Article

Biofuels, sustainability and the transport sector in Lithuania

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This review paper sets the stage for a look at the Lithuanian (hereinafter LT) transport sector and its transition towards sustainable mobility through the use of biofuels and implementation of the necessary policies to deliver the renewable energy targets. The assessment begins with a brief and reasonably balanced situational analysis of the transport subsectors—road (including ex-fleet vehicle market), off-road, railway, marine, and air—in Lithuania, and their direct relations to the biofuel sector. The paper also aims to examine the dynamics of GHG emissions (N2O, CH4, CO2), air and soil pollution (NO2, SO2, NMWOC, NH3, PM, CO, heavy metals), and related indicators in the whole LT transport sector during the economic transition period (1990–1995), economy growth period (1996–2007) and the first-world debt crisis period (2007–2010). The national biofuels industry has seen plenty of ups and downs over the past decade but have generally good growth prospects. The study found that the CO2 emission is growing recently in Lithuania and this growth could be attributed to almost all transport subsectors. One of the main problems responsible for this situation is the patchy nature of the regulation (there is no governmental decision indicated on setting of national fuel economy/GHG standard), from which most other problems arise. Transport activity has been a key facilitator and driver of economic prosperity in Lithuania and it is likely to continue to grow. It can produce both positive and negative effects on the environment and the quality of life depending on measures at all levels to promote its sustainable development.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The current alternative biomass based biofuels are lumped into first, second and third-generation categories and their use may improve the emissions levels. The first generation refers to biofuels produced from commonly available, edible feedstock's using well-established conversion technologies (Hoekman, Broch, Robbins, Ceniceros, & Natarajan, 2012;Silvestrini et al., 2010;Raslavičius, Transport engineering and management Transporto inžinerija ir vadyba MFB and engine speed. Tests carried out with a CI engine operated with hydrogen -diesel mixture (Hilbers et al., 2015) with amount of hydrogen energy share of 15% p max increased, with hydrogen share of 17%, combustion knock appeared, with hydrogen share of 25%, the peak of the MFB rate increased and generated even higher combustion knock. ...
... These reviewed experiments either performed on of the CI engine, with sole biodiesel or with addition of hydrogen to the fossil DF or FAME fuel blends. There are some gaps in knowledge dealing with hydrogen-assisted Keršys, Starevičius, Sapragonas, & Bazaras, 2014;Murphy & Hall, 2010;Hilbers et al., 2015). Most biofuels today are classified as first-generation and they can offer some CO 2 benefits and can help improve domestic energy security (Silvestrini et al., 2010;Raslavičius et al., 2014). ...
... There are some gaps in knowledge dealing with hydrogen-assisted Keršys, Starevičius, Sapragonas, & Bazaras, 2014;Murphy & Hall, 2010;Hilbers et al., 2015). Most biofuels today are classified as first-generation and they can offer some CO 2 benefits and can help improve domestic energy security (Silvestrini et al., 2010;Raslavičius et al., 2014). Biofuels produced from second-generation biomass does not compete with food production. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the test results of the single cylinder CI engine with common rail injection system operating on biofuel-Rapeseed Methyl Ester with addition supply of hydrogen. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of the hydrogen addition to the biofuel on combustion phases, engine performance, efficiency, and exhaust emissions. HES was changed within the range from 0 to 44%. Hydrogen was injected into the intake manifold, where it created homogeneous mixture with air. Tests were performed at both fixed and optimal injection timings at low, medium and nominal engine load. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that lean hydrogen-RME mixture does not support the flame propagation and efficient combustion. While at the rich fuel mixture and with increasing hydrogen fraction, the combustion intensity concentrate at the beginning of the combustion process and shortened the ignition delay phase. AVL BOOST simulation performed within the wide range of HES (16-80%) revealed that combustion intensity moves to the beginning of combustion with increase of HES. Decrease of CO, CO 2 and smoke opacity was observed with increase of hydrogen amounts to the engine. However, increase of the NO concentration in the engine exhaust gases was observed.
... Raslavičius et al. [1] studied about the possibilities of biofuel utilization in the transport sector of Lithuania. The CO2 emission is increasing in Lithuania and this rise could be delivered from all transport subsectors. ...
... Demirbas [1] tested particulate matter in CI engine it was found that the PM level for 20% biodiesel reduced about 8.9% and 100% biodiesel reduced about 55.3%. Alonso et al. [8] found that the particulate matter in vegetable oil is reduced to 65% than petroleum diesel. ...
Article
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the efficient combustion of blends of Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) with diesel, fired in a non-commercial hot water generator. The high viscosity and poor atomization characteristics of straight vegetable oil lower the combustion and thermal efficiency of the system. An additional air supply system has been used to provide sufficient amount of air into the furnace to improve the mixing of fuel droplets and oxygen in the air. Thermal efficiency and emission characteristics of 25% and 50% blends of straight sunflower oil and rice bran oil with diesel have been studied with and without additional air supply. Thermal efficiency of the hot water generator has been found to be increased when the quantity of additional air supply is increased. Moreover, the emissions of CO and HC have been reduced by the additional air supply.
... The current alternative biomass based biofuels are lumped into first, second and third-generation categories and their use may improve the emissions levels. The first generation refers to biofuels produced from commonly available, edible feedstock's using well established conversion technologies [2,[14][15][16][17]. Most biofuels today are classified as first-generation and they can offer some CO 2 benefits and can help improve domestic energy security [14,15]. ...
... The first generation refers to biofuels produced from commonly available, edible feedstock's using well established conversion technologies [2,[14][15][16][17]. Most biofuels today are classified as first-generation and they can offer some CO 2 benefits and can help improve domestic energy security [14,15]. Biofuels produced from second-generation biomass does not compete with food production. ...
Article
Full-text available
Paper presents results from investigation focused on combustion progress of biomass based oil assisted with hydrogen in the internal combustion compression ignition (CI) engine. Hydrogen was added at amounts in the range from 0 to 40% by energy. The main target of this analysis was to determine impact of hydrogen on the following: combustion phases, smoke opacity and toxic emissions in the compression ignition engine. Literature review shows hydrogen can cause significant changes in combustion process even if it is added in small amounts. In this manuscript, investigation was carried out on a test bench consisted of a single cylinder compression ignition engine with common rail injection system. Hydrogen was injected into the intake manifold, where it created homogeneous mixture with air. Tests were performed at both fixed and optimal injection timings at full engine load. Results from experiments show that increasing amounts of hydrogen into the engine contribute to shorten ignition delay time that also affect main combustion phase. Additionally, it implicates heat release rate and toxic emissions (THC, CO, NOx). Moreover, decrease in smoke (mainly soot) in the exhaust gases was observed with increase of hydrogen amounts to the engine.
... Most biofuels today produced from commonly available, edible feedstock and classified as firstgeneration. They can offer some CO2 benefits and can help improve domestic energy security [4,5]. Biofuels produced from second-generation biomass does not compete with food production, however high raw material costs are still an issue in making it processes economically attractive [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the test results of the single cylinder compression ignition engine with common rail injection system operating on biofuels and conventional diesel blends with hydrogen. Two types of liquid fuels were tested: blend of the 7% Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) with conventional diesel fuel and Neste Pro Diesel–blend of the 15% Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), produced by Neste Oil Corporation with conventional diesel fuel. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of the hydrogen addition to biofuels and diesel blends on combustion phases, autoignition delay, engine performance efficiency and exhaust emissions. Hydrogen fraction was changed within the range from 0 to 43% by energy. Hydrogen was injected into the intake manifold, where it created homogeneous mixture with air. Tests were performed at both fixed and optimal injection timings at low, medium, and nominal engine load. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that increasing hydrogen fraction shortened the fuel ignition delay phase and it affected the main combustion phase. Moreover, decrease of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and smoke opacity was observed with increase of hydrogen amounts to the engine. However, increase of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration in the engine exhaust gases was observed.
... Climate change and growing Greenhouse Gas emissions are widely discussed issues nowadays [67]. The climate has been rapidly changing because of the rise in the concentration of CO 2 and other Green House Gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. ...
... In this regard, the expansion of alternative transport fuels aiming to decrease the road transportation dependency on oil and hopefully reducing the environmental impacts is seen as an option to help the transportation sector [97]. Such cleaner combusting alternatives to conventional liquid automobile fuels as LPG and CNG should play a great role in the road-transport-fuel policy [64,98,99]. Moreover, gaseous and liquid biofuels, including biogas, ethanol, methanol and biodiesel have been shown to be entirely competitive with the oilrelated fuels technically and environmentally [10,13,89]. ...
Article
The diversification and optimization of the fuel portfolio for the transportation sector in Iran are subject to evaluation of a variety of alternative fuels. Currently, fossil fuels, especially gasoline, have the greatest share in supplying the light-duty vehicles’ fuel demand in Iran; this has led to numerous environmentally and strategically unfavorable consequences. Through a multi-criteria approach, this paper evaluates various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles in Iran, considering a midterm horizon. For this purpose, eight different alternative fuels with both fossil and renewable bases were evaluated: compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, petroleum diesel, biodiesel, biogas, two mixtures of ethanol and methanol with gasoline called E85 and M85, and hydrogen. A comprehensive literature review was performed and the key metrics of cost-, technical-, social- and policy-related aspects were identified. Each alternative was scored against the aforementioned criteria in six alternative scenarios, including one base scenario and five scenarios with different weight settings of criteria. The results showed that compressed natural gas and liquid petroleum gas are the most suitable alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles in Iran, and that biogas has the highest priority, as compared with other alternative renewable fuels.
... The Paris Agreement was initiated with a long-term goal of limiting global warming to well below 2 °C (COP21). Producing of CO 2 emission could by changes on different reasons, by example economic recession period and poor environmental legislation [2]. One of the options to reduce CO 2 emissions is to use energy more efficiently, and the other to replace fossil fuels with biofuels [3,4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Replacing traditional fuels with biofuels in the transport sector has been named as one of the measures in the increasingly strict environmental policy of the European Union. The Renewable Energy Sources directive and Fuel Quality Directive stipulate the minimum required amount of biofuel to be added to the motor fuel used in the transport sector. The former directive stipulates that at least 10% of fuel used in the transport sector comes from renewable sources and the latter directive the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in fuel production by at least 6% by the year 2020. The first obstacle in implementing biofuels is to understand the requirements of the directives. The problem of replacing traditional fuels with biofuels lies in the requirements which are based on energy content and mass, not volume. Measuring by volume is primarily in the interests of entrepreneurs who are involved directly in the production and selling of fuel. At the same time, it is important to know the various effects of these directives on the results of mixing biofuels. Fuel mixtures which do not require extensive alterations of the engines in comparison to the use of 100% biofuels are preferred. Using fuel mixtures allows meeting the requirements of using biofuels whilst incurring lower costs. In order to solve the abovementioned problems, formulas have been prepared to calculate the minimum volume and relative amount of traditional fuel and biofuel in fuel mixtures to meet the requirements of the directives. The relative amounts have been used to prepare sample graphs and to characterise the formation of biofuel ratio in fuel mixture.
... Le changement ainsi que le réchauffement climatique résultent de l'émission de CO2 et d'autres gaz à effet de serre. Le changement climatique et la sécurité énergétique représentent les principaux problèmes des générations actuelles et futures [4]- [6]. L'influence de la pollution sur le changement climatique est représentée par des grandes évolutions des paramètres climatiques, surtout la 19 température et les précipitations. ...
Thesis
Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons d’une part à modéliser l’impact des facteurs météorologiques (température, précipitation) sur la qualité et la quantité de l’eau de la rivière Litani au Liban, et d’autre part évaluer la pollution de l’eau de la rivière Litani sur plusieurs stations en se basant sur les paramètres physicochimiques. La question posée est de déterminer les sources de pollution de la rivière Litani et surtout du Lac Qaraoun. Pour cela nous avons construit et étudié des modèles statistiques pour répondre aux questions environnementales et en premier lieu par une approche d’optimisation (Shuffled complex method) et un modèle « lag » régression afin de modéliser la relation entre le débit et les deux facteurs (température, précipitation). Puis dans un cadre plus général, nous avons étudié les valeurs extrêmes de ces deux facteurs en se basant sur le processus de records et sur la théorie des valeurs extrêmes. Un autre intérêt de cette thèse réside dans le fait d’avoir étudié l’évolution de la pollution de l’eau au Lac Qaraoun. Nous avons ainsi utilisé des méthodes statistiques multivariées et spatio-temporelles dont l’objectif était d’étudier les paramètres physicochimiques sur plusieurs stations de la rivière Litani reparties sur plusieurs saisons. Ensuite nous avons évalué la pertinence des méthodes statistiques sur des applications basées sur les données réelles des paramètres physico-chimiques collectées sur 10 années, en comparant les sources et les causes de pollution de l’eau entre les différentes stations. Enfin, nous avons motivé les méthodes utilisées dans cette thèse par des outils informatiques qui visent au développement des bases des données écologiques et environnementales des futurs travaux
... These emission norms encourage low-carbon fuels in the existing automobiles and various after-treatment systems [1]. The European Union (EU) members have decided to work toward the growth of renewable energy resources so that it must be able to bear 10% of transportation fuels and 20% of energy supply before 2020 [34][35][36][37]. Similarly, India has also fixed the target of decreasing the import of crude oil by 10% by 2022. Figure 1 shows the global energy demand growth in leading regions in terms of fuel. ...
Article
More stringent emission norms are implemented all over the world to protect the environment from vehicular pollution. Biofuels are one of the best alternative solutions to reduce cost and environmental pollution. Among many alternate fuels, alcohol is a leading fuel used in automotive spark-ignition engines in pure or blended form. The capability of methanol to substitute gasoline has been known for a long time. This paper aims to systematically review methanol–gasoline blend with higher alcohol additives (ternary blends) as a transportation fuel in unmodified automotive spark-ignition engines. This review summarizes the previous research in methanol–gasoline blends with and without additives on spark-ignition engines' performance and emission characteristics. Many researchers found that methanol–gasoline blended fuels improve engine performance and emissions. Generally, alcohols burn very effectively and produce only fewer emissions compared to gasoline. Still, lower alcohol may cause some problems such as increased specific fuel consumption, phase separation and corrosion. These problems are further optimized using higher alcohol additives through improved energy content, kinematic viscosity, corrosion resistance, water tolerance and phase stability. Several research studies have been carried out in the past years, which focused mainly on single alcohol blended fuels for spark-ignition engines. Thus, a comprehensive survey of performance, combustion and emission characteristics of methanol–gasoline blended fuel with higher alcohol additives is necessary to show the potential of ternary blends in automotive engines.
... Most biofuels today produced from commonly available, edible feedstock and classified as firstgeneration. They can offer some CO2 benefits and can help improve domestic energy security [4,5]. Biofuels produced from second-generation biomass does not compete with food production, however high raw material costs are still an issue in making it processes economically attractive [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the test results of the single cylinder compression ignition engine with common rail injection system operating on biofuels and conventional diesel blends with hydrogen. Two types of liquid fuels were tested: blend of the 7% Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) with conventional diesel fuel and Neste Pro Diesel – blend of the 15% Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), produced by Neste Oil Corporation with conventional diesel fuel. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of the hydrogen addition to biofuels and diesel blends on combustion phases, autoignition delay, engine performance efficiency and exhaust emissions. Hydrogen fraction was changed within the range from 0 to 43% by energy. Hydrogen was injected into the intake manifold, where it created homogeneous mixture with air. Tests were performed at both fixed and optimal injection timings at low, medium, and nominal engine load. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that increasing hydrogen fraction shortened the fuel ignition delay phase and it affected the main combustion phase. Moreover, decrease of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and smoke opacity was observed with increase of hydrogen amounts to the engine. However, increase of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration in the engine exhaust gases was observed.
Article
Full-text available
Even though the share of renewable energy in the transport sector has increased during the last decade, the sector is still highly dependent on fossil fuels. Consequences are for example emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. This is of great concern for the environment, climate change, and human health. This study reviews scientific publications about sustainable development of the road transport sector, published 2005-2018. The aim of the study is to investigate if there are differences in the measures and strategies presented in the publications depending on the geographical areas studied, and to analyse if there are differences depending on year of publication. The authors analysed to what extent local conditions influence the choice of proposed measures and strategies. A system perspective was applied in order to include measures related to the whole life cycle of the road transport, as well as other sectors, which influence or are influenced by the transport sector. A literature review was performed using the search-engine Web of Science. Results show that important local conditions that may influence the research focus within the area of sustainable development of the road transport sector are for example: energy supply security (e.g. availability of biomass and renewable electricity, as well as access to domestic fossil fuel resources), possibilities for developing infrastructure for biofuel supply and charging of electric vehicles, political priorities and approaches, and traditions.
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this study was to examine impact of hydrogen addition to the compression ignition engine fueled with either rapeseed methyl ester (RME) or 7% RME blended diesel fuel (RME7) on combustion phases and ignition delay as well as smoke and exhaust toxic emissions. Literature review shows in general, hydrogen in those cases is used in small amounts below lower flammability limits. Novelty of this work is in applying hydrogen at amounts up to 44% by energy as secondary fuel to the compression ignition engine. Results from experiments show that increase of hydrogen into the engine makes ignition delay shortened that also affects main combustion phase. In all tests the trends of exhaust HC and CO toxic emissions vs. hydrogen addition were negative. The trend of smokiness decreased steadily with increase of hydrogen. Amounts of hydrogen addition by energy share were limited to nearly 35% due to combustion knock occurring at nominal load.
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the study of hydrogen effects on performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of renewable diesel fueled single cylinder CI engine with common rail injection system in RCCI mode. The renewable diesel fuels as the HRF are the HVO and it blend with petrol diesel further named PRO Diesel, investigated in this study. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of the LRF – hydrogen addition to the HRF on combustion phases, engine performance, efficiency, and exhaust emissions. HES was changed within the range from 0 to 35%. Hydrogen injected through PFI during intake stroke to the combustion chamber, where it created homogeneous mixture with air. The HRF was directly injected into combustion chamber using electronic controlled unit. Tests were performed at both fixed and optimal injection timings at low, medium and nominal engine load. After analysis of the engine bench results, it was observed that lean hydrogen – HRF mixture does not support the flame propagation and efficient combustion. While at the rich fuel mixture and with increasing hydrogen fraction, the combustion intensity concentrate at the beginning of the combustion process and shortened the ignition delay phase. Decrease of CO, CO2 and smoke opacity was observed with increase of hydrogen amounts to the engine. However, increase of the NO concentration in the engine exhaust gases was observed.
Article
Full-text available
The increasing thirst for energy and the threat of global warming coupled with the diminishing production of fossil fuel has forced the implementation of substitute fuels from sustainable sources. As a sustainable fuel source, biofuel can be directly applied in various fields such as in automotive and industry. Moreover, biofuel also had a lower carbon footprint than traditional non-renewable fossil fuel. However, the effect of using biofuel on the industrial and transportation sector requires a more in-depth study to ensure its viability and effect on the existing infrastructure. Therefore, this study provides an overview of the application of the biofuel in two primary sectors, industrial and transportation. This study reviewed various peer-reviewed journals to provide an in-depth overview of the hurdles and opportunities in the biofuel’s application. High NOx emission and lower efficiency of the pure biofuel (B100) remains the main hurdles for the broader application of the biofuel in the industrial and transportation sector. Compared to the diesel fuel, pure biofuel combustion results in lower engine performance and efficiency. However, biofuel combustion emits lower hydrocarbons, sulfur, and carbon monoxide emission than diesel fuel. Moreover, biofuel emission also has better opacity and lower particulate emission (PM2,5) than non-renewable fossil-fuel.
Article
Cuba currently faces a limited availability of transportation to support the development needs of the country. Transport availability is mostly limited because of fuel shortage. Moreover, Cuba has an important production of sugarcane, with a significant potential to further increase its production. Using sugarcane-based bioethanol is a significant opportunity for sugarcane producer countries. There are different raw materials available in the sugar industry to produce bioethanol. Therefore, there are different scenarios to increase the production of sugarcane and energy cane, to increase bioethanol production. In this study, two scenarios of sugarcane and energy cane production were considered, from which there are eight possible scenarios of bioethanol production. These bioethanol production scenarios were matched with three transport scenarios, including a business-as-usual scenario, a scenario considering the use of bioethanol blends in standard gasoline and diesel engines, and the and introduction of vehicles running on high ethanol blends or pure bioethanol (i.e flexible fuel vehicles, and ethanol buses and trucks). In total, the production of sugarcane-based bioethanol might support from 4 to 58% of the yearly demand for transport energy in the transport scenarios. Additionally, the use of bioethanol as a transport fuel can potentially reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 3–30%.
Article
Full-text available
This research work attempts to review and compare the available scientific literature, to identify several crucial research opportunities, and to achieve the challenge of putting the findings together to achieve the prospect of nearly Zero Energy Ports. High energy demand and vital supply activities are characterizing ports; they are central hubs in the transport of materials, passengers, vehicles, and cargo. The growing progress of implementing the typical renewable energy installations in port areas and the need for innovative smart energy systems attract port management authorities' attention to energy matters. The research team constructed a specific methodology to review the available literature and viable solutions. All the reviewed measures were analysed and evaluated, highlighting their pros and cons for future implementation alongside their economic or technological maturity according to their cost-effectiveness and the expertise in each one of them. The research gaps per reviewed sector were identified, and suggestions were made in a future agenda for both port decision-makers and researchers. Although ports seem to be similar amongst themselves, due to their upmost goal to transport passengers and goods, they are different and have distinct features. The research team attempted to establish a typology and categorize ports into three (3) main categories according to their specific characteristics. A “strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats” alongside an “importance-performance” analysis were conducted on the proposed concept. This work investigates the literature gaps; the number of studies in many research fields is deficient, and future researchers' opportunities are underlined. Even though the vast majority of the energy management strategies and technologies, along with the green energy generation technologies, are under-exploited in port areas, they have high figurative value and are highly recommended.
Article
Full-text available
The search for alternative fuel sources of organic origin, their adaptation and promotion emerged as one of the key focus areas worldwide, which could bring positive effect on lowering down the fossil fuel prices and solving the environmental problems. Algal biodiesel intended for use in the vehicles is among the solutions for the transport sector. In this article, we made an overview of biodiesel investigation in Lithuania over 11 years. Algae are the third generation biofuel form with high production perspective. This microorganism can be found almost everywhere even in Arctic. Algae can be counted as 55 000 species organism with great number of growth and quantities of biomass per unit. Possibilities and challenges of biodiesel from algae in Lithuania have been analysed. Application and compatibility of algae biodiesel in internal combustion engine has been investigated. Many advantages of biodiesel have been presented as well as some disadvantages were found.
Article
Full-text available
Prodn. of bio-EtOH of 1st and 2nd generation by conversion of wheat, beet molasses, maize and lignocellulosic biomass in 6 various factories was evaluated from environmental point of view as CO2 emission abatement during the whole life cycle (fertilization, transportation, fermentation). The highest decrease in CO2 emission was found for lignocellulosic biomass (lab. scale conditions) as well as for beet molasses and maize raw materials.
Article
The papers main research objective is to analyse the renewable energy sector in the European Union member states. The first step of the research was to generate clusters of countries based on the share of renewables in total energy produced and the countries' energy dependence. In order to generate the clusters, we applied the k-means clustering method based on the data obtained from Eurostat. By using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, three clusters of countries have been generated. In the next step the EU states were ranked based on the following criteria: share of renewable energy sources, share of renewable electricity, share of renewable heating and cooling and share of renewable energy in transport. Then the main characteristics of the renewable energy policy in each member state have been highlighted.
Article
Full-text available
Global energy consumption is expected to increase significantly due to the growth of the economy and population. The utilization of fossil resource, especially coal, will likely be constrained by carbon dioxide emissions, known to be the principal contributor to climate change. Therefore, the world is facing the challenge of how to utilize fossil resource without a large carbon footprint. In the present work, a nuclear-coal hybrid energy system is proposed as a potential solution to the aforementioned challenge. A high-carbon energy such as coal is integrated effectively with a low-carbon energy such as nuclear in a flexible and optimized manner, which is able to generate the chemicals and fuels with low carbon dioxide emissions. The nuclear-coal hybrid energy system is presented in this paper for the detailed analysis. In this case, the carbon resource required by the fuel syntheses and chemical production processes is mainly provided by coal while the hydrogen resource is derived from nuclear energy. Such integration can not only lead to a good balance between carbon and hydrogen, but also improve both energy and carbon efficiencies. More importantly, a significantly lower CO2 emission intensity is achieved. A systematic techno-economic model is established, and a scenario analysis is carried out on the hybrid system to assess the economic competitiveness based on the considerations of various types of externalities. It is found that with the rising carbon tax and coal price as well as the decreasing cost of nuclear energy, the hybrid energy system will become more and more economically competitive with the conventional option, which make it a potential viable solution for the future carbon-constrained world.
Article
Full-text available
The behavior of single drops of two- and three-component mineral diesel fuel blends with ethanol and rapeseed oil methyl ester in a heated atmosphere has been investigated. With the use of the known quasi-stationary approach, the influence of the thermal properties of fuel blend components and their composition on the ignition delay time of the drop has been investigated. It has been established that under inert heating conditions of the drop, additions of low-boiling ethanol to diesel fuel should shorten the duration of the preignition period, and additions of rapeseed oil methyl ester should, on the contrary, prolong it. Analysis of the obtained data has made it possible to determine the optimal composition of the fuel blend for the most economical operation of the diesel. The prognostic estimates made are confirmed by laboratory experiments and bench tests of fuel blends.
Article
Full-text available
Automobile, bus and trolleybus traffic flow in urban areas is increasing because of transport growth and continuous demand for it. The developing economy and changing social status of the population increases the need for mobility. Therefore, urban transport flow is increasing, resulting in traffic congestions, since the street network throughput in practice does not change. The negative effect caused by the traffic congestions is most notable in the largest cities, where traffic density is relatively high, with characteristically low and often variable speed (acceleration and deceleration). We present in this paper a modification of General Motors (GM) traffic flow simulation model in order to identify best possible prerequisites for traffic flow management. The forecasting model employs the following independent variables: vehicle movement speeds, service time (traffic light signal duration), traffic flow intensity, average service frequencies, and the lengths of formed queues. By specifying different functional forms of response time we propose a generalized methodology for traffic management and obtain a theory, which is demonstrated in this paper through both numerical simulation and theoretical analyses. The developed simulation model based on GM’s car following model shows good correlation to the field data. To this end, this paper presents a designed assessment method for the short-term congestion, expressing the negative impact of the transport system in monetary units.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the difficulty of implementing the European Union renewable energy policy in the transport sector. The authors describe a case study illustrating the capacity of the three Baltic States to meet the binding target of 10 per cent renewable energy in the transport sector by 2020. Design/methodology/approach – An excel-based mathematical model is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of a selected set of measures according to the sustainable transportation concept. Findings – The findings demonstrate that the projected renewable energy targets in the transport sector of the Baltic States cannot be achieved without unwavering political commitment towards the promotion of alternative fuel vehicles. Increasing the share of mandatory biofuel blends has a major effect, however, it is not enough to meet the 10 per cent goal. Other measures such as lower transport demand and mode shift are included but do not offer significant benefits under a realistic scenario. Practical implications – The findings are expected to serve as a basis to conduct further studies into sustainable transport development in the Baltic region. Moreover, policy makers may find these results useful in formulating a national position. Originality/value – The methodology and the findings reported in this study could be also used for analysing renewable transport policies in other European countries.
Article
The study found that promising algae biofuels R&D breakthroughs (hydrothermal liquefaction technology, high-frequency magnetic impulse cavitation reactors, etc.) and industry milestones (technologies of hydrorefining and catalytic selective oxidation among others), in order to move forward, require for implementation of new synergies and further innovations needed to improve economical production of advanced biofuels that are not applicable today. It seems that already viable state-of-the-art findings must be re-examined extensively in all of the different aspects in order to hasten the commercialisation of algal biofuels production in sustainable biorefineries. The same could be said about the feedstock selection for algal biomass production and its cultivation. It is the first step to successful large-scale algae cultivation in new regions of the world. Based on the above mentioned we identified fourteen promising algae species that can successfully grow in various regions of Russia under local climatic conditions. Samples collected during expedition were analysed at Lomonosov Moscow State University. Providing predetermined alternate periods of light and darkness and for temperature control of the different mediums to improve photosynthetic responses we investigated two different microalgal production systems: open ponds of the volume V=500 l and closed bioreactors of the volume V=1.0 l. Later on, a review on interdisciplinary synergies between biology and technology to open up new avenues of R&D in the field of algae-for-transport was carried out by leading universities of Lithuania, Russia, and Ukraine. In summary, we found that it is already possible to reduce the price of the 3rd and 4th generation biodiesel fuel from algae by applying the synergistic approaches to sustainable energy production highlighted in this paper, and probably some other ones as well.
Article
Full-text available
During engine operation at 1 400, 1 800 and 2 200 min‐1 the brake specific fuel consumption has on an average been increased by 0,104 %, 0,134 % and 0,156 % for every 1 % point increase in RO inclusion into DF. The maximum thermal efficiency values remain within 0,37–0,39 intervals. The maximum NOx emission increases with the mass percent of oxygen in the fuel blend and for RO and its blends RO75 and RO50 are higher by 9,2 %, 20,7 % and 5,1 %, respectively. Emissions of NO2 increase with an increasing content of RO premixed into DF. When operating on pure RO and its blends RO75 and RO50 the maximum CO emission reduces by 40,5 % ‐52,9 % and 7,2 %‐15,0 %, respectively. The smoke opacity generated from RO and its blends is also by 27,1% ‐34,6 % and 41,7 % ‐51,0 % lower. Emissions of HC remain on a considerably low level ranging between 8 to 16 ppm whereas during engine operation on pure RO they approach to about a zero level. Emissions of CO2 for RO and fuel blend RO75 are slightly higher. First Published Online: 27 Oct 2010
Article
Full-text available
Looking forward to Lithuania becoming a member of the EU it is very important to use a larger amount of renewing fuel. Based on economic and environmental considerations in Lithuania, we are interested in studying the effects of ethanol contents in the blended ethanol‐petrol fuel on the engine performance and pollutant emission of SI engine. Therefore, we used engine test facilities to investigate the effects on the engine performance and pollutant emission of 3,5 % and 7,0 % ethanol in the fuel blend and special additives, which reduce emissions and increase octane rating. The tests were carried out in the laboratory on a chassis dynamometer with two different cars. The experiment results showed that ethanol used in a fuel blend with petrol had a positive influence on engine performance and exhaust emission. First Published Online: 27 Oct 2010
Article
Full-text available
The investigation carried out has revealed that in Vievis settlement and near the highway Vilnius ‐ Kaunas the highest concentrations of pollutants are emitted during morning and afternoon rush‐hours when motor transport traffic is the heaviest. Extremely high amounts of emitted aerosol particles were recorded 1–2 m away from the driving part, and 4–6 m away the amounts of aerosol particles sharply go down. CO gas concentrations caused by passing motor transport were also analysed. It has been set that the concentrations of CO and aerosol particles depend directly on motor transport traffic intensity. CO concentration goes evenly down receding from the driving part. In most cases maximum permitted concentration of CO was recorded. Automobilių išmetamų dujų poveikio atmosferai tyrimai Santrauka Atlikus tyrimus Vievyje ir šalia esančioje automagistralėje Vilnius ‐ Kaunas, nustatyta, kad daugiausia autotransporto teršalų išmetama rytinio ir vakarinio piko valandomis, kai eismo intensyvumas didžiausias. Ypač dideli išmetamų aerozolių dalelių kiekiai 1–2 m atstumu nuo važiuojamosios kelio dalies, o už 4–6 m staigiai sumažėja. Ištirta dėl pravažiuojančio autotransporto srautų susikaupusių CO dujų koncentracijos. Nustatyta, kad CO ir aerozolių dalelių koncentracijos tiesiogiai priklauso nuo autotransporto eismo intensyvumo. CO koncentracija tolygiai mažėja didėjant atstumui nuo kelio važiuojamosios dalies. Daugeliu atvejų CO (DLK) koncentracijos viršija didžiausias leistinąsias. Reikšminiai žodžiai: aplinka, atmosferos oro tarša, mobilieji teršimo šaltiniai, autotransportas First Published Online: 14 Oct 2010
Article
Full-text available
The results of experimental research on kinetics of fuel combustion of diesel engine A41are presented in the publication. The change of characteristics of indicated work (in‐cylinder pressure and temperature, period of induction, heat release and heat release rate) and fuel injection (fuel injection pressure, fuel injection phases) was determined in diesel engine running on RME biodiesel being compared to diesel fuel. The results of researches were used to explain experimentally determined changes of operational and ecological characteristics of diesel engine running on RME biodiesel. In addition, the reliability of diesel engine A41 running on RME biodiesel was evaluated. The presumptions of effective operation of diesel engines running on RME biodiesel were formulated.
Article
Full-text available
Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850–2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.
Article
Full-text available
Road transport has contributed significantly to increasing air pollution in Serbia. This paper deals with characteristics of road transport in Serbia examined from the aspect of its contribution to overall air pollution. This is done by comparative analysis of changes in amounts of air pollution substances produced by road traffic in Serbia and in EEA-32 countries, in a last two decades. The goal of this paper is to examine the causes for current situation in road transport in Serbia in terms of air pollution and attempt to identify some of the most important measures that have contributed to transport related air pollution reduction in EEA-32 countries. This paper also attempts to give brief review of the level of inventorying and reporting of transport related emissions in Serbia and emphasize the importance of establishing and maintaining accurate and reliable transport related emission databases. Keywords: road transport, pollutant emissions, core set indicator, environmental trends in Serbian transport sector, EEA-32, inventorying and reporting.
Article
Full-text available
Experiments on the use of a 50% RME (Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester) fuel mixture were conducted at the agricultural cooperative "Champagne Céréales", over the period 1993-2005. The study was carried out on twenty heavy trucks from EURO 0 to EURO 3 standards, ten light vehicles with indirect injection engines and four light vehicles ("Peugeot 406" and "Citroën C5") equipped with "common rail" engine and with DPF (diesel particulate filter). Half of these vehicles used RME50 fuel and performed the same services along with another group of reference vehicles running on standard diesel fuel. The mileage run on RME50 by heavy trucks ranged between 230 000 and 530 000 km. "406" sedan mileage exceeded 230 000 km and "C5" 190 000 km. Consumption was recorded and lubricants were analysed over the twelve-year period. Injection systems were examined and ten heavy truck engines were disassembled for wear and deposits assessment. The use of RME resulted in no notable incident, and its effect on consumption was according to LHV (lower heating value) variation. Lubricant dilution was observed on some vehicles, and this phenomenon was reinforced by the use of RME. The lower viscosity level did not cause any increase of wear. The assessed engines showed no sign of deposits in rings and crankcases. On the other hand, the use of RME reduced wear on certain heavy trucks due to lower soot contents in the lubricant.
Article
Full-text available
Continued use of petroleum-based fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and contribution of these fuels to pollute the environment. The challenge, therefore, is to secure adequate energy supplies at the least possible cost. Over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil equivalent have been produced since Edwin Drake drilled the world's first oil well in 1859. Economic growth is always accompanied by commensurate increase in the transport. The high energy demand in the industrialized world as well as in the domestic sector, and pollution problems caused due to the widespread use of fossil fuels make it increasingly necessary to develop the renewable energy sources of limitless duration and smaller environmental impact than the traditional one. One possible alternative to fossil fuel is the use of oils of plant origin like vegetable oils and non-edible oils. Usage of biodiesel will allow a balance to be sought between agriculture, economic development and the environment. The aim of this article is to investigate to hidden possibilities of biodiesel utilisation in Hungary by the review of international literature.
Article
Full-text available
Biodiesel is a renewable transportation fuel consisting of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), generally produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats. In this review, the fatty acid (FA) profiles of 12 common biodiesel feedstocks were summarized. Considerable compositional variability exists across the range of feedstocks. For example, coconut, palm and tallow contain high amounts of saturated FA; while corn, rapeseed, safflower, soy, and sunflower are dominated by unsaturated FA. Much less information is available regarding the FA profiles of algal lipids that could serve as biodiesel feedstocks. However, some algal species contain considerably higher levels of poly-unsaturated FA than is typically found in vegetable oils.Differences in chemical and physical properties among biodiesel fuels can be explained largely by the fuels’ FA profiles. Two features that are especially influential are the size distribution and the degree of unsaturation within the FA structures. For the 12 biodiesel types reviewed here, it was shown that several fuel properties – including viscosity, specific gravity, cetane number, iodine value, and low temperature performance metrics – are highly correlated with the average unsaturation of the FAME profiles. Due to opposing effects of certain FAME structural features, it is not possible to define a single composition that is optimum with respect to all important fuel properties. However, to ensure satisfactory in-use performance with respect to low temperature operability and oxidative stability, biodiesel should contain relatively low concentrations of both long-chain saturated FAME and poly-unsaturated FAME.
Article
Full-text available
Neat vegetable oils pose some problems wizen subjected to prolonged usage in CI engine. These problems are attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of the neat vegetable oils. These problems are reduced to minimum by subjecting the vegetable oils to the process of transesterification. Various properties of the biodiesel thus developed are evaluated and compared in relation to that of conventional diesel oil. These tests for biodiesel and diesel oil include density, viscosity, flash point, aniline point/cetane number, calorific value, etc. The prepared biodiesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to evaluate its actual performance, when used as a diesel engine fuel. The data generated for various concentrations of biodiesel blends were compared with base line data generated for neat diesel oil. It was found that 20 percent blend of biodiesel gave the best performance amongst all blends. It gave net advantage of 2.5 percent in peak thermal efficiency and there was substantial reduction in smoke opacity values. This blend was chosen for long term endurance test. The engine operating on optimum biodiesel blend showed substantially improved behaviour. A series of engine rests provided adequate and relevant information that the biodiesel can be used ns an alternative, environment friendly fuel in existing diesel engines without substantial hardware modification.
Article
Full-text available
Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850-2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.
Article
Full-text available
Recently, it is reported that primary vehicular NO2/NOx ratio to be 10-30% and primary vehicular NO2 has raised much interest and concern in the control of NO2 in urban areas. In this study, primary vehicular NO2/NOx ratio in Hong Kong was investigated based on intensive long tunnel (3.7-4 km in length) experiments where concentration profiles of air pollutants along the entire lengths of the tunnels were obtained. Long tunnels were selected because of the inherent low O3 concentrations in the partially enclosed environment. In addition the concentrations of pollutants from vehicles are high. Thus, the NO2 measured inside long tunnels would be more representative of the primary NO2 emitted by vehicles and contribution due to atmospheric transformation would be limited. This dataset was supported by a long-term on-road air quality dataset (June 2002-August 2003). Both datasets were obtained using the Mobile Real-time Air Monitoring Platform (MAP). The primary on-road vehicular NO2/NOx ratio was less than 2%, detected in the mid sections of tunnels investigated, where O3 concentration was at a minimum. In sections of the tunnels (entrance and exit) where O3 concentrations were relatively high, the NO2/NOx ratio could be as high as 19%. Long-term (annual average) on-road air quality data in open air yielded NO2/NOx ratios up to 28%. Thus, it is apparent that directly emitted NO2 from vehicles is not significant in atmospheric NO2 concentration. A simple model was used to segregate the contribution of background NO2 and transformed NO2 measured in vehicle plumes.
Book
Full-text available
This report on "Environmental improvement potential of passenger cars" is the second scientific JRC's contribution to the European Commission's Integrated Product Policy framework which seeks to minimise the environmental degradation caused the life cycle of products. A previous study coordinated by the JRC (EIPRO study) had shown that private transport is responsible for 20% to 30% of the environmental impact of private consumption in the EU. This report presents a systematic overview of the life cycle of cars, from cradle to crave. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of the technical improvement options that could be achieved in each stage of a car's life cycle and which could be marketed within the next two decades. The report assesses the different options, their environmental benefits, their cost-effectiveness, their trade-offs, and the socio-economic barriers that these options would have to face. The report has focused on the technical improvements related to the design of cars, such as the reduction of weight, improvement of the power train, reduction of rolling resistance of tyres. It also analyses improvements that rely on the driver's behaviour as speed control and eco-driving. The report examines each of the options taking into account the technical potential, the existing legislation and policy developments, and the barriers and drivers for the implementation of the different options. The study presents the consequences that the adoption of these options might have on the environment such as global warming, generation of solid waste, acidification, energy consumption, etc. The study has also quantified the costs associated with the different options were implemented.
Article
Full-text available
In last 30 years innovative research in the area of auto exhaust catalysis is being developed and CeO 2 has been found to play a major role in this area due to its unique redox properties. In this review, auto exhaust emission and its impact on earth's environment, global concern and recent advances in science and technology in automotive exhaust catalysis have been documented. A new preparative method of dispersing metal ions by solution combustion technique over CeO 2 and TiO 2 resulting mainly Ce 1−x M x O 2−δ , Ti 1−x M x O 2−δ and Ce 1−x−y Ti x M y O 2−δ (M = Pd, Rh and Pt) catalysts, structure of these materials, their catalytic properties towards auto exhaust catalysis, structure–property relation and mechanism of catalytic reactions are accounted here. In these materials, metal ions are incorporated into substrate matrix to a certain limit in the solid solution form and we have established a new direction in heterogeneous catalysis by turning to the concept of dispersed metal ions as catalytically active sites from the conventionally nurtured idea of metal particles as active centers for catalysis.
Article
Full-text available
Energy is a vital and growing need for human activities such as transport, agriculture and industry. The transport and agriculture sectors are major consumers of fossil fuel. However, availability of fossil fuels is limited. The use of fossil fuels is of increasing environmental concerns because it produces toxic airborne particulates and greenhouse gases such as CO2. The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum-based fuels. Hence, it is necessary to seek alternative fuels, which can be produced from resources available locally within the country such as alcohol, biodiesel and vegetable oils. Biodiesel is defined as the mono alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is the best candidate for diesel fuels in the diesel engines. The advantage of biodiesel over gasoline and petroleum/diesel is its eco-friendly nature. This article reviews the production, characterization and current status of biofuels mainly biodiesel along with the environmental impacts of particulate matter, greenhouse gas emissions originated from biodiesel.
Article
Innovation promotion as the one of the most important tools for the progressive development of welfare and the strong positions in the global competitiveness area requires purposeful initiatives and permanent actions from public policy side. This highlights the importance of clear setting of innovation policy priorities and the necessity of their implementation assessment. On the one hand Lithuania has many strategic initiatives regarding to innovation-oriented goals in public policy documents, but on the other hand the results of innovation activity in Lithuania fall short of government expectations till now in regard to both the national and international targets. Therefore the article proposes an analysis of innovation policy priorities and their implementation results on the ground of European and Lithuanian strategic documents in order to indicate the essential areas wherein is the requirement to strengthen the governmental actions in Lithuania. The paper suggests the following: a framework of key strategic priorities and initiatives in EU innovation policy field, a comparison of Lithuanian and EU innovation performance data, an estimation of Lithuanian innovativeness tendencies in respect of possibilities to reach the European targets and the review of current Lithuanian innovation development framework.
Article
Pollution is a major problem in all countries, even developed ones. It is the major environmental negative impact of anthropogenic activities affecting ecology. There are two major ways for assessment of negative impact of motor transport flow intensity and pollution level: monitoring the air or modeling pollutant dispersion. It is very important to estimate different unknown air modeling programs. In this work modeling is to be executed by the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) the so-called "the best possible existing software for strategic environmental assessment". That is also recommended by the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania. In this work pollution modeling was executed for the northern part of Vilnius (the network of streets Geležinis Vilkas - Ozas - Kalvarijos). For motor vehicle pollution mathematical modeling, it is necessary to evaluate meteorological parameters like temperature, humidity, the wind direction and speed. Modeling software can also estimate relief conditions. Pollution emission measurements were used, and pollution dispersion modeling was performed. The main target was to evaluate pollutant dispersion from motor transport in the analysed area of Vilnius. During investigation maximum hourly, daily and annual concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter were observed.
Article
One of the ways to reduce the price of biodiesel fuel is to use waste fats of animal and vegetable origin. The objective of this work was to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the fatty acid methyl esters of animal and vegetable origin and their mixtures, to determine their motor characteristics, to choose the optimal composition of biofuel mixtures, and to perform comparative analyses of emissions of harmful components in exhaust gases. It was determined that pure fatty acid methyl esters of animal origin and linseed oil fatty acid methyl esters do not meet standard requirements and cannot be used directly in diesel engines. For diesel engines, three-component mixtures of rapeseed oil methyl esters (RME), pork lard methyl esters (PME) or beef tallow methyl esters (TME), and linseed oil methyl esters (LME) (where the proportion of LME and methyl esters of animal origin is 1:4) may be used as fuel. According to the comparative analyses of motor characteristics of three-component mixtures, they are practically equal to the certified RME and its mixtures with fossil diesel fuel. If these three-component mixtures are used for the high-speed diesel engine, CO emissions are reduced by 20%-50%, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are reduced by 50%-60%, and the smoke opacity of the exhaust gases is reduced by 25%-70%. The increase in NOx, emissions does not exceed 13%; no significant changes in the CO2 emissions have been noticed. When the mixtures with fossil diesel fuel that contained 30% of the aforementioned three-component biofuel mixtures were tested, CO emissions were reduced by 15%-40%, HC emissions were reduced by 30%-45%, and the smoke opacity was reduced by 25%-30%. The NOx emissions increased ∼6%; there were no notable changes in CO2 emissions.
Article
The favourable geographical situation of Lithuania puts the country among the most important transit states between the European Union and the East. With availability of the ice-free seaport of Klaipda, a well-developed road infrastructure and a broad railway gauge, the country enjoys competitive advantages in the develop-ment of transit functions of road and railway transport. Nevertheless, the Strategy of Distribution Network cannot be built on the basis of economic benefit alone, it is vital to take into consideration the global transport problems, such as extensive load on the road network and the subsequent negative environmental effects. The article provides an analysis of the transportation of automobiles via the territory of the Republic of Lithuania in 2007-2009. In accor-dance to the results of the analysis, the article views the transportation of automobiles via Lithuania's territory as a separate transport system. For this purpose, the article identifies the main components of the automobile haulage sys-tem, methods and the factors that influence the intensity of transportation. A conclusion is drawn that the automobile haulage system features system marginal measures. Among the key marginal measures are system capacity, and ex-ceeding the capacity would lead to negative effects upon the condition of the transport infrastructure and economic indicators. With the help of methods of simulation of cargo haulage and air pollution, an automobile carriage scheme with the lowest environmental effects is established.
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate experimentally and compare the engine performance and pollutant emission of a SI engine using ethanol–gasoline blended fuel and pure gasoline. The results showed that when ethanol is added, the heating value of the blended fuel decreases, while the octane number of the blended fuel increases. The results of the engine test indicated that when ethanol–gasoline blended fuel is used, the engine power and specific fuel consumption of the engine slightly increase; CO emission decreases dramatically as a result of the leaning effect caused by the ethanol addition; HC emission decreases in some engine working conditions; and CO 2 emission increases because of the improved combustion.
Article
The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum-based fuels. Petroleum-based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing energy/foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally within the country such as alcohol, biodiesel, vegetable oils etc. This paper reviews the production, characterization and current statuses of vegetable oil and biodiesel as well as the experimental research work carried out in various countries. This paper touches upon well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, engine performance and emissions, effect on wear, lubricating oil etc.
Article
We seek to improve the ability of integratedassessment (IA) mod els to incorporate changes in CO 2 capture andsequestration (CCS) technology cost andperformance over time. This paper presents results of research that examines past experience in controlling other major power plant emissions that might serve as a reasonable guide to future rates of technological progress in CCS systems. In particular, we focus on US and worldwide experience with sulfur dioxide (SO2) andnitrogen oxid e (NO x) control technologies over the past 30 years, andd erive empirical learning rates for these technologies. Applying these rates to CCS costs in a large-scale IA model shows that the cost of achieving a climate stabilization target are significantly lower relative to scenarios with no learning for CCS technologies. # 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NOx showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25–50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NOx emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed.
Article
The aim of comparative assessment of future road transport technologies is to find the cheapest motor vehicles in terms of private and external Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission costs under various international climate change mitigation scenarios in 2020 and 2050. The comparative assessment of the main road transport technologies ranging from conventional vehicles to hybrid electric vehicles was performed. The main indicators for comparative future motor vehicles assessment are: private costs and life cycle external costs of GHG emissions. The obtained ranking of road transport technologies allows to identify the most perspective future motor vehicles taking into account international climate change mitigation constraints and to promote these road technologies by policy tools. The cheapest road transport technologies in 2020 and 2050 are: the main results presented in this paper were obtained during EU financed Framework 7 project “PLANETS” dealing with probabilistic long-term assessment of new energy technology scenarios.
Article
Increasing focus on sustainability affects all parts of the energy system. The future integration of the power and road transport system due to the introduction of electric drive vehicles influences the economically optimal investments and optimal operation of the power system. This work presents analysis of the optimal configuration and operation of the integrated power and road transport system in Northern Europe, i.e. Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden using the optimization model, Balmorel, with a transport model extension. A number of scenarios have been set up, including sensitivity on CO2 and oil prices, inclusion/exclusion of electric drive vehicles, and change in investment possibilities in flexible power plants. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are shown to be competitive in all scenarios except the low oil scenarios. The increased electricity consumption for the electric vehicles is covered by wind power in Denmark and Norway and by coal production in Finland and Germany. The competition between wind power and coal is dependent on fuel price and CO2 price assumptions. Furthermore, introducing the flexibility of electric drive vehicles helps decrease cycling on the remaining power plants. Finally, the electric drive vehicles can replace the use of both heat storage and electric boilers as well as decrease the use of gas turbines.
Article
The aim of this work was to examine possibilities to use wastes of animal fat and vegetable oil for the production of biodiesel fuel, evaluating the conformity of the product obtained to the oxidation stability requirements. The oxidation stability of rapeseed oil, linseed oil, tallow and lard fatty acid methyl esters samples and their mixtures was measured by commercial equipment Rancimat 743 applying accelerated oxidation test (Rancimat test) specified in EN 14112. It was found that fatty acid methyl esters of vegetable origin are more stable for oxidation comparing with methyl esters of animal origin. The optimal level of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hy- droxyanizole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA) for stabilization of fatty acid methyl esters was determined to be 400 ppm (also using synergist - citric acid, 20% of the antioxidant quantity). Mixtures of methyl esters of animal and vegetable origin with antioxidants were more stable compared with pure products. The highest oxidation stability showed mixtures containing 80-90% of fatty acid methyl esters of animal fat and 10-20% of fatty acid methyl esters of vegetable oil with synthetic antioxidants added.
Article
Density is a very important fuel property because it influences production, transportation, and distribution processes as well as all processes that take place in the internal combustion engine. Elaborating models to describe the density of biodiesel–diesel–bioethanol blends with a high content of biofuel facilitates the production of blends that comply with the standard quality requirements for density and the modeling and simulation of injection and combustion processes. For predicting density of rapeseed oil biodiesel–diesel–bioethanol and used cooking oil biodiesel–diesel–bioethanol blends, 2 × 15 ternary mixtures were prepared, having a maximum amount of biofuel of 30% v/v. The concentration of biodiesel and bioethanol varies between 5% and 25%, in increments of 5%. Their density values were determined in 15 steps in the temperature range of 273.15–343.15 K. Based on experimental density values of components and blends, common linear mixing rules were evaluated, obtaining an average relative deviation under 0.125% and a regression coefficient above 0.996. In order to improve accuracy, four new mixing rules with different complexities were elaborated. The temperature dependent density of components was modeled based on experimental density values and constituents composition by linear and polynomial regression, by free version of Rackett equation and by group contribution methods. The elaborated mixing rules were tested for various combinations of component densities, yielding a very good accuracy, with an average deviation of under 0.053%. Taking into account the complexity and accuracy of the elaborated models, recommendations were made regarding their uses according to their concrete applications.
Article
Viscosity is an important property of fuels for internal combustion engines and has normative values in quality standards for commercial fuels used in compression ignition engines. Elaborating reliable models to estimate viscosity of biodiesel–diesel–bioethanol blends is useful to blend fuels with high biofuel content that comply with the values of viscosity imposed in quality standards and to model and simulate injection and combustion processes for such fuels. For predicting viscosity of rapeseed oil biodiesel–diesel–bioethanol blends, 15 ternary mixtures were prepared, having a maximum amount of biofuel of 30% v/v. The concentration of biodiesel and bioethanol varies between 5% and 25%, in increments of 5%. Their density and viscosity were determined in nine steps in the temperature range 273.15–343.15 K. Using experimental data, a number of models to estimate the viscosity of liquid substances were evaluated, including Kay’s rule, simple and weighted semi-logarithmic model, and Refutas model. A simple additive model was proposed, named Kay’s weighted rule. The models used to describe viscosity of biodiesel–diesel–ethanol blends were critically evaluated and compared on the basis of the correlation coefficient and the percent relative deviation, demonstrating that the model proposed here provides the most accurate estimates for viscosity of biodiesel–diesel–bioethanol blends.
Article
The investigation carried out has revealed that in Vievis settlement and near the highway Vilnius ‐ Kaunas the highest concentrations of pollutants are emitted during morning and afternoon rush‐hours when motor transport traffic is the heaviest. Extremely high amounts of emitted aerosol particles were recorded 1–2 m away from the driving part, and 4–6 m away the amounts of aerosol particles sharply go down. CO gas concentrations caused by passing motor transport were also analysed. It has been set that the concentrations of CO and aerosol particles depend directly on motor transport traffic intensity. CO concentration goes evenly down receding from the driving part. In most cases maximum permitted concentration of CO was recorded.
Article
The article considers and solves the problems of adapting the mathematical models, used in calculating operational characteristics of diesel engines burning mineral diesel oil, to engines converted to RME biofuels. The analysis of mathematical models of calculating the main technical and economic characteristics of diesel engines as well as the parameters of the in-cylinder process and the concentration of toxic substances in the exhaust gases is performed. The need for adjusting the calculation algorithms is also demonstrated. The computer programs based on single-zone thermodynamic models are used in the research. The programs of mathematical modelling are modified, i.e. supplemented with the algorithm for calculating energy characteristics of the combustion products (e.g. specific heat capacity, internal heat, the lower calorific value, etc.). Based on the computer programs, modified for examining diesel engines burning biofuels, the computer-aided mathematical modelling experiment is carried out. The results of modelling are compared with the data obtained in testing the diesel engine 1A41. The mathematical modelling performed demonstrates the accuracy acceptable for solving practical problems: the difference between the obtained calculation results and diesel engine testing data for the load range of (1.0÷0.5) Pi nom does not exceed ± 5÷7%. Higher accuracy of modelling the characteristics of diesel engines, operating in the low- and medium-load modes, may be accounted for by the adjustment of the algorithm for calculating the induction period and the on-set phase of fuel injection.
Article
The results of studies into tricomponent fuel mixtures containing fossil diesel fuel (D), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and ethanol (E) are presented. We propose the possibility of the use of D−FAME−E in Lithuania. We determined the limits of component concentrations that make it possible to produce stable tricomponent fuel mixtures of D−FAME−E at different concentrations of ethanol (i.e., 99.8% and 96%) and at different temperatures (20, 0, and −10 °C). Engine tests were performed with fuels prepared according to these conditions. During the performance testing of 2FL511 and 1A41 diesel engines, we determined the possible influence of ethanol admixture on fuel effectiveness and emission of toxic components of exhaust gases. Admixture of ethanol increased the indicated efficiency of diesel engines by about 2% and decreased NOx emission by 5−7%. It also decreased the smoke density and increased hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Particular alterations of fuel characteristics were experimentally fixed for fuels containing ethanol. Technological measures are suggested for the development of an efficient and stable diesel engine fleet for operation in Lithuania on tricomponent biofuel mixtures, i.e., D−FAME−E.
Article
This paper highlights the results of scientific research on the possibility of increasing the biofuel concentration in the fuel used in diesel engines by introducing bioethanol in multicomponent diesel fuel mixtures containing fossil diesel fuel (D), rapeseed oil methyl esters (RME), and ethanol (E). In the initial stage of the research, we performed an analysis of the physicochemical parameters of fuel and comparative tests of a diesel engine running on pure fossil diesel fuel, rapeseed oil methyl esters (RME), and RME−E mixtures. In engine tests, it has been shown that increasing the ethanol amount in biodiesel fuel up to 40% leads to an increase in indicator index ηi of the tested diesel engine 1A41 by 2.5%. CO and NOx emissions decreased up to 10−12% for every 10% increase of ethanol amount in blend with rapeseed oil methyl esters. The influence of different levels of ethanol on CO and NOx emissions from fuel and on experimentally defined dynamics of the indicator process can show alternative improvements of the performance characteristics of the diesel engine while working on fuel mixtures.
Article
Complex research into the change of parameters concerning the fuel economy, thrust, and harmful components of exhaust gases, namely, hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitric oxides (NOx), was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of fuel replacement; that is, mineral diesel fuel, which is normally used by diesel engine fleets of agricultural machinery in Lithuania, was replaced with biofuel (hereafter biodiesel), which is rapeseed oil methyl esters, hereafter RME. Diesel engine F2L511 and a single section of diesel engine A41 were chosen as models and tested within the above-mentioned research parameters. Fuel blends of mineral diesel fuel and RME-biodiesel fuel, and also pure RME, were tested as follows:  BI0, in which the content of RME is 10%; B15 and B30, in which the contents of RME are 15% and 30% appropriately; and Bl00, which is pure RME. A nonlinear change of operational characteristics was determined depending on the loads of the diesel engine. According to its technical ecological parameters, B30-biodiesel fuel was acknowledged as the most convenient and reliable one being tested within a wide range of speed and load regimes. In the same range of speed and load regimes, the influence of technical conditions of the fuel injector on harmful emission parameters of diesel engine exhaust gases, while running on RME, was estimated by means of a failure simulation of the fuel injector, namely, gumming up the fuel injector nozzle. An improvement of all the ecological parameters was estimated by optimization of the diesel engine injection timing while running on RME.
Article
The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cold temperature behavior of methyl esters of vegetable and animal origin and of their mixtures with fossil diesel fuel, as well as to investigate the effectiveness of different depressants. Various blends of rapeseed oil methyl esters, linseed oil methyl esters, pork lard methyl esters and fossil diesel fuel were prepared, and both cloud point and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) were analyzed. It was found that mixtures with CFPP values of –5 °C and lower may contain up to 25% of pork lard methyl esters; whereas the ratio of summer fossil diesel fuel and rapeseed oil methyl esters may vary over a wide range, i.e. such mixtures can be used in a diesel engine in the summer. In the transitory periods it is possible to use up to 20% animal and vegetable ester blends (3 : 7) with winter fossil diesel, whereas only up to 5% of esters can be added to the fuel used in winter. In order to improve the cold properties of rapeseed oil, pork lard and linseed oil methyl ester mixtures, various additives were tested. Depressant Viscoplex 10–35 with an optimal dose of 5000 mg/kg was found to be the most effective.
Article
The aim of this study was the determination of optimal conditions of free fatty acid esterification by methanol using acid catalyst, and the calculation of the kinetic parameters of this process. It was found that the reaction rate depends on the amount of the catalyst and the acidity of the reaction mixture. The reaction rate changes also depending on the reaction duration, especially during the first 15 min. Establishing the above mentioned parameters proved the effect of the agents on the reaction rate. Such dependence is characteristic to many heterogeneous processes. The data suggest that having excluded diffusion, the reaction order is about 1. Within the limits of the experimental conditions (free fatty acids 0.162 mol//L-1.948 mol/L, temperature 20–60 °C, constant mixing speed –850 min-1, 1% of catalyst (H2SO4)) the apparent energy of activation Et is ≈ 13.3 kJ/mol, while pre-exponent A = 1.27. These parameters allow the assumption that diffusion restrictions are characteristic to the entire range of the concentrations and the reaction duration studied.
Article
The transport pollution has grown in Lithuania after 2004, although it has joined the European Union (EU) and has implemented all the EU environmental requirements including those for the transport sector. Notwithstanding the pursuit of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Lithuania of secure traffic and reduction in its adverse effects in the environment, the sustainable transport management is still a new approach, whereas the old EU member states run the sophisticated sustainable transport policies ranging from the strict command, control methods, public transport state support to broad voluntary initiatives. In Lithuania voluntary initiatives need more extensive investigation, and special attention of the state institutions is a requisite for information dissemination and public surveys for promoting sustainable transport initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to analyze Lithuanian transport sector by applying the sustainable transport development indicators set and to assess the most problematic issues of sustainable transport development based on the EU and Lithuanian sustainable development targets and priorities. Based on good practices of the other EU member states, the measures promoting sustainable transport development, emphasizing voluntary initiatives, information and public awareness are recommended.
Article
The growth of CO-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the behavioral options; possible demand reduction; the role of innovative technologies; and the means by which international agreements on pricing, standards, and regulations can be effectively used. Transport brings enormous benefits to society, and it has been instrumental in the globalization of the world economy, with substantial capital investments in its material infrastructure. Transport governance also needs rethinking to understand the major challenges, to implement major policy changes, and to address the problems of fragmented decision making. Holistic approaches, using ideas from transition management and niche development, are proposed as a framework within which both technological innovation and new patterns of travel and trade can be brought about.
Article
Environmental impacts associated with the use of fossil fuels, rising prices, potential limitations in supply and concerns about regional and national security are driving the development and use of biomass for bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts. However, the use of biomass does not automatically imply that its production, conversion and use are sustainable. Conflicts between various ecosystem services (economic production of food, fodder and fuels, biodiversity, social and cultural values, etc.) that are provided by fertile land are increasing as well. Hence, a developed thinking on how to balance between these services is desirable. There is a significant amount of information available on biofuels and their sustainability. In this paper, different initiatives and sustainability criteria for biofuels are presented and assessed. 35 criteria were found in emerging sustainability assessment frameworks. The majority of 12 criteria were focused on environmental issues, 4 were social and only 1 was economic. Energy balance and greenhouse gas balance were perceived as especially critical, social criteria ranked generally low. Although being perceived as important, food security ranked very low.
Article
Due to current and future policy targets, and rapid technical developments, biofuel options are already available and in use in commercial applications. However, there is still doubt about which of the more promising alternatives will be widely accepted in future within the transportation sector. This includes aspects of biofuel properties and their effects on exhaust gas emissions and engine technology. This article addresses the status of current technology, reviews the progress of commercialisation of biofuel production, and gives an outline of its future development. Moreover, it provides an insight into the influence of biofuel composition on the internal combustion process and exhaust gas emissions. To assess biofuel sustainability, all aspects such as fuel production, fuel chemical composition, combustion behaviour, engine technology, and exhaust gas emissions have to be taken into account. Potential application fields and emerging challenges for measurement technology are identified in all these areas.
Conference Paper
Over the next several decades, substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from transportation will be required. The targets-an 80% reduction by 2050-are challenging. Thus, we need quantitative methodologies for assessing the impact of changes in vehicle technology and use, and of fuels, on transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions. This paper describes an appropriate methodology for creating plausible future transportation scenarios and assessing their impacts. It focuses on light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), in the U.S. and European context. The factors that must be included are: more efficient propulsion systems; vehicle weight changes; performance, size and other vehicle attributes; and now rapidly the deployment of these improved technologies can grow over time. The methodology combines engineering assessments of vehicle performance for the different propulsion and vehicle technologies, a model of the in-use vehicle fleet, and the availability of the various possible fuels. The findings show there is significant potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions through improvements in engines, transmissions, vehicle weight reduction, and alternative fuels.
Article
Road transportation is a strongly growing source of CO2, and use of biofuels represents one option to reduce end-of-pipe emissions of the existing car fleet. In this contribution, the implementation of the EU Biofuels Directive (2003/30/EC) and related voluntary measures at the local level are examined in Germany, UK, Italy and Finland and the cities of Berlin, London, Milan and Helsinki. Even though they are not directly involved in the implementation of the biofuel directive, all four cities studied have played an important role in emissions reduction by voluntarily participating in research and demonstration projects and by using biofuels in their own fleet. An analysis of the numerous causes and driving forces leading to different local level measures is provided. The environmental sensitivity, usually examined at national level, and the national level implementation of the EU Biofuels Directive (2003/30/EC) were not directly correlated with the city-level activities Instead, support from local businesses and acquisition of EU funds were considered to be valid explanatory factors for the city-level activities. In addition, through horizontal networking cities are starting to exchange know-how gained in their projects, contributing in this way to the accumulation of experience for future policies and technologies.
Article
The scarcity of known petroleum reserves will make renewable energy resources more attractive. The most feasible way to meet this growing demand is by utilizing alternative fuels. Biodiesel is defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is the best candidate for diesel fuels in diesel engines. The biggest advantage that biodiesel has over gasoline and petroleum diesel is its environmental friendliness. Biodiesel burns similar to petroleum diesel as it concerns regulated pollutants. On the other hand, biodiesel probably has better efficiency than gasoline. One such fuel for compression-ignition engines that exhibit great potential is biodiesel. Diesel fuel can also be replaced by biodiesel made from vegetable oils. Biodiesel is now mainly being produced from soybean, rapeseed and palm oils. The higher heating values (HHVs) of biodiesels are relatively high. The HHVs of biodiesels (39–41 MJ/kg) are slightly lower than that of gasoline (46 MJ/kg), petrodiesel (43 MJ/kg) or petroleum (42 MJ/kg), but higher than coal (32–37 MJ/kg). Biodiesel has over double the price of petrodiesel. The major economic factor to consider for input costs of biodiesel production is the feedstock, which is about 80% of the total operating cost. The high price of biodiesel is in large part due to the high price of the feedstock. Economic benefits of a biodiesel industry would include value added to the feedstock, an increased number of rural manufacturing jobs, an increased income taxes and investments in plant and equipment. The production and utilization of biodiesel is facilitated firstly through the agricultural policy of subsidizing the cultivation of non-food crops. Secondly, biodiesel is exempt from the oil tax. The European Union accounted for nearly 89% of all biodiesel production worldwide in 2005. By 2010, the United States is expected to become the world's largest single biodiesel market, accounting for roughly 18% of world biodiesel consumption, followed by Germany.
Article
Basic biomass sources in Lithuania are comprised of wood, straw, biofuel and biogas. The current status and the problems from using biomass for energy production in Lithuania are analyzed. The possibility of utilizing wood waste, firewood, straw and biogas for energy is evaluated. Forest comprises about 2.05 Mha or 31.3% of Lithuanian land area. About 4.3 million m3 solid volume of wood per year can be used for fuel (843 ktoe). Wood as fuel is used directly or in processed form (briquettes, pellets and chips).Agriculture produces approximately 1.5–2.0 million tons of straw each year for animal feed, litter and olericulture. Around 30–40% (130 ktoe) could be used as fuel for energy production. Boiler houses for combusting the straw have increased and now comprise about 7 MW. Straw is also used for heating private houses.Sources for biogas production include sludge from water cleaning equipment, animal manure and organic waste in food processing companies. Total volume of operating bioreactors comprises about 24 000 m3, and annual production of biogas is 6.3 million m3 per year (3.4 ktoe). By year 2010 the total volume of bioreactors will increase to 35 000 m3 and about 50 000 m3 by 2040.In Lithuania biodiesel and bioethanol are mainly used in blending with conventional fuel. Following the requirements of the European Union (EU), 2% of total consumed fuel per year is to be produced in 2005. By 2010 biofuel should comprise not less than 5.75% of all fuel existing in the market.
Article
This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, naturally aspirated Diesel engine when operating on neat RME and its 5%, 10%, 20% and 35% blends with Diesel fuel. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of RME inclusion in Diesel fuel on the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a high speed Diesel engine, its brake thermal efficiency, emission composition changes and smoke opacity of the exhausts.The brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (273.5 g/kW h) and rated power (281 g/kW h) for RME is higher by 18.7% and 23.2% relative to Diesel fuel. It is difficult to determine the RME concentration in Diesel fuel that could be recognised as equally good for all loads and speeds. The maximum brake thermal efficiency varies from 0.356 to 0.398 for RME and from 0.373 to 0.383 for Diesel fuel. The highest fuel energy content based economy (9.36–9.61 MJ/kW h) is achieved during operation on blend B10, whereas the lowest ones belong to B35 and neat RME.The maximum NOx emissions increase proportionally with the mass percent of oxygen in the biofuel and engine speed, reaching the highest values at the speed of 2000 min−1, the highest being 2132 ppm value for the B35 blend and 2107 ppm for RME. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions and visible smoke emerging from the biodiesel over all load and speed ranges are lower by up to 51.6% and 13.5% to 60.3%, respectively. The carbon dioxide, CO2, emissions along with the fuel consumption and gas temperature, are slightly higher for the B20 and B35 blends and neat RME. The emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, HC, for all biofuels are low, ranging at 5–21 ppm levels.