ArticlePDF Available

Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Zangeneh, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). Work-related mental health and job performance: Can mindfulness help? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12, 129-137

  • Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation, Mindfulness & Psychological Research


Work-related mental health issues such as work-related stress and addiction to work impose a significant health and economic burden to the employee, the employing organization, and the country of work more generally. Interventions that can be empirically shown to improve levels of work-related mental health—especially those with the potential to concurrently improve employee levels of work performance—are of particular interest to occupational stakeholders. One such broad-application interventional approach currently of interest to occupational stakeholders in this respect is mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Following a brief explication of the mindfulness construct, this paper critically discusses current research directions in the utilization of mindfulness in workplace settings and assesses its suitability for operationalization as an organization-level work-related mental health intervention. By effecting a perceptual-shift in the mode of responding and relating to sensory and cognitive-affective stimuli, employees that undergo mindfulness training may be able to transfer the locus of control for stress from external work conditions to internal metacognitive and attentional resources. Therefore, MBIs may constitute cost-effective organization-level interventions due to not actually requiring any modifications to human resource management systems and practises. Based on preliminary empirical findings and on the outcomes of MBI studies with clinical populations, it is concluded that MBIs appear to be viable interventional options for organizations wishing to improve the mental health of their employees.
Work-Related Mental Health and Job Performance:
Can Mindfulness Help?
William Van Gordon &Edo Shonin &Masood Zangeneh &
Mark D. Griffiths
#Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Abstract Work-related mental health issues such as work-related stress and addiction to work
impose a significant health and economic burden to the employee, the employing organization,
and the country of work more generally. Interventions that can be empirically shown to
improve levels of work-related mental healthespecially those with the potential to concur-
rently improve employee levels of work performanceare of particular interest to occupa-
tional stakeholders. One such broad-application interventional approach currently of interest to
occupational stakeholders in this respect is mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Follow-
ing a brief explication of the mindfulness construct, this paper critically discusses current
research directions in the utilization of mindfulness in workplace settings and assesses its
suitability for operationalization as an organization-level work-related mental health interven-
tion. By effecting a perceptual-shift in the mode of responding and relating to sensory and
cognitive-affective stimuli, employees that undergo mindfulness training may be able to
transfer the locus of control for stress from external work conditions to internal metacognitive
and attentional resources. Therefore, MBIs may constitute cost-effective organization-level
interventions due to not actually requiring any modifications to human resource management
systems and practises. Based on preliminary empirical findings and on the outcomes of MBI
studies with clinical populations, it is concluded that MBIs appear to be viable interventional
options for organizations wishing to improve the mental health of their employees.
Keywords Work-related stress .Work addiction .Workaholism .Workp la ce w ell be in g .
Occupational stress .Job Performance .Mindfulness .Meditation .Buddhism
Int J Ment Health Addiction
DOI 10.1007/s11469-014-9484-3
W. Van Go rdon :E. Shonin :M. D. Griffiths
Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Chaucer Building, Burton Street, Nottingham, UK
W. Van Go rdon ( *):E. Shonin
Awake to Wisdom Centre for Meditation, Mindfulness, and Psychological Wellbeing, Nottingham, UK
W. Van Go rdon :E. Shonin
Bodhayati School of Buddhism, Nottingham, UK
M. Zangeneh
Factor-Inwentash, Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Work-related mental health issues can cost the British economy up to £26 Billion per year
(Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health 2007). The most prevalent and empirically researched
complaint is work-related stress (WRS) that accounts for 40 % of all work-related illness in Great
Britain (Health and Safety Executive [HSE] 2012). Approximately 20 % of British adults are
stressed as a result of their work (Houdmont et al. 2011) and 10.4 million working days each year
are lost in Great Britain due to WRS (HSE 2012). A less empirically investigated but equally
consequential work-related mental health issue is work addiction (i.e., workaholism). The
prevalence of work addiction in Western populations is approximately 10 %, although estimates
vary considerably according to how the construct is defined as most definitions of workaholism
are not based on addiction criteria found in other behavioral addictions (Sussman et al. 2011).
There is growing consensus that work addiction is a bone fide mental health issue that for a
minority of employees meets all of the qualifying criteria for classification as a behavioral
addiction (e.g., Griffiths and Karanika-Murray 2012) (i.e., properties of salience, conflict,
mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and relapsesee Griffiths(2005)
components model of addiction). Both WRS and work addiction can lead to serious detri-
mental health and socioeconomic consequences including somatic illness, (comorbid) psycho-
pathology, (concurrent) addictive behavior (both chemical and behavioral), work-related
injury, mortality, reduced productivity, absenteeism, presenteeism, high staff turn-over, unsafe
driving, employee compensation claims, burnout, and work-family conflict (e.g., Cox and
Griffiths 2010; Frone et al. 1994; Griffiths and Karanika-Murray 2012; Manocha et al. 2011;
Wu et al. 2012; Shonin et al. 2014a; Sussman 2012).
Mindfulnessa form of meditation that derives from Buddhist practiceinvolves culti-
vating a full, direct, and active awareness of experienced phenomena that is spiritual in aspect
and that is maintained from one moment to the next. The last two decades have witnessed a
marked increase of empirical investigation into the applications of mindfulness meditation
within public healthcare domains. Indeed, 72 % of UK-based general practitioners believe that
patients can improve their health by practicing mindfulness meditation (Mental Health Foun-
dation 2010). Similarly, certain mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have now been
advocated by both the (British) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE)
and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for the treatment of specific forms of
depression (APA 2010;NICE2009).
In addition to depression and other mood disorders, MBIs have been shown to be effective
in helping treat a broad range of mental health problems and somatic illnesses including
anxiety disorders (Chiesa and Serretti 2011), problem gambling (de Lisle et al. 2011),
schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (Shonin et al. 2013a,b), anger dysregulation (Singh et al.
2013a), and cancer (Arias et al. 2006). In addition to applications within clinical populations,
MBIs have also been shown to facilitate significant improvements in cognitive function and
task performance in healthy adults (e.g., Chiesa et al. 2011; Eberth and Sedlmeier 2012).
Karanika-Murray and Weyman (2013) have argued that there is scope for transferring
protocols for interventions that are demonstrably efficacious in public healthcare contexts into
occupational and organizational domains. Accordingly, in the last few years there has been
growing scientific interest into the applications of mindfulness in the workplace setting. Of
particular interest and relevance to occupational stakeholders is the potential of MBIs to
concurrently improve work-related mental health and job performance. Following a brief
explication of the mindfulness construct, this paper critically discusses current research
directions in the utilization of mindfulness in workplace settings and assesses its suitability
for operationalization as an organization-level work-related mental health intervention.
Int J Ment Health Addiction
The Mindfulness Construct
According to Buddhist thought, individuals have a tendency to ruminate about the past and/or
rush towards the ungraspablefuture (i.e., the future is ungraspablebecause it never
materializesit is always the present) (Shonin et al. 2014b). The Buddhist teachings explicate
that this behavioral trait of not being fully presentcan corrupt an individualsperceptionof
reality, and relative to a realized mindfulness/spiritual practitioner, it reduces their experience
of existence to that of a walking corpse(Shonin et al. 2014b). Thus, mindfulness is
traditionally viewed as a means of waking-upfrom the sleep of corpse-likeunawareness
so that an individual can begin to observe, experience, and consciously participate in the
present moment. Although there is still an absence of consensus in the literature of both
Western medicine and psychology as to what defines the mindfulness construct, there is a
reasonable degree of accord amongst academicians that mindfulness: (i) is fundamentally
concerned with becoming more aware of the present moment, (ii) can (and should) be
practiced during everyday activities and not just when seated in meditation, (iii) is cultivated
more easily by using a meditative anchor(e.g., observing the breath), (iv) is a practice that
requires deliberate effort and (v) is concerned with observing both sensory and cognitive-
affective processes. Key areas of discord amongst Western psychologists in terms of an
accurate working definition for mindfulness are as follows:
1. Non-judgemental awareness: The most popular delineation of mindfulness employed in
the Western psychological literature is that proposed by Kabat-Zinn who defines mind-
fulness as paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and
non-judgmentally(1994, p.4). Proponents of this definition contend that the term non-
judgementalis appropriate because it infers that mindfulness involves the acceptance
(i.e., rather than the rejecting or ignoring) of present-moment sensory and cognitive-
affective experiences. However, it might also be argued that the term non-judgementalis
too ambiguous because it conceivably implies that the mindfulness practitioner is essen-
tially indifferentand does not seek to discern which cognitive, emotional, and behavioral
responses are conducive to ethically-wholesome conduct (Shonin et al. 2014b).
2. Insight generation: In the Western psychological literature, the terms vipassana medita-
tionand insight meditationare often regarded as being synonymous with the term
mindfulness meditation(e.g., Bowen et al. 2006; Chiesa 2010). However, this portrayal
of vipassana meditation (and insight meditation) is not consistent with the traditional
Buddhist perspective (Shonin et al. 2014b). According to the classical Buddhist literature,
vipassana (a Sanskrit word that means superior seeing) meditation involves the use of
penetrative investigation in order to intuit (for example) the non-self,non-dual,and
emptynature of reality (Dalai Lama and Berzin 1997). Therefore, although mindfulness
meditation is certainly insight-generating in the sense that it can facilitate an intimacy with
the workings of the mind, mindfulness meditationis not insight meditationaccording
to the traditional Buddhist construction.
3. Context for practice: Mindfulness is traditionally practiced in the context of spiritual
development. Indeed, within Buddhism, mindfulness is practiced in conjunction with
numerous other spiritual practices and is just one aspect (in fact, the seventh aspect) of
a key Buddhist teaching known as the Noble Eightfold Path (Van Gordon et al. 2013). At
its essence, the Noble Eightfold Path elucidates that the successful establishment of
mindfulness relies upon a deep-seated understanding of the three root spiritual principles
of: (i) wisdom, (ii) meditation, and (iii) ethics (collectively known as the three train-
ings’—Sanksrit: trishiksha). Consequently, there is ongoing scientific debate relating to
Int J Ment Health Addiction
whether mindfulness needs to be practiced within the wider context of spiritual develop-
ment (i.e., as opposed to the sole purpose of overcoming a health complaint or for
personal and/or career development).
As a spiritual phenomenon, it is probable that certain dimensions of the mindfulness
construct will always remain ineffable and only ever fully understood by those individuals
who can tap into them on the experiential rather than the academic plane (Shonin et al. 2014b).
As such, it is unlikely that an absoluteand all-encompassing definition of mindfulness will
ever be operationalized. However, in so far as this represents a problem, it can be easily
reconciled if academicians are prepared to accept that the definition of mindfulness will vary
depending on whether one is interested in mindfulness from a social, psychological, clinical, or
spiritual context, or from the perspective of a researcher, clinician, or a practitioner, and their
various combinations(Singh et al. 2008, p.661).
Mindfulness in the Workplace: Current Research Directions
In light of the significant health and economic burden imposed by WRS and addiction to work,
various initiatives have been implemented in recent years with the objective of improving
levels of work-related wellbeing via the cultivation and enhancement of healthy working
environments. Examples are HSE-led schemes such as Management Standards (HSE 2007)
and Health, Work, and Wellbeing (HSE 2008)both of which comply with legislative
requirements of the 2004 European Framework Agreement on Work-Related Stress.Several
recent cross-sectional and intervention studies (e.g., Allen and Kiburz 2012;Malarkeyetal.
2013; Manocha et al. 2011) have directly or indirectly assessed the extent to which MBIs may
present a cost-effective solution for organizations seeking to implement such schemes.
To date, there has been only one cross-sectional study that has explicitly investigated the
relationship between dispositional mindfulness and work-related wellbeing among employed
individuals (i.e., Allen and Kiburz 2012). They found that trait mindfulness was positively
correlated with work-life balance, sleep quality, and vitality in parents (n=131) working more
than 20 h per week. These findings are consistent with a randomized controlled trial (RCT)
involving 178 full-time employees of non-specified work backgrounds (with approximately
50 % not educated beyond secondary school level) that received meditation and mindfulness
training. Meditating participants demonstrated significant reductions compared with the con-
trol group in levels of stress and depression-dejection (Manocha et al. 2011). A more recent
RCT study found that 186 university employees that practiced mindfulness meditation showed
significant increases over controls in levels of dispositional mindfulness (Malarkey et al.
2013). There have also been several controlled intervention studies of individuals employed
in caregiver roles (e.g., primary care physicians, nurses, etc.) that indicate mindfulness can
reduce: (i) the risk of burnout and improve levels of client-centered and empathic care (Krasner
et al. 2009), (ii) levels of WRS (Warneke et al. 2011), and (iii) levels of anxiety and depression
(Kang et al. 2009).
Despite increasing prevalence rates for workaholism, there is a paucity of workaholism
treatment studies, and clinical guidelines tend to be based on either theoretical propositions
(Sussman 2012) and/or anecdotal reports elicited during clinical practice (e.g., Robinson
1998). Indeed, the only published intervention study exploring the effectiveness of meditation
for work addiction is a clinical case study conducted by Shonin et al. (2014a). This study
presented the case of a director of a blue-chip technology company that, based on scores on the
Bergan Work Addiction Scale (Andreassen et al. 2012), demonstrated clinically significant
Int J Ment Health Addiction
improvements in levels of work addiction following completion of an 8-week secular mind-
fulness intervention called Meditation Awareness Training (Van Gordon et al. 2013). Signif-
icant pre-post improvements were also observed for sleep quality, psychological distress, work
duration, and work involvement during non-work hours. However, the single-participant
nature of this study significantly limits the generalizability of these findings.
Other related current research directions involve exploring the utility of mindfulness for
improving job performance. However, such empirical enquiry is notably underdeveloped
(Dane 2011) and is limited to just a few exploratory studies. One such study was a cross-
sectional study of 412 Taiwanese technological company workers that found employee
meditation/mindfulness experience was positively associated with self-directed learning, orga-
nizational innovativeness, and organizational performance (Ho 2011). The aforementioned
MAT case study (i.e., Shonin et al. 2014a) also assessed work performance and found that
mindfulness/meditation lead to improvements in employer-rated job performance.
Mechanisms of Action
The existing conceptualizations of the WRS construct are (in essence) based on an exposure-
environmentalmodel of work stress. In such conceptual models, WRS is invariably opera-
tionalized as a function of the extent to which employees are exposed to sub-optimal working
conditions (see Edwards et al. 2008). Examples of such conditions are: (i) inadequate support
systems, (ii) inflexible working hours, (iii) conflicting demands, (iv) overly-taxing and/or
unrealistic deadlines, and (v) low-work autonomy. This operational model of WRS emphasizes
the importance of the employeesexternalwork environment (i.e., as opposed to their
internalpsychological environment). However, this is a different conceptual approach to
that utilized in the traditional mindfulness and meditation teachings. From the traditional
Buddhist perspective, rather than exact changes to the external work environment, the most
effective means of reducing stress (and all other forms of psychological distress) is to modify
the internal(i.e., psychological) working environment (Nhat Hanh 1999).
By facilitating a perceptual-shift in the mode of responding and relating to sensory and
cognitive-affective stimuli, the meditator is better positioned to objectify their cognitive
processes and to apprehend them as passing phenomena. This manner of transferring the locus
of control for stress from external work conditions to internal metacognitive and attentional
resources can be analogized as the difference between covering the entire outdoors with
leather, versus simply adorning the feet with a leather sole (Santideva 1997). Therefore, MBIs
may be considered as cost-effective organization-level work-related mental health interven-
tions due to them not actually requiring any (externally-orientated) modifications to human
resource management (HRM) systems and practises.
Another important mechanism by which mindfulness is believed to modulate dysphoric
mood states (whether work-related or otherwise) is via the cultivation of compassion and self-
compassion. Research has shown that mindfulness can lead to a greater awareness of the
individuals own suffering and psychological distress, and this helps to embed a greater
awareness of the suffering of others (Shonin et al. 2013c). Accordingly, greater levels of
compassion and self-compassion are thought to lead to improvements in levels of tolerance,
cooperation (e.g., with senior management), and interpersonal skills more generally (Shonin
et al. 2013e). Related to the increased levels of compassion/self-compassion is the growth in
spiritual awareness that is often a consequence of mindfulness practice. Spiritual development
has been shown to broaden perspective and induce a re-evaluation of life priorities in
individuals that are addicted to work (Shonin et al. 2014a). Although superficially this may
Int J Ment Health Addiction
appear to contraindicate job performance, a more balanced level of organizational identifica-
tion is likely to be beneficial for both employees and the organizations they work for.
The acquisition of problematic addictive behaviors, including workaholism, is associated
with maladaptive avoidance strategies that individuals often employ when trying to escape
from negative affective states such as guilt, depression, and anxiety (Griffiths 2005,2013;
Griffiths and Karanika-Murray 2012). Accordingly, in the context of addiction, mental urges
essentially reflect a conscious or sub-conscious wish to modify mood and receive temporary
sensory and/or affective gratification. Mechanisms for the ameliorating effect of mindfulness
meditation on addictive behavior are based on a phenomenon known as urge surfing(Appel
and Kim-Appel 2009). Urge surfing refers to the meditative process of adopting an observa-
tory, non-judgemental, and non-reactive attentional-set that helps to instill an understanding
that mental urges are effectively transient and impermanent in nature. By understanding that
mental urges will arise and subside of their own accord, the meditation practitioner is no longer
at the disposal of habitual compulsive responses but can derive contentment by looking to the
source of their mental urges (i.e., their own mind) and simply observing such urges as transient
mental phenomena.
Breath awarenessa central feature of mindfulness practicehas been shown to moderate
extraneous cognitive activity and help reduce autonomic and psychological arousal via
increases in prefrontal functioning and vagal nerve output (Gillespie et al. 2012). However,
it is important to highlight that the use of breath observance in MBIs does not preclude other
experiences from entering into the attentional sphere. In essence, the breath is used to help
anchor concentration in the here and now, and this concentration is most accurately described
as one that is of a broad (rather than narrow) attentional aspect (Dane 2011; Singh et al. 2008).
As a consequence, mindfulness permits employees to attend with due attention to whatever
tasks they are engaged in, but without becoming so immersed or lost in such tasks that their
situational awareness and cognitive functionality is compromised. Accordingly, although
present-moment (i.e., mindfulness-based) working styles and future-orientated (i.e., goal-
based) working styles appear to involve competing attentional resources, empirical evidence
suggests that mindfulness facilitates rather than impairs goal attainment (see Dane 2011).
Are MBIs Viable as Work-Related Wellbeing Interventions?
As has been demonstrated, there is growing interest amongst occupational stakeholders into
the applications of mindfulness (and related meditative techniques) in workplace settings. The
key strengths of MBIs as work-related mental health interventions are that they are: (i) cost-
effective (e.g., an 8-week group MBI comprising one 2-h session per week that is delivered by
one mindfulness instructor to 16 employees corresponds to just one instructor hour per
employee), (ii) not invasive to the organization (the practice of mindfulness does not neces-
sitate changes to HRM infrastructure), (iii) not invasive to the employee (i.e., there are few
reports of adverse effects associated with MBIs), (iv) acceptable to employees from diverse
cultural, religious, and education backgrounds (i.e., MBIs are typically delivered in secular
format and have been shown to be acceptable for individuals from both ends of the intellectual
functioning continuum [e.g., Singh et al. 2013b; Van Gordon et al. 2013]), (v) functional as on
the jobpractices (i.e., mindfulness can be practiced whilst engaging in work tasks), and (vi)
potentially able to concurrently effectuate improvements in work-related mental health and job
Many of the factors that may impede the operationalization of MBIs within occupational
settings are applicable to all organization-level work-related wellbeing interventions. For
Int J Ment Health Addiction
example, organizations may be reluctant to adopt a strategic approach to employee wellbeing
and may see the roll-out of such interventional initiatives as a threat to short-term revenue-
generation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of any human-taught intervention is significantly
dependent upon the aptitude of the facilitating instructors. This is particularly relevant for
MBIs because it has been argued that there is currently a shortage of suitably experienced
mindfulness/meditation instructors that are able to impart an embodied authentic transmission
of the mindfulness teachings (Shonin et al. 2013d). However, based on the preliminary
empirical findings outlined here, and on the outcomes of MBI studies with clinical popula-
tions, it is concluded that MBIs appear to be viable interventional options for organizations
wishing to improve employee levels of work-related mental health.
Conflicts of Interest The authors have no competing interests to declare.
Allen, T. D., & Kiburz, K. M. (2012). Trait mindfulness and work-family balance among working parents: the
mediating effects of vitality and sleep quality. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 80, 372379.
American Psychiatric Association. (2010). American Psychiatric Association practice guideline for the treatment
of patients with major depressive disorder (3rd ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., Hetland, J., & Pallesen, S. (2012). Development of a work addiction scale.
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53,265272.
Appel, J., & Kim-Appel, D. (2009). Mindfulness: implications for substance abuse and addiction. International
Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 506512.
Arias, A. J., Steinberg, K., Banga, A., & Trestman, R. L. (2006). Systematic review of the efficacy of meditation
techniques as treatments for medical illness. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12,817832.
Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T. M., Chawla, N., Simpson, T. L., Ostafin, B. D., et al. (2006).
Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population. Psychology of Addictive
Behaviours, 20, 243347.
Chiesa, A. (2010). Vipassana meditation: systematic review of current evidence. Journal of Alternative and
Complementary Medicine, 16,3746.
Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2011). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: a systematic
review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 187,441453.
Chiesa, A., Calati, R., & Serretti, A. (2011). Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic
review of neuropsychological findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 449464.
Cox, T., & Griffiths, A. (2010). Work-related stress: A theoretical perspective. In S. Leka & J. Houdmont (Eds.),
A textbook of occupational health psychology (pp. 3156). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Dane, E. (2011). Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of
Management, 37,9971018.
de Lisle, S. M., Dowling, N. A., & Allen, J. S. (2011). Mindfulness and problem gambling: a review of the
literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 71939. doi:10.1007/s10899-011-9284-7.
Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3,174189.
Edwards, J. A., Webster, S., Van Laar, D., & Easton, S. (2008). Psychometric analysis of the UK Health and
Safety Executives Management Standards work-related stress Indicator Tool. In British Academy of
Management Annual Conference,1012 Sep 2008, Harrogate, UK. Available from:
Frone, M., Barnes, G., & Farrell, M. (1994). Relationship of work-family conflict to substance use among
employed mothers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56,10191030.
Gillespie, S. M., Mitchell, I. J., Fisher, D., & Beech, A. R. (2012). Treating disturbed emotional regulation in
sexual offenders: the potential applications of mindful self-regulation and controlled breathing techniques.
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17,333343.
Int J Ment Health Addiction
Griffiths, M. D. (2005). A componentsmodel of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of
Substance Use, 10,191197.
Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Social networking addiction: emerging themes and issues. Journal of Addiction Research
and Therapy, 4, e118. doi:10.4172/2155-6105.1000e118.
Griffiths, M. D., & Karanika-Murray, M. (2012). Contextualising over-engagement in work: towards a more
global understanding of workaholism as an addiction. Journal of Behavioural Addictions, 1,8795.
Health and Safety Executive. (2007). Managing the causes of work-related stress. A step-by-step approach using
Management European Approaches to work-related stress. Nottingham: Author.
Health an d Safety Execu tive. (2008). Improving health and work: Changing lives. Available from: http://www. (Accessed 24 Dec 2013).
Health and Safety Executive. (2012). Stress and psychological disorders. Available from:
statistics/causdis/stress/index.htm. (Accessed 24 Dec 2013).
Ho, L. (2011). Meditation, learning, organisational innovation and performance. Industrial Management and
Data Systems, 111,113131.
Houdmont, J., Cox, T., & Griffiths, A. (2011). Work-related stress case definitions and prevalence rates in
national surveys. Occupational Medicine, 60,658661.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York:
Kang, Y. S., Choi, S. Y., & Eunjung, R. (2009). The effectiveness of a stress coping program based on
mindfulness meditation on the stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by nursing students in Korea.
Nurse Education Today, 29,53843.
Karanika-Murray, M., & Weyman, A. K. (2013). Optimising workplace interventions for health and wellbeing: a
commentary on the limitations of the public health perspective within the workplace health arena.
International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 6,104117.
Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J., et al. (2009).
Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes
among primary care physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 302,12841293.
Lama, D., & Berzin, A. (1997). The Gelug/Kagyu tradition of mahamudra. New York: Snow Lion Publications.
Malarkey, W. B., Jarjoura, D., & Klatt, M. (2013). Workplace based mindfulness practice and inflammation: a
randomized trial. Brain, Behaviour and Immunity, 27,145154.
Manocha, R., Black, D., Sarris, J., & Stough, C. (2011). A randomised controlled trial of meditation for work
stress, anxiety and depressed mood in full-time workers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative
Medicine. doi:10.1155/2011/960583.
Mental Health Foundation. (2010). Be mindful report. Availiable from:
publications/be-mindful-report/ (Accessed 7 Jan 2014).
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). (2009). Depression: Management of depression in
primary and secondary care. London: Author.
Nhat Hanh, T. (1999). The heart of the Buddha
s teaching: Transforming suffering into peace, joy and liberation.
New York: Broadway Books.
Robinson, B. E. (1998). The workaholic family: a clinical perspective. American Journal of Family Therapy, 26,
Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. (2007). Mental health at work: Developing the business case. London:
Santideva. (1997). A guide to the Bodhisattva way of life. (trans: Wallace, V.A. & Wallace, A.B..). New York:
Snow Lion Publications.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013a). Do mindfulness-based therapies have a role in the
treatment of psychosis? Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 1247. doi:10.1177/
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013b). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Meditation
Awareness Training (MAT) for the treatment of co-occurring schizophrenia with pathological gambling: A
case study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.doi:10.1007/s11469-013-9460-3.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013c). Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) for improved
psychological wellbeing: a qualitative examination of participant experiences. Journal of Religion and
Health. doi:10.1007/s10943-013-9679-0.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013d). Mindfulness-based interventions: towards mindful
clinical integration. Frontiers in Psychology, 4,14. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00194.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Slade, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013e). Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived
interventions in correctional settings: a systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 365372.
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014a). The treatment of workaholism with Meditation
Awareness Training: A case study. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, in press.
Int J Ment Health Addiction
Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014b). The emerging role of Buddhism in clinical psychology:
Towards effective integration. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, in press.
Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Wahler, R. G., Winton, A. S., & Singh, J. (2008). Mindfulness approaches in
cognitive behavior therapy. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36,659666.
Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Karazia, B. T., Winton, A. S. W., Singh, J., & Wahler, R. G. (2013a). Shenpa and
compassionate abiding: mindfulness-based practices for anger and aggression by individuals with schizo-
phrenia. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.doi:10.1007/s11469-013-9469-7.
Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Karazia, B. T., Singh, A. D. A., Singh, A. N. A., et al. (2013b).
A mindfulness-based smoking cessation program for individuals with mild intellectual disability.
Mindfulness, 4,148157.
Sussman, S. (2012). Workaholism: a review. Journal of Addiction Research and Theory, Supplementary, 6, 4120.
Sussman, S., Lisha, N., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Prevalence of the addictions: a problem of the majority or the
minority? Evaluation and the Health Professions, 34,356.
Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Sumich, A., Sundin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Meditation Awareness Training
(MAT) for psychological wellbeing in a sub-clinical sample of university students: a controlled pilot study.
Warneke, E., Quinn, S., Ogden, K., Towle, N., & Nelson, M. R. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of the
effects of mindfulness practice on medical student stress levels. Medical Education, 45,381388.
Wu, T., Fox, D., Stokes, C., & Adam, C. (2012). Work-related stress and intention to quit in newly graduated
nurses. Nurse Education Today, 32,66974.
Int J Ment Health Addiction
... Value is phenomenologically determined by the customer (Lusch & Vargo, 2016), so personality traits play an essential role in the assessment process. Therefore, an open personality will help determine outcomes and the process of sharing mutual experiences, especially with new objects (Van Gordon et al., 2014). An open person is a person who is open-minded, imaginative, curious, adaptable and enjoys new things as valuable knowledge and experience. ...
... This makes customers more sincere and does not hesitate to accept the strengthening of belief in the blessings of consuming halal products. An open personality will help determine outcomes and the process of sharing mutual experiences, especially with new objects (Van Gordon et al., 2014). (Zhang et al., 2015) states that customers' perception of a value is highly dependent on the value offered, so direct communication with them will greatly help form better value expectations and increase customers' willingness and trust to cooperate and participate in shared values. ...
Value co-creation activities involve and benefit three parties at once, namely: the company, employees, and customers. Based on the customer's perspective, involvement during the value co-creation process causes their needs to be met during their participation. This study aims to examine the relationship between Religious Value Congruence (RVC) and Religious Value Co-Creation (RVCC) on Customer Engagement (CE). This study focuses on value creation that occurs when frontline employees and customers meet in interactive marketing activities due to the inherent inseparability of services. This concept was initially only considered a company activity but later developed into value co-creation, a continuous interaction between two or more parties in building a personalized service experience Review on value co-creation, the search for meaning in the value creation process as proposed by previous research has not touched the religious aspect. RVCC is a new concept resulting from the synthesis of the concept of value co-creation with Islamic values. Furthermore, 187 sharia insurance customers spread across several big cities in Central Java, Indonesia, were investigated and examined for the regression relationships using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The results of data analysis show that Religious Value Congruence can increase the intensity of customers to be involved in Religious Value co- Creation, which ultimately has an impact on strengthening Customer Engagement. The results of this study succeeded in completing the concept of Value Creation proposed by previous researchers by considering religious factors in creating shared values. Religious value co-creation can be the basis for the differentiation of religious-based product offerings because the value received by customers is not only at the level of physical needs but also spiritual needs.
... Both in personal and societal senses, mindfulness creates beneficial consequences. This is because related health levels can be increased by applying mindfulness-based programs, and thus job performances can increase (Van Gordon et al., 2014). Otherwise, job-related mental health problems such as job-related stress and job addiction bring heavy loads onto employees, companies, and general health and economic conditions of countries (Van Gordon et al., 2014). ...
... This is because related health levels can be increased by applying mindfulness-based programs, and thus job performances can increase (Van Gordon et al., 2014). Otherwise, job-related mental health problems such as job-related stress and job addiction bring heavy loads onto employees, companies, and general health and economic conditions of countries (Van Gordon et al., 2014). ...
This article aimed to reveal the effects of four different psychological approaches for employees to be satisfied with their jobs and consequently to increase the customers' intentions to prefer them again. These four different approaches are mindfulness, embodied cognition, behavioral intention, and altruism. In the study, one concrete behavior that is thought to represent each of these four different approaches was tested. These behaviors are respectively feeling high energy (mindfulness), listening while with mouth slightly opened (embodied cognition), thinking of the self as eager to show high interest (behavioral intention), and asking questions (altruism). Theatrical applications were carried out with a total of 571 participants from 3 different profile groups (healthcare employees, automotive service employees and students) in an educational environment, with 4 different scenarios and 8 different versions and the results were statistically compared and analyzed. As a result of the research, it was determined that the four behaviors in question increased employees' job satisfaction, customers' satisfaction, and repurchase intentions, but that there were no significant differences between them in terms of their effects. This research shows that simple and individual attitude and behavior changes could lead to significant business outcomes such as customer loyalty.
... The brain changes as a function of where an individual puts his or her attention (Arch & Craske, 2006;Sethi, 2009). The power is in the attention as it continually reshapes the patterns of the brain (Van Gordon et al. 2014). In essence, the brain learns to change its "wiring" to adapt to the desired patterns (Rizzolatti, 2012) as the brain is capable of significant internal change in reaction to environmental changes (Fox et al., 2014). ...
... Meditation and attention are considered to be associated in different ways (Telles, Naveen & Balakrishna, et al., 2010). Meditation is used, practiced and followed in the present world in various forms (Van Gordon et al., 2014). These various techniques master stability of attention achieving mindfulness (Hahn, 1998;Kabat-Zinn, 1990;Yogi, 1977). ...
... This is reinforced by previous research which found that the primary goal of the occupation holder will be closely related to the application of his attention to his workers. In a sense, there must be a balance between the main goals of the employer and his attitude towards his workers subsequently as not to cause mental disorders in the workers Van Gordon et al. (2014). ...
Full-text available
The cases related to mental health become one of the most essential things in international discussions due to the existence of victims in these cases can interfere with the effectiveness of the world's human resources, especially in Indonesia itself. Furthermore, the attention to mental health issues is driven by the existence of the UN's grand plan through the SDGs which includes the concern for mental health. In this case, Indonesian diplomacy has a fairly large role in handling it in light of the fact that a large number of mental health disorders cases occur in Indonesia as well. It will be supported by the existence of national interests and foreign policies issued regarding the concern of mental health issues. This research is based on policy research that aims to determine the role of Indonesia's diplomacy in dealing with global mental health issues, which will be supported by policy recommendations. The research method uses exploratory qualitative with primary data derived from interviews and observation while secondary data derived from literature studies as the source. The results of the study indicate that cases of mental health disorders can interfere with the performance of international relations therefore it requires more practice in the diplomacy world. Indonesia's diplomacy is expected to strengthen communication in international forums in discussing mental health issues especially in its G20 Presidency, as well as provide positive facilities for Indonesian citizens through education including open literacy regarding the importance of mental health.
... However, it remains unclear how the effect of job crafting on general health unfolds. Given that general health has important implications for employees' lives [19,20] and the organization's productivity [21,22], it would be useful to understand why job crafting has these positive effects. It would also be useful to determine if these positive effects are stronger for some employees than others. ...
Full-text available
Background Job crafting is associated with positive work–related outcomes, but its effects on nonwork–related outcomes are unclear. The conservation of resources theory informed the hypotheses that work–nonwork facilitation mediates the relationship between job crafting and general health, and this mediation process is moderated by perceived boundary control. Methods Using a two–wave design, 383 employees from a range of work settings completed questionnaires in which they rated job crafting, work–nonwork facilitation, general health and perceived boundary control. Results Moderated mediation analysis showed that work–nonwork facilitation mediated the relationship between job crafting and employee general health. Further, perceived boundary control moderated this indirect effect, such that the indirect effect was stronger for employees with high perceived boundary control than those with low perceived boundary control. Conclusions This study is an important step forward in understanding the effect of job crafting on nonwork domains, and in clarifying “how” and “when” job crafting might affect employees’ general health. Further, the results have practical implications for fostering employee general health.
... Employee mental health has long been a topic of concern for researchers and practitioners alike [1]. One reason for this interest is that employee mental health is increasingly prominent within workplaces, which leads to significant costs including absenteeism, burnout, employee compensation claims, work-family conflict and low productivity [2,3]. In particular, with the outbreak of COVID-19, the uncertainties and fears associated with the virus outbreak, along with survival crisis of enterprises, lead to increases in employees' mental disorders [4][5][6]. ...
Full-text available
The relationship between employee mental health and job performance has been one of the key concerns in workplace. However, extant studies suffer from incomplete results due to their focus on developed economies’ contexts and the unclear path of employee mental health’s impact on performance. In this paper, we investigate the mechanism of employee mental health influencing job performance. We use the data of Chinese firms to test these hypotheses. Drawing on a sample of 239 firms from China, we find that employee mental health positively impacts job performance, and such relationship is mediated by innovative behavior and work engagement. The findings not only enrich the discipline’s knowledge on mental health in an emerging economy setting but also extend the implications of mental health, innovative behavior, and work engagement to job performance.
... Interventions promoting flow (Cohen & Bodner, 2021) and mindfulness, for example, are potentially useful for coping with music performance anxiety (Czajkowski et al., 2020), reducing stress, and preventing study and work addiction (Khoury et al., 2013;Van Gordon et al., 2014). However, the relationships between flow and grit (Miksza & Tan, 2015;Tan et al., 2021), and study addiction, need to be investigated cautiously as the absorption component of 24 engagement, which is related to flow (Mesurado et al., 2016), may be a gateway to addiction (Atroszko & Atroszko, 2019;Bereznowski et al., 2021). ...
Full-text available
Grit, defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals, is investigated as a predictor of academic success and well-being. This trait may have special importance for musicians’ functioning as their lives revolve around practice routines and mastering their craft for years. However, there is a growing recognition that extreme perseverance may be maladaptive in some cases. Persistent overinvolvement in goal-oriented activities is related to compulsive overworking, conceptualized within the behavioral addiction framework as work and study addiction. A previous study showed that study addiction is relatively highly prevalent among young musicians and has a clearly negative effect on their functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between grit, study addiction, and psychosocial functioning among music academy students. It was hypothesized that perseverance of effort is related to well-being, grade point average (GPA), and study addiction, and that it becomes maladaptive for individuals addicted to studying. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted among 213 music academy students in Poland. Perseverance of effort was positively related to GPA and study addiction. The relationships between perseverance of effort and self-rated general health, and between perseverance of effort and quality of life, were moderated by study addiction. The results suggest that grit may become maladaptive perseverance in the cases of individuals at risk of study addiction. Based on these findings, further investigations of grit among musicians, as well as further studies of the negative aspects of grit in general, are warranted. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to explore Islamic Human Value which is believed by the young millennial generation to determine career adaptability and career success. Career success is very important for today’s Muslim millennial generation because they have high expectations regarding work-life balance. To achieve career success, it is necessary to have career adaptability so that the Muslim millennial generation is able to prepare themselves to face unexpected transitions or changes. In addition, the Muslim millennial generation also needs to have Islamic values, namely Islamic human values. These values are important so that the millennial generation has good planning in building a career. This research is qualitative research by conducting structured interviews on 8 respondents. The results show that there are 6 Islamic human values that can be applied as the basis for achieving career adaptability and career success.KeywordsIslamic human valuesCareer adaptabilityCareer successMillennial generation
This study examines a model that links Holistic Value Co-Creation Capability (HVCC) with Sustainable Relationship (SR). HVCC is the perception of Sharia insurance customers that Sharia insurance salesmen can participate actively, to create not only transactional values but also religious values. This study was conducted on 177 sharia insurance customers in Central Java. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The regression analysis technique is used to observe the relationship between variables using SPSS version 16 software. The results showed the perception of sharia insurance customers on the ability of salesmen to be actively involved in creating holistic value co-creation had been proven to strengthen customers’ desire to establish long-term relationships. The capability of the “people” element in insurance services can be used as a solid basis as a unique and inimitable differentiation for the sustainability of the service industry that offers religious products. The results of this study have succeeded in completing the concept of value co-creation by internalizing religious values, especially Islamic values.KeywordsHolistic Value Co-creation CapabilitySustainable relationship
Full-text available
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are virtual communities where users can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends, and meet other people based on shared interests [1]. SNS usage patterns from both consumer research and empirical research indicate that overall, regular SNS use has increased substantially over the last few years [1]. SNSs are predominantly used for social purposes, mostly related to the maintenance of established offline networks, relative to individual ones [1]. However, recent evidence suggests that individuals may feel compelled to maintain their online social networks in a way that may, in some circumstances, lead to using SNSs excessively. In many areas of behavioral addiction, there has been debate about whether some excessive behaviors should even be considered as genuine addictions (e.g., video game playing, internet use, sex, exercise, etc.) and the same debate holds for addiction to social networking. Griffiths [2] has operationally defined addictive behavior as any behavior that features what he believes are the six core components of addiction (i.e., salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse). He also argues that any behavior (e.g., social networking) that fulfils these six criteria can be operationally defined as an addiction. Researchers have suggested that the excessive use of new technologies (and especially online social networking) may be particularly problematic to young people [3]. In accordance with the biopsychosocial framework for the etiology of addictions [2], and the syndrome model of addiction [4], it is claimed that those people addicted to using SNSs experience symptoms similar to those experienced by individuals who suffer from addictions to substances or other behaviors [3]. This has significant implications for clinical practice because unlike other addictions, the goal of SNS addiction treatment cannot be total abstinence from using the internet per se it is an integral element of today's professional and leisure culture [1]. Instead, the ultimate therapy aim is controlled use of the internet and its respective functions, particularly social networking applications, and relapse prevention using strategies developed within cognitive-behavioral therapies [3].
Full-text available
Mindfulness has been practiced in the Eastern world for over twenty-five centuries but has only recently become popular in the West. Today, interventions such as “Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy” are used within the Western health setting and have proven to be successful techniques for reducing psychological distress. However, a limitation of such interventions is that they tend to apply the practices of mindfulness in an “out of context” manner. To overcome this, a newly formed Meditation Awareness Training (MAT) program focusses on the establishment of solid meditative foundations and integrates various support practices that are traditionally assumed to effectuate a more sustainable quality of well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of MAT for improving psychological well-being in a sub-clinical sample of higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Utilizing a controlled design, participants of the study (n=14) undertook an 8-week MAT program and comparisons were made with a control group (n=11) on measures of self-assessed psychological well-being (emotional distress, positive affect, and negative affect) and dispositional mindfulness. Participants who received MAT showed significant improvements in psychological well-being and dispositional mindfulness over controls. MAT may increase emotion regulation ability in higher education students with issues of stress, anxiety, and low mood. Individuals receiving training in mindfulness meditation may benefit by engendering a broader, more ethically informed, and compassionate intention for their mindfulness practice.
Full-text available
Uncontrolled anger is often expressed as verbal and physical aggression. Some people with schizophrenia engage in verbal and physical aggression when they cannot control their anger either through the use of psychotropic medication or psychosocial interventions. In this study, we taught three individuals with long-standing anger management problems the concept of shenpa—the almost instantaneous reaction of the mind to some internal or external stimulus that hooks them to a negative emotion—and a mindfulness-based practice that helped them to intuit this without attachment or anger. In addition, we taught them the mindfulness-based practice of compassionate abiding for dealing with emotionally arousing feelings that follow shenpa. Using a multiple baseline design, we assessed the effects of the two mindfulness-based practices on anger, verbal aggression and physical aggression. The three individuals were able to decrease their anger, greatly reduce verbal aggression, and virtually eliminate physical aggression.
Full-text available
There is a paucity of interventional approaches that are sensitive to the complex needs of individuals with co-occurring schizophrenia and pathological gambling. Utilizing a single-participant design, this study conducted the first clinical evaluation of a novel and integrated non-pharmacological treatment for a participant with dual-diagnosis schizophrenia and pathological gambling. The participant underwent a 20-week treatment course comprising: (i) an initial phase of second-wave cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and (ii) a subsequent phase employing a meditation-based recovery model (involving the administering of an intervention known as Meditation Awareness Training). The primary outcome was diagnostic change (based on DSM-IV-TR criteria) for schizophrenia and pathological gambling. Secondary outcomes were: (i) psychiatric symptom severity, (ii) pathological gambling symptom severity, (iii) psychosocial functioning, and (iv) dispositional mindfulness. Findings demonstrated that the participant was successfully treated for both schizophrenia and pathological gambling. Significant improvements were also observed across all other outcome variables and positive outcomes were maintained at 3-month follow-up. An initial phase of CBT to improve social coping skills and environmental mastery, followed by a phase of meditation-based therapy to increase perceptual distance from mental urges and intrusive thoughts, may be a diagnostically-syntonic treatment for co-occurring schizophrenia and pathological gambling.
Full-text available
Research into the clinical utility of Buddhist-derived interventions (BDIs) has increased greatly over the last decade. Although clinical interest has predominantly focused on mindfulness meditation, there also has been an increase in the scientific investigation of interventions that integrate other Buddhist principles such as compassion, loving kindness, and “non-self.” However, due to the rapidity at which Buddhism has been assimilated into the mental health setting, issues relating to the misapplication of Buddhist terms and practices have sometimes arisen. Indeed, hitherto, there has been no unified system for the effective clinical operationalization of Buddhist principles. Therefore, this paper aims to establish robust foundations for the ongoing clinical implementation of Buddhist principles by providing: (i) succinct and accurate interpretations of Buddhist terms and principles that have become embedded into the clinical practice literature, (ii) an overview of current directions in the clinical operationalization of BDIs, and (iii) an assessment of BDI clinical integration issues. It is concluded that BDIs may be effective treatments for a variety of psychopathologies including mood-spectrum disorders, substance-use disorders, and schizophrenia. However, further research and clinical evaluation is required to strengthen the evidence-base for existent interventions and for establishing new treatment applications. More important, there is a need for greater dialogue between Buddhist teachers and mental health clinicians and researchers to safeguard the ethical values, efficacy, and credibility of BDIs.
Book synopsis: This ground-breaking textbook is the first to cover the new and rapidly developing field of occupational health psychology. Provides a thorough introduction to occupational health psychology and an accessible overview of the key themes in research and practice Each chapter relates to an aspect of the core education curriculum delineated by the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology Written by internationally recognized experts in the field Examines a host of contemporary workplace health issues, including work-related stress; the psychosocial work environment; positive psychology and employee well-being; psychosocial risk management; workspace design; organizational research methods; and corporate culture and health
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss contemporary approaches to workplace health and well‐being, articulating key differences in the intervention architecture between public and workplace health contexts and implications for intervention design. Design/methodology/approach – Contemporary practice is discussed in light of calls for a paradigm shift in occupational health from a treatment orientation to an holistic approach focused on mitigation of the causes of ill health and the promotion of well‐being. In practice, relatively few organizations have or seem able to engage with a broader perspective that encompasses challenges to health and well‐being associated with contextual organizational drivers, e.g. job design/role, workload, systems of reward, leadership style and the underpinning climate. Drawing upon insights from public health and the workplace safety tradition, the scope for broadening the perspective on intervention (in terms of vectors of harm addressed, theory of change and intervention logic) is discussed. Findings – There are important differences in scope and options for intervention between public health and workplace health contexts. While there is scope to emulate public health practice, this should not constrain thinking over intervention opinions. Increased awareness of these key differences within work organizations, and an evidence‐based epidemiological approach to learning has the potential to strengthen and broaden the approach to workplace health and well‐being management. Originality/value – The authors argue that approaches to workplace well‐being interventions that selectively cross‐fertilise and adapt elements of public health interventions offer promise for realising a broader change agenda and for building inherently healthy workplaces.
The prevalence of workaholism in Western populations is approximately 10%,although estimates vary considerably according to how “workaholism” is defined. There is growing consensus that workaholism is a bona fide behavioral addiction that exists at the extreme end of the work-engagement continuum and causes similar negative consequences to other behavioral addictions such as salience, conflict, tolerance,withdrawal symptoms,and mood modification. Other more specific consequences include burnout, work compulsion,work–family conflict, impaired productivity, asociality, and psychological/somatic illness. Recent decades have witnessed a marked increase in research investigating the etiology, typology, symptoms, prevalence,and correlates of workaholism. However,despite increasing prevalence rates for workaholism, there is a paucity of workaholism treatment studies.Indeed, guidelines for the treatment of workaholism tend to be based on either theoretical proposals or anecdotal reports elicited during clinical practice.