concrete measures and their timeline. A major cause of this discussion is that of uncertainty, both with regard to possible outcomes, as well as to a multitude of factors such as future technology innovation (concerning both availability and costs), and final energy demands, but also socio-economic factors such as employment or sufficiency. This paper aims to give valuable insights into this uncertainty by applying the method of exploratory sensitivity analysis to an application of the Global Energy System Model (GENeSYS-MOD) for the German energy system. By computing over 1500 sensitivities across 11 core parameters, the key influential factors for the German Energiewende can be quantified, and possible chances, such as so-called no-regret options, as well as potentials barriers (if assumptions are not met) can be distilled. Results show that final energy demand developments, renewable potentials and costs, as well as carbon pricing are among the main drivers of the analyzed energy pathways. It would thus be highly beneficial for policy makers to focus on these key issues to ensure a timely transformation of the energy system and reach set climate targets.
... The selected studies mostly feature an hourly resolution and a single operation year. [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] The selected studies feature different electricity storage technologies. While nearly all the selected studies feature batteries, hydrogen or power-to-gas options were additionally considered in several studies 12,16,18,21,23 as were compressed air storages. ...
... [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] The selected studies feature different electricity storage technologies. While nearly all the selected studies feature batteries, hydrogen or power-to-gas options were additionally considered in several studies 12,16,18,21,23 as were compressed air storages. 14,21 Some studies only considered short-term storages. ...
Article
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The Government of Finland is targeting carbon neutrality by 2035. Increasing electrification emphasizes the need for significant emission reductions in power generation. As reduction in power generation emissions is partly realized by increase in intermittent energy sources, electricity storage may become an important part of a carbon neutral power system. This study investigates the behavior of electrical storages as a part of a large-scale national carbon-free power system model. As a case study, a three-year model of a carbon-free Finnish power system set in 2050 with the aim to identify various factors affecting electricity storage, and the results are compared with literature. The proposed case study features various scenarios with a national power system with very high amounts of renewables and a significant hydro capacity, while amount of combustion-based energy production is minimal. In addition, hydrological stress scenarios representing historically severe drought years were introduced. The amount of electricity storage needed was found to be most affected by nuclear and electricity trading capacities, which is consistent with literature findings. The data period used as basis for modeling also affected the need for electricity storage, as interannual variations in renewable production were found to have a large effect on modeled results. The needed electricity storage capacities increased significantly in the stress scenarios. The electricity storage need was found to be seasonal in nature, but this may be partly due to missing demand flexibility within the modeled power system, which caused very large individual storage discharge peaks. The results emphasize the need to take several years of historical data into account to ensure system availability in different conditions. Highlights • Nuclear energy was found to decrease system costs in a 100% carbon-free power system. • Multi-year modeling is essential to secure system availability due to the important role of hydropower and seasonal wind variability. • Electricity storages were found to be seasonal in nature. The main reason was exceptionally low windiness during individual periods, which resulted in large but temporarily short power deficits due to insufficient flexibility obtained from hydropower and power imports. This was especially evident in stress scenarios and mainly contributed to the higher costs in low-nuclear scenarios. • Detailed hydropower modelling of historically exceptional dry seasons in Finland was utilized as one stress scenario. Exceptionally, dry long-term period increased the need for electricity storages significantly due to the lost flexibility offered by hydro and reduced electricity import capacities.
... In this context water electrolyzers powered with renewable energy sources may have a very important share in electricity consumption [2]. Large quantities of renewable hydrogen will be needed for seasonal energy storage, to produce carbonneutral fuels for transportation as well as raw materials for the chemical industry and to serve as combustible in steel or cement industries [3,4]. The estimated capacity for installed water electrolyzers in a future decarbonized world economy will be in the range of 3000-6000 GW beyond 2050 as reported in [5]. ...
Article
Water electrolyzer technologies may play a key role in the decarbonization of the fossil-fueled world economy. Electrolytic hydrogen production could bridge emission-free power generation and various energy end-use sectors to drive the energy system towards a net zero-emission level. In order to reduce the economic cost of the required energy transition, both the overall system efficiency in converting electrical energy into the chemical energy carried by hydrogen, and the material used to build electrolytic cell stacks, should be optimal. The effect of power quality on the specific energy consumption of proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers is investigated with a semi-empirical cell model. An experimentally-defined polarization curve is applied to analyze cell-specific energy consumption as a function of time in the case of sinusoidal current ripples and ripples excited by an industrial 12-pulse thyristor bridge. The results show that the effective electrolyzer cell area should be up to five times as high as an ideal DC power supply when powered by the 12-pulse thyristor rectifier supply to match the specific energy consumption between the two power supply configurations. Therefore, the improvement of power quality is crucial for industrial PEM water electrolyzer systems. The presented approach is applicable to simulate the effect of power quality for different proton exchange membrane electolyzers.
... According to Böhm et al. [35], these would result in an annual electricity input related electrolysis demand of 6,640-7,590 TWhel. Taking storage capacities for fluctuating energy sources into account, Pleßmann et al. [36] suggest that an additional demand of 2,360 GWel could be needed globally. From a European perspective, the EU has targeted in their recent Hydrogen Strategy an increase of electrolysis capacities of 6 GWel until 2024, and 80 GWel until 2030 [2]. ...
Article
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Numerous studies suggest that power-to-hydrogen (PtH2) will take a decisive part in future sustainable energy systems. District heating (DH) networks are also assigned a crucial role for the overall efficiency of such. In this regard, heat flows resulting from PtH2 may lead to synergies with the heat supply of DH systems. This paper discusses the potentials of PtH2 as a relevant heat source for DH (with focus on Austrian system conditions). Technology-specific efficiencies, heat flows and temperatures are put in context with today's and future DH system specifications and synergies are analyzed. A qualitative analysis summarizes the opportunities and challenges that arise from a system perspective, e.g. electrolyzer location, user type, and user-specific operation (i.e. generation load). It is found that high-temperature electrolysis is likely to be fully integrated in industrial utility operations and heat utilization corresponds to the well-known challenges of integrating industrial waste heat into DH networks. The location of low-temperature electrolysis is subject to infrastructure limitations and the economics of utilizing by-products. Operation is likely to be more electricity-market-oriented and may seasonally differ from heat demand. However, its waste heat is sufficient to feed modern low-temperature DH networks and by 2030 could cover up to 12% of Austria's current DH demands and up to 4% of the EU demand for heat below 100 °C.
... Some of these sources especially wind and solar energy, are rapidly growing and have become more competitive, because per unit cost of electricity produced through wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, is much cheaper than the cost of electricity produced by the fossilfuel based power plants. During the recent years, several studies have covered the technical possibility of an electrical network that can be powered through renewable energy sources (Gökçek, Bayülken, & Bekdemir, 2007;Plebmann, Erdmann, Hlusiak, & Breyer, 2014). Furthermore, the research also suggests that in 2050, 80% of total U.S. electricity demand could be supplied by using existing renewable electricity technologies (Bazilian et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter proposes a mixed-integer optimization using genetic algorithm (MIOGA) for determining the optimum sizes and placements of battery-sourced solar photovoltaic (B-SSPV) plants to reduce the total energy losses in distribution networks. Total energy loss index (TELI) is formulated as the main objective function and meanwhile bus voltage deviations and PV penetrations of B-SSPV plants are calculated. To deal the stochastic behavior of solar irradiance, 15 years of weather data is modeled by using beta probability density function (Beta-PDF). The proposed algorithm is applied on IEEE 33 bus and IEEE 69 bus test distribution networks and optimum results are acquired for different time varying voltage dependent load models. From the results, it is known that, compared to PV only, the integration of B-SSPV plants in the distribution networks resulted in higher penetration levels in distribution networks. The proposed algorithm was very effective in terms of determining the sizes of the PV plant and the battery storage, and for the charging and discharging of the battery storage.
... Despite the challenges related to the high penetration of RE sources, several studies such as [62][63][64][65][66][67] have anticipated that a reliable 100% renewable energy powered grid can be achieved in the near time to come. However, it should be clear that the concept of 100% does not essentially mean 100% converter or non-synchronous dominated grid. ...
Article
Several studies show that grid-integrated renewable energy (RE) sources have the potential to replace conventional synchronous generators in the network. This means the grid will experience low conventional inertia that is currently provided by synchronous generators. Low, unpredictable and time-changing inertia in the power system, as a result of high penetration of non-synchronous RE sources, can cause rapid frequency oscillations. The rapid and unpredictable frequency oscillations are the major source of stability challenges in the power system. Therefore, this research presents a comprehensive literature survey on the role of inertia for grid flexibility under high penetration of non-synchronous RE sources to the power system. As inertia is becoming a time-changing quantity, inertia estimation techniques have been gaining popularity as solutions to stability challenges faced by the power system. Related to time-changing inertia, the following are discussed in this survey research. First, synthetic inertia provision in the network and the need for inertia estimation are intensively discussed. Second, the importance of prior knowledge of the system inertia, which will help operators to apply suitable control strategies to mitigate stability challenges, is also addressed. Third, the significance of co-existence, coordination and optimization of both conventional synchronous generator's inertia and synthetic inertia, as a key feature towards reliable and flexible grid in low inertia environment, are also emphasized. Finally, technical challenges, key issues, and further research needs are highlighted.
... Since these technologies are an important long-term storage solution for high-share RE systems, they are included in many ESMs. This is also underlined by studies on high-level or 100 % RE that demonstrate the importance of PtG [37][38][39]. Nonetheless, a proper representation of the heat and transport sector in ESMs was often found to be missing. As such, there is room for improvement when it comes to comprehensively simulating sector-coupled flexibility [29], including behavioural aspects [40,41] and demand-side management in other sectors than electricity [29]. ...
Article
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To reach climate targets, future energy systems must rely heavily on variable renewable energy sources (VRES) such as wind and photovoltaic (PV). As the share of VRES increases, the topics of flexibility and the smart interplay of different flexibility options grow in importance. One way to analyse flexibility options and enhance the design of future energy systems is to use energy system modelling tools. Although a wide range of openly accessible models exist, there is no clear evaluation of how flexibility is represented in these tools. To bridge this gap, this paper extracts the key factors of flexibility representation and introduces a new classification for flexibility and influencing factors. To evaluate the current modelling landscape, a survey was sent to developers of open energy modelling tools and analysed with the newly introduced Open ESM Flexibility Evaluation Tool (OpFEl), an open source evaluation algorithm to assess the representation of different flexibility options in the tools. The results show a wide range of different tools covering most aspects of flexibility. A trend towards including sector coupling elements is visible. However, storage and network type flexibility, as well as aspects touching system operations, are still underrepresented in current models and should be included in more detail. No single model covers all categories of flexibility options to a high degree, but a combination of different models through soft coupling could serve as the basis for a holistic flexibility assessment. This, in turn, would allow for a detailed evaluation of energy systems based on VRES.
... So, the shortage of the energy needs to be harvested from some other sources. Alternative energy sources such as solar and wind are gaining a lot of interest and are being installed to meet these energy demands [1][2][3]. These renewable energy sources are available in plenty, but they are highly dependent on different weather conditions [4,5] which imposes adverse effect on power quality when connected to the grid. ...
Article
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Compressed air energy storage is a well-used technology for application in high voltage power systems, but researchers are also investing efforts to minimize the cost of this technology in medium and low voltage power systems. Integration of this energy storage requires a robust control of the power electronic converter to control the power injection due to the dynamic behavior of the system. The conventional linear control design requires a thorough knowledge of the system parameters, but the uncertain disturbances caused by the mechanical properties of the energy storage is neglected in the design and the system fails in presence of such instances. In this paper an adaptive control-based boost converter and sliding mode control-based three phase inverter for a grid integrated compressed air energy storage system of up to 1 kW has been presented that can mitigate any uncertain disturbances in the system without prior knowledge of the system parameters. The experimental results along with the simulation results are also presented to validate the efficiency of the system.
... Until a few years ago, academic literature on energy transitions largely focused on conducting techno-economic analyses to meet climate targets (IPCC, 2018;Jacobson et al., 2017;Jacobson, Delucchi, Cameron, & Frew, 2015;Lund & Mathiesen, 2009;Pleßmann, Erdmann, Hlusiak, & Breyer, 2014). These techno-economic studies typically focus on energy technologies and analyze least cost or cost-effective ways in which low-carbon technologies can diffuse in order to meet climate targets. ...
Thesis
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Fossil fuel industries currently employ millions and contribute to local and national economies. However, to keep global warming well below 2°C, fossil fuels need to dramatically decline. Scholars in many academic fields are focusing on “just transition” strategies for mitigating the impact of fossil fuel industry declines on workers and their communities. The research on this topic is nascent, and limited to conceptualizing and defining the role of stakeholders in just transition planning, and investigating renewable energy jobs as an option for fossil fuel workers. In this dissertation, I conducted a systematic review of the academic literature on just transition to synthesize identified elements of just transition. Next, I collected a novel employment factors dataset and combined it with an integrated assessment model to analyze the energy sector employment implications of climate policies. I also assessed whether ‘local’ renewable jobs can be created for fossil fuel workers in key coal producing countries. Finally, I collected several novel datasets to quantify and compare the scale of current socio-economic dependency on coal at the district level in India. Three primary insights emerge from this research. First, just transition literature to date has focused on coal workers in OECD countries and is largely normative. The existing literature provides key elements of a just transition that vary in spatial scale, justice forms, and timeframe. Second, while renewable energy jobs could offset fossil fuel job losses in the aggregate in most countries, this is not true everywhere. Moreover, it may not always be feasible to create ‘local’ renewable jobs for fossil fuel workers. This highlights the need to focus on non-renewable industries for fossil fuel workers’ job transition. Third, there can be large variations in the scale and type of socio-economic dependency on fossil fuels within a country. Overall, this dissertation shows the need for a more holistic understanding of the implications of fossil fuel industry declines on workers and communities.
... This finding is consistent with the results from Zappa et al. [148] in which they estimated that a 100% renewable system in Europe would cost about 30% more than systems with nuclear or CCS technologies. Pleßmann et al. [149] estimated that the global average cost of electricity for a 100% renewable grid would be 142 EUR/MWh, which is reasonably close to the mean of 152 EUR/MWh calculated here. However, Pleßmann et al. seem to have underestimated the cost of the power to gas technology used in their model. ...
Article
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To meet targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, many countries, including Estonia, must transition to low-emission electricity sources. Based on current circumstances, the most likely options in Estonia are renewables with energy storage, oil shale power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS), or the combination of renewables and either oil shale or nuclear power plants. Here we compare these different scenarios to help determine which would be the most promising based on current information. For the comparison we performed simulations to assess how various systems meet the electricity demand in Estonia and at what cost. Based on our simulation results and literature data, combining wind turbines with thermal power plants would provide grid stability at a more affordable cost. Using nuclear power to compliment wind turbines would lead to an overall levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) in the range of 68 to 150 EUR/MWh (median of 103 EUR/MWh). Using oil shale power plants with CCS would give a cost between 91 and 163 EUR/MWh (median of 118 EUR/MWh). By comparison, using only renewables and energy storage would have an LCOE of 106 to 241 EUR/MWh (median of 153 EUR/MWh).
... Renewable energy sources are integral to promoting this transition towards clean and sustainable energy systems [15,16]. However, there is a huge need for technical solutions to effectively exploit the benefits of renewable energy [17], as renewable energy sources are highly variable and intermittent in terms of supply [18][19][20]. Proper penetration of renewable energy into current energy facilities depends on the availability of large-scale sophisticated energy storage systems that can overcome these issues [21], by capturing and releasing energy during different periods [20,22,23]. Hydrogen (H2) as a fuel plays a key role in this energy transition because, as an energy-efficient, socially beneficial, and economically promising solution to the increasing global energy demand, it alleviates many of the issues of the contemporary world [24,25]. ...
Article
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Hydrogen (H2) is pivotal to phasing out fossil fuel-based energy systems. It can be produced from different sources and using different technologies. Very few studies comprehensively discuss all available state-of-the-art technologies for H2 production, the challenges facing each process, and their economic feasibility and sustainability. The current study thus addresses these gaps to effectively direct future research towards improving H2 production techniques. Many conventional methods contribute to large greenhouse gas footprints, with high production costs and low efficiency. Steam methane reforming and coal gasification dominate the supply side of H2, due to their low production costs (<$3.50/kg). Water-splitting offers one of the most environmentally benign production methods when integrated with renewable energy sources. However, it is considerably expensive and ridden with the flaw of production of harmful by-products that affect efficiency. Fossil fuel processing technologies remain one of the most efficient forms of H2 production sources, with yields exceeding 80% and reaching up to 100%, with the lowest cost despite their high reliance on expensive catalysts. Whereas solar-driven power systems cost slightly less than $10 kg⁻¹, coal gasification and steam reforming cost below $3.05 kg⁻¹. Future research thus needs to be directed towards cost reduction of renewable energy-based H2 production systems, as well as in their decarbonization and designing more robust H2 storage systems that are compatible with long-distance distribution networks with adequate fuelling stations.
... The literature reports that the first mention of Power-to-Gas technology appeared in Japan [11,12]. In the following years there has been a rapid increase in interest in this method of storing electricity from renewable sources [9,10,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. ...
Article
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Connecting a large number of distributed sources to the medium and low voltage grid poses many problems. The most important of these are the voltage changes inside the network, what can be observed when the power flow from these sources towards the HV/MV (High Voltage/Medium Voltage) transformer station. In particular, if the power consumption in nodes of the MV network is small and the distance between the place of installation of the source and the substation is large, increases and changes in voltage may be dangerous for the insulation of the network and burdensome for the consumers connected to it. The solution most frequently used to control voltage increases is the appropriate setting of the controller that affects the on-load tap changer of the MV/HV or even MV/LV (Medium Voltage/Low Voltage) transformer. It is also possible to regulate the reactive power of the sources and, of course, to limit their generated active power (curtailment of generation). The development of energy storage technology has made it possible to introduce consumers into the network, whose power can be controlled in a wide range. The article proposes the concept of an innovative voltage control system in the MV network, whose output values are three groups of parameters: HV/MV transformer ratio, reactive power of sources and active power of consumers connected in generation nodes. In the technological sense, it has been assumed that the loads are installations of electrolyzers used to produce “green hydrogen”, according to the P2G (Power to Gas) formula. The tests consisting in the execution of several hundred calculation cycles for the IEEE 37 test network, using the Monte Carlo simulation, have shown that the subordination of the hydrogen production process to the objectives of voltage control in the MV network clearly contributes to stabilizing its value, while meeting the technological requirements. The control variables of the proposed control system are the result of the optimization algorithm described in the article, the function of which is the quality of network voltage.
... Despite this, many studies considering high fractions of renewable energy in future electrical systems ignore pumped hydro storage. 3,5 Others assume no growth in pumped hydro energy storage 2 or limit the growth in pumped hydro to the scale of the conventional hydroelectricity resource. The topography requirements of conventional pumped hydro are often cited as a reason for the need to develop other storage technologies. ...
Article
The difficulty of finding suitable sites for dams on rivers, including the associated environmental challenges, has caused many analysts to assume that pumped hydro energy storage has limited further opportunities to support variable renewable generation. Closed-loop, off-river pumped hydro energy storage overcomes many of the barriers. Small (square km) upper reservoirs are typically located in hilly country away from rivers, and water is circulated indefinitely between an upper and lower reservoir. GIS analysis of high resolution global digital elevation models was used to determine economically feasible closed-loop scheme locations outside protected and urban areas. This search identified 616,000 potential storage sites with an enormous combined storage potential of 23,000 TWh. This is two orders of magnitude more than required to support large fractions of renewable electricity, allowing flexible site selection. Importantly, the resource is widely distributed to effectively support large-scale solar and wind deployment for electrical grid decarbonization.
... The modeled batteries are assumed to be lithium-ion battery packs with a discharge time of 8 h, as in Ref. [63], and the cost can be converted from $/kW to $/kWh with a factor 8. All investment costs are annualized using a social discount rate of 5%. Our assumption lies within the 2-7% range used in previous studies [4][5][6]11,12,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]29] and is in line with the recommendation of a discount rate of maximum 5% for energy systems optimization models, proposed by Garcia-Gusano et al. [74]. ...
Article
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Most studies that examine CO2-neutral, or near CO2-neutral, power systems by using energy system models investigate Europe or the United States, while similar studies for other regions are rare. In this paper, we focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where weather conditions, especially for solar, differ substantially from those in Europe. We use a green-field linear capacity expansion model with over-night investment to assess the effect on the system cost of (i) limiting/expanding the amount of land available for wind and solar farms, (ii) allowing for nuclear power and (iii) disallowing for international transmission. The assessment is done under three different cost regimes for solar PV and battery storage. First, we find that the amount of available land for wind and solar farms can have a significant impact on the system cost, with a cost increase of 0–50% as a result of reduced available land. In MENA, the impact on system cost from land availability is contingent on the PV and battery cost regime, while in Europe it is not. Second, allowing for nuclear power has a minor effect in MENA, while it may decrease the system cost in Europe by up to 20%. In Europe, the effect on system cost from allowing for nuclear power is highly dependent on the PV and battery cost regime. Third, disallowing for international transmission increases the system cost by up to 25% in both Europe and MENA, and the cost increase depends on the cost regime for PV and batteries. The impacts on system cost from these three controversial and policy-relevant factors in a decarbonized power system thus play out differently, depending on (i) the region and (ii) uncertain future investment costs for solar PV and storage. We conclude that a renewable power system in MENA is likely to be less costly than one in Europe, irrespective of future uncertainties regarding investment cost for PV and batteries, and policies surrounding nuclear power, transmission, and land available for wind- and solar farms. In MENA, the system cost varies between 42 and 96 $/MWh. In Europe, the system cost varies between 51 and 102 $/MWh.
... EnergyPLAN, introduced in 2006 [46], has been used in multi-sector 100% RE studies for the Aalborg Municipality [47], Åland Islands [48,49], Macedonia [50], Denmark [51,52], Scotland [53], Ireland [54,55], Finland [56], South East Europe [57], and the European Union [12], among others. The LUT model, introduced in 2015 [58] and inspired by an earlier model [59], has been utilised in 100% RE studies for global analyses of the power sector [15] but also all sectors [16], detailed sector coupling studies including the industry sector [17], applied for major regions as transition model for Europe [60] and Northeast Asia [61], while overnight scenarios have been applied for all major regions [14], country studies have been applied for single-node overnight [62], single-node transition [63] and multi-node transition [64] cases. The latest studies utilising the LUT model cover multi-sector, transition scenarios with partial sector coupling [65], and with multi-node, full sector coupling comparing different scenarios [66][67][68]. ...
Article
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As the discourse surrounding 100% renewable energy systems has evolved, several energy system modelling tools have been developed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and economic viability of fully sustainable, sector coupled energy systems. While the characteristics of these tools vary among each other, their purpose remains consistent in integrating renewable energy technologies into future energy systems. This paper examines two such energy system models, the LUT Energy System Transition model, an optimisation model, and the EnergyPLAN simulation tool, a simulation model, and develops cost-optimal scenarios under identical assumptions. This paper further analyses different novel modelling approaches used by modellers. Scenarios are developed using the LUT model for Sun Belt countries, for the case of Bolivia, to examine the effects of multi and single-node structuring, and the effects of overnight and energy transition scenarios are analysed. Results for all scenarios indicate a solar PV dominated energy system; however, limitations arise in the sector coupling capabilities in EnergyPLAN, leading it to have noticeably higher annualised costs compared to the single-node scenario from the LUT model despite similar primary levelised costs of electricity. Multi-nodal results reveal that for countries with rich solar resources, high transmission from regions of best solar resources adds little value compared to fully decentralised systems. Finally, compared to the overnight scenarios, transition scenarios demonstrate the impact of considering legacy energy systems in sustainable energy system analyses.
... For Europe, 22 different articles on 100% RE systems have been analysed and published between 2010 and 2021. 16 different teams with 9 different methods were found, while the teams of Breyer et al. [29] and the Reiner Lemoine Institut (RLI) [30] use the same method, tracing back to the same source [31]. The teams of Greiner et al. [32], Brown et al. [33] with Victoria et al. [34] started with the generic method of Heide et al. [35], later used the method of Andresen et al. [36], and in latest publications the method of H€ orsch et al. [37]. ...
Article
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This study aims to contribute to the field of energy systems modelling with high-resolution cost-optimised onshore wind turbine configurations and an openly available hourly data of wind electricity yield on a global-local scale. It introduces a more rigorous and novel methodology to estimate the wind electricity yield for lowest cost electricity generation by considering different wind classes and hub height related capital expenditures along with limitations induced by extreme wind gusts. Based on up-to-date financial and technical assumptions, including the latest power curves for ENERCON wind turbines, the results of this study show that there exists a certain hub height that enables wind turbines to deliver the lowest cost electricity and growing beyond that height does not pay-off the rise in capital expenditures needed for stronger foundations and taller and sturdier towers. Class III turbines provide higher full load hours and more stable hourly generation profiles, but in some areas higher cost does not pay-off or wind gusts become a limiting factor. The application of this novel multi-turbine multi-hub height high resolution optimisation results to energy system modelling would significantly increase the quality of modelling by improved estimation of the wind generation cost at different locations.
... Integrating renewable energies with network connection, intelligent control, and storage systems could result in a change in generating electricity and reducing CO 2 . The demand for a 100% renewable electricity supply by the global energy storage has already analyzed [1,2]. According to the author of International Electrotechnical Commission, the need for energy storage arises as a result of the increasing use of renewable energy and innovations in smart grids [3]. ...
Article
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The role of wind energy is so promising as a source of future energy all over the world. However, whether the unpredictable nature of wind speed fluctuations and the stability of the power systems be affected by a high penetration of wind power remains an unanswered question. Therefore, an accurate analysis study of the effectiveness and robustness performance of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is one of the challenges in wind turbine applications. The present works tackle the issue of grid connection of DFIG modeling and the dynamic operation to evaluate the capabilities and their impact on the pitch angle, current and voltage stability. The model is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software, and the curves’ results are indicated based on the system that was connected to eight wind turbines in the wind farm. The results show the dynamic features of the DFIG response to the necessary output variables. On the other hand, its show us a view of the waveforms obtained, which means that an adequate study for choosing the type of control suitable for the DFIG is necessary.
Article
This research presents a scenario for a 100% renewable energy system for the City of Cuenca, Ecuador, with a projection to the year 2050. The transition process starts with Ecuador's change in the productive matrix with reforms from the legal and business strategies point of view to the year 2050. Advances in energy material are dependent on political uncertainty both at the country (Ecuador) and local (Cuenca) levels. It is possible to stop using fossil fuels due to the implementation of new renewable energy sources, potentially rich in the Ecuadorian Southwest and evidenced in the National Plan for a Lifetime. Currently, there is evidence of accelerated changes concerning legal regulations, including the construction of several electric power generation plants. This change in the national productive matrix implies, among others, the implementation of electric vehicles and the change of natural gas stoves for electric ones, and the implementation of the "4 Rios" tram that crosses the city from North-South and South-North, incorporating 100% renewable energy generation, which would provide heat in urban and marginal urban areas. All the systems created in Ecuador, such as heating, cooling, transportation, security etc., will allow an increasing penetration of renewable energy until it reaches 100%. Keywords: Renewable energy; EnergyPLAN; Clean energy; Primary energy; Smart cities.
Article
Accurate long-term wind speed data is important for understanding the role of offshore wind farms in future energy systems. Meteorological reanalyses, such as ERA5, are relied upon by the wind energy industry and researchers. Being unaffected by onshore topography and surface roughness, the historic generation of offshore wind farms can be accurately predicted using such weather reanalysis. In this work we present a new method for using ERA5 weather data to model long term (>40 year) hourly wind generation for individual offshore wind farms. The model is validated against 57 offshore wind farms in Europe, and reduces the root mean squared error in hourly and daily capacity factor predictions by 10% and 18% respectively when compared to the Renewables Ninja. Further, 40 years (from 1980 to 2019) of ERA5 hourly wind speeds within 200 km of the coast is made easily available for energy system research on our accompanying website (windtlas.xyz).
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Integration of renewables-assisted carbon capture with existing fossil power plants is an economical grid decarbonization technique and renewable intermittency solution.
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The nitroxide radical redox organic molecule, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetrame- thylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), was investigated for the first time in a deep eutectic solvent (DES)-like system consisting of a 1:4 molar ratio of choline chloride and ethylene glycol (Ch1EG4) as a redox flow battery electrolyte. PTIO is a single molecule with three oxidation states, and can provide both positive and negative redox couples for a flow battery. A flow battery using the PTIO/Ch1EG4 electrolyte demonstrated nearly 50% round trip efficiency with an approximately 1 V open circuit potential. Inefficiencies were primarily due to membrane resistance which can be significantly lowered with increased temperature. While PTIO appears stable over short periods (hours), the oxidized form is not stable in the DES-like electrolyte over longer times. Molecular modeling was performed to investigate the relative stability of PTIO in DES as compared to the previously studied 4-hydroxy-TEMPO (4HT). It was found that the oxoammonium cation 4HT ⁺ exhibits a noticeably larger nucleophilic reactive cloud as compared to PTIO ⁺ , indicating a higher reactivity. This method to predict stability of the oxoammonium cation shows promise to inform the design and synthesis of promising redox systems based on nitroxide radicals in DES electrolytes to identify new chemistries for large scale energy storage.
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A panel of ionic liquids has been synthesized and their effect on the vanadyl acetylacetonate solubility in acetonitrile has been firstly assessed. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate showed an unprecedented result, increasing the VO(acac)2 solubility in acetonitrile of more than one magnitude order (from 0.06 M to 1.1 M) opening new interesting horizons for the possible applications of this vanadium complex. The electrochemical effect of the considered ionic liquids has been subsequently investigated through cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry with rotating disk electrode, determining diffusion coefficient and kinetic current of VO(acac)2 in the considered media. In order to achieve a deeper understanding on the examined systems, VO(acac)2 solutions in acetonitrile ILs were eventually studied through IR, UV-Vis, and EPR spectroscopies, finding evidences, corroborated by DFT studies, of the formation of strong adducts between VO(acac)2 and ILs.
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The high penetration of renewable energy sources makes the two-by-one combined cycle gas-turbine (2x1 CCGT) with high operational flexibility (OPFL) become the mainstream of deep peak-load units. However, the thermos-exchanger water level (TEWL) often exceeds the limit and causes unit trip during flexible operations. For this reason, this paper proposes a flexible operational TEWL control strategy. First, by modeling and analyzing the thermodynamics of the thermal-supply system of 2x1 CCGT unit, the exhaust steam pressure of intermediate pressure cylinder (IPEP) is chosen as an upstream controlled variable with mathematical-model derived setpoint to stabilize the TEWL; Secondly, considering the heat storage utilization of heating network, the heating-network circulating water flow is selected as the manipulated variable of IPEP control, then forming a pilot IPEP control loop cooperating with the existing TEWL control loop to stabilize the TEWL. Several control algorithms are designed and compared to determine the most effective one for the IPEP pilot-TEWL control. The results show that the maximal deviation of TEWL can be reduced to 7mm and the OPFL indexes can be significantly improved, i.e. the average power ramp rate is 6.74MW/min, and the power capacity is 69.55MW from 158MW steam turbine.
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Energy supply limits development through fuel constraints and climatic effects. Production of renewable energy is a central pillar of sustainability but will need to play an increasingly important role in energy generation in order to mitigate fossil-fuel based greenhouse-gas emissions. Global freshwaters represent a vast reservoir of biomass and biogenic CH4. Here we demonstrate the great potential for the optimized use of this nonfossil carbon as a source of energy that is replenishable within a human lifetime. The feasibility of up-scaled adsorption-driven technologies to capture and refine aqueous CH4 still awaits verification, yet recent estimates of global freshwater CH4 production imply that the worldwide energy demand could be satisfied by using the "biofuel" building up in lakes and wetlands. Biogenic CH4 is mostly generated from biomass produced through atmospheric CO2 uptake. Its exploitation in freshwaters can thus secure large amounts of carbon-neutral energy, helping to sustain the planetary equilibrium.
Article
This study extends the ambit of the debate on electricity transition by specifically identifying possible policy entry points through which transformative and enduring changes can be made in the electricity and socio—economic systems to facilitate the transition process. Guided by the “essence” of the multi-level perspective — a prominent framework for the study of energy transition, four such entry points have been identified: 1) destabilising the dominant, fossil fuel-based electricity regime to create room for renewable technologies to break through; 2) reconfiguring the electricity regime, which encompasses technology, short-term operational practices and long-term planning processes, to improve flexibility for accommodating large outputs from variable renewable sources whilst maintaining supply security; 3) addressing the impact of coal power phase-out on coal mining regions in terms of economic development and jobs; and 4) facilitating a shift in transition governance towards a learning-based, reflexive process. Specific areas for policy interventions within each of these entry points have also been discussed in the paper.
Article
As variable renewable energy generation in Texas increases over the next decade, flexibility and system inertia needs are likely to increase. Although natural gas peakers and combined cycle plants have met these demands in the past, grid-scale energy storage might be able to provide similar benefits. We compare the capacity for different energy storage technologies to provide grid inertia to maintain grid reliability and meet peak energy demand with a linearly-relaxed unit commitment and dispatch model of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grid that features fifteen transmission zones and sub-hourly intervals (i.e. 15 minutes). In this model, three energy storage technologies—Lithium-ion batteries, flywheels, and compressed air energy storage—are represented with different storage durations, ramp rates, and costs. Single-zone, 1 GW penetrations of each energy storage technology were modeled with a renewable energy penetration greater than 50% to identify the transmission zones where energy storage might have the greatest impact on the total cost of energy generation. Then, scenarios with 10 GW of energy storage either divided across the five transmission zones or concentrated in one zone at a time were modeled to analyze the impact of energy storage on inertia prices (reliability support) and total system costs (flexibility support) at scale. Energy storage built in transmission zones with high penetrations of variable renewable energy generation brought about the greatest reductions in system costs, so the 10 GW of storage were divided between five storage zones—transmission zones where building energy storage was most favorable—according to each zone’s economic impact. Our model showed that compressed air energy storage generated the lowest average inertia price and produced the lowest system costs. With deep penetrations of grid-scale energy storage, new peakers built in transmission zones where energy storage was added might become stranded assets in a high renewable energy future. In conclusion, compressed air energy storage systems most effectively supported the grid’s system inertia while simultaneously meeting the grid’s flexibility needs. Therefore, grid-scale energy storage offers a low-carbon solution to the variability of renewable energy generation.
Article
Natural polymers are a promising alternative for reducing the environmental impact of batteries. For this reason, it is still necessary to study their behavior and implement its use in these devices, especially in separator membranes. This work reports on new separator membranes based on silk fibroin (SF) and silk sericin (SS) prepared by salt leaching method. The effect of the different SS relative content on the physiochemical properties of the membranes and on the electrochemical performance of the corresponding batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) as cathodes has been reported. It is observed that the increasing of SS content leads to a decrease of the overall crystallinity of the membranes. All SF/SS membranes presented a well-defined porosity above 75% with a uniform distribution of interconnected micropores. The electrolyte uptake and the ionic conductivity are dependent on the relative SS content. The addition of 10 wt.% of SS into SF membranes, induce a high ionic conductivity of 4.09 mS.cm⁻¹ and high lithium transference number (0.52), due to the improvement of the Li⁺ ions conduction paths within the blended structure. Charge/discharge tests performed in Lithium/C-LFP half-cells reveal a discharge capacity of 85 mAh.g⁻¹ at 2C after 100 cycles for batteries with a SF/SS separator, containing a 10 wt.% of SS, which suggests a stabilizing effect of Sericin on discharge capacity. Further, a 50% and 35% of capacity of retention and capacity fade, respectively, is observed. The presented SF/SS membrane show high electrochemical stability, being suitable for implementation in a next generation of sustainable battery systems. This could allow the SS valorization considering that 150,000 tons of SS are abandoned each year, reducing the contamination of environmental effluents.
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable energy production is a worldwide concern due to the adverse effects and limited availability of fossil fuels, requiring the development of suitable environmentally friendly alternatives. Hydrogen is considered a sustainable future energy source owing to its unique properties as a clean and nontoxic fuel with high energy yield and abundance. Hydrogen can be produced through renewable and nonrenewable sources where the production method and feedstock used are indicators of whether they are carbon-neutral or not. Biomass is one of the renewable hydrogen sources that is also available in large quantities and can be used in different conversion methods to produce fuel, heat, chemicals, etc. Biomass gasification is a promising technology to generate carbon-neutral hydrogen. However, tar production during this process is the biggest obstacle limiting hydrogen production and commercialization of biomass gasification technology. This review focuses on hydrogen production through catalytic biomass gasification. The effect of different catalysts to enhance hydrogen production is reviewed, and social, technological, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) analysis of catalysts is carried out to demonstrate challenges in the field and the development of catalysts.
Article
While the technical feasibility of power systems based on renewables has been established, there are concerns that a system with high shares of variable renewable electricity cannot be achieved through an energy-only market. At the root of these concerns is the merit order effect, which describes the price-depressing effect stemming from the deployment of wind and solar. More broadly speaking, this would imply a discrepancy between the way least-cost planning models select investments, and what investments are profitable in the energy-only market. The two perspectives align, however, quite well if meaningful pricing mechanisms for carbon emissions and involuntary load shedding are implemented. While meaningful carbon prices are largely sufficient to decarbonize the power system, achieving supply security through scarcity pricing requires careful market design, which fosters demand participation and storage investment, due to the threat of supply and price volatility. Both reduce volatility and induce a range of new price signals. These smooth out the price duration curve and, in turn, reduce risk in generation investments through more predictable prices.
Article
Channels were machined over the active area of a 316L stainless steel electrode, in vertical electrode position, with a width of 5 mm that is reduced to 1 mm and then widened again. For its construction, electro discharge machining was selected since it also allows obtaining different degrees of roughness, which can favor the detachment of bubbles to a larger quantity. Analysis of its performance was carried out at an initial operating temperature of 30 ° C and at seven different distances between electrodes, namely: 9.45; 7.45; 6.35; 5.80; 4.30; 2.80 and 2.45 in millimeters, in order to determine the one with the lowest energy consumption to produce a fixed amount of hydrogen. Results obtained from the evaluated distances show that as the distance between electrodes becomes smaller, so do the electrical and transport resistances. The percentage increase in the current density for the distances of 9.45 and 2.45 mm, with respect to the applied potential difference, shows that at 2.2 V, it is above 80% (in current density) and maintained, with small fluctuations throughout the range of applied voltages. Therefore, using the same amount of energy, a greater volume of hydrogen is obtained.
Chapter
Freshwater production costs generally depend on site-specific conditions such as local energy costs, level of freshwater quality required, and concentration of constituents in feed water. The latter is a particularly important factor in desalination system design and cost. A competitive cost for freshwater production using renewable energy–driven seawater desalination systems can be attained in the case of optimum designs and proper selection and utilization of renewable energy sources available in a region, so as to maximize the synergy between diverse resources. With efficiency improvements and other advances in renewable energy technologies, the costs associated with such systems have decreased notably in recent years. In this chapter, an overview of desalination economics is provided. Then an economic study of freshwater production is presented based on a technoeconomic analysis of desalination systems and renewable energy technologies. From the technoeconomic analysis, the cost of water produced from desalination facilities and the cost of energy from renewable energy technologies are predicted for systems, today and in the future. Next, exergy concepts are related to economic principles through exergoeconomic analysis, and suggestions for reducing the overall costs of freshwater and electricity are developed. Through exergoeconomic analyses of renewable energy–driven desalination systems, the proper allocation of economic resources can be determined to optimize the design and operation of such systems. Finally, an exergo-environmental analysis using life cycle assessment is presented to evaluate the environmental impact of desalination systems using renewable and nonrenewable energy.
Thesis
Annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions must be cut by 40-70% by 2050 to limit global warming this century to 2o C above the pre-industrial temperature and avoid the worst consequences of climate change. This cut in global emissions is likely infeasible without U.S. decarbonization efforts equaling the global target. The transport and industry sectors account for 57% of U.S. GHG emissions. These two sectors must decarbonize and match the target if the U.S. is to achieve the necessary cut in emissions. Emissions from U.S. transport and industry are coupled with advanced transport technologies (e.g., battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with Li-ion batteries) typically requiring emissions-intensive manufacturing. Previous studies have largely ignored the transport-industry emissions nexus. Instead, this thesis presents a parametric fleet-scale production-use-disposal model that combines life cycle assessment with macro-level consumption parameters to calculate consumption based cumulative emissions and global temperature changes attributable to U.S. light duty vehicles (LDVs). Future pathways account for emerging powertrain technologies, electricity decarbonization, transport demand, recycling rates, and vehicle lifespans. Only 3% of the 1,512 modeled pathways meet the emissions target. Without aggressive actions, U.S. LDVs will likely exceed the cumulative emissions budget by 2039. Cumulative emissions are most sensitive to transport demand and the speed of fleet electrification and electricity decarbonization. Increasing production of BEVs to 100% of sales by 2040 (at the latest) is necessary, and early retirement of internal combustion engine vehicles is beneficial. Rapid electricity decarbonization minimizes emissions from BEV use and increasingly energy-intensive vehicle production. Deploying high fuel economy vehicles can increase emissions from the production of BEV batteries and lightweight materials. Increased recycling has only a small effect on these emissions because over the time period there are few batteries and lightweight materials available for recycling. A quarter of U.S. industry emissions are from the steel and aluminum sectors. Previous studies have shown that there are limited opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements in these upstream industries; however, increased material efficiency might prove fruitful, where services are delivered using less emissions-intensive materials produced from natural resources. Detailed material flow analyses (MFAs) are needed to identify the opportunities for material efficiency and to model the supply chain emissions. MFA construction is time consuming and fraught with missing and contradictory data. This thesis presents an easily updatable nonlinear least squares data reconciliation framework for MFA that is then applied to the annual U.S. steel flow. The MFA reveals key opportunities for U.S. steel material efficiency: increased manufacturing process yields and domestic recycling of landfilled and exported scrap. To understand the barriers to increased recycling, an optimal reverse supply chain model is derived using linear programming (LP). It shows that U.S. domestic steel and aluminum recycling is already constrained by compositional mismatches between the scrap streams and industry demand. The LP model is coupled with a dynamic material flow analysis to show that the increasing volumes of high-quality wrought aluminum being used in U.S. vehicles are likely to be downcycled or landfilled at vehicle end-of-life. The LP model is revised to show the potential for using emerging scrap separation and refining technologies to increase closed-loop recycling rates towards 90%. The technical assessments presented here highlight the scope for change. In future work, socioeconomic analyses could be coupled with these models to further assess the viability of the material efficiency strategies highlighted throughout.
Article
In this work, (CoCrFeMnNi)3O4 high entropy spinel oxide-based electrocatalyst is prepared using a facile soft chemical process. The synthesized catalyst has a spherical morphology. The formation of the pure phase material is confirmed using spectroscopic and microscopic studies. The prepared material is used as an electrocatalyst for the methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution reactions. The slurry of the as-synthesized material is coated on nickel foam and used as a working electrode. For methanol oxidation, the catalyst showed a specific current density of ~335 mA cm⁻². The observed mass-activity of the catalyst is ~110 mA mg⁻¹ with an observed onset potential of ~0.45 V. For the oxygen evolution reaction, the onset potential of (1.45 V vs. RHE) is observed with a low overpotential of 220 mV at 10 mA cm⁻². The corresponding Tafel slope is ~100 mV dec⁻¹. These results showed that the prepared high entropy oxide showed efficient electrocatalytic activity, and they are promising for methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution reactions. This is the first report demonstrating the spinel-type high entropy oxide nanoparticles in electrocatalysis to the best of our knowledge.
Article
Renewable electricity sources such as wind and solar power have shown a remarkable development in terms of efficiency, costs and availability, but system integration still remains a challenge. Realizing a fully renewable electricity supply will require large scale storage technologies and flexible users to overcome long periods of low power generation. At the same time, other sectors such as mobility and industry must be electrified to replace fossil fuels. Power-to-methane is a promising technology as it enables large-scale energy storage and sector coupling using existing infrastructures. In this work, we analyze the co-transformation of the German electricity, mobility and industry sectors, taking into account the recent decision to phase out coal by 2038. We evaluate the necessary capacities of renewables and sizes for storage options, as well as system costs and associated emissions using a techno-economic optimization model with a high technological and temporal resolution in the open-source framework OSeMOSYS. We find three rather different stages of the transformation driven by the decreasing emissions cap and the coal phase-out. Solar power is expanded vastly up to 2030, whilst coal is replaced mainly by fossil natural gas by 2040. Emissions caps become very challenging after 2040 to the extent that all flexibility options are greatly expanded: storage, curtailment and flexible power-to-methane.
Article
Preparation of hierarchal structures of various dimensions in a single in-situ step is extremely challenging. However, they have gained huge attention for energy storage to electrocatalysis. Here, self-composed cerium iron oxide hierarchal structures are prepared using a novel in-situ process using urea as a ligand. The formed hierarchal structures are made of sheets, rods, and spherical particles. The deposition of the formed spherical particles on the surface of sheets and rods is observed. The prepared cerium iron oxide hierarchal structures are used as a catalyst for the electrooxidation of methanol. As an electrocatalyst, hierarchal structures showed a high specific current density of ∼274 mA cm–2. The observed onset potential for the cerium iron oxide is ∼0.44 V. The retention of ∼93.5% of the initial current density after 5000 consecutive seconds is observed. The iron present in cerium iron oxide hierarchal structures increases oxygen vacancies responsible for the observed superior methanol oxidation reaction activity. Results confirmed that hierarchal cerium iron oxide structures showed higher electrocatalytic activity than pristine cerium oxide and iron oxide materials.
Article
Hydrogen bromine redox flow batteries (RFB) are considered to be one of the most prom-ising storage alternatives, as this technology offers both high energy and high‐power density. In this work a printed circuit board type of segmented current collector for the measurement of locally resolved current density was developed. This analytical tool was inserted as hydrogen anode current collector in a hydrogen‐bromine test cell. Charging and discharging operation was monitored under different stoichiometric flow conditions and the impact on current distribution is presented. This technique offers the possibility to prove cell limiting conditions with spatial resolution, improving our understanding and determining optimal operating conditions for a given design.
Article
Full-text available
One of the biggest concerns of the present century is energy security and climate change. Further, studies suggest that there would be a huge lack of fossil fuels in near future. Moreover, in terms of cleaner production, the most popular and practiced way of power generation is renewable energy sources which are intermittent in nature, require large land area, and also dependent on geographic positions and climatic conditions. Besides, nuclear energy is also having some limitations including government policies and public apprehensions. To overcome these hurdles, these two carbon-free technologies can be integrated and form a nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R-HES). Literature related to the proposed systems is extremely rare and the systems are not yet well developed. Keeping that into concern, this paper discusses the operation, status, prospects, and benefits of N-R-HES. Various possible integration techniques along with their operation are discussed in detail. Moreover, six aspects of interconnections are identified: electrical, thermal, chemical, mechanical, hydrogen, and information. The paper also discusses the reactor licensing, permitting procedures along the different benefits of N-R-HES. Additionally, research limitations and needs are identified for further exploration of the topic throughout the paper.
Chapter
Solar photovoltaics has demonstrated the strongest long-term growth rates of all energy technologies since the 1950s. It has been recognized as the new “king” of energy markets, having emerged within the past few years as the least-cost source of electricity. Along with supporting energy system technologies, in particular batteries and electrolyzers, it can be anticipated that solar PV will emerge as the main source of primary energy for humankind within only a few decades. In parallel the research field of 100% renewable energy system analyses has developed strongly since the mid-2000s, with a growing number of research groups and organizations joining the 100% renewable energy community. The role of solar PV in these analyses has increased steadily, as the true potential role of solar PV in delivering 100% renewable energy supply has been identified in cutting-edge research in recent years. The results of the research, projections, and empirical statistics indicate the dawn of a Solar Age, which may be the key driving force to enable a rebalancing of human activities within the biogeochemical limits of planet Earth. Solar photovoltaic technology offers a crucial foundation for further progress toward a truly sustainable civilization of the highest technical, economic, and cultural standards, leaving no one behind.
Thesis
Full-text available
The scope of this study is to design a residential complex in a humid subtropical climate based on a sustainability concept to reduce the damage of building on the environment and improve social interaction among residents. This descriptive-analytical research contains three fundamental steps; Vernacular Architecture Typology, Modernizing Traditional Climatic Solutions, and Architectural Design. Step 1: The project is located in Guilan province in the North of Iran, benefiting a valuable vernacular rural architecture. The history and typology of housing were studied to identify the traditional environmental solution in this region. In terms of social sustainability, being familiar with anthropology, culture, and lifestyle was necessary. In addition, the previous research found the novel suggestion in sustainable design in the climate type. Step 2: Since the high rate of humidity is the main climatic feature in this region, providing a situation to benefit natural ventilation in buildings has been a significant challenge in architectural design since many years ago. People had solved the problem by some architectural solution in rural housing. This study attempts to modernize the traditional ways and add up-to-date ones to improve the occupant thermal comfort. For this purpose, the building performance simulation tools such as Ecotect, Ladybug tools, PVsyst, and Climate Consultant were employed. Step 3: The architectural design consists of environmental and social aspects. In environmental sustainability, the research uses various vernacular methods such as linear plan design, building distance from ground level, and chimney effect to provide maximum conditions for natural ventilation. Besides, solar cells were used to supply electricity to the project, which the return on investment of solar systems after a specified period can be economically profitable for the project. The site design plan has sought to improve neighborly interaction in social sustainability. Shared courtyards are designed to play under parents' supervision and socialize with residents in the central courtyard. Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Energy Efficient, Residential Complex, Vernacular Architecture
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Photovoltaic (PV) is one of the fastest growing electricity generation technologies in the world. Average annual growth rates of global PV-installations have reached around 45% for the last 15 years, which triggered a fast and ongoing reduction of production cost in PV industry. The presented work aims at consolidating historical price and cost information, deriving refined learning curves for PV modules and systems, and analysing the main factors of learning. For c-Si modules a valid learning rate of 17% is found based on a meta-analysis of various studies. In early years, even a learning rate of 30% is observed. As an example for thin-film PV, CdTe module cost reduce by 16% as the cumulated production output doubles. Interestingly, efficiency improvements contribute only in second order to the overall cost reduction for both technologies, emphasising the relevance of production excellence and economies of scale. On PV system level, a cost reduction of 14% per doubling of cumulated installed capacity is derived. Finally, a sensitivity analysis reveals that learning rate variations are only of minor influence on the overall global PV market potential.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
PV and wind power are the major renewable power technologies in most regions on earth. Depending on the interaction of solar and wind resources, PV and wind power industry will become competitors or allies. Time resolved geospatial data of global horizontal irradiation and wind speeds are used to simulate the power feed-in of PV and wind power plants assumed to be installed on an equally rated power basis in every region of a 1°x1° mesh of latitude and longitude between 65°N and 65°S. An overlap of PV and wind power full load hours is defined as measure for the complementarity of both technologies and identified as ranging between 5% and 25% of total PV and wind power feed-in. Critical overlap full load hours are introduced as a measure for energy losses that would appear if the grid was dimensioned only for one power plant of PV or wind. In result, they do not exceed 9% of total feed-in but are mainly around 3% - 4%. Thus the two major renewable power technologies must be characterized by complementing each other.
Conference Paper
A 100% renewable power supply on a low cost basis is prerequisite for a sustainable global development. Solar and wind resources are abundantly available on earth enabling the use of photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy technologies on a large scale in most regions in the world. This paper aims at investigating a global energy supply scenario based of PV and wind power supported by an appropriate energy storage infrastructure. First results for the degree of complementarity of PV and wind power supply are presented and the need of appropriate energy storage solutions is discussed. We present the renewable power methane (RPM) storage option and discuss the various integration options of hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plants. Based on the levelized cost of electricity (LOCE) approach and on cost assumptions for the year 2020, hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plant economics are derived on a global scale and discussed in more detail for an exemplary site in China. First estimates for the global energy supply potential of hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plants show both, rapidly increasing competitiveness and low distances between the centres of demand and least cost energy supply, which is complemented by abundant resource availability. In conclusion, hybrid PV-Wind-RPM power plants are a potential cornerstone of the global energy supply in the next decades.
Conference Paper
This paper presents results of modelling cost optimised electricity generation systems for renewable energy shares varying from 0 % to 100 % on an hourly timescale. The model takes into account generation from solar photovoltaics (PV), wind, hydro, biogas and natural gas fuelled power plants. Storage is incorporated as short-term storage in batteries and biogas bladders and long-term storage via renewable power methane (RPM) and biomethane. Grid-.parity enabled PV-battery systems are taken into account to model electricity end-user behaviour. We use localized hourly solar insolation, wind and hydro power output, and electricity demand data. Results include optimum component sizing as well as levelised cost of electricity (LCOE). Impacts of changing storage technology prices are investigated.
Article
We present a geographical assessment of the performance of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules over Europe. We have developed a method that is based on a material specific analytical expression of the PV conversion efficiency, relative to nominal efficiency, as a function of module temperature and irradiance. This method is combined with a climate database that includes average daytime temperature and irradiance profiles. It is found that the geographical variation in ambient temperature and yearly irradiation causes a decrease in overall yearly PV performance from 3 to 13% relative to the performance under Standard Test Conditions, with the highest decrease found in the Mediterranean region. Based on the above results we developed a simplified linear expression of the relative PV module efficiency that is a simple function of yearly total irradiation and yearly average daytime temperature. The coefficients to the linear expression are found by fitting to the map resulting from the above-mentioned analytical approach. The prediction of total yearly PV output from this linear fit deviates less than 0·5% from the more detailed calculation, thus providing a faster and more simplified alternative to the yield estimate, in the case when only limited climate data are available. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Desert Power 2050 -Perspectives on a Sustainable Power System for EUMENA
  • F Zickfeld
  • A Wieland
F. Zickfeld and A. Wieland, "Desert Power 2050 -Perspectives on a Sustainable Power System for EUMENA," München, 2012.
Global Potential of Concentrating Solar Power
  • F Trieb
  • C Schillings
  • M O Sullivan
  • T Pregger
  • C Hoyer-Klick
F. Trieb, C. Schillings, M. O. Sullivan, T. Pregger, and C. Hoyer-klick, "Global Potential of Concentrating Solar Power," in SolarPACES 2009, 2009, no. September.
Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) release 6.0, NASA SSE 6.0, Earth Science Enterprise Program
  • P W Stackhouse
  • C H Whitlock
Stackhouse P.W., Whitlock C.H., (eds.), 2008. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) release 6.0, NASA SSE 6.0, Earth Science Enterprise Program, National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), Langley, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/
Synthese globaler, elektrischer Lastganglinien (Internal Working Paper)
  • L Gruber
L. Gruber, "Synthese globaler, elektrischer Lastganglinien (Internal Working Paper)," Berlin, 2012.
Long vs . Short-Term Energy Storage: Sensitivity Analysis
  • S M Schoenung
  • W Hassenzahl
S. M. Schoenung and W. V Hassenzahl, "Long vs. Short-Term Energy Storage: Sensitivity Analysis.," 2007.
Roadmap 2050-A practical guide to a prosperous, low-carbon europe-Technical Analysis
  • European Climate Foundation
European Climate Foundation, "Roadmap 2050-A practical guide to a prosperous, low-carbon europe-Technical Analysis," Apr. 2010.
Earth Science Enterprise Program, National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
  • Methodology
  • Nasa
  • Sse
Methodology, NASA SSE 6.0, Earth Science Enterprise Program, National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), Langley, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/documents/SSE6Methodology.pdf
Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Count Grid
NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), "Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Population Count Grid," Palisades (NY), 2011
  • J L Sawin
J. L. Sawin, "Renewables 2013 Global Status Report," 2013.
Entwicklung von modularen Konzepten zur Erzeugung
  • G Müller-Syring
  • M Henel
  • H Mlaker
  • M Sterner
  • T Höchter
G. Müller-Syring, M. Henel, H. Mlaker, M. Sterner and T. Höchter, "Entwicklung von modularen Konzepten zur Erzeugung, Speicherung und Einspeisung von Wasserstoff und Methan ins Erdgasnetz," Bonn, 2013
Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) release 6.0 Methodology, NASA SSE 6.0, Earth Science Enterprise Program
  • P W Stackhouse
  • C H Whitlock
Stackhouse P.W., Whitlock C.H., (eds.), 2009. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) release 6.0 Methodology, NASA SSE 6.0, Earth Science Enterprise Program, National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), Langley, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/documents/SSE6Methodology.pdf