ArticlePDF Available

Phytochemical study and insecticidal activity of Mentha pulegium L. oils from Morocco against Sitophilus Oryzae

Authors:
  • Ecole Nationale d'Agriculture de Meknès, Meknès, Maroc
  • Faculty of Sciences
  • National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Article

Phytochemical study and insecticidal activity of Mentha pulegium L. oils from Morocco against Sitophilus Oryzae

Abstract and Figures

There is a growing interest of industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties from plant origin. The aim of this study was to validate the therapeutic properties of Mentha pulegium L. by conducting a phytochemical study, to determine the chemical composition of its essential oils (EO) and evaluate its insecticidal activity against stored cereals pests. Leaves and flowers of M. pulegium L. were collected from three regions of the Moroccan Middle Atlas. Phytochemical tests on pennyroyal aerial parts revealed the presence of gallic tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols and triterpenes and saponins. The chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main components were pulegone and piperitenone. The EO from Khénifra is dominated by pulegone (81.46%), and those from Azrou and M'rirt are rich both in pulegone (68.86 and 71.97%) and piperitenone (24.79% and 26.04%) respectively. Pennyroyal oil has showed an important fumigant effect against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) adults. This effect is influenced by the tested doses and exposure periods. The potential of this plant to be used to control stored product insects was discussed.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Available free online at www.medjchem.com
Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry 2013, 2(4), 607-619
*Corresponding author:
E-mail address: touria.zair@yahoo.fr
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13171/mjc.2.4.2013.08.11.23
Phytochemical study and insecticidal activity of Mentha pulegium
L. oils from Morocco against Sitophilus Oryzae
Nadia Zekri 1, 3, Smail Amalich 1, Ahmed Boughdad 2, Mohamed Alaoui El Belghiti 3 and Touria Zair* 1
1Laboratory of Chemistry of Bioactive Molecules and Environment, University of Sciences
Moulay Ismail, BP 11201. Zitoune, Meknès, Morocco.
2Département of Plants Protection of Plants and Environement, Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture,
BP S/40 ENA, 50000, Meknès, Morocco.
3Laboratory of Chemistry - General Physics University of Sciences- Agdal, 4- Avenue
Ibn Battouta. B.P.1014 RP, Rabat, Morocco.
Abstract: There is a growing interest of industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with
bioactive properties from plant origin. The aim of this study was to validate the therapeutic properties of Mentha
pulegium L. by conducting a phytochemical study, to determine the chemical composition of its essential oils
(EO) and evaluate its insecticidal activity against stored cereals pests. Leaves and flowers of M. pulegium L.
were collected from three regions of the Moroccan Middle Atlas. Phytochemical tests on pennyroyal aerial parts
revealed the presence of gallic tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols and triterpenes and saponins. The chemical
composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main
components were pulegone and piperitenone. The EO from Khénifra is dominated by pulegone (81.46%), and
those from Azrou and M'rirt are rich both in pulegone (68.86 and 71.97%) and piperitenone (24.79% and
26.04%) respectively. Pennyroyal oil has showed an important fumigant effect against Sitophilus oryzae (L.)
adults. This effect is influenced by the tested doses and exposure periods. The potential of this plant to be used
to control stored product insects was discussed.
Keywords: Essential oil, Mentha pulegium L., Phytochemistry, fumigation, Sitophilus oryzae (L.).
Introduction
Mentha pulegium L. is a herbaceous perennial that belongs to the Lamiaceae family,
commonly known as pennyroyal/European pennyroyal, native to North Africa, Europe, Asia
Minor and the Middle East 1. It grows wildly in humid areas of the plains and mountains. In
Morocco, M. pulegium L. is known as the Arabic name "Fliyou". It is among the top five
national mints and most widely used and commercialized 2.
Aerial parts of this plant contain a wide diversity of secondary metabolites such as:
tannins, resins, pectins, bitter principles and essential oils 1, 3. Fresh or dried leaves and
flowering tops are commonly used for their healing and culinary properties. The whole plant
and its essential oil have a strong and characteristic smell 3.
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 608
In therapeutic applications, this plant and its preparations have been used traditionally for
their antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, sedative, stimulant, diuretic, antitussive, tonic,
cholagogue, expectorant, antiseptic and digestive effect 1,3,4.
It was even used to promote menstruation, cure headaches, treat bronchitis, relieve bites
from scorpions and snakes and help against vomiting and kidney disease 1, 3. It also served as
a repellent against fleas and other insects 2-4. It was effective in relieving acne and other skin
conditions. This plant has been used as a spice and flavoring in various foods, especially
desserts 1, 4, also as perfume in cosmetics 3-4 and corrosion inhibitor for steel in the chemical
industries 5.
Pennyroyal is an important source of essential oils. The chemical composition of the
pennyroyal oil has been described by several studies 4, 6-14. Pennyroyal oils are characterized
by the preponderance of pulegone (70-90%) along with other monoterpenic ketones such as
menthone, isomenthone and piperitenone 15. The pennyroyal oil and its constituents exhibit
interesting biological activities particularly antibacterial 10, 13, 16-17, antifungal 18-19, antioxidant
9, 20 and insecticidal 11, 14, 21.
Pennyroyal is not yet described by the Pharmacopoeia 15. Even if its properties were
traditionally well-known, this species has never been investigated pharmacologically 15.
However, its essential oil is highly suspected to be hepatotoxic. It was responsible for fatal
accidents. Its liver toxicity is mainly related to pulegone and its metabolites that are
responsible for tissue necrosis 15, 22. The consumption of several milliliters of pennyroyal oil
is highly probable to cause toxic effects. Small amounts (10 ml) can produce a moderate to
severe poisoning 23, large quantities (25ml) can cause a fatal liver necrosis 22. The most
important hazard associated with this oil, is the potential for accidental consumption by a
child 22 (LD50 = 3 ml). The right dosage and good administration of the plant could avoid
such accidents 22, 24. Note that the exact mechanism of toxicity of pennyroyal oil and pulegone
is not yet revealed 15.
In Middle Atlas, a mountainous region of Morocco, pennyroyal is considered among
plants frequently used by people in traditional medicine. In this context, the aim of this work
is to identify the own secondary metabolites of pennyroyal that collected from three regions
of Middle Atlas, to study the variability of the chemical composition of its essential oils and
to evaluate its insecticidal potential against pests of stored cereals.
Experimental section
Plant material
The aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of pennyroyal were collected in July 2010 from three
sites in the Middle Atlas: Azrou (Latitude: 33° 25′ 59″; Longitude: 5° 13′ 01″; Altitude:
1278m), M'rirt located between Azrou and Khénifra (Latitude: 33°10′ 00″; Longitude:
34′ 00″; Altitude: 1113m) and Khénifra (Latitude: 34°15'36"; Longitude: 6°34'12";
Altitude: 860m). The climate is semi-humid with strong continental influence with an annual
average temperature of 20°C.
Essential oils extraction
Flowers and leaves (100g) were air-dried at room temperature and hydro-distilled using a
Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours. The essential oils were dried with anhydrous sodium
sulphate and stored in a refrigerator at 4°C until use. For calculations of essential oil yields,
three replicates were performed for each plant material.
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 609
Chromatographic analysis
The chromatographic analyses were performed using a gas chromatograph Hewlett
Packard (HP 6890 series) type equipped with a HP-5 capillary column (30m x 0.25 mm x
0.25 microns film thickness) , a FID detector set at 250 ° C and fed with a gas mixture H2/air.
The mode of injection is split; the carrier gas used is nitrogen with a flow rate of 1.7 ml / min.
The column temperature is programmed at a rate of 4 mounted ° C / min from 50 to 200 °C
for 5 min. The unit is controlled by a computer system type "HP ChemStation" managing the
operation of the device and to monitor chromatographic analyzes. GC-MS was carried out by
a chromatograph Hewlett Packard (HP 6890) coupled to a mass spectrometer (HP 5973
series). Fragmentation is performed by electron impact at 70 eV. The used column was a
capillary-type HP 5SM (30 mx 0.25 mm x 0.25 mm). The column temperature is
programmed at a rate of 4 mounted °C / min from 50 to 200°C for 5 min. The carrier gas is
helium with a flow rate set at 1.7 ml / min. The injection mode is split type.
For compound identification, the Kovàts Index 25 of each compound was calculated in
relation to the retention time of a series of linear alkanes (C7-C40). The calculated index was
then compared to those of Adams 26 reference. The mass spectra of compounds were also
matched with those stored in the NIST library / EPA / NIH MASS SPECTRAL LIBRARY;
Version 2.0, build libraries Jul, 1, 2002.
Phytochemical tests
The phytochemical study needed the preparation of plant material. Leaves and flowers of
M. pulegium were dried in the open air, milled in an electric grinder and used to prepare
extracts, infusions and decoctions.
Selective extractions of homogenates were made specifically on each family of compounds
studied. The extracts have been obtained by extraction with solvents. The solvents used are
petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol, chloroform and distilled water.
The phytochemical screening was also based on several reagents. Research of alkaloids
was performed by Dragendorff reagent. Characterization of catechin tannins was carried out
by isoamyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid and gallic tannins by Stiasny reagent, sodium
acetate and ferric chloride. To detect sterols and triterpenes, we used acetic anhydride and
concentrated sulphuric acid. Diluted alcohol hydrochloric acid, magnesium chips and
isoamyl alcohol were used to seek the flavonoids. Chloroform, dilute ammonia and
hydrochloric acid have to look for quinonic substances.
Characterization tests of different chemical groups were performed as described by
Bruneton15, Harborne 27 and N’Guessan 28.
Pests
Adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.), rice weevils belonging to the Curculionidea family were
brought from the grain market. They were raised thereafter at the expense of wheat grains in
glass jars at a temperature of 24 ± 1°C and a relative humidity of 76 ± 5% in the dark in order
to obtain a homogeneous population.
Biotests
Fumigation tests were carried out in plastic boxes of 1 liter volume. Thus, in each box was
placed a Petri dish by airy chiffon gauze containing 10 adults of S. oryzae and filter paper
soaked with M. pulegium essential oil. The concentrations of essential oil in the air were:
0.75; 0.25; 0.5; 1 and 2 µl /l air. For each concentration, five replicates were conducted.
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 610
Control of mortality was performed daily by counting died individuals until the death of last
insect.
Data analysis
To detect the toxic fumigant effect of tested essential oil, an analysis of variance performed
using the function Arsin (square root (percentage mortality)) in the software Microsoft Excel
2007. The calculation of the survival probabilities and comparison of the effect of each
concentration tested were taken respectively by the test of Kaplan-Mayer 29 and the log-rank
test 30. The lethal concentrations 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) fumigated insects were
determined by the Probits method according to Finey 31.
Results and discussion
Yields and Chemical composition
The yields, calculated from dry material, varied from sample to sample. The essential oil
from Khénifra has the highest yield (6.2%) followed by those from Azrou (5.9%) and M'rirt
(5.29%). These rates are higher than those already obtained by Boughdad 14 (4.77%),
Benayad 11 (2.33%) and Derwich 13 (1.66%).
The chromatographic analysis of essential oils have identified twenty six compounds that
represent approximately 99.10% for M. pulegium of Azrou, thirteen compounds (99.87%) to
that of M’rirt against sixteen compounds for the sample from Khénifra (89.10%).
Oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant class of the components identified in three
essential oils. However, the sesquiterpenes were found with small contents in pennyroyal oils
from Azrou and Khénifra and quasi absent in that of M'rirt (Table 1).
Table 1: Chemical composition of pennyroyal oils from Middle-Atlas.
Identified Compound
Kovàts Index
(IK)
Area %
Azrou
M’rirt
Khénifra
1
α-pinene
939
0.17
0.14
0.23
2
β-pinene
979
0.15
0.13
0.22
3
Meta-mentha-1(7), 8-diene
1000
0.02
-
-
4
O-cymene
1026
0.07
-
-
5
Limonene
1029
0.90
-
-
6
1,8- cineole
1031
-
0.10
0.10
7
Para-mentha-3,8-diene
1072
0.01
-
-
8
Trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol
1140
0.57
0.28
-
9
Isopulegol
1149
-
-
0.55
10
Isopulegol (iso)
1159
-
-
0.38
11
Benzylacetate
1162
0.07
-
-
12
Chrysanthenol(Cis)
1164
1.03
0.80
-
13
α -Terpineol
1188
0.17
0.10
-
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 611
14
Trans-pulegol
1214
0.19
0.06
0.07
15
Coahuilensol methyl ether
1221
0.16
-
-
16
Cis-pulegol
1229
-
-
0.04
17
Pulegone
1237
68.86
71.97
81.46
18
Piperitone
1252
0.07
-
-
19
Perilla aldehyde
1271
0.21
-
-
20
Thymol
1290
1.01
0.04
-
21
Carvacrol
1299
0.04
-
-
22
p-vinyl-guaiacol
1309
0.13
-
-
23
Piperitenone
1343
24.81
26.04
-
24
Z-Caryophyllene
1408
0.11
-
-
25
E-Caryophyllene
1419
0.04
-
1.70
26
α -Guaiene
1439
0.08
0.06
-
27
α -Humulene
1454
-
-
2.89
28
Trans-4,10-epoxy-amorphane
1479
-
-
0.09
29
4-epi-cis-dihydroagarofurane
1499
0.04
-
-
30
10-epi-cubebol
1535
-
-
0.51
31
Cis-Sesquisabinene hydrate
1544
-
-
0.17
32
Germacrene D-4-ol
1575
0.09
-
-
33
Trans-Sesquisabinene hydrate
1579
-
-
0.57
34
Caryophyllene oxyde
1583
0.09
-
-
35
Allo-cedrol
1589
-
-
0.07
36
Cedrol
1600
-
-
0.05
37
Himachalol
1653
0.01
-
-
38
Himachal-4-en-1- β-ol (11- α H)
1699
-
0.06
-
Oxygenated monoterpenes
87.12
99.39
82.6
Hydrocarbon monoterpenes
1.32
0.27
0.45
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes
0.23
0.06
1.46
Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes
0.23
0.06
4.59
Others
0.2
--
--
Total
99.10
99.78
89.10
The essential oil from Azrou is dominated by pulegone (68.86%) and piperitenone
(24.79%). Other compounds were identified but at relatively small percentages such as
chrysanthenol (1.03%), thymol (1.01%), limonene (0.9%) and menth-2-en-1-ol (0.57%). Two
constituents also characterize the essential oil M'rirt but its rates are higher than those of
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 612
Azrou: pulegone (71.97%) and piperitenone (26.04%) accompanied by chrysanthenol
(0.80%), menth-2-en -1-ol (0.28%), α-pinene (0.14%) and β-pinene (0.13%).
However, the EO from Khénifra is mainly composed of pulegone with a larger rate than
the other two regions; it reached 81.46%. Other components were also identified but with
lower levels such as α-humelene (2.89%), E-caryophyllene (1.70%), isopulegol (0.55%), 10-
epicubelol (0.51%), α-pinene (0.23%) and β-pinene (0.22%).
Differences between the three oils chemical composition were reported. Indeed, limonene
(0.9%), perilla aldehyde (0.21%) and coahuilensol methyl ether (0.16%) are specific to the oil
of Azrou. Furthermore, piperitenone second chemotype of Azrou (24.81%) and M'rirt
(26.04%) essential oils is absent in that of Khénifra. The latter also contains specific
compounds such as α-humelene (2.89%), E-caryophyllene (1.70%), trans-sabinene hydrate
(0.57%), isopulegol (0.55%) and 10-epi-cubebol (0.51 %). On the other hand, 1,8-cineole
(0.10%) is present only in M'rirt and Khénifra oils.
The variation of yields and chemical composition of essential oils depends on several
factors: the method used, the used plant parts, the products and reagents used in the
extraction, the environment, the plant genotype, geographical origin, the harvest period of the
plant, the degree of drying, the drying conditions, temperature and drying time and the
presence of parasites, viruses and weeds 32-33.
Pennyroyal can be considered as an important source of pulegone. This ketone presents
approximately 3/4 of the overall chemical composition of the studied oils. It is usually used
in the manufacture of industrial and cosmetic products as it can be transformed into menthol
by semisynthetis which is highly demanded for flavouring food, in cosmetics and
pharmaceutical industry 34.
The chemical composition of the studied oils is similar to that reported by several studies
already carried out in Morocco. The EO of M. pulegium from Morocco is characterized by its
high rate of pulegone. The EO from Asilah (North east) studied by Hmiri 18 contains a very
attractive pulegone rate (80.28%). The content of pulegone in pennyroyal from Meknes is
about 65% 14. In Taouirt region (North-East) 69.8% 35; in Rabat region (Ain Aouda), it is
about 73.33% 11 and in Southern Morocco, it reached 85.4% 17. Similarly, pennyroyal oils
from different Algerian sites are characterized by the predominance of pulegone with
different proportions 43.3 to 87.3% 36. Similar results were obtained from Uruguay 7 and
Tunisia 12, the main compounds are respectively pulegone (73.4% and 61.11%) and
isomenthone (12.9% and 17.02%). In Egypt, the pennyroyal oil is rich in pulegone (43.5%)
and piperitone (12.2%) 9. While the species from Iran 10 and Skoura (Morocco) 13 contain two
particular chemotypes: piperitone (38 and 35.56%) and piperitenone (33 and 21.12%) while
the pulegone rate does not exceed 2.3 and 6.42% respectively. Similarly, those from Portugal
6 and Yugoslavia 37 are characterized by different chemical composition whose major
compounds are menthone (35.9 and 30.9%) and pulegone (23.2 and 14.1%) respectively.
Phytochemical screening
The results of phytochemical screening are assembled in Table 2. Different groups
occurring in leaves and flowers of pennyroyal were identified.
According to the results of the characterization tests, the aerial parts of pennyroyal
from three regions contain gallic tannins, saponins, flavonoids, sterols and triterpenes,
alkaloids, mucilages and reducing compounds. However, it is devoid of anthraquinones, oses
and holosides, cyanogenic glycosides and catechin tannins. The effective presence of some of
them in the plant does not exclude its therapeutic properties 38.
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 613
Flavonoids are perfect antioxidants 39, antiulcer, antispasmodic, anti-secretory, anti-
diarrheal 40, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, blood pressure and protect against cancer and
cataract 15.
Table 2: Results of phytochemical screening of pennyroyal aerial parts by colored reactions.
Alkaloids have different pharmacological activities such as strengthening the heart activity,
excitation of the central nervous system and nerves symptomatic, stimulating blood
circulation 38. The presence of alkaloids may also justify the use of the plant in the treatment
of certain diseases 28. The tannins show the properties of vitamin D, they could be used to
strengthen blood vessels and contribute to the accumulation of vitamin C in the body 38. The
saponins have a healing effect and sterols and triterpenes have bactericidal properties 28.
These properties were linked to the identified classes of phytoconstituents in pennyroyal.
Therefore, this plant exhibits important therapeutic effects. These results justified the wide
use of this plant in traditional medicine by people in Middle Atlas.
Insecticidal activity of M. pulegium essential oil against adults of S. oryzae (L.)
In this research, we evaluated the insecticidal activity of pennyroyal oil from Azrou against
weevil of S. oryzae. Concentrations tested have showed a significant fumigant activity. The
degree of this activity depends on the applied concentration (F concentrations = 18.38 > F (0.05, 5-192)
= 2.2141) and the exposure duration (F time = 12.83> F (0.05, 7-192) = 2.0096). The survival rate
of insects decreases as the concentration and exposure period increased (Figure 1).
The interaction between weevils and essential oil lasted eight days. The mortality within
the weevil was observed on the first day and even with the lowest concentration. At 2μl of
essential oil/l air, insects have been totally decimated the fourth day. As at low
concentrations, the mortality of insects reached gradually the entire population on the eighth
day after the beginning of fumigation.
The survival time of 50% (LT50) and 99% (LT99) of adults who were exposed to different
concentrations of essential oil vary respectively from 24 hours to 4 days and about 4 to 8 days
depending on the concentration, whereas in the control group, adults live an average of 29 and
57 days respectively (Table 3). Furthermore, the LT50 and LT99 are negatively correlated with
the tested concentrations.
Chemical group
Observations
Gallic tannins
+
Catechin Tannins
-
Flavonoids
+
Alkaloids
+
Saponins
+
Foam index = 225
Free anthraquinones
-
Combined anthraquinones
-
Oses and holosides
-
Sterols and triterpenes
+
Reducing compounds
+
Mucilages
+
Cyanogenic glycosides
-
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 614
Figure 1. Survival rate of S. oryzae (L.) adults fumigated by pennyroyal oil (Concentrations
affected with the same letter do not differ statistically between them (log-rank test)).
Table 3: LT50 and LT99 of S. oryzae adults fumigated with M. pulegium essential oil.
Concentrations
(μl/l air)
LT50 (days)
r
LT99 (days)
r
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
2
28,76
4,00
3.48
2.63
2.07
1.60
-0.86
56,20
7,47
7.06
5.49
4.51
3.64
-0,83
The toxicity parameters of the tested essential oil are summarized in Table 4. The
calculated lethal concentrations LC50 and LC99 vary according to the time. They decrease
gradually as the fumigation time increases. Extreme lethal concentrations LC50 and LC99 vary
from 2.65 to 0.044μl /l air and 143.9 to 0.518μl /l air respectively.
The effectiveness of the pennyroyal oil may be attributed to its chemical composition
generally and particularly to monoterpenes that act as insecticidal agents 41. Our plant is rich
in monoterpenes (96.87%) mainly pulegone (68.86%) and piperitenone (24.81%), thymol
(1.01%), limonene (0.9%) and pinene (0.32%). These active components have shown an
important insecticidal activity against several pests 14, 21, 30, 41-43.
Results similar to ours have been reported by Benayad 11 which a concentration of 3 μl of
M. pulegium oil (73.33% of pulegone) caused mortality of all weevils of S .oryzae after one
day of treatment. Similarly, these insects were also decimated at a dose of 1.7 10-2 μl/ cm3 of
M. suaveolens oil (85.5% of pulegone) after 7 days of treatment and at a dose of 3.5 10-2 μl/
cm3 of oil after 24 hours 44.
The fumigant effect of this oil against adults of S. oryzae could also be explained by the high
content of pulegone. The toxicity of this ketone against S. oryzae was also observed by Lee 30
and Hannin 45.
Furthermore, the insecticidal activity of the essential oil is not limited only to its major
constituents; it could also be due to some minor constituents or a synergistic effect of several
constituents 46-47.
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 615
Table 4: Toxicity parameters of pennyroyal oil against S. oryzae (L.) adults.
The toxic effect of M. pulegium essential oils against S. oryzae may be attributed to the
inhibition of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholinesterase 41, 48 and octopamine 49.
Essential oils as natural insecticides are therefore an alternative to synthetic insecticides
because of their physicochemical properties that make them very volatile and biodegradable,
which presents no risk of residues on treated products or on the germination of processed
grains. Moreover, the fact that essential oils act on octopaminergic sites insects 46, they are less
toxic to mammals.
Conclusion
In the present research, we performed a phytochemical study of M. pulegium L., determined
the chemical composition of essential oils and assessed its insecticidal activity. The results
allowed concluding that the yields and chemical composition of essential oils vary according to
the plant origin. Essential oils originating from Azrou, M'rirt and Khénifra are characterized by
diverse chemical profiles. Thus, species of Azrou and M'rirt are dominated mainly by
pulegone (68.86% and 71.97%) and piperitenone (24.97% and 26.04%) while that of Khénifra
is very rich in pulegone (81.46%).
Moroccan pennyroyal may therefore be an important source of pulegone. This active
component is highly required for the manufacture of cosmetics and industrial products.
Different secondary metabolites were identified: flavonoids, gallic tannins, sterols and
triterpenes, alkaloids and saponins. Therefore, pennyroyal can be seen as a potential source of
useful drugs. Further studies are going on this plant in order to isolate, identify and characterize
the structure of the bioactive compounds.
Pennyroyal oil has showed an important fumigant effect against S. oryzae weevils. This
effect could be attributed to the chemical composition and particularly to the abundance of
pulegone and piperitenone without ignoring the synergistic role of minor compounds.
Furthermore, the use of essential oil M. pulegium in fumigation to control populations of
S. oryzae is possible. Fumigation can handle large masses of seeds without moving. In this
way, the pennyroyal oil has a huge potential as alternative to synthetic pesticides in cereals
stored and crop protection.
Days
Equation
X2observed<
X2tabulated=
7.815
LC50 (μl/l air)
[Confidence Interval]
LC99 (μl/l air)
[Confidence Interval]
1
1.34x + 4.43
0.487
2.652[1.699;7.691]
143.9 [27.9 ; 111637.9]
2
1.84x + 5.02
0.739
0.973[0.792;78.02]
17.67 [8.11 ; 8.02]
3
1.97x +5.47
1.172
0.577[0.499;0.709]
8.65 [4.66 ; 27.33]
4
2.46x +6.25
5.525
0.310 [0.233;0.384]
2.735 [1.829 ; 5.601]
5
2.77x +6.33
4.444
0.219 [0.137;0.284]
1.507 [1.060 ; 2.971]
6
2.41x +7.59
2.672
0.084 [0.004 ; 0.162]
0.777 [0.518 ; .892]
7
2.16x +7.94
0.813
0.044
0.518
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 616
Further studies should evaluate the safety and toxicity of M. pulegium oil to human
consumption before their use for medicinal and food purposes.
Acknowledgments
We extend our sincere thanks to Mr M. Ibn Tattou, Professor at the Scientific Institute of
Rabat, for the identification of the studied species. We also thank so much Mr R. Guentouri
for his contribution to the manuscript.
References
1- A. Zargari, Herbal Medicines. 1st Edt, Publication of Tehran University, Tehran. 1990.
14-18.
2- A. El Fadl, and N. Chtaina, Etude de base sur la culture de la menthe du Maroc.
Programme Régional de lutte intégrée contre les organismes nuisibles (Integrated Pest
Management) au Proche Orient. 2010, Report, Office National de sécurité sanitaire des
produits alimentaires (ONSSA).
3- J.E. Simon, A.F. Chadwick, L.E. Craker, An Indexed Bibliography: 19711980: The
Scientific Literature on Select Herbs, and Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of the Temperate
Zone. Elsevier, 1984, Amsterdam, New York.
4- M. Mkaddem, M. Bousaid, and N. Ben Fadhel, Variability of volatiles in 9 Tunisian
Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae), Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2007, 19, 211-215.
5- A. Bouyanzer, B. Hammouti, and L. Majidi, Pennyroyal oil from Mentha pulegium as
corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 M HCl. Materials Letters. 2006, 60, 28402843.
6- J.C. Chalchat, M.S. Gorunovic, Z.A. Maksimovic, and S.D. Petrovic, Essential oil of wild
growing Mentha pulegium L. from Yugoslavia, J. Essential Oil Res. 2000, 12, 598-600.
7- D. Lorenzo, D. Paz, E. Dellacassa, P. Davies, R. Vila, and S. Canigueral, Essential Oils of
Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay. Braz.Arch.Biol.Technol. 2002,
45 (2), 519-524.
8- A. Stoyanova, V. Georgie, J. Kula, and T. Majda, Chemical composition of the essential oil
of Mentha pulegium from Bulgaria, J.Essential Oil Research. 2005, 17, 475-477.
9- A.H. El-Ghorab, The chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. essential oil from
Egypt and its antioxidant activity, J. Ess. Oil Bearing Plant. 2006, 9, 183-195.
10- M. Mahboubi, and G. Haghi, Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Mentha
pulegium L. essential oil Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008, 119(2), 325-329.
11- N. Benayad, Les huiles essentielles extraites des plantes médicinales marocaines: Moyen
efficace de lutte contre les ravageurs des denrées alimentaires stockées. Research
Project. University of Sciences, Rabat (Maroc), 2008. 63p.
12- H. Hajlaoui, N. Trabelsi, E. Noumi, M. Snoussi, H. Fallah, R. Ksouri, and A. Bakhrouf,
Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of tow cultivated mint
species (Mentha longifolia and Mentha pulegium) used in the Tunisian folkloric medicine.
Springer Science. World. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009, 25, 2227-2238.
13- E. Derwich, Z. Benziane, and A. Boukir, GC/MS Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of
the Essential Oil of Mentha Pulegium. J.Agr.Biol.Sc. 2010, 6(3), 191-198,
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 617
14- A. Boughdad, R. Elkasimi, and M. Kharchafi, Activité insecticide des huiles essentielles
de Mentha Sur Callosobrochus maculatus (F) (Coleoptera, Bruchidea). AFPP Neuvième
Conférence Internationale sur les ravageurs en Agriculture. Montpellier 26 and 27
October 2011, 9p.
15- J. Bruneton, Pharmacognosie, Phytochimie et plantes médicinales. 4rtEdt. Technique et
Documentation. 2009, 1268p.
16- B. Marzouk, M. Ben Hadj Fredj, I. Chraief, M. Mastouri, K. Boukef, and Z. Marzouk,
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Tunisian Mentha
pulegium L. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. 2008, 6(1), 78- 82.
17- N.H. Jazani, H. Ghasemnejad-Berenji, and S. Sadegpoor, Antibacterial Effects of Iranian
Mentha pulegium Essential Oil on Isolates of Klebsiella sp. Pakistan J.Biol.Sc. 2009, 12
(2), 183-185.
18 -B. Chebli, M. Achouri, L.M. Idrissi Hassani, and M. Hmamouchi, Chemical composition
and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis
cinerea, J.Ethnopharmacology. 2003, 89, Issue 1, 165-169.
19- S. Hmiri, M. Rahouti, Z. Habib, B. Satrani, M. Ghanmi and M. El Ajjouri, Évaluation du
potentiel antifongique des huiles essentielles de Mentha pulegium et d’Eucalyptus
Camaldulensis dans la lutte biologique contre les champignons responsables de la
détérioration des pommes en conservation. Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de
Liège. 2011, 80, 824 836.
20- L. Alpsoy, H. Sahin, S. Karaman, Anti-oxidative and anti-genotoxic effects of methanolic
extract of Mentha pulegium on human lymphocyte culture. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011,
27(7), 647-654.
21- G, Franzios, M. Mirotsou, E. Hatziapostolou, J. Kral , G.Z. Scouras, and P. Mavragani-
Tsipidou, Insecticidal and genotoxic activities of mint essential oils. J. Agric Food Chem.,
1997, 45, 2690-2694.
22- M. Watt, Natural toxins in traditional medicines some myths removed. Revised 2006;
Published first by the Aromatic Thyms (1995), 3(4), 22-30.
23- Scientific Committee on Food, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on pulegone
and menthofuran. 2002. Report published on
http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out133_en.pdf
24 - R. Guba, Toxicity Myths The Actual Risks Of Essential Oil Use. Inter J. Aromatherapy.
2000, 10, Issue 1-2, 37-49.
25- E. Kováts, Gas chromatographic characterization of organic substances in the retention
index system. Advances in Chromatography. 1965, 1, 229-247.
26- R.P. Adams, Identification of Essential Oils Components by Gas Chromatography
Quadrupole Mass Spectroscopy. Allured: Carol Stream, IL. 4rd Edt. 2007. 804p.
27- J.B., Harborne, Phytochemical methods. London, Chapman and Hall, Ltd. 3rd Edt. 1998,
320p.
28- K. N’Guessan, B. Kadja, G.N. Zirihi, D. Traoré, and L. Aké-Assi, Screening
phytochimique de quelques plantes médicinales ivoiriennes utilisées en pays Krobou
(Agboville, Côte-d’Ivoire). Sciences et Nature. 2009, 6 (1), 1-15.
29- E.L. Kaplan and P. Meier, Nonparametric Estimation from Incomplete Observations.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1958, 53 (282), 457- 481
30- E.T. Lee, and J.W. Wang, Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis, 3rdEdt. Wiley-
Interscience, Boulder, CO, USA. 2003, 513p.
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 618
31- D.J. Finney, Probit analysis. 3rd Edt. Cambridge University Press. London. UK.1971,
333p.
32- R. Karousou, D.N. Koureas, and S. Kokkini, Essential oil composition is related to the
natural habitats: Coridothymus capitatus and Satureja thymbra in NATURA 2000 sites of
Crete. Photochemistry. 2005, 66, 2668-2673.
33- M. Kelen, and B. Tepe, Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties
of the essential oils of three Salvia species from Turkish flora. Bioresource
Technology.2008, 99, 4096- 410.
34- M. Ismaili Alaoui, B. Benjilali, and R. Azerad, Application des biotransformations à la
valorisation des plantes aromatiques. In : Actes du congrès international sur les plantes
aromatiques et leurs huiles essentielles. B. Benjilali, M. Ettaibi, M. Ismaili Alaoui &
S.Zrira (eds). 1997, 349-362.
35- A. Ait-Ouazzou, S. Lorán, A. Arakrak, A. Laglaoui, C. Rota, A. Herrera, R. Pagán,
Evaluation of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Mentha pulegium,
Juniperus phoenicea, and Cyperus longus essential oils from Morocco. Food Research
International. 2011, 1-7.
36- N. Beghidja, N. Bouslimani, F. Benayache, S. Banayache and J C. Chalchat, Composition
of the oils from Mentha pulegium Grown in different areas of the east of Algeria,
Published in Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii. 2007, 4, 394-395.
37- B. Teixeira, A. Marques, C. Ramos, I. Batista, C. Serrano, O. Matos, N.R. Neng, J.M.F.
Nogueira, J.A. Saraiva, and M.L. Nunes, European pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) from
Portugal: Chemical composition of essential oil and antioxidant and antimicrobial
properties of extracts and essential oil. Industrial Crops and Products. 2012, 36, 81-87.
38- G.R. Kabran, N.C. Ambeu, J.A. Mamyrbékova-Békro, and Y.A. Békro, CCM d’extraits
sélectifs de 10 plantes utilisées dans le traitement Traditionnel du Cancer du sein en Côte
d’Ivoire. Europ.J.Scientific.Research. 2011, 63 (4), 592-603.
39- D. D’Abrosca, S. Pacifico, G. Cefarelli, C. Mastellone, and A. Fiorentino, ‘Limoncella’
apple, an Italian apple cultivar: Phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity.
Food Chemistry. 2007, 104, 1333-1337.
40- G. Di Carlo, N. Mascolo, A.A. Izzo, and F. Capasso, 1999. Flavonoids: Old and new
aspects of a class of natural therapeutic drugs; Life Sciences, 65 (4), 337-353.
41- SA. Abdelgaleil, MI. Mohamed, ME. Badawy, SA. El-Arami, Fumigant and Contact
Toxicities of Monoterpenes to Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)
and their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity. J Chem.Ecol. 2009, 35,
518525.
42- L.L. Karr, C.D. Drewes, and J.R. Coats, Toxic effects of d-limonene in the earthworm
Eiseniafetida (Savigny). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 1990, 36, 175-186.
43- Z. Bouchikhi Tani , M. Bendahou, and M.A. Khelil, Lutte contre la Bruche
Acanthoscelides Obtectus et la mite Tineola Bisselliella par les huiles essentielles
extraites de deux plantes aromatiques d’Algérie. Lebanese Science Journal. 2010, 11 (1).
44- M. El Arch, B. Satrani, A. Farah, L. Bennani, D. Boriky, M. Fechtal, M. Blaghen, and M,
Talbi, Composition chimique et activités antimicrobienne et insecticide de l’huile
essentielle de Mentha rotundifolia du Maroc. Acta Bot. Gallica. 2003, 150, 267-274.
45- S. Hannin, K. Bourarach, M. Ismaili-Alaoui, and B. Benjilali, Activité insecticide de
Mentha pulegium vis-à-vis de Rhyzoptera dominica, Sitophilus oryzae et Tribolium
castaneum. Actes Editions, Rabat. 1997, 311-315.
Mediterr.J.Chem., 2012, 2(4), N. Zekri et al. 619
46- L.S.T. Ngamo, and Th, Hance, Diversité des ravageurs des denrées et méthodes
alternatives de lutte en milieu tropical. Tropicultura. 2007, 25(4), 215-220.
47- A.F. Ndomo, A.L. Tapondjou, F. Tendonkeng, and F.M. Tchouanguep, Evaluation des
propriétés insecticides des feuilles de Callistemon viminalis (Myrtaceae) contre les adultes
d’Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera; Bruchidae).Tropicultura. 2009, 27(3), 137-
14.
48- M.D. López, and M.J. Pascual-Villalobos, Mode of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by
monoterpenoids and implications for pest control. Industrial Crops and Products. 2010,
31, 284288.
49- D.N. Price, and M.S. Berry, Comparison of effects octopamine and insecticidal
essential oils on activity in the nerve cord, foregut, and dorsal unpaired median neurons of
cockroaches. J.Insect Physiology. 2006, 52, 309-319.
... The incubation was set at 37°C for 24 h for bacteria and 30°C for 48 h for yeast. Each test was repeated three times under the same experimental conditions [21,22]. The results give the MIC as the lowest concentration of EO for which we do not observe growth with the naked eye. ...
... Concerning M. pulegium, the yield of the dried aerial parts was 3.30% in the North of Morocco [21]. These results were confirmed in our study and were in contrast with those done in the region of Khenifra (6.2%), Azrou (5.9%), and M'rirt (5.29%) [22]. Chromatographic analyses of EOs have identified 29 compounds, which presented approximately 99.13% for M. pulegium against 16 compounds (93.52%) for R. officinalis ( Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aimed to study the antimicrobial activity, chemical composition, and acute oral toxicity of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis, two aromatic and medicinal plants widely used in the traditional Moroccan pharmacopeia. The average content of EOs was 3.2 and 2.5% for M. pulegium and R. officinalis, respectively. The chemical characterization showed a richness in some compounds identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS): R(+)-Pulegone (45.48%), Menthone (14.2%), Piperitone (8.15%), and Isomenthone (7.18%) in M. pulegium and 1,8-Cineole (46.32%), Camphene (13.4%), and α-Pinene (9.52%) in R. officinalis. These metabolites showed a significant antimicrobial effect against the tested strains (bacteria and yeasts isolated from the hospital environment) compared to synthetic antibiotics that seem to be ineffective against resistant microorganisms. Based on lethal concentration LD50 >5,000 mg/kg (body weight), the oil was found to be marginally safe according to OECD guidelines and can be further explored (bio-product with low risk).
... The incubation was set at 37°C for 24 h for bacteria and 30°C for 48 h for yeast. Each test was repeated three times under the same experimental conditions [21,22]. The results give the MIC as the lowest concentration of EO for which we do not observe growth with the naked eye. ...
... Concerning M. pulegium, the yield of the dried aerial parts was 3.30% in the North of Morocco [21]. These results were confirmed in our study and were in contrast with those done in the region of Khenifra (6.2%), Azrou (5.9%), and M'rirt (5.29%) [22]. Chromatographic analyses of EOs have identified 29 compounds, which presented approximately 99.13% for M. pulegium against 16 compounds (93.52%) for R. officinalis ( Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aimed to study the antimicrobial activity, chemical composition, and acute oral toxicity of essential oils (EOs) of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis, two aromatic and medicinal plants widely used in the traditional Moroccan pharmacopeia. The average content of EOs was 3.2 and 2.5% for M. pulegium and R. officinalis, respectively. The chemical characterization showed a richness in some compounds identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS): R(+)-Pulegone (45.48%), Menthone (14.2%), Piperitone (8.15%), and Isomenthone (7.18%) in M. pule-gium and 1,8-Cineole (46.32%), Camphene (13.4%), and α-Pinene (9.52%) in R. officinalis. These metabolites showed a significant antimicrobial effect against the tested strains (bacteria and yeasts isolated from the hospital environment) compared to synthetic antibiotics that seem to be ineffective against resistant microorganisms. Based on lethal concentration LD 50 >5,000 mg/kg (body weight), the oil was found to be marginally safe according to OECD guidelines and can be further explored (bio-product with low risk).
... Sublethal concentrations of the bio-acaricide Biomite caused a significant reduction in agespecific fecundity and survival curves of Neoseiulus californicus (Havasi et al., 2020). The variability in results could be due to the susceptibility of different species, experiment methods, different chemical constituents, formulations, and the concentrations tested (Obeng-Ofori et al., 1997;Zekri et al., 2013). The assessments of population growth and reproductive rates of treated and untreated females of A. swirskii showed that the examined essential oils did not negatively affect r, λ, R 0 , and GRR of the predatory mite at the highest concentrations. ...
Article
Full-text available
The generalist predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii is a widely used natural enemy of phytophagous pests. Due to the negative effects of conventional pesticides on non-target organisms, the development of selective natural and eco-friendly pesticides, such as essential plant oils, are useful pest control tools to use in synergy with biological control agents. Essential oils of Nepeta crispa, Satureja hortensis, and Anethum graveolens showed promising results to control Tetranychus urticae. Hence an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of these essential oils on the biochemical and demographic parameters of A. swirskii. A significant reduction of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein contents of oil-treated predatory mites was observed. However, essential oils of S. hortensis and A. graveolens had no effect on lipid reserves. The glutathione S-transferase activity of A. swirskii was influenced by A. graveolens oil treatment. In addition, the enzyme activity of the a-esterases was elevated by all treatments. The essential oils showed no effect on �-esterases activity compared to the control treatment. None of the concentrations of the different tested oils affected the population growth parameters of A. swirskii. However, a significant reduction was observed in oviposition time and total fecundity of predatory mites. A population projection predicted the efficacy of predatory mites will likely be decreased when expose to the essential oils; however, population growth in the S. hortensis treatment was faster than in the other two treatments not including the control. The results presented in this study may have critical implications for integrated pest management (IPM) programs. However, our observations show that using the tested essential plant oils requires some caution when considered as alternatives to synthetic pesticides, and in combination with A. swirskii. Semi-field and field studies are still required to evaluate the effects on T. urticae and A. swirskii of the essential oils tested in this study, before incorporating them into IPM strategies.
... The essential oil is obtained mainly from fresh leaves. The following main constituents have been identified: menthon (0.2-79%), isomenton (0.2-9%), menthol (0.01-30%) and neomenthol (0.1-4.2%) ( Refs 6,15,16). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present paper was to study two of the Lamiaceae family representatives mint and thyme due to their chemical composition. Based on the main components in peppermint and thyme oils, the thermodynamic phase diagrams for the vapour-liquid balance of the essential oil-water system were constructed. Crops widespread and grown in Bulgaria, such as three types of mint (hot, curly, and marsh) and thyme (garden and wild), were used. The theoretical number of plates was determined according to the graph-analytical method of McCabe and Thiele. The actual number of plates and height of a cohobation column processing primary distillation waters from peppermint and thyme oils were also calculated. The calculations were made for two concentrations of primary distillation waters-average and maximum.
... Goodarzi and Nanekarani [52] reported that the application of 2% of pennyroyal medicinal plants in the diets of broilers has positive impacts on their performance and carcass traits. Pennyroyal oil has indicated a dominant fumigant impact against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) adults, and this effect is affected by the tested doses and exposure periods [53]. The notable pharmaceutical benefits of pennyroyal are shown in Table 1. ...
Article
Background Natural herbal medicines may contribute to prevent and treat various diseases, and they have substantial medicinal properties. Objective The goal of this manuscript is to survey natural benefits, chemical components, and medicinal values of pennyroyal. Methods The goal of this manuscript was to outline the most notable advantages and pharmaceutical benefits of pennyroyal. The manuscript includes review articles, randomized control experiments, analytical studies and observations, which have been gathered from different sources such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed. A review of the literature was carried out using the keywords such as pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium L., natural products and pharmaceutical benefits. Results The major pennyroyal essential oils are pulegone, menthone, isomenthone, piperitone, mentol, neo-menthol and 3-Octanol. The major health benefits of pennyroyal are antiseptic, depurative, digestive, anti-rheumatic, anti-arthritic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, stomachic, astringent, emmenagogue, decongestant and insecticide. Conclusion Nutrition therapy on the basis of traditional medicinal science is definitely useful for treating common diseases. Pennyroyal has notable promising health benefits, and its phytochemical and pharmacological benefits indicate its importance in modern medicinal studies.
... These results corroborate previous works on the chemical composition of M. communis essential oil (Aouadi et al. 2020), whereas they contradict the results of Beghidja et al. (2007), Zekri et al. (2013), Ouakouak et al. (2015); Abdelli et al. (2016) stipulating that Algerian pennyroyal oils are characterized by the predominance of pulegone. Likewise, Tunisian (Snoussi et al. 2008;Hajlaoui et al. 2009), Portuguese (Rodrigues et al. 2013), Moroccan (Farah et al. 2001;Chebli, et al. 2003;Ouraini et al. 2005;Ouraini et al. 2007), Brazilian (Silva et al. 2015), Uruguayan (Lorenzo et al. 2002), Egyptian (El Ghorab 2006 and Yugoslavian (Teixeira et al. 2012) M. pulegium essential oils are reported to be predominantly pulegone. ...
Article
Essential oils are a real ore rich in bioactive compounds characterized by a wide spectrum of various biological activities. In this context, our research focused on the study of the chemical composition of Mentha pulegium and Myrtus communis essential oils growing in Northeast Algeria as well as the exploration of their antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo against Botrytis cinerea responsible for moulding on strawberries. GC-MS analysis indicated that M. pulegium essential oil was an isomenthone chemotype (55.59%) while M. communis essential oil was characterized as a eucalyptol chemotype (36.82%). M. pulegium essential oil expressed the best antifungal activity either with poisonous medium method (MIC = MFC:2.66 µl/ ml) or with volatile activity method (MIC:30 µl) compared to M. communis essential oil, (MIC:5.33 µl/ml, MFC:10.66 µl/ml) which expressed no volatile activity. Both crude oils completely inhibited the germination of B. cinerea spores and resulted in up to 88% morphological changes in conidia. In vivo tests have revealed the effectiveness of M. pulegium essential oil in completely suppressing grey mould from strawberries previously inoculated with conidia of B. cinerea by direct contact or exposure to vapours. M. pulegium essential oil display weak phytotoxicity towards fumigated strawberries at low temperatures (T < 16 °C). This low phytotoxicity was confirmed by the preservation of some physical parameters of strawberries stored at 7 °C such as colour and weight loss.
... These results corroborate previous works on the chemical composition of M. communis essential oil (Aouadi et al. 2020), whereas they contradict the results of Beghidja et al. (2007), Zekri et al. (2013), Ouakouak et al. (2015); Abdelli et al. (2016) stipulating that Algerian pennyroyal oils are characterized by the predominance of pulegone. Likewise, Tunisian (Snoussi et al. 2008;Hajlaoui et al. 2009), Portuguese (Rodrigues et al. 2013), Moroccan (Farah et al. 2001;Chebli, et al. 2003;Ouraini et al. 2005;Ouraini et al. 2007), Brazilian (Silva et al. 2015), Uruguayan (Lorenzo et al. 2002), Egyptian (El Ghorab 2006 and Yugoslavian (Teixeira et al. 2012) M. pulegium essential oils are reported to be predominantly pulegone. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils are a real ore rich in bioactive compounds characterized by a wide spectrum of various biological activities. In this context, our research focused on the study of the chemical composition of Mentha pulegium and Myrtus communis essential oils growing in Northeast Algeria as well as the exploration of their antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo against Botrytis cinerea responsible for moulding on strawberries. GC-MS analysis indicated that M. pulegium essential oil was an isomenthone chemotype (55.59%) while M. communis essential oil was characterized as a eucalyptol chemotype (36.82%). M. pulegium essential oil expressed the best antifungal activity either with poisonous medium method (MIC = MFC:2.66 µl/ ml) or with volatile activity method (MIC:30 µl) compared to M. communis essential oil, (MIC:5.33 µl/ml, MFC:10.66 µl/ml) which expressed no volatile activity. Both crude oils completely inhibited the germination of B. cinerea spores and resulted in up to 88% morphological changes in conidia. In vivo tests have revealed the effectiveness of M. pulegium essential oil in completely suppressing grey mould from strawberries previously inoculated with conidia of B. cinerea by direct contact or exposure to vapours. M. pulegium essential oil display weak phytotoxicity towards fumigated strawberries at low temperatures (T < 16 °C). This low phytotoxicity was confirmed by the preservation of some physical parameters of strawberries stored at 7 °C such as colour and weight loss.
... In folk medicine, it is used as carminative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, stimulant, sedative, antiseptic bronchitis, diuretic, and for skin diseases (Lawrence, 2007). The essential oil of this plant has antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activity (Teixeria et al., 2012;Zekri et al., 2013). Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) belongs to the Apiaceae family. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of essential oils (EOs) from Ferulago angulata (F), Mentha pulegium (M), and Cuminum cyminum (C) was considered on oxidative stability of frying oil during frying of potato slices. The EOs were applied in concentrations of 200 and 400 ppm and a mixture sample (140 ppm of each essential oil). Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) was used as a standard at 100 ppm. The efficacy of EOs was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and parameters of free fatty acid content (FFA), peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (P-AnV), total polar content (TPC), and sensory evaluation during three cycles frying. The scavenging activity of TBHQ was higher followed by M-400, F-400, M-200, C-400, C-200, Mixture, and F-200, respectively. The obtained results from chemical parameters were in agreement with each other and except acidity, the content of PV, P-AnV, and TPC almost in all samples containing EOs were higher than the control during cycles of frying. Sensory evaluation data also showed the superiority of synthetic antioxidant followed by control and EOs. According to the results, EOs had a weak antioxidant effect on frying oil due to their volatility and sensitivity to high temperatures during frying.
Chapter
Full-text available
The genus Mentha L. (Lamiaceae), comprising more than twenty-five species, is responsible for approximately 2000 of the world essential oil, making it the second most important essential oil-producing genus, after Citrus. Mentha species from different geographical regions with their insecticidal (repellent, antifeedant, and ovicidal) and antimicrobial efficacies against bacterial, fungal plant pathogens and insects of stored products. Reports of the researchers on chemical analysis of essential oils of Mentha species revealed that most of the oils being rich in pulegone, menthon, menthol, carvone, 1, 8- -caryophyllene. Mentha species offer the prospect of using them as natural pesticides with a commercial value, having social acceptance due to its sustainability and being environment friendly. Menthol is the major derivative product of Mentha species and is widely used in pharmaceuticals, tobacco products, perfumery, aromatherapy, toothpastes, soaps, cosmetics, oral preparations, confectionaries and even in cigarettes.
Thesis
Full-text available
The green synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles from plant extracts is a promising alternative to the traditional method of physical or chemical synthesis. In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using several plant extracts (The leaves of Mentha Pulegium L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso., and the fruit peel of Punica Granatum L.) as iron ion bioreducing agents for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. In fact, to improve the size of these particles, we relied on the study of two variables: plant extracts and the concentration of ferric chloride. Then, the properties of the green synthetic iron oxide nanoparticles were studied by the following techniques: UV-Vis UV, FT-IR infrared, X-ray diffraction and SEM scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the antioxidant activity of NPs was evaluated by the tests, namely: CAT, FRAP, and DPPH. Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) analysis shows maximum absorption in the range 301-270 nm belonging to FeO. FT-IR spectra show two distinct peaks at 510 and 594 cm-1, which are attributed to the FeO vibration. In addition, X-rays confirmed the crystalline nature of the particles of the α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 phases with an average size between 21.62 and 34.28 nm. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image shows that the obtained nanoparticles generally have a cubic shape and some are irregular, however, the evaluation of the antioxidant efficiency revealed that all the samples have great reducing power and Trapping Free Radicals.
Article
Full-text available
In order to explore ways of biocontrol against fungal rot of apples in storage, testing the antifungal activity of essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been made. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essence of M. pulegium is dominated by pulegone (80.28 %), while that of E. camaldulensis has 1,8-cineole (42.30 %) and a-pinene (28.30 %) as major components. Antifungal activity of these oils has been studied against Alternaria alternata and Pénicillium expansum by the technique of micro-atmosphere. It is the essential oil of M. pulegium which was the most active, 10 μl extract were sufficient to completely inhibit mycelial growth of both fungi, while it took 30 μl of essential oil of E. camaldulensis to get the same effect on both fungi. The inhibitory effect of these oils suggests prospects for application in the field of conservation of certain foods (apples, pears, etc.). Eucalyptus camaldulensis,.
Article
Full-text available
Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to describe the chemical composition of Tunisian Mentha pulegium L. essential oils from Monastir and to test their antibacterial activity. The essential oils, obtained from fresh and dried aerial parts by hydrodistillation, were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The leaf extracts were used to test the antimicrobial activity against nine hospital bacteria and five reference strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and the minimum bactericidal concentrations were determinated by sub-culture at TSA agar plates which were incubated at 37°C during 18-24 h. Thirty four compounds were identified. All the oils were found to be rich in oxygen monoterpen hydrocarbons. The oils tested displayed antimicrobial activities. Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and Enterococcus faecalis were the most sensitive strains. Gram-positive strains are more susceptible to the essential oils from the fresh leaves collected at the vegetative state than from the dried ones.
Article
In the setting of this work that is a contribution to phytochemical survey of medicinal plants of Ivorian flora, we were interested from an ethnobotanical investigation to 10 plants Baphia nitida (Fabaceae), Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaeceae), Combretum paniculatum (Combretaceae), Anthocleista djalonensis (Loganiaceae), Ageratum conyzoïdes (Asteraceae), Monodora myristica (Anonnaceae), Piper guineense (Piperaceae), Mallotus oppositifolius (Euphorbiaceae), Ximenia americana (Olacaceae) and Desmodium adscendens (Fabaceae), used traditionally in the treatment of breast cancer in Côte d'Ivoire. By means of TLC, identification and characterization of different families of secondary metabolites as well as tracking of antioxidant activity have been achieved from selective excerpts (hexanic, chloroformic, acetate ethylic and n-butanolic) of aforesaid plants organs.
Chapter
There is only one cause of failure in the proportional hazard model for identification of important prognostic factors, in which the covariates are assumed to be independent of time, that is, the event or failure is allowed to occur only once for each person, and there is no correlation among failure times of different persons. However, in practice, failure may be due to more than one event or cause, the same event or failure may recur during a follow-up study, and the event or failure time observed may be from related persons in a family or from the same person at different times. In this chapter we discuss several models for these situations. The first two models are extensions of the proportional hazards model to handle time-dependent covariates and to perform stratified analysis. Other models introduced in this chapter are for multiple causes of failure, recurrent events, and related observations. The chapter concludes with a problem solving section.
Article
The chemical composition and the antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oil in Mentha rotundifolia were studied. The essential oil is rich in pulegone (85%). The susceptibility of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), fungi (Trametes pini, Aspergillus niger, Pénicillium parasiticus) and insects of cereal (Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus oryzae) with respect to the essential oil of Mentha rotundifolia was studied at different concentrations. At the 1/1000V/V concentration, the essential oil inhibited all bacteria and fungi, whereas at 6,5.10−2 ml/cm3 concentration, the essential oil destroyed all cereals insects.